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A

Very Brief Introduction to


Hitachi H8/3062F
Microcontroller and its
Development Tools
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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1 Objectives
Familiarisation with the various H8/3062F development tools, resources and
solutions so that you can explore and learn on your own.
2 Overview
2.1 Features
32-bit internal architecture with 16-bit general registers
H8/300H CPU core with general-purpose register architecture and 16M linear address space
Up to 2OMHz clock resulting in 100ns minimum instruction cycle time.
128K FLASH/ 4K RAM
Interrupt controller (3 level priority, 7 external and 27 internal interrupts).
Bus controller (8 areas with independent bus specification possible) with chip select pins.
3x 16-bit timers
4x 8-bit timers; can be cascaded to 2x 16-bit timer.
16-bit Timing Pattern Controller (TPC).
1 reset-generating watchdog timer
2 channel Serial Communications Interface (SCI)
8 channel 10-bit ADC.
2 channel 8-bit DAC.
Up to 70 I/O and 9 input only pins (for single chip modes only).
Low Power Modes Include Sleep, Standby, Module standby and clock gearing.
See Appendix B for an internal block diagram of the CPU.
2.2 Choice of various configuration and packaging
HD64F3062F20 FP-100B package, Vcc = 4.5 to 5.5V, 20MHz * (used in Alpha Centre)
See Appendix B for a diagram on the pin arrangement of this package.
2.3 CPU
The CPU core is H8/300H, which is used in various other Hitachi microcontrollers. All IO registers
are memory mapped and can be easily access though pointers in C language. Hence theres little need
to learn the CPU architecture and assembly language as everything can be done through C.
Nevertheless, it is helpful to browse through the Hitachi H83062h Hardware Manual, h83062h.pdf ,
and has a general understanding of the CPU architecture.
2.4 IO subsystems
The 3062f has many on chip IO subsystems, just like any other microcontroller. The IO subsystems
include ADC, DAC, timers, serial port, input/output ports, etc. It is recommended that you study these
subsystems as and when you need them. C functions for some of the common IO subsystem
configurations are available from my website.
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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3 Development Support
3.1 Websites
Visit the following website for more information:
www.eu.renesas.com/products/mpumcu/16bit/h8300h/3062/h8_3062_eu.html#introduction
www.np.edu.sg/~nbk
3.2 C Compiler
3.2.1 Introduction
The Hitachi Embedded Workshop (HEW) C/C++ cross compiler has a similar user interface to Visual
C. It has 5 main components:
Compiler for compiling your C program into assembly language program
Assembler for assembling your assembly code into object code
Linker - for linking various object code files and library files into a load module
Object Converter for converting the load module into S-record format file
Librarian for building your own library files.
3.2.2 Project template
The HEW is able to compile to various type of CPUs operating in various modes and having different
memory configuration. Hence, it is rather complex to use as there are many things that need to be
configured for a particular target hardware setup. To facilitate software development, a template
project, MyProj is provided that will work just fine for the AlphaCentre 3062 microcontroller
board. To use, copy the whole directory content into your working directory. Use HEW to open the
workspace file, myproj.hws. You should get something similar to that shown in Figure-2.2.2.
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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File extension notations.
c C program
h C include file
src assembly language program
inc assembly include file
The various files in this template project are:
dbsct.c data structure for the various data section
hwsetup.c function for hardware setup; called from resetprg.c
intprg.src dummy interrupt routines
lowsrc.c, lowsrc.h serial IO stream routines
main.c, main.h C main program. Your code should start here.
resetprg.c C startup program ( reset routine )
sbrk.c, sbrk.h miscellaneous routines
vecttbl.src, vect.inc for interrupt vector table
cl3062f.h include file for some C utility functions
iodefine.h structure and pointer declaration for on chip IO
stacksct.h stack size declaration
You might need to modify hwsetup.c if your hardware configuration is different. For example, if
your RAM bus width is 8 bit wide or your RAM is located on a different chip select output.
It is advisable that you place your C functions into new C files. To add a new file, from the menu,
select Project->Add Files...
Fig 2.2.2 A typical HEW session
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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3.2.3 Building your project
There are various ways to compile and link your project files. From the menu, select
Build->Build File - to compile or assemble current file
Build->Build to build project. Files that are changed will be compiled/assembled followed by
linking.
Build->Build All compile and assemble all files followed by linking.
There are two build configurations provided in MyProj. They are flash and Release. The
flash configuration is used to build the project when you want to flash your program. Use the
release configuration when building programs suitable for running from RAM. To select the
configuration, select from the menu Options->Build Configurations... After selecting the
configuration, remember to do a build.
3.3 FDT
The Hitachi Flash Development Toolkit (FDT) is used to download your S-Record program into the
on chip flash. The flash is guaranteed for only 100 writes. Hence for development, it is advisable to
download the program into RAM for testing. Only when the program is finalized should you put your
program in flash.
You may install the FDT by executing FDT15.EXE
The FDT manual is in fdt_man.pdf
Host Computer
FDT flash
3062f RAM
Microcontroller Board
RS232
Figure 3.3 Flashing the 3062f with FDT
File.mot
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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3.3.1 Flash procedure
The following is the procedure for downloading a S-record format program file that you have built.
1) Connect your microcontroller board to the PC using a rs232 cable.
2) Set the boards jumper to flash programming mode (boot mode).
3) Power on the board and press the reset button
4) Run the FDT
5) From the menu, select File->Open. Select your s-record file.
6) From the menu, select Image->Download Image. Your should get a dialog box as shown in
figure 2.3.1. Make sure you setting is the same except for the COM port, which you set according
to yours.
7) Pressed the Connect button. A small program required for flashing will be downloaded into the
on-chip RAM. The content in the flash will also be erased.
8) Press Download file your_file.mot to device button.
9) After downloading, change the microcontroller board jumper to run mode and reset.
Figure 2.3.1 The FDT download image dialog
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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3.4 WinH8
The WinH8 is used to download your H8/3062 program into the microcontroller board external RAM
for execution.
To download the last program, press F4 or select D from the toolbar. To download a new
program, select Dnew from the toolbar. Use Options from the menu to change the COM port
parameters and the terminal display size.
Figure 2.4 WinH8 program
Host Computer
WinH8 flash
3062f RAM
Microcontroller Board
RS232
Figure 3.4 Downloading program into RAM with WinH8
File.mot
Program
Loader
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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3.5 Program loader
The program loader is a small H8/3062 program that resides in the microcontroller flash. It allows the
WinH8 to download your H8/3062 program into the RAM and execute it. As the monitor program
needs to know the RAM location so that it can initialize chip select IO pin, there are different versions
of the loaders for different board configurations. The two main loaders are:
H8MonCS0.mot For 16-bit bus RAM on CS0
H8MonCS0_8.mot For 8-bit bus RAM on CS0
Use the FDT to put the program loader into the 3062f flash. If the program loader is flashed
successfully, you should get a display as shown on the WinH8 as shown in Figure 2.4.
If your external RAM is connected to a different chip select output, you will need a different
loader.
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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4 Writing C program with HEW
4.1 Accessing IO registers
IO registers are memory mapped. Hence, we can access them through C pointers. To facilitate IO
access, a number of structures and pointers have been predefined for all the IO registers in the file
iodefine.h. For example the following C statements in iodefine.h define structure and
pointers useful for accessing port 6.
union un_port1 { /* union PORT1 */
unsigned char BYTE; /* Byte Access */
struct { /* Bit Access */
unsigned char B7:1; /* Bit 7 */
unsigned char B6:1; /* Bit 6 */
unsigned char B5:1; /* Bit 5 */
unsigned char B4:1; /* Bit 4 */
unsigned char B3:1; /* Bit 3 */
unsigned char B2:1; /* Bit 2 */
unsigned char B1:1; /* Bit 1 */
unsigned char B0:1; /* Bit 0 */
} BIT; /* */
}; /* */
#define P6DDR (*(volatile union un_port1 *)0xFEE005) /* P6DDR Address*/
#define P6DR (*(volatile union un_port1 *)0xFFFFD5) /* P6DR Address*/
P6DDR is used to access the data direction register, which control whether a port pin is a input or
output port pin. P6DR is used to access the port pin itself.
#define OUTPUT P6DR.BIT.B0
void fn() {
P6DDR.BYTE = 0x01; // Init port 6 pin 0 as an output port.
// Refer to manual for details
OUTPUT = 1; // send a pulse
OUTPUT = 0;
}
4.2 Interrupt
HEW provides means to write an interrupt service routine (ISR) in C.
// Use #pragma interrrupt to indicate that a C function is an ISR
#pragma interrupt TimerISR
void TimerISR(void);
void TimerISR(void)
{
ITU.TISRA.BIT.IMFA1 = 0; // Clear interrupt source
// Do your stuff here
}
#define INTNUM_ITU1CMA 28
/* Init PD interrupt at every msec */
void InitTimer(void)
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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{
InstallInterrupt(INTNUM_ITU1CMA, TimerISR);
ITU1.TCR.BIT.TPSC = 3; //20Mhz/8 clock = 2.5Mhz
ITU1.GRA = 2500; //for 1msec interval, count = 2500
ITU1.TCR.BIT.CCLR = 1; //clear by GRA compare match
ITU.TMDR.BIT.PWM1 = 0; //counter 1 operates normally
ITU.TSTR.BIT.STR1 = 1; //start counter
ITU.TISRA.BIT.IMIEA1 = 1; //IMIA1 interrupt requested by IMFA1
flag=1
}
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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5 MCU Operating Modes
The H8/3062F micro-controller has seven operating modes (modes 1 to 7) that are selected by mode
pins, MD2 to MD0 (refer to table 4 below). The different operating modes determine the size of the
memory address space (from 64kbytes to 16Mbytes) and also whether the chip is operating in
expanded or single-chip mode. Mode 5 (expanded mode) is the preferred mode in our kinds of
applications as it allows maximum address space and maximum flexibility.
Table 4: Operating Mode Selection
Mode Pins
Operating Mode MD2 MD1 MD0
------ 0 0 0
Mode 1 0 0 1
Mode 2 0 1 0
Mode 3 0 1 1
Mode 4 1 0 0
Mode 5 1 0 1
Mode 6 1 1 0
Mode 7 1 1 1
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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5.1 Mode 5 Memory Map
Table 4.1: Mode 5 memory map
H000000
H0000FF
Vector area
H000100
H01FFFF
On-chip ROM/Flash
H020000
H1FFFFF
Area 0
H200000
H3FFFFF Area 1
H400000
H5FFFFF Area 2
H600000
H7FFFFF Area 3
H800000
H9FFFFF Area 4
HA00000
HBFFFFF Area 5
HC00000
HDFFFFF Area 6
HE00000
HFEDFF
External address
space
Area 7
HFEE000
HFEE0FF
On-chip I/O
Registers (1)
HFF8000
External address
Space
HFFEF1F
HFFEF20 On-chip RAM*
HFFFF00
HFFFF1F
HFFFF20
HFFFFE9
On-chip I/O
Registers (2)
HFFFFEA
HFFFFFF
External Address
Space
The memory address space of mode 5 is 16 Mbytes, divided into 8 address area. Each address
area is accessible through the chip select port pins. The A20-A34 address pins are not
required for address decoding, hence they can be used as normally I/O port pins.
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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6 On-Board (Flash) Programming Mode
When pins are set to on-board programming mode and a reset-start is executed, the chips enters the
on-board programming state in which on-chip flash memory programming, erasing, and verifying can
be carried out. There are two operating modes in this mode:
Boot mode (For erasing entire flash area and programming flash)
User program mode (For user program to selectively erase and program flash area)
Both operating modes can be set by modes pins (MD2 MD0) and the FWE pin. The pin settings for
entering each mode are shown in table 2.
Table 2 On-Board Programming Mode Settings
Program Mode Operating mode FWE MD2 MD1 MD0
Boot mode Mode 5 1 0 0 1
User program mode: Mode 5 1 1 0 1
The AlphaCentre 3062F board allows only mode 5 boot and mode 5 normal operating mode.
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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7 IO PORTS
7.1 Overview
10 input/out ports ( port 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9, A and B) and 1 input only port (port 7)
For single chip mode, a total of 70 I/O pins and 9 input-only pins are available
For Mode 5 (expanded mode), the available IO pins are reduced as some pins are used for
external memory interface.
Table 6.1 Summary of the 3062f port pins.
PORTS Functions
*Port 1 Address output pins (A0-A7)
*Port 2 Address output pins (A8-A15)
*Port 3 Data bus high byte (D8-D15) // For 8 bit bus, D8-D15 is used
**Port 4 Data bus low byte (D0-D7) // Available if there is no 16 bit bus device
*Port 5(4 bits) address output pins (A16-A19)
*P6.3 Address select
*P6.4 RD (read signal)
*P6.5 HWR (high byte write)
*P6.6 LWR(low byte write)
P6.7 CPU clock output pin (can be used as input port)
*Port 6
P6.0-P6.2 available as input/output ports, P6.7 as input port
P7.0-P0.5 analog input or digital input Port 7
P7.6-P7.7 analog input or analog ouput or digital input
Multi functions port pins
All pins can be used as input/output
IRQ0-IRQ3 interrupt input pins
CS0 CS3 chip select output
Port 8 (5 bits)
*P8.4 is CS0 (normally used for RAM select)
Multi functions port pins
All pins can be used as input/ouput
IRQ4, IRQ5 interrput input pins
*RxD1, TxD1 serial comm interface 1 ( for flashing)
Port 9 (6 bits)
RxD0, TxD0 serial comm interface 0
Multi function pins
All pins can be used as input/ouput
PA.4-PA.7/A20 A23 (optional address pins, to be used only if required)
Port A
16 bit timers related pins
Multi function pins
All pins can be used as input/ouput
PB.0 PB.3/CS4 CS7 (chip select outputs)
Port B
8 bit timers related pins
Note: *Not available for use
**Available for use only if there are no 16 bit devices. For the AlphaCentre board, as the
RAM is 16-bit wide, this port cannot be used for other IO purposes
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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7.2 Data Direction Register
Most port has a data direction register, DDR. Note that all the DDRs are write only register. That is
you cannot read the content of the register. Hence all port pins of the same port should have their data
direction assignment done at one place.
// Example code
PBDDR.BYTE = 0x08; // Set Port B.3 as output, the rest are input
P3DDR.BYTE=0;
PBDDR.BIT.B3 = 1; // THIS WILL NOT DO !!!!!!!!!!!!!
8 Interrupts
There are a number of internal and external interrupt sources.
Many of the on chip devices are capable of generating interrupts. For external interrupts, the
NMI(Non Maskable Interrupt) and IRQ0 to IRQ5 can be used. Refer to hardware manual for
details.
9 8-bit timers
4 channels, TMR0, TMR1, TMR2 and TMR3
Channel 0 &1 and 2&3 can be combined into 16 bit timers
Can be used to generate PWM outputs
Used generate regular interrupt
10 16-bit timers
3 channels
Can be used to generate PWM outputs
Channel 2 can be used for phase counting
Used to generate regular interrupt
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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11 PWM Generation
Both the 8-bit and 16-bit timers can be used to generate PWM signal. Theoretically, we can
have a total of 7 PWM outputs. In reality, we need some of these timers for other purposes.
For example, a timer is required to generate the regular 1 ms interrupt required for PID
control.
11.1 8-bit timer PWM output
The 4 possible 8-bit timer PWM output port pins are PB.0 PB.3 (TMO0 TMO3).
The highest frequency available is 9.8kHz, which is audible and rather irritating. If possible, use the
16 bit timers for PWM generations and choose a frequency just outside the audible range. Please note
that with higher PWM frequency, the switching loss will be higher, so there is a compromise.
// Example code
#define MOTOR0PWM TMR0.TCORA
// Port B.0 - MOTOR0 PWM output TMR0.TCORA
PBDDR.BYTE = 0x80;
TMR0.TCR.BIT.CKS = 1; // select internal clk, 20/8MHz
TMR0.TCR.BIT.CCLR = 2; // counter cleared by compare match B
TMR0.TCSR.BIT.OS = 6; // 1 is output when compare match A occurs
TMR0.TCORB = MAXPWMVALUE; // max count of counter is 255

// Set PWM output pulse width


MOTOR0PWM = 10; // set PWM
11.2 16-bit timer PWM output pins
The 3 possible 16-bit timer PWM output port pins are TIOCA0(PA.2), TIOCA1(PA.4) and
TIOCA2(PA.6). The 16 bit timers allow a much wider range of input clock selection and the 16 bit
counter allows a much finer resolution (In practice, for PID control, 8 bit is more than enough).
// Example code
#define MOTORPWM ITU0.GRA
#define MAXPWMVALUE 1000
PADDR.BYTE = 0x04; // Port A.2 - motor PWM output TIOCA0
ITU0.TCR.BIT.TPSC=0; //select internal clock, 20MHz
ITU0.GRB = MAXPWMVALUE; //PWM period = 0.05msec
ITU0.TCR.BIT.CCLR=2; //TCNT cleared by GRB compare match
ITU.TMDR.BIT.PWM0 = 1; // Select PWM mode for TIOCA0
ITU.TSTR.BIT.STR0=1;

MOTORPWM = 500; // set PWM duty


A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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12 Two phase encoder counting
Only channel 2 of the 3 16-bit timers can be used as a two-phase encoder counter. The input pins are
TCLKA(PA.0) and TCLKB(PA.1).
// Example code
Void InitEncoderCounter() {
// 16bit timer counter 2 for motor encoder signal decoding
ITU.TMDR.BIT.MDF = 1; // select phase counting mode
ITU.TSTR.BIT.STR2 = 1; // start phase counting;
}
int newCount, oldCount, countDelta;
void ReadCount() {
newCount = ITU2.TCNT;
countDelta = (newCount - oldCount);
oldCount = newCount;
}
13 Bus controller and chip select
13.1 Chip select outputs
There are altogether 8 chip select outputs that can be used to qualify the 8 address area (refer to the
mode-5 memory map for address details). With these chip select outputs, no external address
decoding is required, thus simplifying hardware requirements when interfacing to bus devices.
To standardize circuit design and program loader in AlphaCentre, use CS0 for the external RAM
select. You may use any other chip select outputs for other devices.
13.2 Data bus width
The 3062F is capable of interfacing to both 8 bit or 16 bit devices. For 8 bit interface, use address pin
A0 onwards and D8-D15. For 16-bit interface, use address pin A1 onwards and HWR & LWR to
select the high byte or low byte data (refer to microcontroller board schematic diagram in Appendix B
for example).
13.3 Two state or three state selection
The bus cycle for each memory area has a programmable number of 2 or 3 states bus cycles.
Additionally, extra wait states can be added to allow interface to device of slower speed. Refer to
hardware manual for details.
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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13.4 Example - Interfacing to the phase counter IC, NEC uDP7401
As the 3062 provides only one on chip two-phase counter, external two-phase counter IC is normally
required. The NEC uDP7401 has two such counters in each IC. It can be easily interfaced to the 3062
data bus as shown below:
CS1 needs to be configured as a chip select output. To read the counter, use a C pointer to point to
CS1 base address and access the pointer content.
// Init chip select. CS0 is init for an 8-bit wide RAM, and CS1 for the
uDP7401 counter
void InitCS0CS1 ( )
{
BSC.ABWCR.BIT.B0=1; // Select 8-bit access for CS0
BSC.ASTCR.BIT.B0=1; // 3-states access for CS0
BSC.WCR.BIT.W0=0; // 0 program wait state for CS0

BSC.ABWCR.BIT.B1=1; // Select 8-bit access for CS1
BSC.ASTCR.BIT.B1=1; // 3-states access for CS1
BSC.WCR.BIT.W1=0; // 0 program wait state for CS1

BSC.BRCR.BYTE=0xf0; // A20-A23 use as IO pins, no ext bus master
BSC.BCR.BYTE=0x42; // Idle cycle inserted in consecutive R/W
// cycles
// Area division is 2Mbytes each
P1DDR.BYTE = 0xFF; // Port 1 used as A0-A7
P2DDR.BYTE = 0xFF; // Port 2 used as A8-A15
P5DDR.BYTE = 0x0F; // Port 5:0-3 used as A16-A19
P8DDR.BYTE = 0xF8; // Set P8.4 as CS0, P8.3 as CS1, P8.2 as CS2
// This instruction affects other port-8 pins
}
char newEncoderData[2];
char encoderDiff[2];
char oldEncoderData[2];
int wheelErr[2];
void ReadEncoder() {
newEncoderData[0] = (*(char*)0x200000);
D0-D7
U/L*
X*/Y
CS*
ResetX/Y
IC-7401
D8-D15
P6.0
CS1*
A0
A1
XA
XB
YA
YB
Figure 12.3 Interfacing 7401 to the 3062F
Motor1 encoder signal channel A
Motor1 encoder signal channel B
Motor2 encoder signal channel A
Motor2 encoder signal channel B
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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newEncoderData[1] = (*(char*)0x200001);
encoderDiff[0] = ( newEncoderData[0] - oldEncoderData[0]);
encoderDiff[1] = ( newEncoderData[1] - oldEncoderData[1]);
wheelErr[0] -= encoderDiff[0];
wheelErr[1] -= encoderDiff[1];
oldEncoderData[0] = newEncoderData[0];
oldEncoderData[1] = newEncoderData[1];
}
A very brief introduction to Hitachi H8/3062F and its development tools- Ng BengKiat
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Appendix A Lab exercise
Lab1 (day1)
Flash the monitor program, H8MonCS0.mot. Download a program that says SARS in the middle
of the terminal screen. Use gotoxy(x,y) functions to control the screen cursor position. Rebuild the
SARS program in flash configuration and flash it.
Lab2 (day2)
Write a program to generate a square wave on any output port pin. Use a scope to monitor the
output pin. Suggest a way to generate a square wave of certain frequency.
Lab3 (day3)
Write a program to display clock time on the terminal screen. The output should be:
HH:MM:SS
Verify that the clock can count correctly to 24 hours. Use the CPU clock to ensure accuracy.
Lab4 (day3)
Write a program to generate 3 PWM output at 20%, 50% and 90% duty cycle. Modify the
program to allow user to vary the duty cycle on one of the output. Use U and D keys to
increase or decrease the duty cycle.
Appendix B
B.1 About AlphaCentre 3062F Microcontroller Board
A general purpose board with 256 Kbyte (16 bit wide) external RAM. Both RAM must be soldered.
Jumper for selecting MCU operating mode 5 operating or On board programming Boot mode. See
jumper (PGM/RUN).
Red switch connected to IRQ0.
Little black switch connected to REST.
Figure B1 :Top and bottom views of the 3062 microcontroller board