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REPORTABLE
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CRIMINAL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO.2184 OF 2014
[Arising out of Speci! Le"e Petition #Cr!$% No$&'() of )*'+,
Stte of R-st.n $$$ Appe!!nt
/s$
Mo.001 Mus!i0 Tg! 2 Respon1ent
JUDGMENT
(SMT.) RANJANA PRAKASH DESAI, J.
'$ Le"e grnte1$
)$ T.e respon1ent 3s trie1 !ong 3it. t3o ot.ers "i4$
S5en n1 Mo.1$ Du1 56 t.e A11ition! District 7
Sessions Ju1ge #Fst Trc8%9 Si88r9 R-st.n in Sessions
Cse No$)+ of )**: for offences punis.5!e un1er Sections
;<;9 ;<<9 ;:<9 ;*: re1 3it. Section '*( of t.e In1in Pen!
Co1e #!" IPC#%$ Lerne1 Sessions Ju1ge9 Si88r 56
-u1g0ent n1 or1er 1te1 ''=<=)**> c?uitte1 S5en n1
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Mo.1$ Du19 of !! t.e c.rges$ T.e respon1ent 3s
con"icte1 for offence punis.5!e un1er Section ;<; of t.e IPC
n1 sentence1 to un1ergo RI for t.ree 6ers n1 to p6 fine of
Rs$'9***=@9 in 1efu!t9 to un1ergo SI for siA 0ont.s$ He 3s
!so con"icte1 un1er Section ;<<A of t.e IPC n1 sentence1 to
suffer RI for fi"e 6ers n1 to p6 fine of Rs$)9***=@9 in
1efu!t9 to un1ergo SI for siA 0ont.s$ He 3s !so con"icte1
for offence punis.5!e un1er Section ;:< of t.e IPC n1
sentence1 to un1ergo RI for se"en 6ers n1 to p6 fine of
Rs$&9***=@9 in 1efu!t9 to un1ergo SI for siA 0ont.s$ T.e
su5stnti"e sentences 3ere or1ere1 to run concurrent!6$
;$ Being ggrie"e1 56 t.e si1 -u1g0ent n1 or1er9 t.e
respon1ent fi!e1 ppe! in t.e R-st.n Hig. Court$ It is
notice1 fro0 t.e i0pugne1 or1er t.t in t.e Hig. Court9
counse! for t.e respon1ent 1i1 not rgue t.e cse on 0erits$
He on!6 re?ueste1 t.e Court t.t t.e concerne1 ut.orities
06 5e 1irecte1 to gi"e 5enefit of Section +;; of t.e Cri0in!
Proce1ure Co1e #C!" C$%"D% to t.e respon1ent$ Lerne1
Pu5!ic Prosecutor ppering for t.e Stte of R-st.n 1i1 not
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oppose t.e si1 pr6er n1 t.is fct 3s recor1e1 56 t.e Hig.
Court in t.e i0pugne1 or1er$ T.e Hig. Court t.en g"e
1irection to t.e concerne1 ut.orities to gi"e t.e ppe!!nt
5enefit of Section +;; of t.e Co1e n1 1ispose1 of t.e ppe!$
T.e re!e"nt portion of t.e or1er cou!1 5e ?uote1E
Having heard the learned counsel for the parties
and carefully perused the relevant material made
available to me including the impugned judgment,
the concerned authorities are directed to give the
benefit of Section 433 Cr.P.C. to the accused
appellant in accordance ith la.!
+$ Being ggrie"e1 56 t.is or1er9 t.e Stte of R-st.n .s
fi!e1 t.e present ppe!$
&$ On >=&=)*'+9 t.is Court s8e1 !erne1 counse! for t.e
Stte of R-st.n 3.et.er t.e Pu5!ic Prosecutor .s re!!6
not oppose1 t.e re?uest 01e 56 t.e respon1entFs counse!
t.t t.e concerne1 ut.orities 5e 1irecte1 to gi"e t.e 5enefit of
Section +;; of t.e Co1e to t.e respon1ent$ Counse! 01e
stte0ent t.t t.e Pu5!ic Prosecutor .1 not 01e suc.
stte0ent in t.e Hig. Court$ Ge9 t.erefore9 1irecte1 t.t n
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ffi1"it to t.t effect 5e fi!e1$ T.e concerne1 Pu5!ic
Prosecutor .s9 .o3e"er9 not fi!e1 n6 ffi1"it$
<$ As 1irecte1 56 t.is Court9 t.e respon1ent .s 5een
ser"e1 t.roug. ASI Pre0 Sing.9 P$O$ Hot3!i9 Si88r9
R-st.n$ ASI Pre0 Sing. .s fi!e1 n ffi1"it to t.t effect$
Proof of ser"ice of notice is nneAe1 to t.e si1 ffi1"it$
Despite ser"ice9 t.e respon1ent .s c.osen not to pper in
person or t.roug. p!e1er$ Hence9 on ':=(=)*'+9 t.is
Court 1irecte1 t.e Registr6 of t.is Court to ppoint !36er
for t.e respon1ent$ Accor1ing!69 Mr$ Jo.n Mt.e39 A1"octe9
.s 5een ppointe1 56 t.e Registr6 of t.is Court n1 .e .s
5!6 ssiste1 us to16$
:$ T.e ppe!!nt@Stte .s c.!!enge1 t.e i0pugne1 or1er
on t.e groun1 t.t t.e offence co00itte1 56 t.e respon1ent
3s gr"e n19 t.erefore9 t.e Hig. Court erre1 in gi"ing
1irection to t.e ut.orities to gi"e 5enefit of Section +;; of t.e
Co1e to t.e respon1ent$ It is9 .o3e"er9 not stte1 in t.e
ppe! 0e0o t.t t.e Pu5!ic Prosecutor 1i1 not conce1e in t.e
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Hig. Court$ T.is stte0ent 3s 01e on!6 in t.is Court$ It
0ust !so 5e note19 t t.e outset9 t.t t.e respon1ent .s
un1ergone se"en 6ersF i0prison0ent n1 .s 5een re!ese1
fro0 custo16$ T.is stte0ent .s 5een 01e 56 counse! for
t.e ppe!!nt@Stte n19 in support of .is su50ission9 .e .s
ten1ere1 in t.is Court !etter 11resse1 56 t.e
Superinten1ent of Bi8ner Centr! Ji! to t.e A11ition!
Superinten1ent of Po!ice9 Si88r$ Counse! su50itte1 t.t
t.oug. t.e Hig. Court g"e 1irection to t.e concerne1
ut.orities to gi"e t.e respon1ent 5enefit of co00uttion of
sentence un1er Section +;; of t.e Co1e9 t.e si1 5enefit 3s
not gi"en$ Since t.e respon1ent .s 5een re!ese1 fro0 -i!
fter ser"ing t.e sentence i0pose1 on .i0 n1 no steps 3ere
t8en 56 t.e concerne1 ut.orities pursunt to t.e 1irection
gi"en 56 t.e Hig. Court9 to gi"e t.e respon1ent 5enefit un1er
Section +;; of t.e Co1e9 t.e present ppe! .s ctu!!6
5eco0e infructuous$ Ho3e"er9 it is necessr6 to 08e certin
o5ser"tions 5efore 1isposing of t.is ppe! s infructuous$
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>$ Section +;; of t.e Co1e pertins to po3er of t.e
pproprite Io"ern0ent to co00ute t.e sentence 3it.out t.e
consent of t.e person sentence1$ It re1s t.usE
433. Power to commute sentence. " #he
appropriate $overnment may, ithout the consent of
the person sentenced, commute"
%a& a sentence of death, for any other
punishment provided by the 'ndian Penal Code %4( of
)*+,&-
%b& a sentence of imprisonment for life, for
imprisonment for a term not e.ceeding fourteen years
or for fine-
%c& a sentence of rigorous imprisonment, for
simple imprisonment for any term to hich that
person might have been sentenced, or for fine-
%d& a sentence of simple imprisonment, for
fine.!
($ G.en t.e pproprite Io"ern0ent co00utes t.e
sentence9 it 1oes so in eAercise of its so"ereign po3ers$
T.e court cnnot 1irect t.e pproprite Io"ern0ent to
eAercise its so"ereign po3ers$ T.e Court cn 0ere!6 gi"e
1irection to t.e pproprite Io"ern0ent to consi1er t.e cse
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for co00uttion of sentence n1 not.ing 0ore$ T.is !eg!
position is no 0ore res integra$
'*$ In Delhi Administration (now NCT of Delhi) v.
Manohar al
'
9 t.is Court stte1 t.t t.e eAercise of po3er
un1er Section +;; of t.e Co1e 3s n eAecuti"e 1iscretion$ In
!tate of Pun"a# v. $esar !in%h
)
9 t.is Court c!rifie1 t.e
position s un1erE
#he mandate of Section 433 CrPC enables the
$overnment in an appropriate case to commute the
sentence of a convict and to prematurely order his
release before e.piry of the sentence as imposed by
the courts. / #hat apart, even if the High Court could
give such a direction, it could only direct
consideration of the case of premature release by the
$overnment and could not have ordered the
premature release of the respondent itself. #he right
to e.ercise the poer under Section 433 CrPC vests
in the $overnment and has to be e.ercised by the
$overnment in accordance ith the rules and
established principles. #he impugned order of the
High Court cannot, therefore, be sustained and is
hereby set aside.!
1
(2002) 7 SCC 222
2
(1996) 5 SCC 495
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''$ In !tate (&ovt. of NCT of Delhi) v. Prem 'a"
;
9 t.is
Court referre1 to re!e"nt portion of +'
st
Report of t.e L3
Co00ission n1 o5ser"e1 t.t t.e po3ers of co00uttion
eAc!usi"e!6 "est 3it. t.e pproprite Io"ern0ent$ At t.e
s0e ti0e9 t.ese po3ers ."e to 5e eAercise1 56 t.e
Io"ern0ent reson5!6 n1 rtion!!6 8eeping in "ie3 t.e
resons ger0ne n1 re!e"nt for t.e purpose of !39
0itigting circu0stnces n1=or co00iserti"e fcts
necessitting t.e co00uttion n1 fctors !i8e interest of t.e
societ6 n1 pu5!ic interest$
')$ T.e ups.ot of t.is 1iscussion is t.t t.e Hig. Court
erre1 in gi"ing 1irection to t.e Stte Io"ern0ent to
co00ute t.e sentence of t.e respon1ent$ It cou!1 ."e on!6
1irecte1 t.e Stte Io"ern0ent to consi1er t.e respon1entFs
cse for co00uttion of sentence$ In n6 cse9 ssu0ing t.e
Hig. Court cou!1 ."e gi"en suc. 1irection9 since it 3s
1e!ing 3it. con"iction un1er Section ;:< of t.e IPC9 it
s.ou!1 ."e note1 t.e eAtr@or1inr6 circu0stnces9 if n69
3
(2003) 7 SCC 121
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3.ic. persu1e1 it to gi"e suc. 1irection$ Unfortunte!69
t.e Hig. Court 0ere!6 note1 t.e re?uest 01e 56 t.e counse!
for t.e respon1ent n1 concession 01e 56 t.e Stte counse!$
If t.e Hig. Court fe!t t.t t.e prosecution cse 3s eAtre0e!6
3e8 n1 t.e respon1ent 1eser"e1 to 5e c?uitte19 it s.ou!1
."e 1iscusse1 t.e e"i1ence n1 c?uitte1 .i0$ But9 it cou!1
not ."e 1opte1 suc. course$
';$ Before c!osing9 3e 0ust eApress our eAtre0e 1isp!esure
5out t.e 0nner in 3.ic. t.e Pu5!ic Prosecutor 01e
concession in t.e Hig. Court$ First!69 t.e offence is gr"e n1
in suc. gr"e offence9 t.e Pu5!ic Prosecutor oug.t not to ."e
01e concession t.t t.e court s.ou!1 1irect t.e
Io"ern0ent to co00ute t.e sentence$ Besi1es9 t.e Pu5!ic
Prosecutor 01e concession 3it.out eA0ining t.e !eg!
position$ T.e Pu5!ic Prosecutor p!6s "er6 i0portnt ro!e in
cri0in! cse$ It is 1istressing to note t.t in suc. serious
cse9 t.e Pu5!ic Prosecutor s.ou!1 ."e s.o3n suc. csu!
pproc.$ Since t.e ppe! .s 5eco0e infructuous9 3e 1o not
3nt to precipitte t.e 0tter furt.er$ Ge on!6 .ope t.t
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t.ese o5ser"tions of ours re t8en note of 56 !! concerne1$
T.e ppe! is 1ispose1 of s infructuous$
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