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Prepared by Mr Jasper Sim

Step 1: Changing the structure



Noun phrases in
apposition

Apposition means the positioning of things side by side. In grammar,
noun phrases in apposition means that noun phrases which refer to
the same referent (e.g. a person) are placed side by side each other.

Consider these three noun phrases:

My sister. Ang Ku Kueh. Chairperson of the Kueh Club.

They can be combined to become:

My sister, Ang Ku Kueh, chairperson of the Kueh Club,

Therefore, a list of description such as:

That is my sister. Her name is Ang Ku Kueh. She is also the
Chairperson of the Kueh Club. She is here at the party.

can be combined to become:

My sister, Ang Ku Kueh, the chairperson of the Kueh Club, is here
at the party.




EXERCISES

For each, join each pair of sentences to form a single sentence using the
technique of noun phrases in apposition.

1. Bombay was once a fishing village. It is now the financial capital of India.


2. Edison invented the gramophone. He was an American scientist.


3. Midas was a greedy king. He lived to regret his greed.


4. The Pyramids are one of the Seven Wonders of the World. They stand in
the plains of Egypt.


5. I consulted Dr. Smith. He is an eminent educationist.


Writing Techniques
Paraphrasing
Name: Class: Date:
Prepared by Mr Jasper Sim
Participial phrases
Participles include the present participle (-ing) and the past
participle (-ed) or the perfect participle (+ed/en).

As participles act as adjectives that modify nouns and pronouns, we
can create participial phrases and combine sentences.

Consider the following:

I stood on the roof of my apartment building at dawn.
I watched the sun rise through crimson clouds.

Change one of the sentence into a participial phrase by starting with a
participial, for example:

Standing on the roof of my apartment building at dawn

When combined:

Standing on the roof of my apartment building at dawn, I watched
the sun rise through crimson clouds.

However, be careful of dangling modifiers, where the modifier
modifies the wrong item.

Consider this:

Being a densely populated country, I believe the only way to
minimise road accidents is for all to conform to a standard.

Certainly, I can not be a densely populated country. Rather, it should
be:

Being a densely populated country, Singapore


EXERCISES

1. I dried my hair. I used a hairdryer.


2. He asked me to move to my left. He whispered into my ears.


3. The statue was commissioned by the government in 1989. It stands
proudly in the parade square.


4. I took small sips from a can of Coke. I was sitting on the ground in a
shady corner.


5. I was sitting on the window ledge. The ledge overlooked the narrow
street. I watched the children.



Prepared by Mr Jasper Sim
Step 2: Changing the words / shortening phrases

Changing
a single
word

One way to improve on replacing words with synonyms (words with similar
meaning (note: not same)) is to consult a thesaurus regularly.



Take note, though, that not all words can work in the same context. Therefore,
always check the way the word is used by looking for examples in the dictionary
or online.

A fast car, a speedy car, but strange for a nimble car.

Though words may have similar denotations (the literal meaning), they may
carry different connotations (the deeper idea or feeling invoked). To retain the
meaning of the expression, replace it with a synonym with similar denotation and
connotation.

She is a slender woman (positive connotation)
She is a skinny woman (negative connotation)

Prepared by Mr Jasper Sim
Shortening
phrases

You can replace vague words with more powerful and specific words. This is
called conciseness.

For instance:

Tim walked into the classroom in a slow and relaxed manner.
Tim sauntered into the classroom.


EXERCISES

1. Suzie believed but coult not confirmed that Billy had feelings of
affection for her.
Suzie assumed that Billy adored her.

2. Working as a pupil under someone who develops photos was an
experience that really helped me learn a lot.
Working as photo technicians apprentice was an educational experience.

3. The website has made available many of the things you can use for
making a decision on the best dentist
Our website presents criteria/information for determining the best dentist.


You should also remove repetition interrogate every word in a sentence to see
that meaning is not repeated.

1. I will show you various ways and methods for cutting words and removing
unwanted content from my essay.
I will demonstrate methods for summarising an essay.

2. Medusa was a slim woman who had a very good figure. She was so
attractive she attracted many suitors.
Medusa was slender and appealing.