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Ancient Egyptian civilization was and still the greatest civilization done across
the years. People now call Egypt the land of mysteries, as there is no other
civilization has captured the imagination of scholars and laypeople alike. It's
surrounded by the mysteries of its origins, religions and monumental
.architects and from its famous monumental architects the pyramids

Seeds of the civilization were first sown along the banks of the Nile so life
arose from the water. This mighty river, which flows from the heart of Africa to
the Mediterranean Sea, nourished the growth of the pharaohnic kingdom it
played an amazing rule in creating just a great kingdom. This long and narrow
flood plain was a magnet for life, attracting people, animals and plants to live
along its banks. The annual flood of the river always was seen as a gift from
the gods as it was creating ideal conditions for growing wheat, flax and other
crops. The first communal project of this fledgling society was the building of
.irrigation canals for agricultural purposes

The Egyptians also believed that the body and` the soul were important for
human existence, in life and in death. Their funerary practices, such as
mummification and burial in tombs, were designed to assist the deceased find
their way in the afterworld. The tombs were filled with food, tools, domestic
wares, treasures "all the necessities of life" to ensure the soul's return to the
body so that the deceased would live happily ever after. The pharaohs were
seen as gods, divine representatives on earth who, through rituals, ensured
the continuation of life. After death, they became immortal, joining the gods in
.the afterworld

The most imposing tombs are the famous pyramids, shaped like the sacred
mound where the gods first appeared in the creation story. These were
incredibly ambitious projects, the largest structures ever built. Their
construction was overseen by highly skilled architects and engineers. Paid
laborers moved the massive limestone blocks without the use of wheels,
horses or iron tools. The conscripts may have been motivated by a deep faith
in the divinity of their leaders and a belief in immortality. Perhaps they thought
that their contributions would improve their own prospects at the final
judgment in the afterworld. Pyramids are the only remaining wonder of the
.ancient world

What you have read above is just a short note about what we will talk about.
In the next chapters we will talk about ancient Egyptian dynasties, women in
ancient Egypt, and pharaohs' curse. We chose this topic because a lot of
people do not know the real history of there ancestors. They know only that
.they were great people has an ancient civilization
:Ancient Egyptian dynasties
We will introduce them in 11 points each point will discuss a
specific period in their life and how they were able to overcome the
difficulties that confronted. We will talk about kings ruled ancient Egypt,
.kings made changes to ancient Egypt, and kings made history

:Women in ancient Egypt

Queens who ruled Egypt and affected our history. We will talk about
the most famous queens "Hatshepsut, Nefertiti, and Cleopatra"
.and we will introduce this part in 13 points

:Pharaohs curse
This is the most exciting part in our topic as we introduce such a
mysteries case that no one till now can solve it. We don't know the
reason of what is happening for those who are trying to discover the
.ancient Egypt. We will introduce this part in 4points

Pharaoh is the name for the official of kingship, and religious/political leader in
the new kingdom of ancient Egypt Meaning "High House", it originally referred to
the king's palace, but the meaning loosened over the course of Egyptian
history until it became interchangeable with the Egyptian word for king.
Although the rulers of Egypt were generally male, the pharaoh was used on
.the rare occasions when a female ruled

Pharaoh: Lord of the Two Lands

The most powerful person in ancient Egypt was the pharaoh. The pharaoh
was the political and religious leader of the Egyptian people, holding the titles:
.''Lord of the Two Lands' and 'High Priest of Every Temple

As 'Lord of the Two Lands' the pharaoh was the ruler of Upper and Lower
Egypt. He owned all of the land, made laws, collected taxes, and defended
.Egypt against foreigners

As 'High Priest of Every Temple', the pharaoh represented the gods on Earth.
.He performed rituals and built temples to honor the gods

Many pharaohs went to war when their land was threatened or when they
wanted to control foreign lands. If the pharaoh won the battle, the conquered
people had to recognize the Egyptian pharaoh as their ruler and offer him the
.finest and most valuable goods from their land

The gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt

the ancient Egyptians believed in many different gods and goddesses. Each
one with their own role to play in maintaining peace and harmony across the

Some gods and goddesses took part in creation, some brought the flood
every year, some offered protection, and some took care of people after they
died. Others were either local gods who represented towns, or minor gods
.who represented plants or animals

The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to recognize and worship
.these gods and goddesses so that life continued smoothly

Craftsmen in ancient Egypt were usually trained and skilled laborers. They
were often well-respected in the community and had a comfortable lifestyle.
Yet every craftsman's lifestyle and social standing depended on the quality of
his skills and experience. Thus, some craftsmen had more difficult lives than

Most craftsmen worked in workshops with other craftsmen. Objects for

temples or the pharaohwere made in temple workshops or palace workshops.
Objects for ordinary people were made by local craftsmen in small workshops.

The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to record and
communicate information about religion and government. Thus, they invented
.written scripts that could be used to record this information

The most famous of all ancient Egyptian scripts is hieroglyphic. However,

throughout three thousand years of ancient Egyptian civilization, at least three
other scripts were used for different purposes. Using these scripts, scribes
were able to preserve the beliefs, history and ideas of ancient Egypt in temple
.and tomb walls and on papyrus scrolls

The ancient Egyptians believed that temples were the homes of the gods and
goddesses. Every temple was dedicated to a god or goddess and he or she
.was worshipped there by the temple priests and the pharaoh

The large temple buildings were made of stone so that they would last
forever. Their walls were covered with scenes that were carved onto the stone
then brightly painted. These scenes showed the pharaoh fighting in battles
.and performing rituals with the gods and goddesses

The ancient Egyptians thought of Egypt as being divided into two types of
.'land, the 'black land' and the 'red land
The 'black land' was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile. The ancient
Egyptians used this land for growing their crops. This was the only land in
Ancient Egypt that could be farmed because a layer of rich, black silt was
.deposited there every year after the Nile flooded
The 'red land' was the barren desert that protected Egypt on two sides. These
deserts separated ancient Egypt from neighboring countries and invading
armies. They also provided the ancient Egyptians with a source for precious
.metals and semi-precious stones

Ancient Life

The fertile Nile River Valley and the warm climate provided the perfect
conditions for the ancient Egyptians to become expert farmers. The land
around the Nile was irrigated and forced into canals where the farmers would
.use shadufs to scoop up the water
Fields were plowed once or twice with oxen pulling the plows. Using hoes
men would then break up the remaining clumps of soil. When the seed was
thrown over the field, animals were again used to tramp the seeds into the
soil. Various crops grown might include emmer, barley, flax, lentils, onion,
beans, and millet.

Mud Bricks & Pottery

The banks of the Nile contained a rich clay-like mud which was formed into
bricks for building or used to make pottery for daily use. The mud, mixed with
plant material, was put into rectangular forms and left to bake in the sun.
Pottery, on the other hand, was generally formed into various shapes by hand
.((pinch pots, coil pots, and slab pots

Class Distinction
Ancient Egyptian society was basically divided into four classes. The upper
class included the government officials, nobles, and priests. The middle class
included the scribes, skilled craftsmen, trades people, teachers, artists, and
soldiers. The peasants, mostly farmers, laborers, and servants made up the
lower class, which was the largest class. And lastly, the slaves made up the
bottom class. Egypt really had few slaves. They were mostly foreign captives
.from Nubba to the south (Sudan) or Asia to the northeast

.…'To be cont