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EUROPEAN COMMISSION

DIRECTORATE GENERAL J RC
J OINT RESEARCH CENTRE
NSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY
LAND MANAGEMENT UNIT


http://inforest.jrc.it/effis





European Forest Fire Information System

(EFFIS)






Meteorological Indices





The computation of the meteorological indices in EFFIS is based on a prototype software
(named EUDIC) developed for J RC by the University of Turin under the contract N. 14526-
1998-11 F1PC ISP IT (Computation of Meteorological Fire Danger Indices for Southern
Europe).

What follows is taken from the technical reports of the mentioned contract, describing the
algorithms used in EUDIC for computing the indices and the thresholds applied for mapping
the fire risk classes. These algorithms and thresholds are now used in EFFIS.










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Description of the indices implemented in EUDIC software for the
European meteorological forest fire risk mapping

by

Andrea Camia and Giovanni Bovio
AGROSELVITER University of Turin

May 2000

EUDIC is a software developed in the frame of a collaboration between the Department
AGROSELVITER of the University of Turin and the Space Application Institute of the J oint
Research Centre. The software is aimed to compute daily a number of meteorological fire
danger indices in Europe, using as input either measured meteorological data from the MARS
database or forecasted weather data from MeteoFrance. The output are raster maps of the
European Mediterranean basin or other portions of the European territory, showing the spatial
distribution of the fire danger level in a given day, segmented into 5 classes.

The aim of this report is to provide a synthetic description, including main formulas,
algorithms and references, of the meteorological fire danger indices implemented in EUDIC.
Notice that the thresholds used to segment the indices and define the mentioned 5 classes of
meteorological fire danger level are not reported here.
The indices are named as it follows:
Portuguese Index
ICONA Method
Drouet-Sol Numerical Risk
Italian Fire Danger Index
Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI)
Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC)
Duff Moisture Code (DMC)
Drought Code (DC)
Initial Spread Index (ISI)
Build Up Index (BUI)
BEHAVE Dead Fine Fuel Moisture Content

To simplify the reading of the document, a common frame to illustrate the indices has been
established, covering for each index the following issues:

1. Description: brief description of the index
2. Reference: main reference from which the equations were taken
3. Inputs required: meteorological variables and unit measures needed to compute the
index
4. Basic equations: formulas and algorithms



3
PORTUGUESE INDEX

Description: the Portuguese index used in EUDIC is the index developed by the Portuguese
Meteorological and Geophysical National Institute (INMG, 1988; Gonalves and Loureno,
1990) and it is a modified version of Nesterov index, the fire danger index used in the former
Soviet Union.
It is based on the assessment of atmospheric conditions in the proximity of the fuel layer and
is composed by three numerical indicators.
The first one [I(i)] can be considered as an index of ignition
The second one [B(i-1)] is cumulative and is given by the sum of the daily indicators of the
previous days (I), starting from the beginning of the fire season, corrected by a weighting
factor (r), which is a function of precipitation (P) occurred in the previous day.
The third indicator [ifa(i)] is the final danger index that sums the previous two, introducing a
correction for wind speed, that could be considered as a weighting factor to be eventually
applied to the fire danger index.

Reference: INMG (1988) Nota explicativa sobre o Indice de Risco Meteorologico de
Incendios Rurais. Divisao de Meteorologia Agrcola, Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e
Geofisica.
Gonalves ZJ , Loureno L (1990) Meteorological index of forest fire risk in the portuguese
mainland territory. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Forest Fire Research,
Coimbra, B.07-1/14.

Inputs required
T air temperature at noon, C
Td dew point at noon, % (in EUDIC derived from vapour pressure)
V wind speed at noon, Km/h
P rainfall 24 hours previous, mm

Basic equations
1) Index of ignition of i
th
day
I i T i T i Td i ( ) ( )[ ( ) ( )] =
2)
B i r I k
k i
i
( ) * ( ) =
=

1
1



R Precipitation (mm)
1 0 <P 1
0.8 1 <P 2
0.6 2 <P 3
0.4 3 <P 4
0.2 4 <P 10
0.1 10 <P


4

3) Fire danger index for the day is the result of the sum of the values of the previous two
indicators, corrected for windspeed and divided into classes according to specific tables.

) 1 ( ) ( ) ( + = i B i I i Ifa

Wind speed
(Km/h)
Correction to Ifa
V 10 -
10 <V 15 +1
15 <V 20 +2
20 <V 30 +3
30 <V 40 +4
40<V +5




5
ICONA METHOD

Description: this is the only not-cumulative method among those reviewed and it rather
defines a risk of ignition.
It is the method used by the Spanish Instituto Nacional para la Conservacion da la Naturaleza
(ICONA, 1993) and it has been developed from the fine dead fuel moisture content model
developed in the US by Rothermel et Al. (1986).
It is based on litter and fine dead fuels moisture content which are quite sensible to
meteorological variation.
Air temperature and relative humidity are the basic inputs required to to derive a so called
basic moisture humidity. Basic humidity is then corrected according to period of the year,
hour of the day, terrain cover (by vegetation or clouds), aspect and slope.

Reference: - ICONA (1993) Manual de operaciones contra incendios forestales. Madrid,
5.1/65.

Inputs required:
T air temperature, (C)
H relative humidity, (%)
V wind speed, (Km/h)
tV kind of wind
Time (hour) in which the index is computed
Terrain cover by vegetation or by clouds (two classes: >50% or <50%)
Terrain slope (two classes: >30% or <30%)
Aspect (four classes: N, E, S, W)

Basic equations
The method can be applied using a number of tables, solving 3 subsequent steps as they are
illustrated in what follows. The tables presented below refer only to the period May, J une,
J uly, but tables exist in the referenced paper, that cover the other months of the year.

1. Determine basic humidity of fine dead fuel from Table 1 or Table 2
2. In case of day time calculation, find the correction value to be added to basic humidity to
obtain fine fuel moisture content from Table 3
3. Find the probability of ignition from Table 4
4. An alert level can be derived from the probability of ignition, expressed by three danger
classes, considering wind velocity and direction (Table 5).

In EUDIC the site and time specific features of the ICONA method could not be completely
complied because the software has been designed to work on a square grid cell of 50x50 km
2

and on a daily basis.
Thus the following simplifications have been introduced:
- the method is assumed to refer the fire danger level at noon, thus the Table 2 is never used
(always Table 1), and the column of 12.00 h is used for the correction value in Table 3.
- Slope and aspect cannot be taken into account, thus the worst conditions are taken as a
reference, using always the minimum correction factor of Table 3 (or a similar table for
August and September).


6
- The sunny/shadowed criteria of Table 3 is taken into account estimating the cloud cover
from the direct solar radiation, compared, through some atmospheric transmissivity
coefficients, to the potential solar radiation.
- The kind of wind (from the sea or from the land Table 5) could not be considered owing
to the heterogeneity of the European Mediterranean basin. Thus the worst conditions are
always taken as reference also in this case.

Two fire risk indicators are recorded: both the probability of ignition (Table 4) and the level
of alert (Table 5) which has only four values, thus it can only reach the risk class number 4.



7
Table 1 Basic fuel humidity in daytime (from 8.00 to 20.00, solar)
AIR HUMIDITY (%)

AIR TEMPERATURE
(C)
0
4
5
9
10
14
15
19
20
24
25
29
30
34
35
39
40
44
45
49
50
54
55
59
60
64
65
69
70
74
75
79
80
84
85
89
90
94
95
99

100
<0 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 8 8 9 10 11 12 12 13 13 14
0 9 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 9 9 10 10 11 12 13 13 13
10 20 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 12 12 12 13
21 31 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 10 10 11 12 12 13
32 42 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 10 10 11 12 12 13
>43 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 10 10 11 12 12 12
Table 2 - Basic fuel humidity at night time (from 20.00 to 8.00, solar)
AIR HUMIDITY (%)

AIR TEMPERATURE
(C)
0
4
5
9
10
14
15
19
20
24
25
29
30
34
35
39
40
44
45
49
50
54
55
59
60
64
65
69
70
74
75
79
80
84
85
89
90
94
95
99

100
0 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 11 11 12 13 14 16 18 21 24 25+ 25+
10 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 8 8 9 10 11 11 12 14 16 17 20 23 25+ 25+
21 31 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 11 12 13 15 17 20 23 25+ 25+
32 42 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 10 10 11 13 14 16 19 22 25 25+
>43 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 8 9 9 10 11 12 14 16 19 21 24 25+


8

Table 3 Day corrections for May, J une, J uly
SUNNY LAND: plus than 50% in the sun
HOUR
ASPECT SLOPE 08.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00
N
0 - 30%
>30%
3
4
1
2
0
1
0
1
1
2
3
4

E
0 - 30%
>30%
2
2
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
3
4
5

S
0 - 30%
>30%
3
3
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
3
3

O
0 - 30%
>30%
3
5
1
3
0
1
0
0
1
0
3
2

SHADOWED LAND: more than 50% in the shadow
HOUR OF DAY
ASPECT SLOPE 08.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00
N
0% + 5 4 3 3 4 5
E
0% + 4 4 3 4 4 5
S
0% + 4 4 3 3 4 5
O
0% + 5 4 3 3 4 4
FLAT LAND =ASPECT SUD


9

Table 4 Probability of ignition
FINE DEAD FUEL MOISTURE
SHADOW

TEMPERATURE 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
0 -10 40+
35-40
30-35
100
100
100
100
90
90
90
80
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
60
50
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
10

25-30
20-25
15-20
100
100
90
90
80
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
60
50
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

10-15
5-10
0-5
90
90
90
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
60
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

10-50 40+
35-40
30-35
100
100
100
100
90
90
80
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
60
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
10

25-30
20-25
15-20
100
100
90
90
80
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
50
50
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

10-15
5-10
0-5
90
90
80
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
50
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

60-90 40+
35-40
30-35
100
100
100
90
90
90
80
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
50
50
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

25-30
20-25
15-20
100
90
90
80
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
60
50
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

10-15
5-10
0-5
90
90
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
50
50
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

100 40+
35-40
30-35
100
100
100
90
90
80
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
60
50
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

25-30
20-25
15-20
90
90
90
80
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
50
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

10-15
5-10
0-5
90
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
60
50
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10




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Table 5 Alert level
NON DRYING WIND (WIND FROM THE SEA)
Wind speed (km/h)

PROBABILITY OF
IGNITION, %
0-9 10-19 20-39
40
10 20 Pre-alert Pre-alert Pre-alert Alert
20 50 Pre-alert Alert Alert Alert
50 <70 Alarm Alarm Alarm Alarm
70 Alarm Alarm Alarm Extreme Alarm

DRYING WIND (WIND FROM THE LAND)
Wind speed (km/h)

PROBABILITY OF
IGNITION, %
0-9 10-19 20-39
40
10 20 Pre-alert Alert Alert Extreme Alarm
20 50 Alert Alarm Alarm Extreme Alarm
50 <70 Alarm Alarm Alarm Extreme Alarm
70 Alarm Extreme Alarm Extreme Alarm Extreme Alarm






11
DROUET-SOL NUMERICAL RISK

Description: the Numerical Risk proposed by Sol (1990) and Drouet (Drouet and Sol, 1993) ,
is one of the indices that have been applied in Southern France. It is a cumulative index that
can be applied during the whole summer.
It requires a number of input parameters such as daily values of air temperature, relative
humidity, cloud cover, wind velocity, dew point, soil and litter temperature.

Reference: Sol B (1990) Estimation du risque meteorologique dincendies de forts dans le
Sud-est de la France. Revue Forestire Franaise, Nancy, n spcial, 263-271.
Drouet J -C, Sol B (1993) Mise au point d'un indice numerique de risque meteorologique
d'incendies de forts. Fort Mediterranenne 14(2): 155-162.

Inputs required
V wind speed (Km/h)
T air temperature (C)
Td dew point temperature (C) (in EUDIC derived from vapour pressure)
Cc cloud cover (eighths)
Rp soil water reserve(Orieux, 1979):
ETPg daily potential evapotranspiration (Thornthwaite)
t
i
monthly average temperature, (C)
Tmax daily maximum temperature, (C)
Tmin daily minimum temperature, (C)
L latitude
Prec rainfall, (mm)

Basic equations

Risnum
FHR Cres Cvent
A = + 25
15
* *


Where:
FHR = False relative humidity =100*
( )
( )
Esat Td
Esat Tsol


where:

Esat(T) Vapour pressure (hPa) at temperature T

Tsol is derived with the empirical equations:
If Cc<=2 Tsol=0.874*T-0.189*V+21.38
If Cc>=3 Tsol=1.36*T-1.422*Cc-0.22*Td+13.42




12
Cres (soil water reserve factor) =3 2
50
25
+

*TanHyp
Rp


where:

Rp =soil water reserve (Orieux method)

Cvent (wind factor) =3 3
45
50
+

*TanHyp
V


A is a factor function of rate of spread (ROS) estimated with Drouet equation:

ROS=180*EXP(T*0.06)*TanHyp((100-Rp)/150)*(1+2*(0.8483+TanHyp(V/30-1.25)))

According to ROS, A can take the following values:
ROS 600 m/h A =-3
600 <ROS <1000 A =0
ROS 1000 m/h A =+2




13
ITALIAN FIRE DANGER INDEX

Description: this is the fire danger index normally applied in Italy by the Italian State
Forestry Corps. It is derived from the Mc Arthurs models in the Australian Forest Fire
Danger Meter, and it is considered reliable only in the Mediterranean part of Italy.
This method is made up of 2 steps:
- computing of soil water deficit and drought index. (function of rainfall amount, days since
last rain and air maximum temperature)
- computing of danger index (function of drought index, wind speed, relative humidity and
air temperature)

Reference: Literature references of the exact algorithm used by the method cannot be found.
The tables and equations used in EUDIC were derived from the conversions of the
nomograms that the Italian State Forestry Corps use for calculations, and from the analysis
and comparison with the quite similar methods described in:
Palmieri S, Cozzi R (1983) Il ruolo della meteorologia nella prevenzione e controllo degli
incendi boschivi. Riv. Meteor. Aer. XLIII, n.4.
Palmieri S, Inghilesi R, Siani AM (1993) Un indice meteorologico di rischio per incendi
boschivi. Proceedings from Seminar on fighting forest fires 26-28 April 1993 Tessaloniki.

Inputs required
Tmax daily maximum temperature (C)
N number of days since the last rainfall
T air temperature (C)
Prec rainfall of previous 24 hours (mm)
U air relative humidity (%)
V wind speed (Km/h)

Basic equations
Soil water deficit is given by the formula
IS(j) =IR(j) +AS

where:
IS(j) =water deficit of today
IR(j) =reduced water deficit
AS =increase in water deficit

IR(j)=IS(j-1) Pnet

where:
IS(j-1) = water deficit of the day before
Pnet =net rainfall, excluding canopy intercept (5 mm)

Pnet =Prec - 5
if Pnet <0 than Pnet =0



14
The increase in water deficit (AS) is found in Table 6 as a function of maximum temperature
and IR(j)

The drought index (Ar) is found in Tables 7-10 as a function of IS(j), number of days since
last rainfall and precipitation amount.

The meteorological danger index (IMPI) is given by the equation:

IMPI =1.33 * Ar * 2
(0.048T -- 0.051U +0.033V)



15

Table 6 - AS values
Reduced water deficit(IR)
Maximum
temperature
(C)
0
to
12
13
to
25
26
to
38
39
to
51
52
to
64
65
to
77
78
to
90
91
to
103
104
to
116
117
to
129
130
to
142
143
to
150
151
to
163
164
to
175
176
to
188
189
to
200
42 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 3 2 1 1 0 0
40 41 6 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 0 0 0
38 39 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 0 0 0
36 37 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0
34 35 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0
32 33 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0
31 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
30 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
29 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
27 28 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
26 25 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
23 24 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
21 22 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
19 - 20 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
19 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0



16

Table 7 Drought index (Ar) with IS =0-50
Number of days Rainfall amount (mm)
since last rainfall 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 40 50 75 100
0 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0
1 6 6 5 5 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0
2 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1
3 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 2
4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 2
5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3
7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 4 4 3 3
8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 3
9 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 3
10 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 3
12 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 4
15 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 4
20 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5






17
Table 8 Drought index (Ar) with IS =51-100
Number of days Rainfall amount (mm)
since last rainfall 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 40 50 75 100
0 7 7 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0
1 7 7 7 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 0 0
2 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 5 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1
3 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 5 4 4 3 2 2
4 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 5 5 4 3 3
5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 5 5 4 3
6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 5 4 4
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 5 4
8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 5 4
9 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 5 5
10 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 5
12 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6
15 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6
20 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7






18
Table 9 Drought index (Ar) with IS =101-125
Number of days Rainfall amount (mm)
since last rainfall 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 40 50 75 100
0 9 9 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 0
1 9 9 9 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 3 2 1 1 0 0
2 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 7 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1
3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 7 6 5 5 4 3
4 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 7 7 6 5 4
5 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 7 6 6 5
6 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 7 6 5
7 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 7 7 6
8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 7 6
9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 7 7
10 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 7
12 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8
15 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8
20 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9






19
Table 10 Drought index (Ar) with IS =126-200
Number of days Rainfall amount (mm)
since last rainfall 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 40 50 75 100
0 10 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 3 1 1 0 0 0
1 10 10 10 10 9 8 7 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 0
2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 8 8 7 5 4 4 3 1
3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 8 7 6 5 4
4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 8 7 6 5
5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 8 7 6
6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 8 7
7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 8 7
8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 8
9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 8
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8
12 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9
15 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
20 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10




20
CANADIAN FIRE WEATHER INDEX (FWI)

Description: FWI is an index composed by six sub-indices referring respectively the daily
variation of water content for fuels with different response time changes in weather
conditions, the initial rate of spread for propagation, the quantity of fuel and the expected
intensity of the flame front.

A schematic structure of the Fire Weather Index is illustrated in the following figure:



the Fire Weather Index represents the intensity of the propagating flame front depending on
the quantity of energy released from a linear unit of the front itself. The indices that make up
FWI will be described in what follows.

Reference: Van Wagner CE, Pickett TL (1987) Equations and Fortran program for the
Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Canadian Forestry Service, Forestry Technical
Report 33, Ottawa.

Inputs required
T temperature at noon, C
H relative humidity at noon, %
W wind speed at noon, km/h
r
o
daily rain, mm

Basic equations
Symbols used:
f(D) duff humidity factor
R initial spread index (ISI)
U build up index (BUI)
B FWI (intermediate form)
S FWI (form final)

Temperature Wind Temperature Temperature
Fire Weather Relative Humidity Relative Humidity Rain
Observations Wind Rain
Rain
Fuel Moisture Fine Fuel Duff Drought
Codes Moisture Code Moisture Code Code
Initial Spread Build up
Index Index
Fire Behaviour
Indexes
Fire Weather
Index


21
1. Compute f(D)

if U 80 than f(D) =0.626 U
0.809
+2

if U >80 than f(D) =1000 / (25 +108.64 e
-0.023U
)


2. Compute B

B =0.1 R f(D)


3. compute S

if B >1 than S =EXP(2.72 (0.434 ln(B))
0.647
)
if B 1 than S =B


Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC)

Description: the Fine Fuel Moisture Code is part of the Canadian FWI. The code is the
expression of the water content of litter and fine dead fuels. It indicates the relative ease of
ignition and flammability of fine dead fuels.

Reference: Van Wagner CE, Pickett TL (1987) Equations and Fortran program for the
Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Canadian Forestry Service, Forestry Technical
Report 33, Ottawa.

Inputs required
T temperature at noon, C
H relative humidity at noon, %
W wind speed at noon, km/h
r
o
daily rain, mm

Basic equations
Simbols used in the equations:
m
o
water content in fine fuel of the previous day
m
r
water content in fine fuel after the rain
m water content in fine fuel after the drainage
r
f
real rain, FFMC
E
d
TEE (equilibrium water content) of fine fuel after the drainage
E
w
TEE (equilibrium water content) of fine fuel after moistening
k
o
intermediate value of k
d

k
d
logarithmic drainage speed, FFMC, Log
10
m/day
k
l
intermediate value of k
W



22
k
w
logarithmic moisture speed, Log
10
m/day
F FFMC
F
o
FFMC of the previous day

1. F of the previous day is F
o



2. Compute m
o


m
o
=147.2 (101 - F
o
) / (59.5 +F
o
)


3a. if 0.5 mm than r
0
=r
f


if r
o
>0.5 mm than r
f
=r
o
- 0.5


3b. Compute m
r
in function of r
f
and m
o


if m
o
150 m
r
=m
o
+42.5 r
f
(e
-100/(251-m
o
)
)(1 - e
- 6.93/r
f
)
if m
o
>150 m
r
=m
o
+42.5 r
f
(e
-100/(251-m
o
)
)(1 - e
- 6.93/r
f
) +0.0015 (m
o
- 150)
2
r
f
0.5


if m
r
>250 than m
r
=250

3c. m
r
=m
o
.


4. Compute E
d


E
d
=0.942 H
0.679
+11e
(H - 100)/10
+0.18 (21.1 - T) (1 - e
- 0.115H
)


5a. if m
o
>E
d
than k
d


k
o
=0.424 [1 - (H/100)
1.7
] +0.0694 W
0.5
[1 - (H/100)
8
]

k
d
=k
o
* 0.581 e
0.0365T


5b. Compute m

m =E
d
+(m
o
- E
d
) * 10
-k
d





23
6. if m
o
<E
d
than E
w


E
w
=0.618 H
0.753
+10e
(H - 100)/10
+0.18 (21.1 - T) (1 - e
- 0.115H
)


7a. if m
o
<E
w
than k
w


k
l
=0.424 {1 - [(100 - H)/100]
1.7
}+0.0694 W
0.5
{1- [(100 - H)/100]
8
}

k
w
=k
l
* 0.581 e
0.0365T


7b. Compute m

m =E
w
- (E
w
- m
o
) * 10
-k
d



8. if E
d
m
o
E
w
than m =m
o



9. Compute F as a function of m

F =59.5 (250 - m) / (147.2 +m)


Duff Moisture Code (DMC)

Description: the Duff Moisture Code is part of the Canadian FWI. The code represents the
water content of a moderately thick organic layer. It also provides an estimate of the amount
of fuel of medium size available for combustion.

Reference: Van Wagner CE (1987) Development and structure of the Canadian Forest Fire
Weather Index System. Canadian Forestry Service, Technical Report 35, pp 37.
Van Wagner CE, Pickett TL (1987) Equations and Fortran program for the Canadian Forest
Fire Weather Index System. Canadian Forestry Service, Forestry Technical Report 33,
Ottawa.

Inputs required
T temperature at noon, C
H relative humidity at noon, %
W wind speed at noon, km/h
r
o
daily rain, mm

Basic equations
Symbols used for computing:


24
M
o
water content in duff of the previous day
M
r
water content in duff after the rain
M water content in duff after the drainage
K logarithmic drainage speed, DMC, Log
10
m/day
r
e
real rain, DMC
L
e
effective day length DMC, hours
b slope factor in DMC
P
o
DMC of the previous day
P
r
DMC after the rain
P DMC


2a. if ro 1.5 than r
0
=r
e


if ro >1.5 than r
e
=0.92ro - 1.27

2b. Compute M
o
in function of P
o


M
o
=20 +e
(5.6348 - P
o
/43.43)


2c. Compute b

if P
o
33 b =100 / (0.5 +0.3 P
o
)

if 33 <P
o
65 b =14 - 1.3 ln P
o


if P
o
>65 b =6.2 ln P
o
- 17.2

2d. Compute M
r


M
r
=M
o
+1000 r
e
/ (48.77 +br
e
)

2e. Compute P
r
in function of M
r


P
r
=244.72 - 43.43 ln (M
r
- 20)

if P
r
<0 than P
r
=0

P
r
=P
o



3. Search L
e
in next table

Month J an Feb Mar Apr May J un J ul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


25
L
e
6.5 7.5 9.0 12.8 13.9 13.9 12.4 10.9 9.4 8.0 7.0 6.0



4. Compute K

K =1.894 (T +1.1)(100 - H) L
e
* 10
-6


if T <-1.1 Than T =-1.1


5. Compute P in function of P
o


P =P
o
+100K


Drought Code (DC)

Description: the Drought Code is part of the Canadian FWI. It represent a rating of the water
content of a deep, compact organic layer in the soil. It is a good indicator of seasonal drought
effect on large size fuels.

Reference: Van Wagner CE, Pickett TL (1987) Equations and Fortran program for the
Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Canadian Forestry Service, Forestry Technical
Report 33, Ottawa.

Inputs required:
T temperature at noon, C
H relative humidity at noon, %
W wind speed at noon, km/h
r
o
daily rain, mm

Basic equations
symbols used for computing:
Q equivalent humidity of DC, multiple di 0.254 mm
Q
o
equivalent humidity of DC of the previous day
Q
r
equivalent humidity after the rain
r
d
real rain, DC
V Potential evapotranspiration, multiplie of 0.254 mm of water/day
L
f
effective day length DC, hours
D
o
DC of the previous day
D
r
DC after the rain
D DC



26

2a. if r
o
2.8 than r
0
=r
d


if r
o
>2.8 than r
d
=0.83r
o
- 1.27


2b. Compute Q
o
in function of D
o


Q
o
=800 e
-D
o
/400


2c. Compute Q
r


Q
r
=Q
o
+3.937r
d


2d. Compute D
r
in function of Q
r


D
r
=400 ln(800 / Q
r
)

ifD
r
<0; than D
r
=0

D
r
=D
o



3. Search for L
f
in next table

Month J an Feb Mar Apr May J iu J ul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
L
f
-1.6 -1.6 -1.6 0.9 3.8 5.8 6.4 5.0 2.4 0.4 -1.6 -1.6



4. Compute V

V =0.36 (T +2.8) +L
f


if T <-2.8 Than T =-2.8
if V <0 thanV =0


5. Compute D in function of D
o


D =D
o
+0.5V




27
Initial Spread Index (ISI)

Description: The Initial Spread Index is part of the Canadian FWI. It provides an estimate of
the expected propagation of the flame front, without considering the fuel variability. It
combines the effect of FFMC and of wind.

Reference: Van Wagner CE, Pickett TL (1987) Equations and Fortran program for the
Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Canadian Forestry Service, Forestry Technical
Report 33, Ottawa.

Inputs required
T temperature at noon, C
H relative humidity at noon, %
W wind speed at noon, km/h
r
o
daily rain, mm

Basic equations
symbols used for computing:
f(W) wind factor
f(F) fine fuel humidity factor
m water content in fine fuel after the drainage
R ISI

1. f(W) =e
0.05039W



2. f(F) =91.9e
-0.1386m
[1 +m
5.31
/ (4.93 * 10
7
)]


3. R =0.208 f(W) f(F)


Build Up Index (BUI)

Description: the Build up Index is part of the Canadian FWI. It represent a rating of the total
fuel available for burning. It combines the two codes DMC and DC.

Reference: Van Wagner CE, Pickett TL (1987) Equations and Fortran program for the
Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Canadian Forestry Service, Forestry Technical
Report 33, Ottawa.

Inputs required
T temperature at noon, C
H relative humidity at noon, %
W wind speed at noon, km/h
r
o
daily rain, mm


28

Basic equations
symbols used for computing:
U build up index (BUI)
P DMC
D DC

1a. if P 0.4D than U =0.8 PD/(P +0.4D)

1b. if P >0.4D than U =P - [1 - 0.8D / (P +0.4D)] [0.92 +(0.0114P)
1.7
]



BEHAVE DEAD FINE FUEL MOISTURE CONTENT

Description: it is the component of the BEHAVE system (Andrews, 1986) which estimates
the moisture content of fine dead fuels. It is based on the Canadian FFMC except for a
correction of some parameters introduced because of the greater solar heating of the lower
USA latitude, to better express the air temperature and relative humidity at the fuel-
atmosphere interface.
In addition, the rainfall correction routine applied in BEHAVE is slightly different from the
updated FFMC rainfall routine, being an early version of the latter.

Reference: Rothermel R C, Wilson RA, Morris GA, Sackett SS (1986) Modelling moisture
content of fine dead wildland fuels: input to BEHAVE fire prediction system. USDA Forest
Service, Research Paper INT-359, Intermountain Research Station, Odgen, Utah, pp 61. In:
Viney NR (1991) A Review of Fine Fuel Moisture Modelling. The International J ournal of
Wildland Fire 1(4):215-234.

Inputs required
temperature at noon, C
relative humidity at noon, %
wind speed at noon, km/h
daily rainfall amount (mm)

Basic equations
The corrections for air temperature and relative humidity at the fuel surface take into account
a number of site dependent factors such as slope, aspect and shading that could not be
considered in the computations because of the spatial resolution addressed by EUDIC.
Nevertheless air temperature and relative humidity were adjusted at the fuel level, introducing
a correction factor, function of direct solar radiation (Byram and J emison, 1943). The wind
speed was also adjusted at the ground level, applying a standard reduction factor of 0.5.
Thus the BEHAVE model was applied in EUDIC following the FFMC routines (see
equations for FFMC), using as input air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed
corrected at the fuel level, and introducing the BEHAVE rainfall model. The rainfall model is


29
intended to be applied only when rainfall exceeds 0.5 mm, but assumes that none of the rain is
intercepted by the canopy.
The model is the following:
( ) Mr
Mo
f r e
Mo
=

min ; .
.
101100
100
101
0000110
01117

Where:
Mr =rain-corrected moisture content (%)
Mo =moisture content of fine fuels (%) of the previous day
f(r) is computed as follows:
if 0.5<r 1.45
f(r) =123.85-55.6 ln(r+1.016)

if 1.45<r 5.75
f(r) =57.87-18.2 ln(r-1.016)

if 5.75<r
f(r) =40.69-8.25 ln(r-1.905)



REFERENCES

Andrews P L (1986) - BEHAVE: Fire Behavior Prediction and Fuel Modeling System - Burn
Subsystem, Part 1 - Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-194, USDA For. Serv., Intermountain Research
Station, Odgen UT, p. 130.
Drouet J -C, Sol B (1993) Mise au point d'un indice numerique de risque meteorologique
d'incendies de forts. Fort Mediterranenne 14(2): 155-162.
Gonalves ZJ , Loureno L (1990) Meteorological index of forest fire risk in the portuguese
mainland territory. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Forest Fire
Research, Coimbra, B.07-1/14.
ICONA (1993) Manual de operaciones contra incendios forestales. Madrid, 5.1/65.
INMG (1988) Nota explicativa sobre o Indice de Risco Meteorologico de Incendios Rurais.
Divisao de Meteorologia Agrcola, Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica.
Orieux A (1979) Conditions mtorologiques et incendies di forts en rgion
mditerranenne. Ministre des Transports, Direction de la Mtorologie, Note
Technique du Service Mtorologie Mtropolitain.
Palmieri S, Cozzi R (1983) Il ruolo della meteorologia nella prevenzione e controllo degli
incendi boschivi. Riv. Meteor. Aer. XLIII, n.4.
Palmieri S, Inghilesi R, Siani AM (1993) Un indice meteorologico di rischio per incendi
boschivi. Proceedings from Seminar on fighting forest fires 26-28 April 1993
Tessaloniki.
Rothermel R C, Wilson RA, Morris GA, Sackett SS (1986) Modelling moisture content of
fine dead wildland fuels: input to BEHAVE fire prediction system. USDA Forest Service,
Research Paper INT-359, Intermountain Research Station, Odgen, Utah, pp 61.
Sol B (1990) Estimation du risque meteorologique dincendies de forts dans le Sud-est de la
France. Revue Forestire Franaise, Nancy, n spcial, 263-271.


30
Van Wagner CE, (1972) Equilibrium moisture contents of some fine forest fuels in eastern
Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report PS-X-36, Petawa Forest
Experimental Station, Chalk River, Ontario, pp 11.
Van Wagner CE (1987) Development and structure of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather
Index System. Canadian Forestry Service, Technical Report 35, pp 37.
Van Wagner CE, Pickett TL (1987) Equations and Fortran program for the Canadian Forest
Fire Weather Index System. Canadian Forestry Service, Forestry Technical Report 33,
Ottawa.
Viney NR (1991) A Review of Fine Fuel Moisture Modelling. The International J ournal of
Wildland Fire 1(4):215-234.



31
Index Danger Class From To
Canadian FWI very low - 5.6
low 5.6 13.3
moderate 13.3 19.8
high 19.8 29.8
very high 29.8 -
BEHAVE very low 14.2 -
low 13.2 14.2
moderate 12.5 13.2
high 8.9 12.5
very high - 8.9
Spanish ICONA very low - 20.0
low 20.0 30.0
moderate 30.0 40.0
high 40.0 50.0
very high 50.0 -
Italian FDI very low - 1.8
low 1.8 2.5
moderate 2.5 3.8
high 3.8 6.8
very high 6.8 -
Portuguese very low - 6.0
low 6.0 7.0
moderate 7.0 8.0
high 8.0 14.0
very high 14.0 -
Sol Numerical Risk very low - 5.2
low 5.2 7.0
moderate 7.0 12.9
high 12.9 16.3
Class interval


Class intervals identified for the meteorological indices analyzed
(lower bound included, upper bound excluded)