You are on page 1of 154

ROMNIA

MINISTERUL EDUCAIEI, CERCETRII,


TINERETULUI I SPORTULUI
UNIVERSITATEA VASILE ALECSANDRI
DIN BACU
FACULTATEA DE LITERE
Str. Spiru Haret, nr. 8, Bacu, 600114
Tel./ fax ++40-234-588884
.u!.r"# e-$ail% litere &u!.r"
RALUCA GALIA
ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY
- Lec!"e #$e% -
B&c'!
()**
0
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION 2
PART I
THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF SPEECH
3
I. THE NOUN 3
II. THE ADJECTIVE
28
III. THE VERB 40
IV. THE ADVERB 76
PART II
THE SECONDARY PARTS OF SPEECH
86
V. THE PRONOUN 86
VI. THE PREPOSITION
94
VII. THE CONJUNCTION
98
VIII. THE NUMERAL
100
1
APPENDI 104
BIBLIO!RAPHY
123
INTRODUCTION
The aim of this course is to help Romanian students understand the
rules of English morphology. The study of English words from the point of
view of their forms and the rules concerning the modifcation of their forms
naturally follows the study of English phonetics (concerned with the
manner in which the sounds of a language are made and with their
acoustic properties) and phonology (preoccupied with the manner in which
these sounds are used to convey meaning), as well as the study of English
lexicology (whose feld of interest is the vocabulary of a given language,
dealing with sources of vocabulary, wordformation, words and their
meaning(s), changes of meaning).
The course is conceived as a normative wor! on descriptive bases" it
provides rules for what is considered to be a correct grammatical use of
words, describing and classifying grammatical facts (#evi$chi, %&'(" &%().
)t is based on both traditional and modern approaches on English
morphology, having as a starting point the wor!s written by well!nown
foreign and Romanian grammarians.
*tarting from the idea that morphology organi+es the words into
principal and secondary parts of speech, the course consists of two main
parts. ,art ) is dedicated to the principal parts of speech (or open classes
(-urafs!y . /artin, 0((1" %02))" the noun, the ad3ective, the verb, the
adverb. ,art )) is dedicated to the secondary parts of speech (or closed
classes (-urafs!y . /artin, 0((1" %04))" the pronoun, the preposition, the
con3unction and the numeral.
5ithout being exhaustive, this course provides 3ust enough
information concerning the set of rules that describe the structure of
words in English, shaping a framewor! of the English language that can
help students learn and better understand it.
2
PART I
THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF SPEECH
I. THE NOUN
I.1. D"#$%&%'$
I.2. T(" $')$ *(+,-" ,$. %&- -&+)/&)+"
I.3. C+%&"+%, 0'+ %."$&%01%$2 $')$-
I.3.1. P'-%&%'$ %$ &(" -"$&"$/"
I.3.2. N')$ "$.%$2
I.3.3. F)$/&%'$ %$ &(" -"$&"$/"
I.4. N')$ /3,--"-
I.4. T(" 2+,55,&%/,3 /,&"2'+%"- '0 &(" $')$
I.4.1. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 $)56"+
I.4.1.1. T1*%/,3 *3)+,3- ,$. &("%+ *+'$)$/%,&%'$
I.4.1.2. I++"2)3,+ -*"33%$2 ,$.7'+ *+'$)$/%,&%'$
0'+ &(" &1*%/,3 *3)+,3
I.4.1.3. I++"2)3,+ *3)+,3-
I.4.1.4. N')$- 8%&( 9"+' *3)+,3
I.4.1.4. N')$- )-". '$31 %$ &(" -%$2)3,+
I.4.1.6. N')$- )-". '$31 %$ &(" *3)+,3
I.4.1.7. T(" *3)+,3 '0 /'33"/&%:" $')$-
I.4.1.8. T(" *3)+,3 '0 -)6-&,$&%:%-". ,.;"/&%:"-
I.4.1.9. T(" *3)+,3 '0 0'+"%2$ $')$-
I.4.1.10. T(" *3)+,3 '0 /'5*')$. $')$-
I.4.1.11. N')$- 8%&( &8' *3)+,3 0'+5-
I.4.1.12. N')$- 8%&( , *3)+,3 &(,& (,- .%<"+"$&
5",$%$2-
I.4.1.13. T(" *3)+,3 '0 ,66+":%,&%'$- ,$. '0
'&("+ -)6-&,$&%:%9". *,+&- '0 -*""/(
I.4.1.14. T(" *3)+,3 '0 *+'*"+ $')$-
3
I.4.1.14. C'$/'+. 6"&8""$ $')$ ,$. :"+6
I.4.2. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 2"$."+
I.4.2.1. T(" 3"=%/,3 "=*+"--%'$ '0 2"$."+
I.4.2.1.1. M,-/)3%$" 7 0"5%$%$" $')$-
I.4.2.1.2. N")&"+ $')$-
I.4.2.1.3. C'55'$ 2"$."+ $')$-
I.4.2.2. T(" 2+,55,&%/,3 "=*+"--%'$ '0 2"$."+
I.4.3. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 /,-"
I.4.3.1. T(" N'5%$,&%:" /,-"
I.4.3.2. T(" !"$%&%:" /,-"
I.4.3.3. T(" D,&%:" /,-"
I.4.3.4. T(" A//)-,&%:" /,-"
I.4.4. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 ."&"+5%$,&%'$
I.4.4.1. T(" D"&"+5%$"+-
I.4.4.1.1. T(" /"$&+,3 ."&"+5%$"+-
I.4.4.1.2. T(" *+">."&"+5%$"+-
I.4.4.1.3. T(" *'-&>."&"+5%$"+-
I.4.4.2. T(" P+">5'.%#"+-
I.4.4.3. T(" P'-&>5'.%#"+-
I.1. D"#$%&%'$
The noun is the principal part of speech which refers to names given
to people, things, places, actions or 6ualities in order to identify them
(7lexander, %&11" 84)"
- the name of a person" Peter9 teacher
- the name of a thing" car; table
- the name of a place" Bucharest; town
- the name of an action" laughter9 laughing
- the name of a 6uality" beauty; gentleness
:rom a semantic point of view, the noun phrase refers to concrete
things such as persons, ob3ects, places or institutions, but also to abstract
things such as names of actions, 6ualities, emotions, phenomena
(;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 4(%).
:rom a syntactic point of view, the noun phrase refers to that
element in the sentence which functions as sub3ect, ob3ect or complement
(=uir! et al., %&&%" %0&).
I.2. T(" $')$ *(+,-" ,$. %&- -&+)/&)+"
>ouns rarely appear alone in sentences. They are accompanied by
articles, ad3ectives, adverbs, etc., together forming noun phrases.
7 noun phrase may consist of one up to four primary elements
(;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 4(8)"
%. the central element is called the head. )t is normally a noun (boy), but it
can also be a pronoun (he) or an ad3ective (which is 6uite limited in use"
the poor, the rich, the unemployed). The head is the only element of a
noun phrase which may appear alone in the sentence9
4
0. the determiner (articles, demonstratives, possessives, distributives,
6uantifers, ordinal and cardinal numerals)9
8. the premodifer, which can be mainly an ad3ective (minor difculties),
but also a noun (music lover), an ing participle (striking resemblance) or
an ?en participle (fallen leaves) following the determiner and preceding
the head9
4. the postmodifer, which can be a noun (car that colour), an adverb
(the man inside), a fnite clause (the book I read) or nonfnite clauses (a
child playing outside) following the head.
5ith all four elements the noun phrase loo!s li!e this"
D"&"+5%$"+ P+">5'.%#"+ H",. P'-&>5'.%#"+
O$" 6",)&%0)3 ":"$%$2 %$ M,1
)f the pre and postmodifers can usually be omitted, the head and
the determiner (when its presence is re6uired) form the typical noun
phrase.
I.3. C+%&"+%, 0'+ %."$&%01%$2 $')$-
There are certain criteria according to which we can distinguish
nouns from other morphological classes, and they are" the position the
noun may have in the sentence, the noun endings and the function the
noun has in the sentence.
I.3.1. P'-%&%'$ %$ &(" -"$&"$/"
>ouns can often be recogni+ed by their position in the sentence, as
they may"
- follow a determiner
Ex" a boo!
the boo!
that boo!
his boo!
- follow one or more ad3ectives
Ex" an interesting boo!
an old and difcult boo!
I.3.2. N')$ "$.%$2
There are certain endings which may lead to the forming of nouns
when added to verbs or ad3ectives.
- endings added to verbs" -ion, -ance, -ence, -ement, -al, -y.
Ex" to abolish ? abolition
to accept ? acceptance
to interfere ? interference
to postpone ? postponement
to arrive ? arrival
to in3ure ? in3ury
endings added to ad3ectives" -ity, -ness, -th (with a sound change),
-dom, -ence
5
Ex" national ? nationality
happy ? happiness
strong ? strength
free ? freedom
absent ? absence
This criterion cannot always be applied for recogni+ing nouns, as
there are nouns which may have the same form with verbs or ad3ectives.
Ex" answer ? to answer
dance ? to dance
cold (n) ? cold (ad3.)
light (n) ? light (ad3.)
*ometimes there is a di@erence between the noun and the verb,
noticeable in stress, pronunciation or spelling (7lexander, %&11" 82).
a) *tress di@erence ? the noun has the stress on the frst syllable,
while the verb has the stress on the second syllable"
Ex" Aprogress to proBgress
Aconduct ? to conBduct
Apermit ? to perBmit
b) ,ronunciation di@erence ? the ending of the noun is pronounced
with a voiceless sound, while ending of the verb is pronounced
with a voiced sound"
Ex" house CsC to house C+C
use CsC to use C+C
c) *pelling di@erence ? it accompanies the pronunciation di@erence"
Ex" advice CsC to advise C+C
belief CfC to believe CvC
cloth CDC to clothe CEC

I.3.3. F)$/&%'$ %$ &(" -"$&"$/"
>ouns can function as (7lexander, %&11" 849 ,aidos, %&&<" %%)"
- the sub3ect of a verb" The bus has arrived.
- the direct ob3ect of a verb" Fe received a parcel.
- the indirect ob3ect of a verb" Fe sent his girlfriend some Gowers.
- the complement of the verb to be or a related verb li!e to seem" *he
is a doctor.
- an apposition" /y brother, the reporter, always tells me the latest
news.
- direct address" Mary, sit downH
I.4. N')$ /3,--"-
There are two big classes of nouns" proper nouns and common
nouns. The latter class is divided into two subclasses (ta!ing into
consideration the category of number)" countable nouns and uncountable
nouns. These two, in their turn, are both subdivided into concrete nouns
and abstract nouns.
The noun classes are thus the following (=uir! et al., %&&%" %0&)"
- *+'*"+ $')$-? aura; !nglish
6
They are spelt with a capital letter and they refer to persons, places,
things which are regarded as uni6ue. ,roper nouns may include"
names of persons" "ane; "ones
names of nationalities and languages" #rench; $omanian
titles for persons" Miss "ane; %octor "ones
titles of boo!s, newspapers" &eart of %arkness; The Times
geographical names" Mount !verest; $omania; !urope
names of institutions" The 'hite &ouse; The (nited )ations
*rgani+ation
names of days of the wee!, months or festivals" Monday;
)ovember; ,hristmas
*ome proper nouns have changed in time, becoming common
nouns. They are not written with a capital letter anymore and they refer to
(IJdescu, %&14" %')"
- ob3ects named after the place of origin
Ex" china (porcelain) K Lhina
holland (linen fabric) K Folland
bayonet (weapon) K Iayonne (town in :rance)
champagne (!ind of wine) K Lhampagne (region in :rance)
- ob3ects named after their inventors, discoverers, manufacturers or
inspirers
Ex" mac!intosh (raincoat) K Lharles /ac!intosh, a *cottish inventor
sandwich (0 slices of bread) K Earl of *andwich
mausoleum (tomb) K /ausolos, an ancient !ing
savarin (ca!e) K Irillant de *avarin, a :rench coo!
- /'55'$ $')$-
They are opposed to proper nouns as they do not designate names
of persons, places or things considered as uni6ue. Mn the basis of
6uantitative structure, the main di@erence in this class of common nouns
is between countable and uncountable nouns.
/')$&,63" $')$-" they refer to nouns which can be
distinguished as NdiscreteO (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 4(2),
Nseparable entitiesO (=uir! et al., %&&%" %8(). They have a
plural form, they can be preceded by the indefnite article, by
many, -a. few and by numbers.
/'$/+"&"" they refer to nouns which have an individual
physical existence" boat; house
,6-&+,/&" they refer to aspects, concepts, ideas,
experiences which exist apart from concrete existence" hope;
situation
)$/')$&,63" @5,--A $')$-" they refer to nouns which are
seen as NindivisibleO (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 4(2),
Ncontinuous entitiesO (=uir! et al., %&&%" %8(). They do not
have a plural form, they cannot be preceded by the indefnite
article or numbers, they can be preceded by much and -a.
little.
'
/'$/+"&"" they refer to nouns sometimes having
physical, but not individual existence (these nouns usually
refer to substances)" cotton; milk
,6-&+,/&" they refer to aspects, concepts, ideas,
experiences which exist apart from concrete existence (these
nouns usually refer to human feelings or 6ualities, activities,
abstract ideas)" love; pride; sleep; advice
The uncountable nouns seem to be most problematic for the lerners
of English, as they may have a plural form but a singular meaning, a
singular form but a meaning of plurality, etc. That is why 7ngela ;owning
suggests a (nonexhaustive) typology of such nouns (;owning . #oc!e,
0((<" 4(')"
%. Pncountable singular nouns
a. nouns ending in /ics (plural in form but singular in meaning)
which refer to areas of study or activities" aerobics,
athletics, ethics, linguistics, mathematics, phonetics,
politics, statistics, etc0 !thics and statistics can sometimes
be used as countable nouns, but in this case their form is
singular" an ethic, a statistic.
b. nouns which refer to items Oconceptuali+ed as an
aggregateO (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 4(')" baggage,
cutlery, luggage, 1ewellery, furniture, etc.
c. names of certain diseases and games (plural in form but
singular in meaning)" measles, mumps, rickets, draughts,
darts, skittles.
d. nouns referring to food, drin!s, natural phenomena" bread,
butter, co2ee, wine, rain, snow, etc0
e. nouns referring to abstract notions" advice, information,
knowledge, luck, love, music, sleep, time, etc0
f. nouns referring to activities" homework, research, work,
etc.
g. miscellaneous nouns" electricity, machinery, money, news,
weather.
0. Pncountable plural nouns
a. nouns referring to articles of dress made of two parts"
pants, py1amas, trousers, etc.
b. nouns referring to tools and instruments consisting of two
parts" pliers, scissors, scales, etc.
c. nouns singular in form but plural in meaning" cattle, clergy,
police.
d. miscellaneous nouns" belongings, goods, manners,
surroundings, thanks, etc.
The similarities and di@erences between the countable and
uncountable nouns can be seen in the following chart"
%
1
http"CCwww.learnenglish.deCgrammarCnoununcount.htm, retrieved on :ebruary
0<
th
, 0(%%.
8
C')$&,63" $')$- U$/')$&,63" $')$-
,lural form" train-trains; bottle-
bottles
>o plural form" rice-3rices; music-
3musics
Lan be preceded by the indefnite
article" a train; a bottle
Lannot be preceded by the
indefnite article" 3a rice; 3a music
Fave only +ero determiner" rice;
music
Lan be preceded by many, -a. few4
many5-a. few tarins; many5-a. few
bottles
Lan be preceded by much, -a. little4
much5-a. little rice; much5-a. little
music
Lan be preceded by cardinal
numerals" two trains; three bottles
Lannot be preceded by cardinal
numerals" 3two rice-s.; 3three
music-s.
Lan be preceded by other
6uantifers which imply numerals"
both trains; a do+en bottles
Lannot be preceded by other
6uantifers which imply numerals"
3both rice; 3a do+en music
Lan be preceded by the determiners
each, every, either, neither4
each5every train; either5neither
bottle
Lannot be preceded by the
determiners each, every, either,
neither4 3each5every rice;
3either5neither music
Lan be preceded by some and any"
some trains; any train; some
bottles; any bottle
Lan be preceded by some and any"
some rice; any rice; some music;
any music
Lan be preceded by a lot of and no"
a lot of trains; no trains; a lot of
bottles; no bottles
Lan be preceded by a lot of and no"
a lot of rice; no rice; a lot of music;
no music
There are some nouns which, depending on the circumstances, can
function as either countable or uncountable nouns. ) tis the case of nouns
referring to food and drin!s and abstractions. )n the uncountable form the
meaning refers to generalisations, while in the countable form the
meaning is restricted
0
"
Ex" 5e all li!e wine. Fowever, ) prefer red wines to white.
6ir is vital for life, but the air in this town is polluted.
7ccording to the way they are formed, the common nouns can be
-%5*3"B ."+%:,&%:" or /'5*')$..
the simple nouns are formed of only one word" tooth, brush,
ground,etc.
the derivative nouns by one root morpheme and one or more
derivational morphemes (prefxes or suQxes or both)" misbehaviour,
betrayal, disagreement, etc.
the compound nouns are made up of two or more words, usually
two nouns (tooth-brush) or an ad3ective modifying a noun (blackboard).
Fowever, other parts of speech can combine as well to form compound
nouns. Thus, the following combinations are possible
8
"
noun R noun" toothpaste
2
http"CClinguapress.comCgrammarCcountnouns.htm, retrieved on -anuary 8(
th
, 0(%%.
(
ad3ective R noun" blackboard
verb R noun" swimming pool
preposition R noun" underground
noun R verb" haircut
noun R preposition" hanger on
ad3ective R verb" dry cleaning
preposition R verb" input
7 special category of nouns ? &(" *,+&%&%:"- ? is used when there
appears the need to refer to specifc pieces of uncountable nouns or to a
limited number of countable items. The partitives can have a singular or
plural form and are followed by of 7 noun.
Ex" a slice of bread
two slices of bread
a piece of paper
two pieces of paper
The partitives are of two types (7lexander, %&11" 40)"
- general partitives" piece and bit (less formal) are used with a large
number of uncountable nouns, both concrete and abstract" a
piece5bit of meatCchal!CinformationCadvice
- specifc partitives, which refer to
4
"
single items" a bar of chocolate9 a roll of paper9 a slice of
ca!e9 a loaf of bread, etc.9
single amounts" a block of ice9 a lump of sugar9 a pile of
earth9 a heap of rubbish, etc.9
small 6uantities" a drop of oil9 a grain of sand9 a pinch of salt,
etc.9
measures" a kilo of Gour9 a metre of cloth9 a pound of co@ee,
etc.9
containers" a 1ar of 3am9 a bottle of mil!9 a packet of
cigarettes, etc.9
types and species" a make of car9 a brand of soap9 a species
of fsh, etc.9
games" a game of footballCbilliardsCcards, etc.9
pairs" a pair of shoesCglassesC3eansCtongs, etc.9
abstract concepts" a grain of truth9 a period of calm9 a 8t of
anger9 a wink of sleep, etc..

7nother category ? &(" /'33"/&%:" $')$- ? is used when the
reference is to a group of people, animals, plants, things considered as a
whole
2
.
- people" an army (of soldiers)9 a board (of directors)9 a gang (of
thieves)9 a troupe (of dancers), etc.9
animals, birds, insects" a pride (of lions)9 a 9ock (of birds)9 a plague (of
insects), etc.9
plants and fruit" a bunch (of Gowers)9 a crop (of apples), etc.9
3
http"CCwww.learnenglish.deCgrammarCnouncompound.htm, retrieved on -anuary 8(
th
,
0(%%.
4
:or a longer list see 7ppendix ).a
5
:or a longer list see 7ppendix ).b
10
things" a collection (of pictures)9 a set (of china)9 a string (of pearls),
etc..
I.4. T(" 2+,55,&%/,3 /,&"2'+%"- '0 &(" $')$
I.4.1. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 $)56"+
Senerally spea!ing, number is considered to be a feature (a@ecting
not only nouns) which points out to the di@erence between NoneO
(singular) and Nmore than oneO (plural). *pea!ing strictly about nouns,
number may be associated with the grammatical categories of countable
and uncountable (mass) nouns. >ouns have contrasting singular and plural
forms (Fuddleston . ,ullum, 0((2" 12). The singular number is manifest in
proper nouns, countable nouns and uncountable nouns, while the plural
number appears especially with countable nouns and only in some special
cases with proper nouns. The category of number in English nouns gives
rise to several problems which claim special attention (the pronunciation
of typical plurals, irregular plurals, nouns with +ero plural etc.).
I.4.1.1. T1*%/,3 *3)+,3- ,$. &("%+ *+'$)$/%,&%'$
/ost nouns form their plural by adding ?s or ?es to the singular form.
The suQx ?es is added to the nouns ending (in the singular) in" s, :, +,
sh, ch. )t would be diQcult to pronounce such words if only /s were
added"
Ex" bus ? buses
fox ? foxes
bu++ ? bu++es
fsh ? fshes
match ? matches
The suQx ?s is pronounced CsC after voiceless consonants"
Ex" boo! ? boo!s CsC
top ? tops CsC
cup ? cups CsC
moth ? moths CsC
The suQx ?s is pronounced C+C after voiced consonants or after
vowels"
Ex" dog ? dogs C+C
head ? heads C+C
pub ? pubs C+C
eye ? eyes C+C
cinema ? cinemas C+C
The suQx ?es is pronounced Ci+C"
Ex" bush ? bushes Ci+C
dress ? dresses Ci+C
fox ? foxes Ci+C
I.4.1.2. I++"2)3,+ -*"33%$2 ,$.7'+ *+'$)$/%,&%'$ 0'+ &("
&1*%/,3 *3)+,3
a) >ouns ending in /y
11
nouns ending in /y preceded by a vowel add /s to the singular form"
Ex" day ? days
boy ? boys
!ey ? !eys
nouns ending in /y preceded by a consonant change the /y to /ie and
then add /s"
Ex" country ? countries
s!y ? s!ies
baby ? babies
b) >ouns ending in /f or /fe
generally, nouns ending in /f or /fe get /s in the plural"
Ex" cli@ ? cli@s
proof ? proofs
roof roofs
some nouns change /f or /fe into /ves when turned into the plural"
Ex" beef ? beeves
leaf ? leaves
calf ? calves
wife ? wives
wolf ? wolves
!nife ? !nives
thief ? thieves
life ? lives (Texception" stilllife / stilllifes)
some nouns ending in /f or /fe may have either /s or /ves in the
plural"
Ex" scarf ? scarfs, scarves
dwarf ? dwarfs, dwarves
hand!erchief ? hand!erchiefs, hand!erchieves
c) >ouns ending in /o
some nouns ending in /o get /s when turned into the plural. They are"
nouns whose fnal /o is preceded by a vowel"
Ex" radio ? radios
scenario ? scenarios
bamboo ? bamboos
cuc!oo ? cuc!oos
nouns of foreign origin (particularly *panish and )talian)"
Ex" canto ? cantos
rondo ? rondos
soprano ? sopranos
tango tangos
abbreviations"
Ex" !ilo ? !ilos
photo ? photos
proper nouns"
Ex" Es!imo ? Es!imos
Romeo ? Romeos
nouns ending in /o preceded by a consonant add the suQx /es to the
plural"
12
Ex" cargo ? cargoes
echo ? echoes
tomato ? tomatoes
veto ? vetoes
hero ? heroes
some nouns ending in /o may have both /s and /es for the plural"
Ex" Gamingo ? Gamingos, Gamingoes
domino ? dominos, dominoes
bu@alo ? bu@alos, bu@aloes
archipelago ? archipelagos, archipelagoes
d) >ouns ending in /th
>ouns ending in /th get /s in the plural.
the ending /ths is pronounced 5;s5 when preceded by a short
vowel or a consonant"
Ex" birth ? births CDsC
moth ? moths CDsC
month ? months CDsC
faith ? faiths CDsC
cloth ? cloths CDsC
the ending /ths is pronounced 5<+54
Ex" mouth ? mouths CE+C
youth ? youths CE+C
bath ? baths CE+C
some nouns may have both pronunciations"
Ex" earth ? earths
oath ? oaths
I.4.1.3. I++"2)3,+ *3)+,3-
*ome nouns do not form the plural by adding /s or /es, but they
have a form of their own, based on vowel alternations"
Ex" child ? children
foot ? feet
goose ? geese
louse ? lice
mouse ? mice
man ? men
woman ? women
tooth ? teeth
Two nouns have maintained their form from the old plural in /n,
which, during the Renaissance, gave way to the /s plural form.
Ex" ox ? oxen
brother ? brethren
I.4.1.4. N')$- 8%&( 9"+' *3)+,3
There are some nouns which retain the singular form in the plural.
They are"
nouns referring to hunting and fshing" game; grouse; sheep; snipe; carp;
cod; salmon

13
Tsuch nouns can be used in the plural when the idea of NvarietiesO is
implied"
Ex" trout ? trouts
herring ? herrings
deer ? deers
some nationality names" ,hinese; Portuguese; "apanese
nouns expressing number or measurement" four hundred people; two
million dollars; three do+en bo:es
Tsuch nouns can be used in the plural when they express an
indefnite number"
Ex" hundreds of people
millions of dollars
do+ens of boo!s
nouns that are part of compound ad3ectives denoting measure, 6uantity,
when they precede another noun" a two-hour e:am; a four-day trip; a 8ve-
mile walk
the nouns craft and aircraft"
Ex" Fe has Gied many aircraft.
trees belonging to a certain species" 8r; pine
I.4.1.4. N')$- )-". '$31 %$ &(" -%$2)3,+
There are some nouns which are always used only in the singular,
and they are called *ingularia Tantum (which is the #atin for Nsingular
onlyO) nouns" advice, knowledge, information, furniture, business, butter,
bread, money, luggage, weather, sand, luck0
I.4.1.6. N')$- )-". '$31 %$ &(" *3)+,3
There are some nouns which are always used only in the plural. They
are called ,luralia Tantum (which is the #atin for Nplural onlyO) nouns, as
they suggest the idea of plurality and they refer to"
articles of dress made of two parts" 1eans; trousers; pants; shorts
tools and instruments consisting of two parts" binoculars; glasses; scales;
scissors
parts of the body" genitals; entrails; vitals; remains; corps
constructions and institutions" head=uarters; customs; lodgings; archives
places (with reference to an indefnite plurality)" outs!irts9 surroundings9
sands
possessions" belongings; goods; assets
names of diseases" measles; mumps; rheumatics
names of some games" billiards; cards; dominoes; skittles
names of sciences or sub3ects" economics; electronics; linguistics;
phonetics
geographical names" the ,arpathians; the 6lps; the )etherlands
some ad3ectives turned into nouns" news; odds; valuables
some nouns ending in /ing 7 s" doings; takings; earnings; savings;
winnings
others" alms; 8reworks; congratulations; auspices
I.4.1.7. T(" *3)+,3 '0 /'33"/&%:" $')$-
14
The collective nouns are singular in form but plural in meaning. The
idea of plurality is due to the fact that they denote an indefnite number of
things, human beings or animals.
*ome collective nouns cannot be used in the plural" police; cattle;
clergy; mankind; gentry0
Mther collective nouns can be plurali+ed, indicating two or several
similar bodies"
Ex" party ? parties
pac! pac!s
class ? classes
people ? peoplesT
T in the plural, people loses its singular meaning of NpersonsO,
indicating Nall the persons forming a stateO.
I.4.1.8. T(" *3)+,3 '0 -)6-&,$&%:%-". ,.;"/&%:"-
*uch nouns have in common with collective nouns the fact that they
denote an indefnite number of persons. *ome nouns in this category have
only singular form" the rich; the poor; the blind; the deaf0
Mther nouns in this category have also something in common with
,luralia Tantum nouns" they have a plural form. They can be notionally
subclassed into nouns denoting"
a. races" the whites; the blacks
b. creed" the heathens; the heretics
c. age" the ancients; the grown-ups
d. comparatives" the elders; the youngers
I.4.1.9. T(" *3)+,3 '0 0'+"%2$ $')$-
*ome nouns of foreign origin (#atin, Sree!, :rench, )talian, Febrew)
have irregular plural forms, as they have preserved their foreign plural9
some nouns of foreign origin have both English and foreign plurals, while
others have only a normal English plural.
a) >ouns of #atin origin"
- if the singular form ends in /us, the plural is in -i5-ora5-era (or the regular
English plural)
Ex" geniuses ? genii (geniuses)
cactus ? cacti (cactuses)
fungus ? fungi (funguses)
bacillus ? bacilli
stimulus ? stimuli
tempus ? tempora
genus ? genera
- if the singular form ends in /a, the plural is in -ae (or the regular English
plural)
Ex4 antenna ? antennae (antennas)
larva ? larvae
vertebra ? vertebrae (vertebras)
- if the singular form ends in /um, the plural is in -a (or the regular English
plural)
15
Ex" a6uarium ? a6uaria (a6uariums)
curriculum ? curricula (curriculums)
memorandum ? memoranda (memorandums)
addendum ? addenda
bacterium ? bacteria
- if the singular form ends in -e:5-i:, the plural is in -ices (or the regular
English plural)
Ex" index ? indices (indexes)
appendix ? appendices (appendixes)
matrix ? matrices (matrixes)
!) >ouns of Sree! origin"
- if the singular form ends in -is5-is, the plural is in -es
Ex" analysis ? analyses
axis ? axes
basis ? bases
oasis ? oases
if the singular form ends in /on, the plural is in -a (or the regular English
plural)
Ex" automaton ? automata (automatons)
criterion ? criteria
phenomenon ? phenomena
c) >ouns of :rench origin"
- if the singular form ends in /eau, the plural is in -eau: 5 -ieu - -ieu: (or
the regular English plural)
Ex" plateau ? plateaux (plateaus)
tableau ? tableaux (tableaus)
adieu ? adieux
- some nouns ending in /s have +ero plural
Ex" chamois
corps
chassis
*) >ouns of )talian origin"
- if the singular form ends in /o, the plural is in -i (or the regular English
plural)
Ex" libretto ? libretti (librettos)
tempo ? tempi (tempos)
e) >ouns of Febrew origin"
Ex" seraph ? seraphim
cherub ? cherubim
!ibbut+ !ibbut+im
I.4.1.10. T(" *3)+,3 '0 /'5*')$. $')$-
)t follows broadly the following patterns"
a) oneword compounds add /s (or /es) for the plural to the last
element"
16
Ex" bedroom ? bedrooms
armchair ? armchairs
pic!poc!et ? pic!poc!ets

Tthe same rule applies for compounds made of elements which are
not nouns"
Ex" brea!down ? brea!downs
drawbac! ? drawbac!s
forgetmenot ? forgetmenots
goodfornothing ? goodfornothings
merrygoround ? merrygorounds
b) compounds whose frst element is a noun followed by a prepositional
phrase, ad3ective or adverb add /s (or /es) for the plural to the noun"
Ex" brotherinlaw ? brothersinlaw
commanderinchief ? commandersinchief
manofwar ? menofwar
c) compounds made up of a noun and an ad3ective add /s (or /es) for
the plural to the noun or to the ad3ective"
Ex" sergeantma3or ? sergeantsma3or ? sergeantma3ors
!nighterrant ? !nightserrant ? !nighterrants
poetlaureate ? poetslaureate ? poetlaureates
d) compounds whose frst element is one of the words man, woman,
lord, gentleman, yeoman add /s (or /es) for the plural to both
elements"
Ex" manservant ? menservants
womanteacher ? womenteachers
#ord -ustice ? #ords -ustices
gentleman farmer ? gentlemen farmers
yeomanfarmer ? yeomenfarmers
I.4.1.11. N')$- 8%&( &8' *3)+,3 0'+5-
There are some nouns that have two plural forms (one regular and
one irregular), with di@erent meanings"
S%$2)3,+ P3)+,3 M",$%$2
;ie
%
;ie
0
dies
dice
metal stamps for
ma!ing money
small cubes of bone or
wood used in some
games
:ormula
%
:ormula
0
formulas
formulae
forms of words
mathematical term
Senius
%
Senius
0
geniuses
genii
persons of great mental
powers
good or evil spirits
1'
)ndex
%
)ndex
0
indexes
indices
tables of contents
algebrical signs
/edium
%
/edium
0
mediums
media
people who can
communicate with
spirits
means, agencies
*ta@
%
*ta@
0
sta@s
staves
a body of persons
the fve hori+ontal lines
used in music
Lloth
%
Lloth
0
cloths
clothes
di@erent !inds of cloth
articles of dress
I.4.1.12. N')$- 8%&( , *3)+,3 &(,& (,- .%<"+"$&
5",$%$2-
There are some nouns that have 3ust one plural form with di@erent
meanings"
S%$2)3,+ P3)+,3 M",$%$2
Lompass

compasses
compasses
)nstrument(s) for
navigation
instrument for drawing
circles
Lolour

colours
colours
hue(s)
Gag
Lustom

customs
customs
habit(s)
import duties
;raught

draughts
draughts
current(s) of air
a game
;rawer

drawers
drawers
a piece of furniture
a garment for the lower
part of the body
E@ect

e@ects
e@ects
result(s)
goods, personal
property
Sround

grounds
grounds
*g." the solid surface of
the Earth
,l." enclosed land
attached to a house
co@ee dregs
18
/anner

manners
manners
way(s)
behaviour
/inute

minutes
minutes
space(s) of time
record of proceedings
at a meeting
,ain

pains
pains
su@ering(s)
trouble, e@ort
*pectacle

spectacles
spectacles
public show(s)
eyeglasses
*pirit

spirits
spirits
spirits
soul(s)
alcoholic drin!s
state of mind
I.4.1.13. T(" *3)+,3 '0 ,66+":%,&%'$- ,$. '0 '&("+
-)6-&,$&%:%9". *,+&- '0 -*""/(
letters, fgures and the parts of speech other than nouns, when
used as nouns, ma!e the plural by adding the suQx /s" i>s; ?@@A>s; BCPs;
pros and cons; ups and downs0
single letter abbreviations li!e c (chapter), p (page) ma!e the plural by
doubling the consonant" cc; pp.
I.4.1.14. T(" *3)+,3 '0 *+'*"+ $')$-
,roper nouns can be used in the plural in the following
circumstances"
a) when the individual proper nouns denote a family or dynasty" the
Dmiths; the Tudors
b) when they refer to some countries or regions" the )etherlands; the
Middlands
c) when they refer to some nations" $omanians; 6mericans
T in proper nouns ending in ?y vowel shifting does not appear after
consonants" the Murphys; the Eermanys0

I.4.1.14. C'$/'+. 6"&8""$ $')$ ,$. :"+6
7s a general rule, a singular noun ta!es a singular verb and a plural
noun ta!es a plural verb.
Lollective nouns may be followed by a singular verb (when the noun
is regarded as a whole) or a plural verb (when the noun is thought of as a
group of individuals)"
Ex" /y family is called -ohnson.
/y family are on holiday.
Tthere are some collective nouns that are always followed by a
plural verb" cattle, clergy, people, police
1(
*ingularia Tantum nouns are followed by a singular verb"
Ex" 5here is the moneyU
Fer advice is always good to follow.
,luralia Tantum nouns may be followed"
by a plural verb, and these nouns are"
nouns referring to things made of two parts (glasses, trousers,
pants, etc.)
- ashes, chemicals, contents, surroundings, etc.
by a singular verb, and these nouns are"
names of diseases (measles, mumps, etc)
nouns referring to games (billiards, checkers, etc.)
- news, works, etc.
by a singular or by a plural verb" names of sciences, sub3ects (the
singular verb refers to the science or sub3ect as such, the plural verb refers
to the features suggested by the name of that science or sub3ect)
I.4.2. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 2"$."+
Sender distinctions in English are not very numerous and when they
are made, there is a strong connection between the biological category
NsexO and the grammatical category NgenderO (Nnatural sex distinctions
determine English gender distinctionsO (=uir! et al., %&&%" %1')). Sender
refers to nouns and mainly to personal pronouns, but it can also inGuence
other parts of speech as well (for example, the ad3ective pregnant is
considered to be feminine as it can be used only with feminine nouns). The
category of gender in English is formed by two oppositions. Mne opposition
functions in the whole set of nouns, dividing them into nouns referring to
persons and nouns referring to things C ideas. The other opposition
functions only in the subgroup of nouns referring to persons, dividing them
into masculine, feminine or common nouns.
7s a result of this double oppositional correlation, a specifc system
of four genders arises for the English nouns"
a) masculine ? for beings of masculine sex9
b) feminine ? for beings of feminine sex9
c) neuter ? for things and ideas9
d) common (dual) ? for beings which can be either masculine or
feminine.
Sender in English is expressed by le:ical or grammatical means.
I.4.2.1. T(" 3"=%/,3 "=*+"--%'$ '0 2"$."+
I.4.2.1.1. M,-/)3%$" 7 0"5%$%$" $')$-
The distinction between masculine and feminine nouns can be made
in di@erent ways"
a) using di@erent words (these nouns have Nno overt mar!ing that
suggests morphological correspondence between masculine and feminineO
(=uir! et al., %&&%" %11))"
Ex" boy ? girl
mother ? father
20
dog ? bitch
coc! ? hen
brother ? sister
b) adding suQxes to the masculine form (-ess, -ine, -i:, -a, -e5-enne, -ette5-
use)"
Ex" actor ? actress
hero ? heroine
administrator ? administrati:
c+ar ? c+arina
confdant ? confdante
comedian ? comedienne
usher ? usherette
chau@eur ? chau@euse
c) adding suQxes to the feminine form (-er, -groom)"
Ex" widow ? widower
bride ? bridegroom
:or b) and c) cases Nthe two gender forms have a derivational
relationshipO (=uir! et al., %&&%" %1').

d) using compounds in which the frst element specifes gender"
nouns referring to persons"
Ex" boyfriend ? girlfriend
fatherinlaw ? motherinlaw
princeconsort ? =ueenconsort
nouns referring to animals"
Ex" buckrabbit ? doerabbit
hebird ? shebird
cockpheasant ? henpheasant
e) using compounds in which the second element specifes gender"
Ex" grandfather ? grandmother
mil!man ? mil!maid
grandson ? granddaughter
There are a few nouns which denote only one sex. :or example,
dowdy (unattractive woman), hussy (woman of bad behaviour), shrew,
virago (an amusing woman) have no corresponding words for males. )n the
same manner, nouns such as dude or dandy are applied only to men.
Sendered nouns (terms that generally exclude one sex, particularly
females) should be avoided because of the sexist implications they carry
and of the patroni+ing attitude that they impose. The most commonly used
gendered nouns are man and the compounds with man.
<
*uch words
should be replaced by genderneutral nouns"
Ex" Tman achievement human achievement
Tcongressman member of congress
6
+ttp%//.unc.e*u/*ept,/ce!/+an*"ut,/-en*er.+t$l, retrie.e* "n /anuar0 25
t+
, 2011.
21
Tsalesman salesperson
Tinsurance man insurance agent
Tstatesman leader
Tcameraman camera operator
Tfreshman ? frstyear student
Tmailman ? mail carrier C postal wor!er
Tsteward, stewardess ? Gight attendant
I.4.2.1.2. N")&"+ $')$-
>euter gender refers to things or ideas" book, school, table, tree,
car, map, thought etc.
*ometimes, for stylistic purposes, some neuter nouns may become
either masculine or feminine.
a) neuter nouns changed into masculine"
nouns denoting passions or violent actions" love, despair, crime,
murder, anger, etc.
nouns denoting power, dignity" death, river, storm, ocean,
mountain, sun, etc.
b) neuter nouns changed into feminine"
nouns denoting beauty, gentleness" hope, 1ustice, modesty,
virtue, etc.
nouns denoting negative traits of character" vanity, revenge,
envy, etc.
nouns denoting elements from nature" earth, darkness, evening,
moon, etc.
nouns referring to arts and sciences" drama, poetry, painting,
etc.
nouns referring to countries, cities" country, city, !ngland,
Bucharest, etc.
nouns referring to planes, ships, boats" plane, ship, boat,
submarine, etc.
names of universities" *:ford (niversity, ,ambridge (niversity,
etc.
I.4.2.1.3. C'55'$ 2"$."+ $')$-
Lommon (dual) gender refers to either sex and thus the same word
may be used both for male and female" child, adult, enemy, friend, parent,
passenger, neighbour, guest, etc. They can be classifed into nouns
denoting"
- relations" cousin; child; parent
- friends and enemies" friend; partner; enemy; foe
- inhabitants" neighbour; foreigner
- professions" artist; musician; teacher; worker
- leaders" captain; employer; prime-minister
- followers and supporters" democrat; *rthodo:; fan
- race or nationality" 6frican; $omanian
I.4.2.2. T(" 2+,55,&%/,3 "=*+"--%'$ '0 2"$."+
22
The grammatical expression of gender consists in"
a) the replacement of nouns in common gender with the corresponding
personal pronoun ()))rd person singular, masculine or feminine)"
Ex" The doctor came and he 5 she gave me some medicine.
b) the agreement of nouns in common gender with the corresponding
possessive ad3ectives or the replacement of such nouns with the
corresponding possessive pronouns ()))
rd
person singular, masculine
or feminine)"
Ex" 5as your child wearing his red tieU
The wor!er too! home the papers that were his.
c) the agreement of nouns in common gender with the corresponding
reGexive pronouns"
Ex" The dancer was very proud of herself.
d) the use of it, its and itself when the nouns refer to persons who
could not yet develop a personality (such as baby, infant, child).
Ex" 5hen the baby saw its mother, it tried to raise its head.
e) the use of he5his, she5her5hers for animals. TodayBs usage is to treat
animals as neuter when neither sex nor personality is important.
Fowever, domestic animals, when named or when a@ective reasons
are implied, are treated as masculine or feminine.
Ex" /y dog 5inston gave a loud growl, feeling he had the family on
his side.
Fowever, for the frst three cases, the use of genderspecifc
pronouns is debatable, due to the (recent) tendency of avoiding sexist
language. Senderspecifc pronouns can be used in contexts where the
referent is explicitly !nown as either male or female or when one might
presume that most members of some group are the same gender
'
. :or
genderambiguous situations two options should be considered"
1
a) the use of the personal plural pronoun they ? it traditionally replaces
plural nouns. Fowever, they can also refer to a singular referent, but
this usage (considered incorrect by many grammarians) is restricted
to speech and it appears mainly in 7merican English.
Ex" 5hen a student cheats in the exam, they should be punished.
This substitution of the plural for the singular may escape
observation in speech, but it may stri!e as aw!ward or incorrect in writing.
That is why a solution may be the use of plural nouns as well (where the
context allows it).
Ex" 5hen students cheat in the exam, they should be punished.
b) the use of both genderspecifc pronouns ? there are two variants"
Fshe or heG (Fhe or sheG) and Fshe5heG -Fhe5sheG.. )n the latter case
an abbreviated form can be used ? NsCheO ? but this usage is
restricted to writing, as it would be rather ambiguous in
pronunciation.
'
http"CCwww.worldlingo.comCmaCenwi!iCenCSenderspecifcVpronounWEnglishVgender
specifcVpronouns, retrieved on :ebruary %%
th
, 0(%%.
8
http"CCwww.unc.eduCdeptsCwcwebChandoutsCgender.html, retrieved on :ebruary %%
th
,
0(%%.
23
Ex" )n this shop everyone can fnd what she or he55she5he55s5he
wants.
I.4.3. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 /,-"
There were some contradictory opinions concerning the case of the
nouns in English"
a) English nouns have 0 cases"
common case
genitive case
This is the viewpoint of Randoplh =uir!Bs school (=uir! et al., %&&%"
%&0), being based on the fact that in the surface structure English nouns
have only two morphological forms" an unmar!ed form (girl) and a mar!ed
genitive form (girl>s).
b) English nouns have more than 0 cases"
the >ominative
the Senitive
the ;ative
the 7ccusative
T the ma3ority of grammarians consider the Xocative as a form of
>ominative and it is called >ominative of 7ddress.

5e adhere to the second viewpoint, as we can fnd traces of their
existence also in pronouns"
Ex" *usan ? she (>)
*usanBs ? hers (S)
to *usan ? to her (;)
*usan ? her (7cc)
I.4.3.1. T(" N'5%$,&%:" /,-"
)t answers the 6uestions whoH and whatH and it is the case of"
a) the sub3ect of the sentence" The car is par!ed outside.
b) the sub3ect of a nonfnite verb" &arry being home, ) thought of paying
him a visit.
c) sub3ect complement for the verbs" to be, to appear, to look, to seem" )
am a teacher.
d) the apposition of a noun" /ary, a friend of mine, called me yesterday.
Tthere is a special form of >ominative, called the >ominative of 7ddress
(or the Xocative >ominative), which designates the person or thing
addressed. )t does not have a syntactic function"
Ex" Tom, come insideH
)s that you, MaryU
You seemed so beautiful, house of my childhoodH
I.4.3.2. T(" !"$%&%:" /,-"
)t answers the 6uestions whoseH, whichH, whatH The Senitive
expresses mainly possession, but also origin, characteristic, measure,
composition, a whole from which a part is ta!en (IJdescu, %&14" <4<2).
24
a. the possessive Senitive" Mary>s car9 the singer>s voice
b. the Senitive expressive of dependence" the wheel of the cart9 the
!ey of my door
c. the Senitive expressing family relationship" Tom>s daughter9 the
doctor>s wife
d. the *ub3ective Senitive (expresses the sub3ect of the action
mentioned by the determined noun, when the latter is derived from
a verb or has a verbal meaning)" my brother>s arrival9 the passage
of time
e. the Senitive of authorship" Dhakespeare>s plays9 %ickens> novels
f. the Mb3ective Senitive (expresses the Mb3ect of a noun derived from
a verb or which has a verbal meaning)" a writer of novels9 a great
reader of poetry
g) the ;escriptive Senitive" a feeling of 1oy9 women>s hats
h. the 7ppositive Senitive" the month of 6ugust9 the city of 'inchester
i. the ,artitive Senitive (showing a whole from which a part is ta!en)" a
glass of milk9 the best of my pupils
1. the Senitive expressing measure" an hour>s wal!
k. the Senitive expressing composition" a team of players
l. the Senitive of Sradation (expressing the superlative)
Ex" The day he voted for the frst time was the day of days for him.
*he considered it the poem of poems.

)n English there are four Senitive forms"
a) the synthetic Senitive (the Is Senitive)
b) the analytic C periphrastic Senitive (the of Senitive)
c) the double Senitive (the Is and of Senitive)
d) the uninGected Senitive (shown by word order)
a) The synthetic Senitive
The synthetic Senitive is the only Gexional case in English. )t is
considered a survivor of the Mld English Senitive in ?es.
There is a resemblance between the way of pronouncing the Is
Senitive and the regular plural. Thus, the synthetic Senitive is
pronounced"
- C+C after vowels and voiced consonants, other than sibilants" boy>s;
dad>s
- CsC after voiceless consonants, other than sibilants" girl>s
- Ci+C after /s, -ss, -c, -ch, -tch, -sh, -:, -+4 Thomas>; actress>

There are some cases when s may be omitted in writing"
a) when the (common or proper) noun ends in ?s, ss, x or ?+"
Ex" Thomas> wife
the actress> part
$e:> bone
i+> car
b) when the noun is in the plural
Ex" the boys> behaviour
my friends> names
25
c) when the noun is a name (generally of foreign origin) ending in ?
s.
Ex" (lysses> 3ourney
Docrates> philosophy
d) when some nouns ending in the sound CsC are followed by sake"
Ex" for goodness(B) sa!e
for conscience(B) sa!e
The use of the synthetic Senitive is strongly connected with the idea
of life, that is why it accompanies nouns referring to living beings or to life
in a fgurative sense. Thus, the synthetic Senitive is used with"
nouns referring to persons" my sister>s room
some nouns referring to animals or birds, especially those belonging to
higher classes" the horse>s power9 the lark>s nest
proper names" "ulie>s remar!
collective nouns" the government>s approval
personifcations and whenever inanimate things are considered to have
life"
concrete things" the house>s colour
abstract things" beauty>s enemy
names of countries, states, towns" $omania>s poverty
names of stars and planets" the sun>s brightness
nouns referring to ships and cars" the ship>s crew9 the ta:i>s engine
nouns denoting chronological divisions, measurements, distance, weight,
worth" tomorrow>s departure9 a week>s rest9 8ve minutes> conversation9 a
stone>s throw9 ten dollars> worth
idiomatic expressions" in my mind>s eye9 for Eod>s sake9 for goodness>
sake9 out of harm>s way
The synthetic Senitive may be used elliptically (without the
possessed ob3ect)"
in order to avoid repetition (when the possessed ob3ect has already been
mentioned)"
Ex" Tom>s car is better than your brother>s.
when one of the following words is understood" house, church, store,
shop, hotel, theatre"
Ex" Dt0 Paul>s -cathedral.
my aunt>s -house.
at the greengrocer>s -shop.
5hen a group of words forms a sense unit, the group Senitive is
used"
Ex" The test of a man or woman>s breeding is how they behave in a
6uarrel.
)n the case of a noun followed by an apposition the Is for the
Senitive case is added to"
a) the apposition, if the genitive is used attributively"
Ex" Fave you seen my sister Mary>s carU
b) the apposition or the noun, if the genitive is used predicatively"
26
Ex" This car is my sister Mary>s.
This car is my sister>s /ary.
c) (rarely) the apposition and the noun
Ex" ) was going to Tom>s the baker>s.
b) The analytic Senitive
)n /iddle English the Senitive developed an of form, in parallel with
the Is form. Psually, the same relation may be expressed in both forms of
the Senitive, as in the man>s house 5 the house of the man. Iut there are
cases when only the analytic Senitive may occur.
Ex" a bull>s eye (Ztarget)
the eye of a bull
The of Senitive may indicate possession, composition, material,
duration, measure, the whole from which a part is ta!en, characteristic,
authorship.
a. the Senitive expressing possession" the boo!s of the students
b. the Senitive expressing composition" a garden of 9owers
c. the Senitive expressing material" a house of brick
d. the Senitive expressing duration" a matter of hours
e. the Senitive expressing measure" a weight of ?A kilos
f. the Senitive expressing the whole from which a part is ta!en" the leg
of the table
g. the Senitive expressing characteristic" an example of this type
h. the Senitive expressing authorship" a play of Dhakespeare
The analytic Senitive is the specifc form used with"
nouns referring to things" the windows of the house
nouns referring to small animals, insects" the wing of the bee
geographical names" the city of Paris
substantivi+ed ad3ectives" the houses of the rich
proper names, followed by an apposition" This is the car of Mr0 Dmith, the
doctor
abstract nouns" the time of hope
nouns denoting time" the frst of 6ugust
nouns denoting measure and value" a distance of ten kilometers
There are some circumstances when the analytic genitive cannot
replace the synthetic one"
a) with such nouns as :ather, /other, Pncle, 7unt, Srannie used as
proper nouns, when they are not preceded by a possessive
ad3ective"
Ex" #ather>s wishes
Mother>s care
b) with proper nouns indicating towns, s6uares, buildings, institutions,
stores, etc.
Ex" *t. 7lbanBs (Town)
*t. -amesB *6uare
=ueenBs Theatre
5oolworthBs (store)
2'
c) with nouns followed by a gerund
Ex" Tom>s coming was a great surprise.
Fe remembered his son>s telephoning before the departure.
d) in the case of idiomatic expressions
Ex" out of harm>s way
at oneBs wits> end
her heart>s desire
c) The double Senitive
)t consists in the use of both synthetic and analytic Senitives, usually
having a partitive meaning. This Senitive may be used only with nouns
denoting defnite individuals and it implies a di@erence in meaning as
compared with the analytic Senitive.
Ex" 7 description of %ickens (Zone presenting him)
7 description of %ickens> (Zone written by him)
7 portrait of Erigorescu (Zone portraying him)
7 portrait of Erigorescu>s (Zone painted by him or belonging to
him)
,receded by a demonstrative ad3ective, the form of double Senitive
may get a stylistic value, expressing disdain, discomfort, etc.
Ex" That child of Mary>s is a nuisanceH
) donBt !now what to do about this girl of my sister>sH
The double Senitive is fre6uently met in phrases as"
Ex" a friend of my sisterBs
a fan of /adonnaBs
d) The implicit Senitive
)t is also called the uninGected Senitive. The Senitive relation is
indicated only by word order, a noun being placed before another noun.
Ex" sunrise (Zthe rise of the sun)
This !ind of Senitive is used in various compounds and titles,
especially for organi+ations"
Ex" The Pnited >ations Mrgani+ation (ZThe Mrgani+ation of the
Pnited >ations)

I.4.3.3. T(" D,&%:" /,-"
)t is the case which indicates to whom the action of the verb is
directed or if the action is to his advantage or disadvantage. The ;ative
case answers the 6uestions to whomH for whomH to whichH to whatH 7
noun in the dative usually functions as an indirect ob3ect and it is mar!ed
by the prepositions to and for and, occasionally, by on, upon, from.
Ex" ) gave Mary a nice blouse.
) gave a nice blouse to Mary.
Set the room ready for our guests.
*he draws attention on5upon5from the student.
28
7 noun in the ;ative case may be"
a) an indirect ob3ect following a verb"
Ex" *end Mary a presentH
b) a prepositional ob3ect following a verb"
Ex" Fe sent the boo! to the editors.
c) a prepositional ob3ect following a noun or an inter3ection"
Ex" *he !ept her promise to her children.
Furray for the holidaysH
d) an indirect ob3ect following an ad3ective"
Ex" You are li!e your mother.
e) a prepositional ob3ect following an ad3ective"
Ex" ) am grateful to my friends.
f) the apposition of a noun in the ;ative
Ex" ) gave my friend "ohn your boo! to read.
I.4.3.4. T(" A//)-,&%:" /,-"
)t answers the 6uestions whomH and whatH. 7 noun in the 7ccusative
may be"
a) a direct ob3ect
Ex" Fe met that girl again.
b) a prepositional ob3ect
Ex" ) was listening to music.
c) an ob3ect complement which determines a direct ob3ect"
Ex" The manager appointed her secretary.
*he calls Mary FcousinG.
c) an adverbial modifer"
Ex" *he called me every day (of time)
) went to work by bus. (of place)
Fe was running full speed. (of manner)
d) the apposition of a noun in the 7ccusative"
Ex" ) saw /rs. *mith, the doctor.
7 special type of the 7ccusative is the Lognate 7ccusative, which
owes its name to the fact that the noun in the 7ccusative repeats the idea
expressed by the verb"
Ex" to die a death
to dream a dream
to fght a fght
I.4.4. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 ."&"+5%$,&%'$
2(
I.4.4.1. T(" D"&"+5%$"+-
The determiners particulari+e and help to identify the noun in the
context of speech situation (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 408). The
determiners identify the referent of a noun by mentioning Nwhich or what
or whose it is, how much, how many, what part or degree of it is referred
to, how big or fre6uent it is, how it is distributed in space or time.O
(;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 408404) They are closedclass items (there
cannot be added others to the list).
7ccording to their position in the noun phrase, the determiners can
be divided into three groups"
a) central determiners (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 408404)
the articles (the, a, an, +ero) ? they particularise the noun referent in
di@erent ways (by establishing its reference as defnite or indefnite), even
if they have no lexical meaning. The articles cannot appear alone, as they
have no function without the noun they precede.
the demonstratives (this, that, these, those) ? they are deictics as they
relate the nouns to the context. They show whether the referent is near or
not near the spea!er in space or time.
the possessives (my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their) ? they show the
person(s) to whom the referent belongs.
the whdeterminatives
&
(which, what, whose, whatever, whichever)
the 6uantifying determinatives (some, any, no, enough, another)
the distributors (each, every, either, neither)
The central determiners are mutually exclusive with each other in a
noun phrase. This means that only one of them can appear before the
noun head (they form a set of closedsystem items) (=uir! et al., %&&%"
%8').
Ex" the car
this car
my car
Tthe this car
Tthis my car
Tthe my car
b) predeterminers ? they precede the articles, demonstratives or
possessives
all, both, half, such
?A
the multipliers (once, twice, double, three5four J times)
the fractions (one-third, one-8fth)
c) postdeterminers ? they follow the articles, demonstratives or
possessives, but they precede the ad3ectives
the ordinals, which include the ordinal numbers(8rst, second, third, tenth)
the cardinal numbers (one, two, three, ten)
the 6uantifers (many5much-more-most, a few5few- fewer- fewest, a
little5little- less- least, several)
(
1eter$iner 2 t+e functi"n# *eter$inati.e, 2 t+e cla,, "f unit, t+at reali3e t+e functi"n 41"nin- 5 6"c7e,
2006% 424)
10
such can !e al," c"n,i*ere* a ,e$i-*eter$inati.e 41"nin- 5 6"c7e, 2006% 431)
30
the semideterminatives (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 48%) (sometimes
classed as ad3ectives)" certain, same, other
I.4.4.1.1. T(" /"$&+,3 ."&"+5%$"+-
A. T(" ,+&%/3"-
The use of the articles imposes a distinction between specifc and
generic reference (=uir! et al., %&&%" %4'), and, in the category of specifc
reference ? between defnite and indefnite reference. 5ith proper nouns,
the reference is neither specifc nor generic, but uni6ue (=uir! et al., %&&%"
%4').
Ex" The doctor treats the patient.
the reference is to a certain doctor and to a certain patient.
The reference is specifc and defnite.
6 doctor treats a patient.
the doctor and the patient are not very well !nown by the
spea!er. The reference is specifc, but indefnite.
;octors treat patients.
this is a very general statement, not implying any specifc
person, !nown or un!nown. The reference is generic.
)n the examples above there can be recogni+ed the three forms of
article in English"
- the defnite article (the)
- the indefnite article (a5an)
- the +ero article
The de8nite article
The defnite article the is derived from a demonstrative pronoun in
Mld English, whose meaning was similar to the modern this and that
??
.
That is why in modern English the defnite article the usually indicates that
the person or thing spo!en of is !nown to the spea!er and to the listener.
Fowever, the defnite article Ndoes not by itself identify the referent, but
indicates that it can be identifed within the text, or outside the text in the
situation or from general !nowledge.O (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 4%&)
The always has the same spelling, but it has di@erent
pronunciations, depending on the initial sound of the word it determines"
- when the word begins with a consonant, pronounced h or a
semivowel, the pronunciation is CEC
Ex" the CEC boy
the CEC hospital
the CEC weather
- when the word begins with a vowel or with silent h , the
pronunciation is CEiC
Ex" the CEiC e@ect
the CEiC impression
the CEiC hour
11
+ttp%//.f"rtunecit0.c"$/!all0/*urru,/153/-ra$c+20.+t$l, retrie.e* "n 8e!ruar0 23
r*
, 2011.
31
- when the article is stressed for special emphasis, the pronunciation
is CEiC, no matter the initial sound of the word following
Ex" This is the CEiC doctor ) was telling you about.
) saw the CEiC exhibition you recommended.
;epending on the type of reference (bac!wards or forwards), the
defnite article can be anaphoric or cataphoric.
- the anaphoric defnite article refers to a person or thing already
mentioned
Ex" Fe sent me a parcel and the parcel has 3ust arrived.
- the cataphoric defnite article has forward reference to a
prepositional phrase or relative clause
Ex" The cars of Sermany are well !nown.
The cars that Sermany produces are well !nown.
The defnite article is generally used (7lexander, %&119 IJdescu,
%&149 ,aidos, %&&89 =uir! et al., %&&%)"
a) with proper nouns in certain situations
before a common noun followed by a proper noun which identifes
it" the writer *ha!espeare9 the play NRomeo and -ulietO
before the name of a country made up of smaller entities or which
has a plural form" the Pnited [ingdom9 the >etherlands
before names of rivers, seas, oceans, chains of mountains, groups
of islands" the ;anube9 the Ialtic *ea9 the 7tlantic Mcean9 the 7lps9
the Laribbean
before names of deserts" the Soby9 the *ahara
before names of ships, trains, airplanes" the Titanic9 the Mrient
Express9 the Ilue Iird
before names of shops, hotels, buildings, institutions" the Farrods9
the Rit+ Fotel9 the Pniversity of Iacau9 the 5hite Fouse
before names of publications" the Times9 the Suardian
before historical epochs or documents" the *tone 7ge9 the :rench
Revolution9 the /agna Lharta
before names of persons to particulari+e a certain person"
Ex" ) donBt !now the Tom you are tal!ing about.
before names of nationalities" the English9 the Romanians
before names of days, months, seasons, when the reference is
made to a special day, month, season, or when these names are
preceded by the prepositions in or during"
Ex" )t was the *unday before Lhristmas when he called.
)Bll never forget the summer of %&&&.
They met inCduring the autumn of 0(((.
b) with common nouns
before nouns which are considered uni6ue" the sun9 the earth9 the
moon
before names of musical instruments (when preceded by the verb
to play)" to play the pianoCthe violinCthe guitar
before a noun particulari+ed by a relative clause"
Ex" This is the girl ) was telling you about.
32
before a noun followed by a prepositional phrase" the capital of
Romania9 the road to Iucharest
before a singular noun used as a representative of a class"
Ex" The wolf is a dangerous animal.
before singular or plural countable nouns to refer to something
mentioned before"
c) with other parts of speech
before superlatives and ordinal numbers" the shortest9 the frst
before ad3ectives" the old9 the young
d) with some phrases, forming certain idiomatic expressions
%0
Ex" on the other hand
for the time being
The defnite article %- $'& )-". (Thomson . /artinet, %&12" 2<)"
a) before names of people or places (except as shown above)
Ex" /ary
Trafalgar *6uare
b) before parts of the body and articles of clothing when the idea of
possession is implied (they normally prefer a possessive ad3ective)"
Ex" ) raised my hand0
Ta!e your coat0
The Cnde8nite 6rticle
)t refers to persons or things not mentioned before and probably
un!nown to the spea!er andCor listener or it may represent any individual
member of a class as typical of the whole class. The indefnite article a5an
is usually associated with the idea of oneness (Ie!lyarova, 0(('" 8('),
hence its general use with singular countable nouns
%8
. The process of
classifying nouns as single units, or Nindividuation, is the !ey to the use of
the indefnite article in EnglishO. (Yule, %&&1" 8()
The spelling of the indefnite article and its pronunciation depend
on the initial sound of the word it determines"
- when the word begins with a consonant, pronounced h or a
semivowel, the pronunciation is CC
Ex" a CC car
a CC hospital
a CC woman
- when the word begins with a vowel or with silent h , the
pronunciation is CnC
Ex" an CnC example
an CnC hour
12
8"r a l"n-er li,t ,ee B"nta, 9aluca, Introducing morphology: (the article, the noun, the adjective, the
pronoun): workbook for students, Bacu, :*. ;l$a <ater, 200(.
13
+ttp%//.f"rtunecit0.c"$/!all0/*urru,/153/-ra$c+20.+t$l, retrie.e* "n 8e!ruar0 23
r*
, 2011.
33
- when the article is stressed for special emphasis, the pronunciation
is CeiC if the word begins with a consonant, pronounced h or a
semivowel, and C\nC if the word begins with a vowel or with silent h
Ex" 6 CeiC /r. -ones wants to tal! to you.
) said it was an C\nC e@ect, but not the one ) expected.
The indefnite article is generally used (7lexander, %&119 IJdescu,
%&149 ,aidos, %&&89 =uir! et al., %&&%)"
a) with proper nouns in certain contexts
with proper nouns that indicate the origin"
Ex" Fe is an 7merican.
with nouns that indicate the religion of people"
Ex" *he is a Latholic.
with nouns that indicate the politics of people"
Ex" ,aul is a #iberal.
before Miss5Mrs05Mr0 and surname, to indicate a person !nown only
as a name"
Ex" 6 /r. *mith has called you.
b) with common nouns
with a countable noun mentioned for the frst time in a sentence"
Ex" ) saw him in a new car.
with a singular countable noun which is used as a representative of
a whole class"
Ex" 7 lion is a predator.
with nouns that indicate the occupations of people"
Ex" ) am a teacher.
c) as a numeral
with the meaning one"
Ex" Lan ) have an orangeU
in constructions including numerals and their e6uivalents
Ex" a hundred
a million
in common fractions
Ex" a half
in constructions in which it gains the meaning of AeachB
Ex" ten euros a pair
in constructions in which it gains the meaning of Aone and the
sameB
Ex" of a !ind
d) with little and few"
Ex" Fe has a little money to spend.
) have a few friends.
e) in exclamatory sentences beginning with what, such or so"
Ex" 5hat a nice houseH
*he was such a clever girlH
34
Fe was so good a wor!erH
f) in a number of phrases
%4
"
Ex" as a reward
as a rule
at a distance

The indefnite article %- $'& )-". (Thomson . /artinet, %&12" 08)"
a) before plural nouns"
Ex" a cat ? cats
a house ? houses
b) before uncountable nouns (instead of the defnite article they can
be often preceded by some, any, a little, a piece of, etc.)
Ex" a piece of information
some advice
a piece of furniture
c) before abstract nouns"
Ex" liberty
freedom
beauty
happiness
The Kero 6rticle
The +ero article should not be regarded as the omission of the
defnite or indefnite article, but as an independent category (;owning .
#oc!e, 0((<" 4%<). The basic function of the +ero article is a generic one,
implying that all or most members of a class possess the characteristics
presented. This function is especially evident when the +ero article is used
with"
a) proper nouns
names of persons" $obert; Mary
names of some periodicals" !ncounter; )ews 'eek
names of universities" ondon (niversity; *:ford (niversity
names of printing houses" ongman; *:ford (niversity Press
names of some buildings and monuments" Buckingham Palace;
Bictoria and 6lbert Museum
names of theaters and concert halls" !nglish Dtage ,ompany; $oyal
#estival &all
names of continents" !urope; 6frica
names of countries" $omania; #rance
Iut" TThe Longo
TThe Sambia
TThe Yemen
TThe *udan
names of towns" Paris; ondon
14
8"r a l"n-er li,t ,ee B"nta, 9aluca, Introducing morphology: (the article, the noun, the adjective, the
pronoun): workbook for students, Bacu, :*. ;l$a <ater, 200(.
35
Iut" TThe Fague
names of streets" Main Dtreet; #lowers Dtreet
names of s6uares" eicester D=uare; Trafalgar D=uare
names of bridges" Tower Bridge; ondon Bridge
names of airports" Eetwick 6irport; *topeni 6irport
names of trademar!s" Philips; Panasonic; #ord
names of la!es and mountains" ake Michigan; Mount !verest
names of par!s and woods" &yde Park; Losemite )ational Park
names of languages"
Ex" *he spea!s !nglish.
) spea! #rench.
titles followed by a proper noun" Ming Eeorge; Nueen Mary; %octor
Brown; President Bush
names of days, months, seasons, holidays"
Ex" #riday is my favorite day of the wee!.
/y birthday is in "anuary.
) canBt wait for ,hristmasH
names of sub3ects or sciences" Physics; Mathematics
b) common nouns
before nouns denoting members of the family"
Ex" mother
father
before words li!e church, school, hospital, prison when they are
used with the verb to go"
Ex" to go to church5school5hospital5prison
before means of transport (preceded by by)"
Ex" by plane
by car
by train
before abstract nouns used in a general sense"
Ex" Everybody loves freedom.
/any poets wrote about love.
before names of materials used in a general sense"
Ex" ,o2ee is rather expensive here.
Lhildren need milk.
before names of meals used in a general sense"
Ex" 5e have lunch in a restaurant every day.
before names of games"
Ex" ) cannot play football.
c) plural countable nouns" the absence of a determiner before plural
countable nouns generally renders the same meaning as the use of the
indefnite article aCan before singular countable nouns
%2
"
to ma!e a general statement"
Ex" ions are dangerous animals.
to refer to something not mentioned before"
Ex" *uddenly we saw clouds gathering overhead.
15
+ttp%//.f"rtunecit0.c"$/!all0/*urru,/153/-ra$c+20.+t$l, retrie.e* "n /anuar0 26
t+
, 2011.
36
to refer to professions"
Ex" They are teachers.

d) in a number of phrases
%<
"
Ex" face to face
hand in hand
to keep in mind
The basic forms of articles and the types of noun that they precede
can be summari+ed in the following chart (Yule, %&&1" 02)"
B. T(" ."5'$-&+,&%:"-
16
8"r a l"n-er li,t ,ee B"nta, 9aluca, Introducing morphology: (the article, the noun, the adjective, the
pronoun): workbook for students, Bacu, :*. ;l$a <ater, 200(.
n"un-t0pe
c"$$"n pr"per
*efinite in*efinite
c"unta!le an*
unc"unta!le
,in-ular an* plural
TH: car/car,/$"ne0
c"unta!le
unc"unta!le
=:9> fear/ine
,in-ular
plural
; car/;? +"ur
=:9> car,
=:9> <ar0/6"n*"n
3'
The demonstratives particularise the noun, showing whether it is
near or not near the spea!er, in space or time. :rom this perspective, they
have deictic use. They can be used with singular or plural nouns.
this (R singular noun) and these (R plural noun) show closeness to
the spea!er
Ex" This car is mine.
These people are my colleagues.
to emphasise the idea of closeness, this and these can be used
with here, right here, over here, right over here (which appear after the
noun)
Ex" This car here is mine.
These people right here are my colleagues.
that (R singular noun) and those (R plural noun) show remoteness
from the spea!er
Ex" That woman was her sister.
Those people were his enemies.
to emphasise the idea of remoteness, that and those can be used
with there, right there, over there, right over there (which appear after the
noun)
Ex" That woman over there was her sister.
Those people right over there were his enemies.
this and that can be followed by plural nouns to express a period of
time, a sum of money or a certain distance when these plural nouns are
regarded as a whole
Ex" This ten days was very diQcult for me.
That ten dollars was enough for his 3ob.
That three !ilometres seemed much longer.
C. T(" *'--"--%:"-
the possessives can appear with both singular and plural nouns.
Ex" my house
your parents

they can often occur with parts of the body
Ex" *how me your hands.
Fe was sha!ing his head.
D. T(" 8(>."&"+5%$,&%:"-
Ex" 'hich car is yoursU
'hose umbrella did you ta!eU
'hat plans do you have for the summer holidayU
'hichever road you ta!e, youBll fnd plenty of traQc.
YouBll have to rely on whatever transport is available.
38
E. T(" C),$&%01%$2 ."&"+5%$,&%:"-
Dome is used"
in aQrmative sentences
Ex" ) bought some boo!s.
in aQrmative sentences with the meaning of AcertainB
Ex" Dome students are always causing trouble.
in interrogative sentences that express an o@er, an invitation
Ex" 5ould you li!e some teaU
in interrogative sentences when an aQrmative answer is expected
Ex" Lan you give me some moneyU
in interrogative sentences when the 6uestion does not refer to
some
Ex" 5hy did you give him some wrong answersU
in negative sentences when the meaning is aQrmative
Ex" *he never visits us without some presents.
6ny is used"
in aQrmative sentences with the meaning Ano matter whatB
Ex" 6ny change will do you good.
in interrogative sentences
Ex" 7re there any boo!s in that boxU
in negative sentences
Ex" 5e donBt have any money.
)o is used"
in negative sentences with aQrmative verbs, being in fact a variant
of negative verb 7 any
Ex" 5e have no money.
!nough
when it is used with singular nouns, enough appears only after the
noun
Ex" You should be man enough to accept this situation.
when it is used with plural nouns, enough can occur either before
or after the noun, although the latter usage is considered to be very
literary
Ex" There is enough time C time enough.
6nother
3(
indicates that the noun it determines is di@erent from one already
mentioned"
Ex" This s!irt is too short. )Bm going to buy another s!irt.
it refers to a subse6uent noun of the same !ind as one already
mentioned"
Ex" ) thin! )Bll have another co@ee.
F. T(" .%-&+%6)&'+-
!ach5!very ? they have similar, but not always identical
meanings
both each and every show how often something happens
Ex" There is a train to Iucharest each5every day.
each can be used in front of the verb9 every cannot be used in front
of the verb
Ex" The girls each received a pri+e.
TThe girls every received a pri+e.
each expresses the idea of Aone by oneB
Ex" :our students entered the room9 each student had a noteboo!.
every expresses the idea of AallB
Ex" !very person is uni6ue.
each can be also used only for two things9 every is used for more
than two things
Ex" *he had a bag in each hand.
The tree had Gowers on every branch.
!ither5)either
both either and neither are used only with singular count nouns
Ex" You can choose either solution.
) accept neither solution.
either means Aone or other of the twoB
Ex" /ary and -ohn are both right in their own way9 you may believe
either of them.
neither means Anot one and not the other of the twoB
Ex" ) prefer neither solution9 both of them are wrong.
either 7 negative verb has the same meaning as neither 7
afrmative verb
Ex" Fe didnBt solve either exercise.
Fe solved neither exercise.
I.4.4.1.2. T(" *+">."&"+5%$"+-
40
,A > A33B 6'&(B (,30
they can appear before articles, demonstratives and possessives,
but they cannot occur before the 6uantifying determinatives and the
distributors.
Ex" all the children
both these boys
half my age
Tall5both5half every house
they can function independently in the sentence, without the noun
head.
Ex" 6ll5Both5&alf came early.
they can be followed by ofconstructions (optional with nouns, but
compulsory with personal pronouns.
Ex" all -of. the boo!s
all of them
both -of. the children
both of them
half -of. the sum
half of it
- all and both can also appear after the head.
Ex" The men all5both called.
6ll5Both men came.
> S)/(
it classifes a noun"
Ex" )Bve never seen such a house before. (Z of this !ind)
it intensifes a noun"
Ex" You are such a childH (Z of this degree)
6A T(" 5)3&%*3%"+-
they can occur before all central determiners
Ex" double the sum
twice this amount
three times his strength
once every month
they do not have the ofconstruction
Ex" Ttwice of this amount
they cannot occur after the head in the sentence
Ex" Tthe sum double
Tthis amount twice
/A T(" 0+,/&%'$-
they can be followed by the central determiners
41
Ex" one-third the5this5my5each time
they can have the ofconstruction
Ex" one-third of the time
they cannot occur after the head in the sentence
Ex" Tthe time one-third
I.4.4.1.3. T(" *'-&>."&"+5%$"+-
,A T(" '+.%$,3-
8rst, ne:t, last and other can optionally cooccur with cardinal
numerals (=uir! et al., %&12" %48)
Ex" the 8rst two days
the ne:t two days
the last two days
the other two colleagues
second, third and the other ordinals are followed only by singular
nouns
Ex" the second car
Tthe second cars
6A T(" /,+.%$,3 $)56"+-
Ex" the four seasons
/A T(" C),$&%#"+-
Many5Much
many is used with countable nouns
Ex" ) have many friends.
much is used with uncountable nouns
Ex" ) have much money.
-6. #ew5-6. ittle
-a. few is used with countable nouns
few means Anot manyB ()
Ex" ) have few friends.
a few means Aat least someB (R)
Ex" ) have a few friends.
-a. little is used with uncountable nouns
little means Anot muchB ()
Ex" ) have little money.
a little means Aat least someB (R)
Ex" ) have a little money.
Deveral
it is used with plural countable nouns
42
Ex" Fe came several wee!s later.
6 few and several can both be used to refer to more things.
Fowever, they cannot be used interchangeably, as there is a slight
di@erence in meaning between them (a few Z the 6uantity referred to is
relatively small9 several Z the 6uantity referred to is relatively large).
%'
.A T(" -"5%>."&"+5%$,&%:"-
,ertain
it specifes the noun that it determines, without completely
identifying it.
Ex" ,ertain people may re3ect this proposal.
7 certain woman was as!ing about you.
Dame
it indicates a perfect similarity between the noun it determines and
another noun previously mentioned"
Ex" They share the same opinions.
Mnly
it can be used to modify almost any part of the sentence. 7s a
determiner of the noun it shows a small amount.
Ex" They gave us the only rooms available.
*ther
it indicates that the noun it determines is di@erent from one
already mentioned. )t is used with plural countable nouns.
Ex" They came up with other ideas.
The following chart ma!es a summary of the uses of determiners
(central and predeterminers) with countable and uncountable nouns
(=uir! et al., %&&%" %8<%8&)"
%1

D"&"+5%$"+ U-". 8%&( E=,5*3" M",$%$2
aCan singular
countable
nouns
a house mentioned for
the frst time
refers to one,
and not several
houses
all plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
all houses
all money
houses in
general
money in
general
1'
+ttp%//.f"rtunecit0.c"$/!all0/*urru,/153/-ra$c+20.+t$l, retrie.e* "n /anuar0 26
t+
, 2011.
18
+ttp%//.f"rtunecit0.c"$/!all0/*urru,/153/-ra$c+20.+t$l, retrie.e* "n /anuar0 26
t+
, 2011.
43
another singular
countable
nouns
another house one additional
or di@erent
house
any singular
countable
nouns
plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
any house
any houses
any money
refers to one
house, without
specifying
which, of a
group of more
than 0 houses
refers to 0 or
more houses,
without
specifying
which
refers to some
money, without
specifying
which
both plural
countable
nouns
both houses refers to 0
houses of a
group of two
each singular
countable
nouns
each house refers to every
house,
considered
individually, of
a group of 0 or
more
either singular
countable
nouns
either house refers of % of 0
houses, without
specifying
which
enough plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
enough houses
enough money
a suQcient
number of
houses
a suQcient
amount of
money
every singular
countable
nouns
every house all houses,
without
exception, of a
group of more
than 0 houses
few plural
countable
nouns
few houses a small
number of
houses
a few plural a few houses a small, but
44
countable
nouns
suQcient
number of
houses
fractions singular
countable
nouns
plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
onethird of the
house
onethird of the
houses
onethird of the
money
a specifc
delimitation of
a house
a specifc
number of a
group of houses
a specifc
amount of
money
half singular
countable
nouns
plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
half the house
half the houses
half the money
refers to one
of the two
e6ual parts of a
specifc house
refers to one
of the two
e6ual parts of a
specifc number
of houses
refers to one
of the two
e6ual parts of a
specifc amount
of money
little uncountable
nouns
little money a small
amount of
money
a little uncountable
nouns
a little money a small, but
suQcient
amount of
money
many plural
countable
nouns
many houses a large
number of
houses
much uncountable
nouns
much money a large
amount of
money
neither singular
countable
nouns
neither house no house of a
group of 0
houses
no singular
countable
nouns
plural
no house
no houses
not any house
not any
houses
45
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
no money
not any
money
one singular
countable
nouns
one house a single house
only plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
only houses
only money
nothing
except houses
nothing
except money
other plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
other houses
other money
di@erent
houses
di@erent
money
possessives singular
countable
nouns
plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
myCourCyourChisCherCt
heir house
myCourCyourChisCherCt
heir house
myCourCyourChisCherCt
heir money
shows to
whom the
house belongs
shows to
whom the
houses belong
shows to
whom the
money belongs
several plural
countable
nouns
several houses more than 0
houses, but not
a large number
of houses
some singular
countable
nouns
plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
some house
some houses
some money
an unspecifed
house
unspecifed
houses
unspecifed
money
such singular
countable
nouns
such a house
such houses
a house of a
certain !ind
houses of a
46
plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
such money
certain !ind
money of a
certain !ind
the singular
countable
nouns
plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
the house
the houses
the money
refers to the
house as a
classCrefers to
something
!nown or
mentioned
before
refers to
house as a
classCrefers to
something
!nown or
mentioned
before
refers to
money as a
classCrefers to
something
!nown or
mentioned
before
that singular
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
that house
that money
a particular
house, which is
not nearby
particular
money, which is
not nearby
these plural
countable
nouns
these houses particular
houses, which
are nearby
this singular
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
this house
this money
a particular
house, which is
nearby
particular
money, which is
nearby
those plural
countable
those houses particular
houses, which
4'
nouns are not nearby
what(ever) singular
countable
nouns
plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
what house
what houses
what money
as!s in
general for one
house to be
specifed
as!s in
general for
particular
houses to be
specifed
as!s in
general for
particular
money to be
specifed
which(ever) singular
countable
nouns
plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
which house
which houses
which money
as!s for one
house to be
specifed from a
certain group of
houses
as!s for
houses to be
specifed from a
certain group of
houses
as!s for some
of certain
money to be
specifed
whose singular
countable
nouns
plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
nouns
whose house
whose houses
whose money
as!s for the
possessor of a
certain house
as!s for the
possessor of
certain houses
as!s for the
possessor of a
certain amount
of money
+ero plural
countable
nouns
uncountable
houses
money
refers to a
class
refers to a
48
nouns class
I.4.4.2. T(" P+">5'.%#"+-
The premodifers describe or classify the nouns mainly by means of
ad3ectives and nouns, which are openclass items. Pnli!e the determiners,
the use of premodifers is optional9 at the same time, Nthere is no
grammatical constraint on the number of modifers placed before a noun.O
(;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 48<)
The role of premodifers can be played by (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<"
48<)"
- ad3ectives" good teacher9 digital camera
- nouns" music shop9 a Paris caf]
-en participles" well-dressed woman9 fallen leaves
- -ing participles" breathtaking view9 clarifying 6uestion
- adverbs" the then leader
The premodifers may function as epithets or classifers (;owning .
#oc!e, 0((<" 48<).
a) 7s epithets, the premodifers present a 6uality of the noun
(6uality reali+ed by ad3ectives), which can be either ob3ective (a red car, a
square table) or sub3ective (a stupid man, a horrible deed). )n their turn,
the epithets which express ob3ective 6ualities may either describe a noun
(&e bought his wife a red car) or defne it (&e bought his wife the red
car)9 the di@erence is given by the articles. The sub3ective epithets, which
express the spea!erBs or writerBs evaluation, can be either appreciative (a
wonderful idea) or pe3orative (a foolish idea). *ome epithets can be
used both ob3ectively and sub3ectively"
Ex" 7 big piece of this machinery is missing.
Fis show was a big failure.
b) 7s classifers, the premodifers subclassify the noun and they are
reali+ed by nouns, adverbs and certain types of ad3ectives and participles.
The classifers are not gradable, as opposed to the epithets. They express
a wide variety of relations, such as (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 48<)"
aQliations to national, political or religious groups" 6merican; iberal;
*rthodo:
- norms, si+es, ratings" average; previous; personal
- time, place" former; previous; left; right
- institutions" municipal authorities; metropolitan police
- professions" social worker; agricultural e:pert
- devices" digital camera; mobile phone
*ome premodifers can function as both epithets and classifers
(;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 440)"
Ex" fresh bread (epithet9 freshly made) C fresh water (classifer9 not
salty)
a criminal act (epithet) C the criminal court (classifer)
a provincial attitude (epithet) C a provincial town (classifer)
4(
I.4.4.3. T(" P'-&>5'.%#"+-
The postmodifers provide information that helps to identify the
referent of the noun or Nthey add supplementary information not essential
for identifying it.O (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 44<)
The role of postmodifers can be played by"
- prepositional phrases" the shop on the corner
- ad3ectives" the room available
- adverbs" the Gat downstairs
- nouns (functioning as appositions)" my sister the teacher
- reGexive pronouns" the president himself
- fnite relative clauses" the girl who is playing outside
- nonfnite verb forms" the girl playing outside9 the woman to contact
is /ary9 the gift received yesterday
a) The postmodifer elements which supply information enabling the
identifcation of the referent of the noun are restrictive, integrated in the
structure of the noun phrase. They include (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 441)"
prepositional phrases" reliance on his help
- ad3ectives" a number unavailable
- adverbs" your intervention yesterday
- nouns (functioning as appositions)" the writer Dhakespeare
- reGexive pronouns" my sister herself
- fnite relative clauses" the man who is calling
- nonfnite verb forms" thereBs nothing to say9 the children shouting in
the street9 chips fried in this pan
b) The postmodifer elements which add supplementary information
about the referent of the noun are nonrestrictive, not embedded in the
structure of the noun phrase. They include (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 441)"
prepositional phrases"
Ex" Fis arrival, at O a0m0, was welcomed by everybody.
- ad3ectival groups"
Ex" Fe went out in the beautiful garden, full of 9owers.
- nouns (functioning as apposition)"
Ex" Dhakespeare, the writer
- fnite relative clauses"
Ex" They welcomed all the pupils, who arrived early in the camp.
- nonfnite verb forms"
Ex" The children, shouting, entered the classroom.
The boo!, dedicated to his family, lay on the table.
*pea!ing about both pre and postmodifers, we should mention
that their number in a single noun phrase can be unlimited (Fuddleston .
,ullum, 0((2" &<)"
Ex" a small white cat (0 premodifers)
the three !nglish poems C had to learn (0 premodifers and %
postmodifer)
a young $omanian girl with a red dress, who was smiling (0
premodifers and 0 postmodifers)
50
II. THE ADJECTIVE
51
II.1. D"#$%&%'$
II.2. T(" ,.;"/&%:,3 *(+,-" ,$. %&- -&+)/&)+"
II.3. T(" *+'*"+&%"- '0 ,.;"/&%:"-
II.4. T(" 0)$/&%'$- '0 ,.;"/&%:"-
II.4. T(" *'-%&%'$ '0 ,.;"/&%:"- %$ +"3,&%'$ &' &(" $')$
II.6. C3,--%#/,&%'$ '0 ,.;"/&%:"-
II.6.1. A//'+.%$2 &' 5",$%$2
II.6.2. A//'+.%$2 &' -1$&,/&%/ 0)$/&%'$
II.6.3. A//'+.%$2 &' -"5,$&%/ .%-&%$/&%'$-
II.7. T(" D"-/+%*&%:" A.;"/&%:"-
II.7.1. T(" 0'+5,&%'$ '0 ,.;"/&%:"-
II.7.2. T(" /'5*,+%-'$ '0 ,.;"/&%:"-
II.7.4. T(" '+."+ '0 ,.;"/&%:"-
II.8. T(" L%5%&%$2 A.;"/&%:"-
II.1. D"#$%&%'$
The ad3ective is the principal part of speech which helps identifying
or describing a noun (7lexander, %&11" %(<), denoting properties of
ob3ects, persons, places, etc. (Fuddleston . ,ullum, 0((2" %%0), properties
that relate to" 6uality (a good person), si+e (a small house), age (a young
woman), temperature (a hot day), shape (a round table), colour (a black
cat), origin (a Dwiss chocolate).
II.2. T(" ,.;"/&%:,3 *(+,-" ,$. %&- -&+)/&)+"
The ad3ectival phrase consists of an ad3ective as head (h), which can
appear alone or accompanied by a modifer (m) and a posthead element.
The posthead element, in its turn, can be either a modifer (m) or a
complement (c)9 the postmodifer and the complement can cooccur in
the same ad3ectival phrase. The di@erence between them is that the
complement is controlled by the ad3ectival head (good at 0 0 0, fond of 0 0 0,
glad that 0 0 0, glad to 0 0 0 etc.), whereas the postmodifer is not. (;owning
. #oc!e, 0((<" 4'<9 Fuddleston . ,ullum, 0((2" %%1)
The basic structure of the ad3ectival phrase is as follows"
M'.%#"+ H",. P'-&>(",. @5'.%#"+ 7 /'5*3"5"$&A
V"+1 2''. %$."". ,& /("--
Mther examples of full ad3ectival heads structures are"
extremely hot for this period (mhm)9
very glad that you won the match (mhc)9
6uite fond of music (mhc)
II.3. T(" *+'*"+&%"- '0 ,.;"/&%:"-
52
:rom a syntactic point of view, the ad3ectives in English have three
main properties" (Fuddleston . ,ullum, 0((2" %%09 =uir! et al., %&&%"
08%)"
%. :unction" ad3ectives can function attributively or predicatively.
7d3ectives in attributive position function as premodifers of the following
noung (the beautiful painting). 7d3ectives in predicative position function
mainly as complement in the structure of the clause" sub3ect complement
(The painting is beautiful0) or ob3ect complement (*he thought the painting
beautiful.)
0. Srade" ad3ectives can ta!e comparative and superlative forms. They can
inGect for grade, using the suQxes ?er and ?est (noisier ? the noisiest), or
they can form comparative and superlative ad3ective phrases with the help
of more and the most (more beautiful ? the most beautiful).
8. /odifcation" ad3ectives can be premodifed by adverbs, nouns or other
ad3ectives with reference to a 6uality (strangely attractive, pitch black,
light brown) or to a specifc context (physically handicapped, duty-free)
(;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 4&8). 7d3ectives can also be modifed by the
intensifers very, =uite, rather (This painting is very beautiful.)
II.4. T(" 0)$/&%'$- '0 ,.;"/&%:"-
The ad3ectives can function"
in clause structure as" sub3ect complement (Your idea is e:cellent.)9
ob3ect complement () consider this impolite.)9 complement of a preposition
(for good9 in short)9
in phrase structure as" head of a noun phrase (ad3ectives 6ualifying
personal nouns" the rich; ad3ectives denoting nationalities" the !nglish)
(=uir! et al., %&&%" 02%020)9 modifer of another ad3ective (bright red9
pale yellow)9 premodifer of a noun (a good man9 heavy rain)9
postmodifer of a noun (something e:pensive9 the person responsible).
;owning . #oc!e(0((<" 410) also spea! about peripheral ad3ectival
groups"
stance ad3uncts ? ma!e an evaluative comment on the content of the
whole clause"
Ex" *dd 5 Dtrange, )Bve never thought of this.
detached predicatives ? they add contextual information. They are
encountered in writing and absent from conversation.
Ex" Dad and disappointed, she wal!ed away.
ad3ectives as exclamations"
Ex" SreatH
:ine H
:antastic H
II.4. T(" *'-%&%'$ '0 ,.;"/&%:"- %$ +"3,&%'$ &'
&(" $')$
The ad3ectives usually precede the noun or pronoun they modify.
They follow the noun in a number of titles (7ttorney Eeneral9 Sovernor
Eeneral9 ,oet aureate9 *ergeant Ma1or) and in a number of fxed phrases
(hope eternal9 sum total9 time immemorial9 Soodness graciousH)
53
(7lexander, %&11" %%%). 7d3ectives also follow the indefnite pronouns
ending in /body, -one, -thing, -where (=uir! et al., %&&%" 041)" anyone rich,
something important.
7 few ad3ectives formed with the prefx a- and the four ad3ectives
absent, present, concerned, involved usually appear in postposition (=uir!
et al., %&&%" 04104&)" the building abla+e, the ships a9oat, the people
absent5present5concerned5involved.
*ome ad3ectives (mostly ending in ?able and ?ible" available,
eligible, imaginable, etc.) can precede or follow the noun, usually with no
change of meaning"
Ex" 5e will complete the wor! in the time available 5 available time.
7 few ad3ectives have di@erent meaning depending on whether they
precede or follow the noun"
Ex" the concerned person (Z worried) C the person concerned (Z
responsible)
the involved explanation (Z complicated) C the person involved
(Z connected with)
the present employees (Z currently employed) C the employees
present (Z here now)
the proper 6uestion (Z correct) C the 6uestion proper (Z itself)
II.6. C3,--%#/,&%'$ '0 ,.;"/&%:"-
II.6.1. A//'+.%$2 &' 5",$%$2
;epending on what they refer to, there are two types of ad3ectives"
a) descriptive ad3ectives ? they express a 6uality (good, bad, smart,
etc.) or a physical state such as age, colour, si+e (old, brown, large,
etc.)
%&
9
b) limiting ad3ectives ? they express distance, 6uantity, possession,
placing restriction on the nouns they modify.
II.6.2. A//'+.%$2 &' -1$&,/&%/ 0)$/&%'$
The use of ad3ectives as attributive or predicative gives the following
classifcation of ad3ectives"
a) central ad3ectives ? they can be both attributive and predicative
Ex" a big car ? the car is big
b) attributive only
0(
Ex" the mere truth Tthe truth is mere
c) predicative only
0%
Ex" Ta loath man ? the man is loath to accept it
II.6.3. A//'+.%$2 &' -"5,$&%/ .%-&%$/&%'$-
:rom a semantic point of view the ad3ectives can be classifed into
(=uir! et al., %&&%" 0<2)"
- stative and dynamic
1(
:or a list of descriptive ad3ectives see 7ppendix )).a
20
:or a longer list of ad3ectives used attributively see 7ppendix )).b
21
:or a longer list of ad3ectives used predicatively see 7ppendix )).c
54
/ost ad3ectives are stative. Pnli!e the dynamic ad3ectives, they
cannot be used with a progressive aspect or the imperative mood"
Ex" T*heBs being old.
TIe oldH
7d3ectives that can be used dynamically include" adorable,
ambitious, brave, calm, careful, friendly, funny, generous, gentle, kind,
nice, patient, shy, timid, vulgar.
- gradable and nongradable
/ost ad3ectives are gradable" Nthey denote scalar properties that
can apply in varying degreesO (Fuddleston . ,ullum, 0((2" %%1). They can
admit the use of such adverbs as more and most or suQxes such as /er,
est, which convey the degree of intensity of the ad3ectives, but they can
also admit other intensifers such as very, e:tremely, so.
Ex" interesting more interesting ? the most interesting
very C extremely C so interesting
old ? older ? the oldest
very C extremely C so old
/ost stative ad3ectives and all dynamic ad3ectives are gradable. Mnly
a few stative ad3ectives (the socalled Ntechnical ad3ectivesO and
ad3ectives denoting provenance) are nongradable, denoting Nnonscalar
propertiesO (Fuddleston . ,ullum, 0((2" %%1).
Ex" Tmore atomic
Tvery atomic
Textremely $omanian
- inherent and noninherent
/ost ad3ectives are inherent, characteri+ing the referent of the noun
directly. Sradable ad3ectives can be either inherent or noninherent"
Ex" a white bag (Z the bag is white) ? inherent
a new friend (TZthe friend is new) ? noninherent
;ynamic ad3ectives are generally inherent.
Ex" a 1ealous husband (Z the husband is 1ealous)

II.7. T(" D"-/+%*&%:" A.;"/&%:"-

II.7.1. T(" 0'+5,&%'$ '0 ,.;"/&%:"-
There are three ways of building up ad3ectives in English" derivation
(using prefxes and suQxes), conversion and composition.
a) derivation
- using prefxes (a-, ab-, bi-, dis-, e:tra-, in-, ir-, super-, etc.)" alive,
abnormal, bifocal, disadvantageous, e:traordinary, incapable, irregular,
supernatural, etc.
using suQxes (-able, -ible, -ful, -ic, -ing, -some, -y, etc.)" agreeable,
sensible, useful, historic, ama+ing, 6uarrelsome, dusty, etc.
7 special case is that of the ,ast ,articiple /ed and of the ,resent
,articiple /ing (used as suQxes for forming ad3ectives)" the former means
a2ected in this way, the latter means having this e2ect.
Ex" alarmed ? alarming
55
confused ? confusing
insulted ? insulting
tired ? tiring
*ome ,ast ,articiple forms are used only ad3ectively"
Ex" on bended !nees ? she had bent her !nees
a shrunken material ? the material has shrunk in the washing
panicstricken ? they were struck with panic
sunken wrac! ? the storm had sunk the ship
b) conversion
nouns changed into ad3ectives" a stone wall9 a summer dress
verbs changed into ad3ectives" a make-and-break situation9 the
would/be actor
adverbs changed into ad3ectives" the above rule9 his only friend
7t the same time, in certain situations, the ad3ectives may function
as other parts of speech"
- when they denote abstract notions and are preceded by the defnite
article, ad3ectives may function as nouns" the poor; the rich; the
brave; the wounded
- when the ad3ectives designate nationalities, they also function as
nouns" the !nglish; the $ussians; the Cndians
- ad3ectives may serve as adverbs" to brea! loose9 straight ahead
-
c) composition
ad3ective R noun" a long-distance call
ad3ective R ,ast ,articiple" a hard-boiled egg
ad3ective R noun R (e)d" a dark-haired man
noun R ,ast ,articiple" heart-broken
noun R ad3ective" crystal-clear
noun R ,resent ,articiple" cancer-producing substances
noun R noun" a sound-proof room
adverb R ,ast ,articiple" well-meant
adverb R ad3ective" wide-open
adverb R ,resent ,articiple" hard-working
verb R noun" a telltale signal
verb R verb" a would-be champion
verb R adverb" a runaway man
preposition R noun" underage
numeral R noun R ad3ective" a 8ve-year-old girl
II.7.2. T(" /'5*,+%-'$ '0 ,.;"/&%:"-
The comparison applies only to gradable ad3ectives, which have
three degrees of comparison" the ,ositive, the Lomparative (of superiority,
of e6uality and of inferiority) and the *uperlative (the Relative *uperlative
and the 7bsolute *uperlative).
The ,ositive degree is the root form of the ad3ectives that can be
found in the dictionaries (Loghill . /agedan+, 0((8" %'().
56
7ccording to the way they form the comparative of superiority and the
relative superlative ad3ectives may be divided into regular and irregular.
%) The regular ad3ectives ? they may have two forms for the
comparative and superlative" an inGected form (adding the suQxes ?er
and ?est) and an uninGected form (using more and most). The ad3ectives
that form the comparative by adding /er to the positive form of the
ad3ective and the superlative by adding /est and a defnite article to the
positive form of the ad3ective include"
- the monosyllabic ad3ectives (except right, real, wrong)
Ex" fat ? fatter ? the fattest
soft ? softer ? the softest
- the disyllabic ad3ectives ending in /y or ?ly"
Ex" busy ? busier ? the busiest
lonely ? lonelier ? the loneliest
There are some ad3ectives that can have both forms (inGected and
uninGected) for the comparative and the superlative"
- the disyllabic ad3ectives ending in ?er, -le, -ow, -some and ?ure"
Ex" clever ? cleverer C more clever ? the cleverest C the most clever
noble ? nobler C more noble ? the noblest C the most noble
shallow ? shallower C more shallow ? the shallowest C the most
shallow
handsome ? handsomer C more handsome C the most handsome
obscure ? obscurer C more obscure ? the obscurest C the most
obscure
- some dissyllabic ad3ectives with the stress on the frst syllable"
Ex" idle ? idler C more idle ? the idlest C the most idle
cruel ? crueller C more cruel ? the cruellest C the most cruel
- numerous dissyllabic ad3ectives with the stress on the last syllable"
Ex" profound ? profounder C more profound ? the profoundest C the
most profound
severe ? severer C more severe ? the severest C the most severe
sincere ? sincerer C more sincere ? the sincerest C the most
sincere
The following orthographical rules should be noted and obeyed
(-espersen, 0((<" %'(%'%)"
a) single fnal consonants are doubled when the preceding vowel is
stressed and spelled with a single letter" big / bigger / the biggest
b) the fnal /l is doubled when it follows an unstressed vowel" cruel /
crueller / the cruellest
c) the fnal /y remains unchanged when preceded by a vowel" gray /
grayer / the grayest
d) the fnal /y changes to /i when it comes after a consonant" happy /
happier / the happiest
e) ad3ectives ending in /e add only /r or /st" 8ne / 8ner / the 8nest
5'
The ad3ectives that form the comparative by adding more in front of
the positive form of the ad3ective and the superlative by adding the most
in front of the positive form of the ad3ective include"
the plurisyllabic ad3ectives"
Ex" interesting ? more interesting ? the most interesting
beautiful ? more beautiful ? the most beautiful
- the dissyllabic ad3ectives with the stress on the frst syllable"
Ex" fragile ? more fragile ? the most fragile
constant ? more constant ? the most constant
- the participles and the ad3ectives with participial suQxes
Ex" upset ? more upset ? the most upset
s!illed ? more s!illed ? the most s!illed
convincing ? more convincing ? the most convincing
0) The irregular ad3ectives
They have di@erent forms for the comparative and the superlative"
P'-%&%:" C'5*,+,&%:" S)*"+3,&%:" E=,5*3"
good better the best This is a better
car than the one
) used to have.
Fe is the best
student in his
class.
bad worse the worst Your test paper is
worse than mine.
This is the worst
meal ) have ever
eaten.
ill worse the worst T)n 7merican
English ill is the
formal e6uivalent
of sick.
T)n Iritish
English ill is used
only
predicatively.
You loo! ill. C You
feel ill.
Fe is a sick child.
The sick must be
ta!en care of.
much
(uncountable
nouns)
more (the) most ) need more time
to solve this
problem.
58
Most cheese is
made from cowBs
mil!.
many
(countable
nouns)
more (the) most There were more
students present
than ) expected.
Most students
understand
English.
little less the least ) earn less
money than my
brother.
Fe does the
least wor! in his
oQce.
old (for age of
people and
things)
older
elder (used only
attributively, for
the members of
the same family)
the oldest
the eldest (for
the members of
the same family)
Fis elder brother
is two years
older than him.
late later (for time)
latter (for order9
the second of the
two, the opposite
of the former)
the latest (for
time9 the most
recent)
the last(for
order9 the fnal)
ater rumours
say that he is
dead.
This is his latest
boo!.
The latter half of
/ay was very
cold.
This is his last
poem.
far farther (usually
for distance)
further (for
distance and
time)
Tfurther alone
means also
additional
the farthest
(usually for
distance)
the furthest (for
distance and
time)
#arther towns
need water
supply.
This is the
farthest village in
the county.
Fis arrival is
further than we
expected.
Fis arrival was
the furthest.
) need further
information on
this matter.
near nearer the nearest (for
distance)
the next (for
Fis house is
nearer to mine
than yours.
5(
order) Fis house is the
nearest to the
town centre.
The ne:t bus will
come in %(
minutes.
7s previously mentioned, there are three types of Lomparative and
two types of *uperlative, which have the following forms"
a) the Lomparative ? it is used in order to compare one person or
thing with another. The comparison may be between"
single items" Mary is younger than Paul.
a single item and a group" Mary is younger than her sisters.
two groups" My sisters are younger than your sisters.
The Lomparative can be"
of superiority" -er 5 more5 irregular form 7 than
Ex" This house is bigger 5 more interesting 5 worse than the other
one.
)f two things of exactly the same !ind are compared, the can be used
before a comparative in formal style"
Ex" 5hich is -the. biggerU (of the two houses)
/y house is -the. bigger. (of the two house)
There is a special construction, the 7 comparative 7 the, which is
used to show cause and e@ect"
Ex" The more e:pensive cigarettes become, the less people smo!e.
of e6uality" as 7 ad1ective -Positive. 7 as (there is a great number of
idioms which are comparatives of e6uality
00
)
Ex" /y house is as big as yours.
of inferiority" not as5 so 7 ad1ective -Positive. 7 as
less 7 ad1ective -Positive. 7 than
Ex" This boo! is less interesting than the others )Bve read.
*ometimes, the modifers of degree can have a submodifer placed
before them, which may (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 4&8)"
a) attenuate a negative value" rather less interesting
b) reinforce a positive value" only too pleased
b) the *uperlative ? it is used to compare one person or thing with
several in the same group.
There are two types of *uperlative"
the Relative *uperlative" the J/est 5 the most J 5 the -irregular form.
Ex" *he is the smartest 5 the most beautiful 5 the best in her class.
)nformally, the *uperlative can be used instead of a comparative
when comparing two people or things"
22
:or a list of these idioms see Ionta, Raluca, Cntroducing morphology4 -the article, the
noun, the ad1ective, the pronoun.4 workbook for students, IacJu, Ed. 7lma /ater, 0((&.
60
Ex" 5hoBs the richest, Tom or -imU
- the 7bsolute *uperlative"
the use of very 5 much 7 ad1ective -Positive.
Ex" )t is a very cold day.
) am -very. much obliged.
the use of a great number of adverbs (e6uivalent with very
and much) that are more expressive than the ones mentioned above"
admirably, alarmingly, completely, considerably, dreadfully, e:cessively,
e:tremely, greatly, highly, in8nitely, perfectly, remarkably, shockingly,
unusually, etc.
Ex" )t was unusually cold this spring.
) am dreadfully sorry.
T there are certain common collocations with a superlative
meaning" free+ing cold, blind drunk, fast asleep, stinking rich, highly
controversial, deeply moving, horribly dis8gured, etc.
the use of some adverbs that may get the value of an
absolute superlative" 1ust, =uite, positively, really, simply, etc.
Ex" )t was 1ust splendid.
) was =uite disappointed.
)t was positively 5 really disgraceful.
*he was simply awful.
the use of some prefxes in the formation of ad3ectives" e:tra-
dry, e:tra-strong, hypersensitive, oversi+ed, super8ne.
the use of the relative superlative in sentences where the
second element is very general or it is not present"
Ex" Fe has the worst of tempers.
) saw the sweetest baby.
*he is the funniest child.
the use of some exclamatory constructions"
Ex" 'hat a 8ne speechH
You are so kind to meH
the use of some genitive constructions"
Ex" Fe was the villain of villains.
Lourage was the virtue of all virtues.
the repetition of an ad3ective or adverb"
Ex" FeBs cleverclever.
>aughtynaughtyH

II.7.4. T(" '+."+ '0 ,.;"/&%:"-
5hen more ad3ectives are used to describe a noun, the usual order
is"
=uality si+eCageCshape colour origin past participle noun
Ieautiful big new oval blac! English handmade table
Tthe ad3ective indicating origin usually precedes an ad3ectival past
participle. Fowever, this is not invariable" a handmade !nglish table. )f a
61
present participle is used, it precedes the one expressing origin" a =uick-
selling !nglish handmade table.
Tthe general 6ualities precede the particular ones" a beautiful
spacious room.
II.8. T(" L%5%&%$2 A.;"/&%:"-
The most important limiting ad3ectives are (7lexander, %&119
IJdescu, %&149 ,aidos, %&&89 =uir! et al., %&&%)"
a) the possessive ad3ectives9
b) the demonstrative ad3ectives
c) the interrogative ad3ectives9
d) the relative ad3ectives9
e)the indefnite ad3ectives.
a) The possessive ad3ectives ? they are, for the singular, my, your, his, her,
its and for the plural, our, your, their. They change according to the gender
and number of the possessor.
Ex" The man has sold his car.
The woman has sold her car.
The possessive ad3ectives function as determiners.
Extra emphasis can be given to the idea of possession by the
addition of -very. own to all possessive ad3ectives (7lexander, %&11" 1%)"
Ex" )Bd love to have my -very. own car.
b) The demonstrative ad3ectives ? they are this5that, these5those, the
-Pthat., the other, such -a.,the same, very.
- this5that, these5those ? this5these refer to somebody or something close
to the spea!er9 that5those refer to somebody or something that is more
distant from the spea!er. They may have"
deictic use ? indicating spatial or temporal orientation"
Ex" This car is mine.
These days have been very happy for me.
anaphoric use ? referring to something !nown in the context or
already mentioned"
Ex" ) wanted to buy the last vase in the shop, but that vase was
bro!en.
cataphoric use ? pointing to something to be mentioned later"
Ex" #isten to this story )Bm going to tell you nowH
emotional use ? implying that the participants in the
conversation share the same views regarding the sub3ect of
discussion"
Ex" Fear this storyH
the -Pthat.4 ) didnBt recogni+e him at the moment. (Zat that moment)
- such -a. ? the meaning is this5that kind of" ) want such a car.
- same4 5e had the same views regarding this matter.
- very4 ) didnBt li!e her from the very beginning.
62
c) The interrogative ad3ectives ? they are what, which, whose, how many
and how much.
Ex" 'hat number do you have at your oQceU
'hich boo! did you li!e bestU
'hose car is this oneU
&ow much money have you spent so farU
&ow many people have you invited to your partyU
d) The relative ad3ectives ? they are what, -whatever., which, -whichever.
and whose.
Ex" ) advised him what decision to ta!e.
) didnBt !now which blouse to choose.
The man whose hair is white is her father.
e) The indefnite ad3ectives ? they are a certain, certain, some, any, no,
much, many, -a. little, -a. few, each, every, either, neither, all, whole, both
-the., several, other, another, enough, most.
a certain" Fe brought a certain /ary with him.
certain" Fe has certain boo!s that might interest you.
- some is used"
in aQrmative sentences" *he was carrying some boo!s.
in interrogative sentences that express an o@er, an invitation"
5ould you li!e some teaU
in interrogative sentences, when an aQrmative answer is
expected" Lould you give me some moneyU
with the meaning certain, but not all" Dome people believe
everything they see on TX.
Dome can also appear with some special uses" (7lexander, %&11" &%)
with the meaning e:traordinary" ThatBs some painting youBve
got on the wallH
with the meaning several" ) havenBt seen you for some years.
with the meaning appro:imately" There were some 0(( people
present.
with the meaning an unknown" There must be some doctor who
could help you.
with the meaning no kind of" ThatBs some answer, ) must sayH
(ironic)
any is used"
in aQrmative sentences, with the meaning no matter what" 6ny
idea is encouraged.
in interrogative sentences" 7re there any fruits in the fridgeU
in negative sentences, when the verb is negated" ) donBt have
any friends.
after negative adverbs (hardly, scarcely, barely)" ) hardly have
any friends.
6ny can also appear with some special uses" (7lexander, %&11" &%)
with the meaning usual" This isnBt 3ust any boo!. (itBs special)
with the meaning the minimum5ma:imum" *heBll need any help
she can get.
63
with the meaning no matter which" Sive me a plate. 6ny plate
will do.
- no is used in negative sentences, when the verb is aQrmative" ) have
no friends.
- much and many have the same meaning, but they are used with
di@erent types of nouns. Much is used with uncountable nouns, while
many is used with countable nouns.
Ex" Fe doesnBt have much money.
Fe doesnBt have many properties.
the pairs little5a little / few5a few have the same meanings, but they
are used with di@erent types of nouns. -6. little is used with
uncountable nouns, while -a. few is used with countable nouns. ittle
means not much, few means not many, a little and a few mean at least
some.
Ex" ) have little money.
) have a little money.
) have few friends.
) have a few friends.
)n theory, the comparative and superlative forms of few and little
maintain the re6uirements for the positive forms. )n practice, however, the
informal use of less and the least with plural countables or collective
nouns such as people is commonly heard.
Ex" ess and less people can a@ord to buy a new house.
This TX show attracts the least viewers.
- each refers to all members of a group, considering them one by one"
Three men entered the room9 each of them was carrying a bag.
- every refers to all members of a group, considered together" *he sent
me three letters and every letter stresses how much she li!es #ondon.
!very may appear in a series of idiomatic expressions" every bit,
every right, every now and then, every so often0
- either refers to singular count nouns, meaning one or other of the two"
You may ta!e either car.
- neither refers to singular count nouns, meaning not one and not the
other of the two" ) gave them two boo!s to read, but they read neither
boo!.
- all is used to indicate the entire 6uantity" 6ll pupils start their holiday
in -une.
- both -the. is used for two persons or things considered together" Both
my children are at school.
- whole means complete, every part of" Fe waited for her a whole year.
- several indicates a large but indefnite number of persons or things"
5e are going to spend several days at the seaside.
- other indicates something more or something di@erent" ) want to hear
other opinions about this matter.
- another means di2erent or one more" ) want another boo!, not this
one.9 Lan ) have another cup of co@eeU
- enough may appear before or after the noun" There are people
enough 5 enough people in the room.
64
- most indicates almost all of a =uantity or a number" Most people
present there were old.
III. THE VERB
III.1. D"#$%&%'$
III.2. T(" :"+6 *(+,-" ,$. %&- -&+)/&)+"
III.3. T(" :"+6 /3,--"-
III.4. T(" :"+6 0'+5-
III.4. F%$%&" ,$. $'$>#$%&" :"+6 *(+,-"-
III.6. T1*"- '0 :"+6- ,//'+.%$2 &' /'5*3"5"$&,&%'$
III.7. T(" 2+,55,&%/,3 /,&"2'+%"- '0 &(" :"+6
III.7.1. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 &"$-"
III.7.2. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 ,-*"/&
III.7.3. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 :'%/"
III.7.4. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 5''.
III.7.4.1. T(" I$.%/,&%:" M''.
III.7.4.2. T(" S)6;)$/&%:" M''.
III.7.4.3. T(" C'$.%&%'$,3 M''.
III.7.4.4. T(" I5*"+,&%:" M''.
III.8. T(" $'$>#$%&" :"+6 *(+,-"-
III.8.1. T(" I$#$%&%:"
III.8.2. T(" !"+)$.
III.8.3. T(" P,+&%/%*3"
III.9. M'.,3%&1 ,$. &(" 5'.,3 ,)=%3%,+%"-
III.9.1. C,$
III.9.2. C')3.
III.9.3. M,1
III.9.4. M%2(&
III.9.4. M)-&
III.9.6. S(,33
III.9.7. S(')3.
III.9.8. D%33
III.9.9. D')3.
III.9.11. U-". &'
III.9.13. D,+"
III.1. D"#$%&%'$
The verb is the principal part of speech by means of which people
most typically express their perception of events (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<"
8%').
65
III.2. T(" :"+6 *(+,-" ,$. %&- -&+)/&)+"
The verb phrase consists of a main verb (v), which may be a lexical
verb or a primary auxiliary. The main verb can function alone or preceded
by one or more auxiliaries (x). The frst auxiliary is usually called the
NoperatorO (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 8%')
The verb phrase may loo! li!e this"
v" ) went home
ov" ) am going home.
oxv" ) have been going home.
III.3. T(" :"+6 /3,--"-
Iy means of the verb phrase people express their perception of
activities, events or states. The verb phrase consists of the following
classes and forms of verbs (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 8%19 =uir! et al.,
%&&%" <&)"
- lexical verbs" go, read, take, etc.9
- auxiliary verbs"
- primary auxiliary" periphrastic do
aspectual be and have
passive be
modal auxiliaries" shall, should, will, would, can, could, may,
might, must, ought to9 need, dare, used to
- semiauxiliary verbs"
be able to, be about to, be apt to, be bound to, be due to, be going
to, be liable
to, be likely to, be certain to, be sure to, be to, be unlikely to, be
supposed to9
have to, have got to9
had better, would rather, would sooner0
The lexical verbs constitute an open set, meaning that new ones can
be added to the lexicon at any time. The auxiliary and semiauxiliary verbs
form closed sets, being limited in number.
III.4. T(" :"+6 0'+5-
>ormally, the English verb has fve forms (=uir! et al., %&&%" '()" the
base form, the /s form, the past, the /ing participle and the /ed participle.
The ?ed form is identical for both the past and the past participle in the
regular lexical verbs. 5ith the irregular lexical verbs
08
, the number of
forms may vary from three (cut, cuts, cutting) to eight (be, am, is, are,
was, were, being, been). The modal auxiliaries do not have the infnitive
(Tto can), the ?ing participle (Tcanning) or the ?ed participle (Tcaned).
FORM SYMBOL EAMPLE FUNCTIONS
%. the base form X wal!
go
a) the present
tense (except )))
rd
23
:or a complete list of irregular verbs, see 7ppendix )))
66
person singular)"
)CyouCweCthey
walk
)CyouCweCthey go
b) imperative"
'alkH
EoH
c) sub3unctive"
They demanded
that ) walk5go.
d) the bare
infnitive"
Fe canBt walk.
They may go.
e) the to
infnitive"
Fe wants us to
walk5go.
0. the ?s form Xs wal!s
goes
the present
tense, )))
rd
person
singular"
FeCsheCit walks.
FeCsheCit goes.
8. the past Xed% wal!ed
went
the past tense"
They
walked5went
home.
4. the ?ing
participle
(present
participle)
Xing wal!ing
going
a) the
progressive
aspect"
Fe is
walking5going
home.
b) nonfnite ?ing
clauses"
'alking5Eoing
home is not easy.
2. the ?ed
participle
(past participle)
Xed0 wal!ed
gone
a) the perfective
aspect"
*he has
walked5gone
home.
b) the passive
voice"
This alley was
walked on many
times.
III.4. F%$%&" ,$. $'$>#$%&" :"+6 *(+,-"-
6'
The above mentioned verb forms function in fnite and nonfnite
verb phrases. The elements that di@erentiate them can be seen in the
following chart (=uir! et al., %&&%" '%'2)"
F%$%&" :"+6 *(+,-"- N'$>#$%&" :"+6 *(+,-"-
They have tense distinctions
(present and past tense)
Ex" *he works hard.
*he worked hard.
They do not have tense distinctions.
They can function as the verb
phrase of a main clause, having a
concord with the sub3ect. :or the
verb to be, the concord is between
all persons and the verb.
Ex" ) am
You are
FeC*he is
5e are
:or the other lexical verbs, the
Nconcord is restricted to a contrast
between )))
rd
and non)))
rd
person
singular presentO (=uir! et al., %&&%"
'0).
Ex" ) go home.
Fe goes home.
The modal auxiliaries do not have a
concord with the sub3ect.
Ex" )CyouCheCweCthey may go.
They cannot function as the verb
phrase of a main clause"
Ex" T*he to come home early.
They have mood" indicative,
imperative and sub3unctive mood.
Ex" Fe goes home.
Eo homeH
They suggested that he go
home.

They do not have imperative mood.
Ioth the fnite and the nonfnite verb phrases can be either simple
or complex (=uir! et al., %&&%" '0'8).
a) The simple fnite verb phrase consists of only one verb, which can be
present, past or imperative.
Ex" *he goes home.
*he went home.
Eo homeH
b) The complex fnite verb phrase consists of two or more verbs. There are
four basic types"
7 (modalCperiphrastic) ? modal or periphrastic auxiliary R the base of
the verb phrase head.
Ex" Fe may call0
68
I (perfective) ? the auxiliary have R the ?ed participle of the verb
phrase head.
Ex" Fe has called0
L (progressive) ? the auxiliary be R the ?ing participle of the verb
phrase head.
Ex" Fe is calling0
; (passive) ? the auxiliary be R the ?ed participle of the verb phrase
head.
Ex" Fe is called.
These four types enter various combinations with each other"
7I" Fe may have called.
7L" Fe may be calling.
7;" Fe may be called.
IL" Fe has been calling.
I;" Fe has been called.
L;" Fe is being called.
7IL" Fe may have been calling.
7I;" Fe may have been called.
7L;" Fe may be being called.
IL;" Fe has been being called.
7IL;" Fe may have been being called.
c) The simple nonfnite verb phrase consists of only one verb in the
infnitive or participle.
Ex" to call
calling
d) The complex nonfnite verb phrase respects almost the same patterns
as the complex fnite verb phrase, with the exception of 7 type, as the
modal auxiliaries have no nonfnite forms. :ollowing the abovementioned
combinations, there can be distinguished the following types of nonfnite
verb phrases"
I" to have called 5 having called
L" to be calling 5 3being calling
;" to be called 5 being called
IL" to have been calling 5 having been calling
I;" to have been called 5 having been called
L;" to be being called 5 3being being called
IL;" to have been being called 5 having been being called
III.6. T1*"- '0 :"+6- ,//'+.%$2 &'
/'5*3"5"$&,&%'$
Lomplementation refers to the way in which a verb selects ob3ects,
the verb being thus considered transitive. There are four main types of
transitive verbs (=uir! et al., %&&%" 8%&)"
6(
a) Lopular (intensive) verbs ? are those verbs whose meaning changes
when the ob3ect following them is dropped" appear -sad., be
-happy., become -rich., feel -tired., get -ready., grow -old., keep
-silent., look -nice., smell -sweet., sound -terrible., turn -cold.
b) /onotransitive verbs ? are those verbs which re6uire a direct ob3ect
and they may be classifed further on into"
verbs which allow the passive transformation" begin, believe,
bring, call, cut, do, doubt, en1oy, lose, love, meet, receive,
remember, say, start, study, etc.
Ex" /y neighbour has cut the tree in front of his house. ? The tree in
front of my neighbourBs house has been cut by him.
verbs which do not allow the passive transformation" have,
lack, 8t, suit, resemble0
Ex" Fe lacks confdence. TLonfdence is lacked by him.
c) Lomplex transitive verbs ? are those verbs which are followed by an
ob3ect and an ob3ect complement" call, drive, 8nd, get, hold,
imagine, make, prefer, suppose, turn, etc.
Ex" Fer behaviour drives me insane.
d) ;itransitive verbs ? are those verbs followed by an indirect ob3ect
(normally animate and positioned frst) and a direct ob3ect (normally
inanimate)" ask, beg, charge, give, o2er, wish, etc.
Ex" Fe gave his secretary an envelope.
*ome verbs do not accept any ob3ect after them, as they refer to
actions or events which do not involve Nanyone or anything other than the
sub3ectO (Lobuild, %&&(" %8(). These are the NpureO intransitive verbs
(=uir! et al., %&&%" 8%&)" appear, come, die, fall, go, lie, rise.
There are some verbs which can be transitive or intransitive (=uir!
et al., %&&%" 8%&)"
a. with little or no di@erence in meaning" approach, drink, drive, enter,
help, pass, play, win
Ex" They drink (wine) every *aturday evening.
b. with considerable di@erence in meaning" begin, change, drop, grow,
walk, work, run
Ex" ,aul runs very fast.
-im runs a hotel.
III.7. T(" 2+,55,&%/,3 /,&"2'+%"- '0 &(" :"+6
The categories that are used with respect to the English verb are
tense, aspect, voice and mood.
III.7.1. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 &"$-"
)n English there is a clear distinction between time and tense, the
latter being only loosely related to time. Time is Na universal concept with
three divisionsO (=uir! et al., %&&%" 14), past, present and future. The
category of tense is used to ma!e reference to these extralinguistic
'0
realities. Senerally, in many languages, the changes in the verb forms
indicate present, past and future. :rom this perspective, English has only
two tenses, as there are only two cases where the form of the verb varies"
present ? which refers to present time (listen, come) and past ? which
refers to past time (listened, came) (7lexander, %&11" %2&). *till, the
combination of will R bare infnitive is considered to refer to the future9 at
the same time, the combinations of be R present participle and have R
participle are also considered as tenses.
III.7.2. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 ,-*"/&
7spect refers to the manner in which the action of the verb is
regarded or experienced. 7spect cannot be disconnected from the idea of
time9 however, this connection is regarded in a di@erent way than when
tense is ta!en into account. Thus, tense relates an action to a time point,
referring to the external time of a situation, while aspect relates the action
to an internal time of a situation, denoting its internal time organi+ation. )n
English, the contrast is between perfective5non-perfective aspect and
progressive5non-progressive aspect. The categories of tense and aspect
combine, resulting the following constructions"
a) present perfect C past perfect
Ex" she has called 5 had called
b) present progressive C past progressive
Ex" she is calling 5 was calling
c) present perfect progressive C past perfect progressive
Ex" she has been calling 5 had been calling
The perfect aspect indicates that the action expressed by the verb
precedes a certain moment in time. This means that the action or state
expressed by present perfect or past perfect is considered to be
completed at the time of spea!ing or at a time spo!en of.
The progressive aspect indicates that the action expressed by the
verb is considered as being in progress, as proceeding continuously at a
defnite period of time. )t indicates ongoing actions (instead of the
occurrence of an action) or the continuity of a state (instead of the
existence of that state). The progressive aspect can also show
simultaneity, incompletion, emphasis or limited duration of time. )n English
there are some verbs which can occur in the progressive aspect and others
which cannot do so. Senerally, the distinction is between verbs in dynamic
use (which accept the progressive) and verbs in stative use (which cannot
be used in the progressive). The dynamic verbs include (=uir! et al., %&&%"
&2&<)"
verbs that denote activities" call, drink, eat, listen, play, work, write etc.
verbs that denote processes" change, deteriorate, grow etc.
verbs of bodily sensation" ache, feel, hurt, itch etc.
transitional event verbs" arrive, die, fall, leave etc.
momentary verbs" hit, 1ump, kick, knock etc.
The stative verbs include"
verbs of physical perception" hear, see, taste, smell, sound
'1
verbs of mental perception" believe, doubt, feel, forget, guess, imagine,
remember, think, understand etc.
verbs of emotion or attitude" adore, care, like, dislike, forgive, hate,
want, wish, surprise etc.
verbs showing possession" have, own, possess etc.
other verbs such as" be, appear, concern, contain, involve, lack, need,
seem etc.
*ome of these verbs can be used in the progressive aspect only in
certain cases"
%.To hear
to receive news of or from"
Ex" 5eBre hearing interesting news about our friend.
when referring to legal cases, meaning to try"
Ex" The 3udge is hearing my neighbour, who is a witness in this case.
0. To see
to meet by appointment
Ex" )Bm seeing my family next wee!.
to visit
Ex" 5e are seeing the beautiful sights of Xerona.
to have hallucinations
Ex" )Bm seeing things.
8. To smell
to try to get a particular sensation
Ex" 5hy are you smelling the fshU
4. To feel
the progressive form suggests that the state is temporary
Ex" /y mother felt well yesterday, but she is not feeling well today.
when it means to try to get a particular sensation
Ex" The doctor is feeling the patientBs arm.
2. To taste
to try to get a particular sensation
Ex" FeBs tasting the wine.
<. To have
to eat, to drin!
Ex" )Bm having lunch.
to have a bath C a chat C a ride C a good time C a laugh C a swim
Ex" )Bm having a chat.
'. To be
for temporary activity or behaviour
Ex" YouBre being so strange todayH
1. To li!e9 to love
to en3oy
Ex" )Bm loving it.
&. To thin!
an opinion given or as!ed for
Ex" 5hat are you thinking aboutU
III.7.3. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 :'%/"
'2
Xoice refers to the relations established between sub3ect and action.
The action can be considered in two di@erent ways, without altering the
facts, the opposition being between active and passive constructions.
Ex" *he will call me.
) will be called by her.
The situation reGected by the passive construction does not di@er
from the situation reGected by the active construction ^ the nature of the
process is preserved intact and the situational participants remain in their
places. The transition from the active voice to the passive voice changes
the sub3ective appraisal of the situation by the spea!er, the plane of his
presentation of it.
Fowever, not all the verbs capable of ta!ing an ob3ect are actually
used in the passive. )n particular, the passive form is alien to many verbs
which display a wea! dynamic force, such as have (direct possessive
meaning), belong, cost, resemble, fail, misgive, etc. Thus, in accord with
their relation to the passive voice, all the verbs can be divided into two
large sets" the set of passivised verbs and the set of nonpassivised verbs.
III.7.4. T(" /,&"2'+1 '0 5''.
/ood indicates the way in which the spea!er considers the action or
state denoted by the verb. )t can be conceived as a fact, as actually ta!ing
place or as a command, desire, possibility or condition. Thus, the moods
for the fnite verb forms are the indicative, the sub1unctive, the conditional
and the imperative.
III.7.4.1. T(" I$.%/,&%:" M''.
The indicative mood shows that the spea!er considers the action or
state denoted by the verb as real. )t includes the present tense (simple
and progressive), the past tense (simple and progressive), the present
perfect (simple and progressive), the past perfect (simple and progressive)
and the future (simple and progressive).
a) The ,resent Tense *imple
The formulae describing the structure of the present tense simple
are"
7ctive voice" X
X R (e)s ())) person sg.)
,assive voice" be (present simple) R X R ed participle
)t is a tense which can be used with or without any reference to a
certain time. 5ithout reference to a certain time, the present simple falls
into two categories, the generic present and the habitual present"
The generic present shows states that are valid not only at the
speech time now, but also at any interval of time.
Ex" )ce melts in the sun.
5ater boils at %(( degrees Lelsius.
)t is used to express"
'3
%. Seneral timeless statements (eternal truths)
Ex" /an is mortal.
0. ;efnitions
Ex" Srammar is 5 represents the study of how words and their
component parts combine to form sentences.
8. ,roverbs and sayings
Ex" 7llBs well that ends well.
4. Seographical or mathematical statements
Ex" The earth moves round the sun.
Three and fve make eight.
The habitual present indicates that a situation is repeated with a
given fre6uency, during an interval.
Ex" 7 dog barks in my yard every day.
The mar!ers (adverbs of fre6uency) normally used with the habitual
present are" always, often, usually, fre=uently, generally, normally, every
day5month5year, sometimes, rarely, seldom, regularly, twice a
week5month5year.
5ith reference to a certain time, the present simple is used to
express instantaneous activities, single actions begun and completed
approximately at the moment of speech.
Ex" ) place this Gower into the hat and loo!, a rabbit pops out.
The situations when the instantaneous present is used are the
following"
%. *tepbystep instructions and demonstrations
Ex" To get to the station you go straight on.
:irst ) take a bowl and break two eggs into it.
0. *port commentaries
Ex" The player hits and the ball goes into the audience.
8. ,erformatives (the uttering of the sentence is simultaneous with
the action)
Ex" ) pronounce you man and wife.
4. *tage directions
Ex" Seorge enters the room" FiH
2. *pecial exclamatory sentences (with initial adverbials" here, there,
up, down, etc.)
Ex" Fere comes the winnerH
The present tense can also denote future time or it can have a past
time reference.
'4
The simple present with future reference shows that the action
supposed to happen in the future is fxed in advance.
)t is used in"
%. MQcially planned actions (timetables, statements about the
calendar)
Ex" The train for #ondon leaves at six.
Tomorrow is Tuesday.
0. ,lanned activities where the idea of certainty is implied
Ex" *he returns tomorrow morning.
8. *ubordinate clauses of time
Ex" )Bll call you when ) get home.
4. *ubordinate clauses of condition
Ex" )f you come here tomorrow, weBll go to the cinema.
The simple present with past reference shows that past happenings
are portrayed as if they are going on at the present moment.
)t is used"
%. 5ith verbs of linguistic communication (to hear, to say, to learn, to
understand) which refer to the receptive end of the communication
process
Ex" ) hear sheBs getting married.
0. )n newspaper headlines in order to draw the attention of the
reader
Ex" ,lane crashes in ,aris.
b) The ,resent Tense ,rogressive
The formulae describing the structure of the present tense
progressive are"
7ctive voice" be (present simple) R X R ing participle
,assive voice" be (present progressive) R X R ed participle
)t is used to express"
%. 7n action happening at the moment of spea!ing
Ex" )Bm writing an exercise now.
0. 7 temporary action (in contrast with an action usually performed)
Ex" *he usually coo!s lunch, but today )Bm cooking.
8. 7n annoying action (the verbs are usually combined with such
adverbs as" always, continually, constantly)
Ex" You are always borrowing money from meH
4. 7 defnite action planned for the near future
Ex" )Bm meeting my friend tomorrow.
'5
2. 5ith activities C processes (to get, to grow) to express a transition
from one state to another
Ex" )tBs getting dar!.
c) The ,resent ,erfect *imple
The formulae describing the structure of the present tense perfect
simple are"
7ctive voice" have (present) R X R ed participle
,assive voice" be (present perfect simple) R X R ed participle
,resent perfect is the characteristic tense used in order to indicate
that a period of time stretches between some time in the past and the
present time. There are several types of present perfect, depending on the
type of action indicated"
%. the resultative present perfect indicates"
a) an action which is 3ust completed, but the result is still
present (the mar!ers are 1ust, already).
Ex" They have 3ust solved the problem.
b) an uncompleted action that one is expecting (the mar!ers
are yet, still).
Ex" 5e haven>t 8nished eating yet.
0. the continuative present perfect shows an action begun in the past
and still continuing to the present, but only with noncontinuous
verbs.
Ex" 5e have known each other since we were !ids.
This hut has been deserted for three days.
8. the experiential present perfect may refer to"
a) general experiences (the mar!ers are never, ever, often,
seldom, always)
Ex" ) have never visited 7merica.
b) limited experiences (with words denoting an incomplete
period of time" this week 5 month 5 year, today, this morning)
Ex" 5e have worked a lot this wee!.
The present perfect may have future reference, in adverbial clauses
of time in order to express a future action, prior to the one represented
by a future tense in the main clause.
Ex" 5e will paint the fence after we have had lunch.
d) The ,resent ,erfect ,rogressive
The formulae describing the structure of the present perfect
progressive are"
7ctive voice" be (present perfect simple) R X R ing
,assive voice" be (present perfect progressive) R X R ed participle
'6
The present perfect simple and the present perfect progressive
generally share the same temporal relations9 the present perfect
progressive stresses the limited duration of an action or state.
The continuative present perfect progressive shows duration from
the past until now (the mar!ers are since, for, lately, recently).
Ex" *he has been teaching this class since Lhristmas.
5e have been working a lot recently.
The resultative present perfect progressive suggests that one can
see, smell, hear or feel the results of an action that has recently stopped.
Ex" You have been 8ghting again. _) can tell from your blac! eye`
*he has been crying. _#oo!, her eyes are red.`
The present perfect progressive can have an incomplete event use,
showing that the action is not completed
Ex" 5ho has been eating my dinnerU _*ome of my dinner is left.`
5ho has eaten my dinnerU _7ll my dinner is gone.`
The present progressive can also have an emotional use, conveying
feelings of irritation.
Ex" ) have been demanding an explanation for hours but nobody has
yet dared to spea! up.
e) The ,ast Tense *imple
The formulae describing the structure of the past tense simple are"
7ctive voice" X R ed
,assive voice" be (past tense simple) R X R ed participle
The use of past tense simple is connected with a defnite past time
division which may be indicated by several adverbials or by the linguistic
or extralinguistic context.
The de8nite past tense expresses an action or state wholly
completed before the present moment (the mar!ers used are yesterday,
last week 5 month 5 year, that day, once, in ?@@@, on Dunday, ago, etc.).
Ex" Yesterday ) met my old friend -ac!.
The habitual past expresses a past habit or a repeated action in the
past.
Ex" *he drank three cups of co@ee a day.
)n this case, used to or would may also be employed.
The attitudinal past is related to the spea!erBs attitude rather than to
time, being most often associated with politeness. )t is used with verbs
such as hope, think, want, wonder. )t is considered to be more polite than
the present tense.
Ex" %id you want to see me nowU
) wondered if you could help me.
The past tense simple can have a past perfect value when it refers to
past events that ta!e place in se6uence.
Ex" *he knocked, entered and slammed the door.
''
The past tense simple can also have a future value (usually in
literary style). )n science fction, future events are told as if they are
recollected.
Ex" )n the year 00(% the /artians visited Earth.
f) The ,aste Tense ,rogressive
The formulae describing the structure of the past tense progressive
are"
7ctive voice" be (paste tense simple) R X R ing
,assive voice" be (past tense progressive) R X R ed participle
This tense is used"
to express an action in progress at a certain moment in the past, implied
by the context or expressed by adverbials (at this time yesterday, at ?5Q5R
o>clock yesterday 5 last week 5 last month, this time last week 5 month 5
year, etc.).
Ex" ) was working at 1 oBcloc! yesterday.
to indicate that an action was going on (li!e a Nbac!groundO) at a time
when something else, more important or more dramatic (the NforegroundO
action) too! place.
Ex" 5hile /ary was crossing (the Nbac!groundOaction) the street
yesterday, she saw (the NforegroundO action) an accident.
to show that two or more actions were going on at the same time in the
past.
Ex" 5hile /ary was cooking, her husband was reading the
newspaper.
to express a repeated action in the past which annoys the spea!er.
Ex" /y husband was always getting into trouble.
to express gradual progress without any temporal mar!er.
Ex" The car was getting worse.
with verbs such as hope, think, want, wonder it ma!es a re6uest sound
more polite but less defnite.
Ex" ) was wondering if you could help me.
f) The ,ast ,erfect Tense *imple
The formulae describing the structure of the past perfect simple are"
7ctive voice" have (past simple) R X R ed participle
,assive voice" be (past perfect simple) R X R ed participle
;escribed usually as a pastinthepast, the past perfect simple is
generally used"
to express a past action that too! place before a past moment or before
another action in the past (the mar!ers are when, after, before, as soon
as).
Ex" 5hen ) came home, he had already done his homewor!.
) came home after he had done his homewor!.
'8
Fe had done his homewor! before ) came home.
to express duration up to a certain moment in the past (mar!er" by the
time.)
Ex" Iy the time the rain started, we had got home.
to show that a past action was fnished a little time before another past
action (the mar!ers are" 1ust, already, hardly 5 barely 5 scarcely and no
sooner).
Ex" *he told us that her brother had 3ust left.
5e didnBt !now that he had already repaired his car.
) had hardly C scarcely entered the room when somebody
!noc!ed at the door.
5ith the last four mar!ers inversion may be used"
Ex" Fardly C scarcely C barely had ) entered the room when somebody
!noc!ed at the door.
>o sooner had she seen the photos than she remembered
everything about the accident.
with since and for when the point of reference is past.
Ex" )n %&&& ) had been a teacher for ten years.
) !new she had not seen him since Lhristmas.
in )ndirect *peech, to express a ,ast Tense or a ,resent ,erfect from
;irect *peech.
Ex" N) saw this flm last wee!O, >ic! said.
>ic! said he had seen that flm a wee! before.
N) have never visited /adridO, he explained.
Fe explained he had never visited /adrid.
to express a ,ast Londitional in a conditional clause.
Ex" ) would have given her the boo! if ) had met her.
to express an unfulflled wish.
Ex" ) wish ) had not missed the train.
after would rather (when the sub3ects are di@erent) or as if 5 as though.
Ex" Yesterday )Bd rather you had stayed here than gone there.
*he spo!e about that play as if C though she had seen it.
with such verbs as to e:pect, to hope, to intend, to mean to express past
hope or intention which was not fulflled.
Ex" ) had hoped 5 intended 5 meant to fnd tic!ets for that
performance but ) wasnBt able to.
g) The ,ast ,erfect ,rogressive
The formulae describing the structure of the past perfect
progressive are"
'(
7ctive voice" be (past perfect simple) R X R ing participle
,assive voice" be (past perfect progressive) R X R ed participle
The past perfect progressive tense is used"
to underline the continuity of a past action up to a past moment (the
mar!ers are since, for).
Ex" The pupils had been reading the lesson for fve minutes when the
teacher entered the classroom.
to show that the e@ect of a past action was still apparent.
Ex" *he told me that her son had been 8ghting. (the blue eye was
still visible)
to convey the spea!erBs irritation.
Ex" ) had been trying for hours to fnd him, but with no result.
h) /eans of expressing future time
7s there is no obvious future tense in English corresponding to the
timeCtense parallel for present and past (=uir! et al., %&&%" 1'), future
time is rendered by means of simple present or progressive forms or by
means of modal auxiliaries or semiauxiliaries.
The present simple is used"
%.:or future actions when we refer to programs, timetables etc.
Ex" The bus arrives at '.8(.
0. )n time and condition clauses
Ex" )Bll come when you call me.
)Bll come if you call me.
8. :or planned activities where the idea of certainty is implied
Ex" *he returns tomorrow morning.
The present progressive is used to express a defnite action planned
for the near future.
Ex" 5hat are you doing tomorrowU
Be going to shows"
%. )ntention (the future fulflment of present intention)
Ex" 5hat is she going to tell usU
0. ,rediction
Ex" )t is going to rain in a few minutes.
8. ,lanned actions
Ex" /y uncle is going to buy a boat next year.
5hat is called future simple (construction with the modals shallCwill
R verb) is used"
%. :or onthespot decisions
Ex" Mf course )Bll help youH
80
0. :or promises, threats, warnings, re6uests, hopes and o@ers
Ex" )f you repair the car, youBll have a three daysB holiday.
'ill you help meU
8. :or actionsCsituationsCevents which will defnitely happen in future
and which we can control
Ex" /y friend will see an interesting thing in the afternoon.
*F7## as a modal also shows"
a) determination, resolution
Ex" ) shall help you immediately.
b) promise
Ex" )f you repair this car, you shall have a three daysB holiday.
c) refusal
Ex" 7s you have not ta!en care of the boo! you borrowed, you shall
not have another oneH
d) threat
Ex" )f /ary has done such a thing, she shall pay dearly for it.
5)## as a modal also shows"
a) willingness, determination
Ex" ) will pay you as much as you as! for.
b) promise
Ex" ) won>t make such a mista!e again.
c) possibility
Ex" That girl under the tree will be his sister.
d) something unavoidable or that recurs very often
Ex" Ioys will be boys.
The future progressive is used"
%. To express a future activity that will begin before and will continue
after a certain moment in the future
Ex" This time tomorrow we shall be watching TX.
0. To indicate that an activity will extend over a whole future period
Ex" *he will be writing letters all day.
8. To express future events that are planned
Ex" 5e shall be spending our next holiday in the mountains.
The future perfect is used for actions which will be fnished before a
stated period of time Especially with words before, by, by then, until etc.
Ex" *he will have delivered all the newspapers by 1 oacloc!.
81
The future perfect progressive is used to emphasi+e the duration of
an action up to a certain time in the future
Ex" Iy the end of next month, she will have been teaching for twenty
years.
Be to indicates"
%. *omething that is destined to happen
Ex" The famous tennis player began the match in which he was to
break his arm.
0. 7n oQcial plan or arrangement
Ex" *he is to see her dentist tomorrow.
8. The will of a person, di@erent from the spea!er
Ex" This bad news is to be given to him after his exam.
4. ;uty
Ex" 5hat exercises are we to doU
2. ,ossibility, probability
Ex" ,rices are to be much higher soon.
Be about to is used to express something that will happen in the
immediate future
Ex" ) am about to go to the seaside.

III.7.4.2. T(" S)6;)$/&%:" M''.
The sub3unctive mood expresses wish, hope, suggestion, demand or
doubt. )t may have either synthetical or analytical forms.
a) The *ynthetical *ub3unctive
)t has two tenses" ,resent and ,ast.
%. The ,resent *ub3unctive
)ts form is the base form of the verb.
7ccording to its uses, there are two types of sub3unctive"
i. :ormulaic *ub3unctive
ii. /andative *ub3unctive
i. :ormulaic *ub3unctive ? expresses wishes or set expressions"
Ex" Sod save the =ueenH
#ong live the =ueenH
Sod bless youH
Feaven help usH
,urse this examH
ii. /andative *ub3unctive ? is used in subordinate thatclauses when the
main clause expresses a desire, a demand, a re6uirement, an obligation, a
necessity, etc.
82
)t appears in"
a) direct ob3ect clauses, after such verbs as" to suggest, to order, to
demand, to urge, to recommend"
Ex" *he suggested that we start the meeting.
b) in sub3ect clauses after such impersonal constructions as" it is
necessary5advisable5possible5impossible, etc.
Ex" )t is advisable that he study for this exam.
0. The ,ast *ub3unctive
)ts form is the past form of the verb. Fowever, it does not denote
time, but unreality.
)t is used"
a) in conditional clauses, to express a ,resent Londitional.
Ex" )f ) were you, ) would be more careful.
b) after"
wish"
Ex" ) wish ) were younger.
it>s -high. time"
Ex" )tBs (high) time you started learning.
)tBs (high) time for you to start learning.
the *ub3unctive indicates that it is a little late for the action.
the forRob3ectR#ong )nfnitive construction indicates that the
right time for the action has arrived.
as if5though"
Ex" Fe loo!s at me as ifCthough he didn>t understand me.
even if5though"
Ex" Even ifCthough ) lost my 3ob, ) wouldnBt move town.
would rather5sooner (with di@erent sub3ects)"
Ex" )Bd ratherCsooner you studied more.
suppose -that.4
Ex" *uppose (that) you were rich. 5hat would you doU
8. The ,ast ,erfect *ub3unctive
)ts form is identical to that of the ,ast ,erfect Tense.
)t is used"
a) in conditional clauses to express a ,ast Londitional"
Ex" ) would have left the country if ) had had the chance.
b) after"
wish (to express a regretted action in the past)"
Ex" ) wish you hadn>t said that.
as if5though"
Ex" Fe was spea!ing English as ifCthough he had lived in
England.
even if5though"
83
Ex" ) wouldnBt have told you the truth even ifCthough ) had
known it.
b) The 7nalytical *ub3unctive
)t is formed with the help of a modal auxiliary
(shall5should5would5may5might5could) and the infnitive of the verb.
%. Dhall 7 in8nitive is used"
in main clauses expressing suggestion"
Ex" Dhall ) help youU
in subordinate clauses, expressing resolution"
Ex" They have decided that you shall go there (Z you must go)
0. Dhould 7 in8nitive is used"
in main clauses, expressing doubt"
Ex" 5hy should you do such a thingU
in di@erent subordinate clauses"
a) in sub3ect clauses, after impersonal constructions li!e" it
is5was important5necessary5natural5surprising5 advisable
Ex" )t is necessary that you should come0
b) in conditional clauses, to underline the hypothetical nature
of the action"
Ex" )f he should call you (Z happened to call you), what would
you tell himU
c) in direct ob3ect clauses, after such verbs as to demand, to
insist, to command, to propose, to re=uest, to suggest, etc.
Ex" They insisted that you should come.
d) in subordinate clauses of purpose introduced by lest, for
fear -that., in case.
Ex" ) left in a hurry lest he should see me there.
e) concessive clauses introduced by though, although,
whatever.
Ex" 5hatever your son should do, donBt punish him.
8. May5Might R infnitive is used"
in main clauses, to express a wish"
Ex" May all your dreams come trueH
in di@erent subordinate clauses"
a) in sub3ect clauses introduced by it is5was
possible5probable5likely
Ex" )t is probable that it may rain today.
b) in subordinate clauses of purpose introduced by that, in
order that, so that.
Ex" Fe too! a seat in the front row so that he might hear
better.
84
c) in concessive clauses introduced by though, although,
however, whatever, no matter.
Ex" Fowever diQcult it may5might be to you, you must accept
the reality.
4. ,ould 7 in8nitive is an alternative to may5might. )t
expresses purpose, having a higher degree of certainty.
Ex" Fe too! a seat in the front row so that he could hear better.
2. 'ould 7 in8nitive is used in"
a) direct ob3ect clauses after wish, to express a possible action.
Ex" They wish we would visit them soon.
b) subordinate clauses of purpose, after that, in order that, so that.
Ex" *he studied all night so that she would be able to pass the
exam.
III.7.4.3. T(" C'$.%&%'$,3 M''.
The conditional mood shows that the spea!er considers the
action or state denoted by the verb as hypothetical.
There are no verb forms inGected for expressing condition in English.
The Londitional /ood uses di@erent tenses of the )ndicative /ood or
some auxiliary or modal verbs.
)t has two tenses, the present and the past conditional, described by
the formulae"
,resent conditional" would R infnitive
,ast conditional" would R have R X R ed participle
There is a variety of types of conditional sentences in English.
The standard structures include"
T1*" E"+' ? expresses reality, what always happens
)f ?clause" ,resent
/ain clause" ,resent
Ex" )f you mi: red and blue, you get violet.
T1*" I ? expresses an openCprobable condition.
)f ?clause" ,resent
/ain clause" :utureC)mperative
Ex" )f she sees -ohn, she will give him the boo!.
)f you see -ohn, give him the boo!.
T1*" II ? expresses re3ectedCimprobableChypotheticalCunreal condition.
)f ?clause" ,ast Tense
/ain clause" ,resent Londitional
Ex" )f ) were you, ) wouldn>t accept his o@er.
)f ) had more time, ) would help you.
85
T1*" III ? expresses an impossible condition.
)f ?clause" ,ast ,erfect
/ain clause" ,ast Londitional
Ex" )f ) had gone there, ) would not have met him.
The mi:ed structures express supposition, the following combinations
being possible"
a) )fclause" ,ast Tense
/ain clause" :uture
Ex" )f she left her umbrella in the des!, she will 8nd it tomorrow.
b) )fclause" ,ast Tense
/ain clause" ,resent Tense
Ex" )f she stopped in ,aris, she is unlikely to be bac! in one day.
c) )fclause" ,resent ,erfect *impleC,rogressive
/ain clause" :uture
Ex" )f he has bought a car, he will have to get his driving license.
)f he has been playing computer games for so many hours, he
won>t be able to fnish his homewor!.
d) )fclause" ,resent *imple
/ain clause" :uture ,erfect
Ex" )f she wins, she will have studied hard.
T(" )-" '0 5'.,3 ,)=%3%,+%"- %$ %0>/3,)-"-
a) Dhould expresses supposition
Ex" )f you should come across Iill, tell him to ring me up, please.
b) 'ill expresses"
volition
Ex" )f you will e:plain this problem to me, )Bll fnish my wor! in time.
obstinate insistence
Ex" )f you will go there, you will be sorry.
hypothesis
Ex" )f she will become a student, she has to wor! harder.
polite invitation
Ex" )f you will wait here, )Bll tell the doctor that you have come.
c) 'ould indicates"
volition
Ex" )f Tom would help me, ) would repair my car today.
highly polite re6uest
Ex" )f you would accept our terms, we could sign the contract very
soon.
T(" '5%--%'$ '0 IF
86
)n conditional sentences of type )) and ))) if may be omitted for
stylistic purposes.
)n such cases there ta!es place an inversion.
Ex" Cf he were to 8nd us here, he would be very surprised.
'ere he to 8nd us here, he would be very surprised.
Seorge could buy a new car if he saved enough money.
Dhould Eeorge save enough money, he could buy a new car.
The team would have won the championship if they hadn>t lost
the last match.
&ad the team not lost the last match, they would have won the
championship.
7 conditional clause may be also introduced by"
unless
Ex" *he will not understand the flm unless she reads the boo! as
well.
but for
Ex" But for this rain, ) would go for a wal!.
in case
Ex" Cn case ) meet her, )Bll let her !now about you.
supposeCsupposing (that)
Ex" Duppose5supposing -that. )Bm lateH 5hat would happenU
so long asCprovidedCproviding (that)Con condition that
Ex" Fe will lend you the car so long as5provided5providing -that.5on
condition that you bring it bac! in due time.
III.7.4.4. T(" I5*"+,&%:" M''.
The imperative form coincides with the short infnitive, having
aQrmative and negative forms. The imperative mood is used only in the
second person.
Ex" ,ome hereH
%o not shoutH
The imperative can also have a perfect form, rarely used in present
day English"
Ex" &ave the car searchedH
,assive constructions correspond only to the formulae be R X R ed
participle.
Ex" Be seatedH
Be informedH
The imperative is generally used to express (7lexander, %&11" %12)"
%. ;irect commands, re6uests, suggestions"
Ex" Eo homeH
*pen the windowH
Dtay calmH
0. 5arnings"
Ex" Be carefulH
8'
8. ;irections"
Ex" Eo straight onH
4. )nstructions"
Ex" 6dd some sugar and stir.
2. ,rohibitions (in public notices)"
Ex" Meep o2 the grassH
<. 7dvice (after always and never)"
Ex" 7lways be politeH
>ever speak to strangersH
'. )nvitations"
Ex" ,ome and have a drin! with meH
1. M@ers"
Ex" &ave a coo!ieH
III.8. T(" $'$>#$%&" :"+6 *(+,-"-
III.8.1. T(" I$#$%&%:"
The infnitive is the nonfnite form of the verb which combines the
properties of the verb with those of a noun.
#i!e other nonfnite forms (gerund and participle), the infnitive does
not undergo an agreement with the sub3ect and it does not have the
category of person or the category of tense (in the traditional sense, which
implies the idea of con3ugation). Fowever, the infnitive as a verb
preserves the categories of aspect and voice. Thus, the forms of the
infnitive are (7lexander, %&11" 0&&)"
7ctive ,assive
,resent infnitive" -to. call -to. be called
,resent progressive infnitive" -to. be calling
,erfect infnitive" -to. have called -to. have been called
,erfect progressive infnitive" -to. have been calling
The present infnitive refers to the same moment in time as the verb
that precedes it"
Ex" *he makes 5 made 5 will make the child cry.
The perfect infnitive refers to a time which is anterior to the one
referred to by the preceding verb"
Ex" ) hope to have done all in my wor!.
The infnitive as a noun can have the function of"
a) the sub3ect of a sentence"
Ex" To err is human.
b) a direct ob3ect"
Ex" ) want to help you.
c) the predicative"
Ex" /y wish is to travel all over the world.
d) an attribute"
Ex" This is a house to live in for the rest of your life.
88
There are two types of infnitive" the fullClongCcomplete infnitive
(with the particle to) and the shortCincompleteCplainCbare infnitive (without
to).
The long infnitive is used"
%. after a series of lexical verbs" appear, attempt, authori+e, begin, cease,
change, compel, decide, design, enable, encourage, e:pect, forbid,
hesitate, implore, like, manage, notify, omit, permit, persuade, prepare,
pretend, re=uire, resolve, seem, strive, try, want, wish, etc.
Ex" )t has 3ust begun to snow.
Fe wants to win the competition.
0. after semiauxiliaries" have to, be to, be about to, be going to, be
supposed to.
Ex" You have to work harder.
)tBs going to rain.
8. after two modals" ought to and used to.
Ex" You ought to visit your relatives more often.
5e used to go fshing every wee! when we lived in the country.
4. after some ad3ectives expressing moral or intellectual 6ualities" brave,
clever, courageous, cruel, foolish, generous, good, kind, mean, thoughtful,
wicked, etc.
Ex" )t is very thoughtful of you to visit me.
)t was foolish of him to drive that fast.
2. after ordinal numbers and superlatives.
Ex" You will be the frst to know.
*he is the best to perform in this movie.
7fter such verbs as to want, to like, to wish, to hate, to hope, to try,
etc. the infnitive is sometimes represented only by to, in order to avoid
repetition.
Ex" N;id you visit ,arisUO
N>o, ) didnBt. Iut ) would li!e to.O
The short infnitive is used"
%. after modal verbs.
Ex" You must call them at once.
) can help you.
0. after verbs of perception.
Ex" Fe saw me leave the house.
) heard him say that.
8. after certain expressions" had better, would rather5sooner, had best,
cannot but, need hardly.
Ex" You had better tell the truth.
)Bd rather stay home than go to wor!.
4. after the verbs to ma!e and to let.
Ex" ;onBt ma!e me laughH
#et me speakH
There are two usual constructions with the infnitive, called the
7ccusative with the infnitive and the >ominative with the infnitive.
8(
The 7ccusative with the infnitive is a construction in which the
infnitive is preceded by a noun or a pronoun in the 7ccusative. This
construction is generally used (,aidos, %&&8" 0(80(4)"
%. after verbs of perception" to feel, to hear, to perceive, to notice, to
watch.
Ex" ) heard him swear.
Fe saw me cross the street.
These verbs can also be followed by present participle, the
di@erence being that the infnitive expresses a complete action, while the
present participle shows that the action is not complete.
Ex" Fe saw me cross the street. (Fe watched me from one side of
the street to the other).
Fe saw me crossing the street. (Fe noticed me while ) was
crossing).
0. after to let, to make.
Ex" They will let me know when my car is fxed.
You ma!e me laughH
8. after verbs expressing mental activities" to believe, to think, to
understand, to imagine, to know, to suppose, etc.
Ex" ) imagined her to be right.
They considered me to be guilty.
4. after verbs expressing volition" to want, to wish, to desire, to intend.
Ex" ) want you to listen to me.
2. after verbs expressing permission or a command" to allow, to force, to
command, to oblige, to order, to permit.
Ex" *he allowed me to go out.
) ordered him to stop the car.
<. after verbs li!e to advise, to choose, to convince, to persuade, to send,
etc.
Ex" They advised me to pay my taxes.
) persuaded him to surrender.
The >ominative with the infnitive is a construction in which the
infnitive is preceded by a noun or a pronoun in the >ominative. This
construction is generally used (,aidos, %&&8" 0(4)"
%. after some verbs in the ,assive Xoice" to believe, to e:pect, to feel, to
hear, to imagine, to know, to notice, to perceive, to say, to see, to
suppose, etc.
Ex" Dhe is known to be a good actress.
Lou were supposed to come earlier.
0. after to appear, to chance, to happen, to prove, to seem, etc.
Ex" They happen to be our best friends.
Dhe proved to be very nice.
8. after some constructions" to be lucky5fortunate5unlucky5unfortunate, to
be certain5positive5sure, to be likely0
Ex" Lou were lucky to 8nd me.
They are likely to arrive tomorrow.
(0
III.8.2. T(" !"+)$.
The gerund is the nonfnite form of the verb which, li!e the
infnitive, combines the properties of a verb with those of a noun. -ust li!e
the infnitive, the gerund serves as the verbal name of a process. )t may
have tense and voice"
,resent" TomBs coming here is unexpected.
,erfect" Your having admitted the truth hurt me.
7ctive" *he li!es calling me three times a day.
,assive" *he insisted on being called at once.
The gerund has a more pronounced substantive 6uality than the
infnitive, namely (,aidos, %&&8" 0%20%<)"
a) it can be modifed by a noun in the possessive case or its pronominal
e6uivalents
Ex" The girl>s leaving so early was no surprise.
They insisted on my arriving early.
b) it can be used with prepositions
Ex" *he began by drawing our attention upon three issues.
c) it can have a plural form
Ex" ) lost count of his goings abroad.
d) it can have a genitive form
Ex" The idea of going abroad twice this summer pleased them.
e) it can be preceded by the defnite or indefnite article
Ex" *he is a dancing-teacher.
There were a lot of patients in the waiting-room.
f) it may be the sub3ect of a sentence
Ex" Playing the piano is her favourite hobby.
g) it may be the predicative
Ex" *eeing is believing.
h) it may be the ob3ect of a verb
Ex" Fe hates waking up early.
There are some verbs, nouns and expressions that re6uire the use of
the gerund"
%. verbs" to admit, to advise, to avoid, to begin, to consider, to continue, to
deny, to detest, to dislike, to en1oy, to e:cuse, to 8nish, to forget, to
forgive, to hate, to like, to love, to regret, to start, to suggest, to try, etc.
Ex" ) regret having hurt her.
*he didnBt want to ris! missing the train.
0. verbs with prepositions" to accuse of, to aim at, to agree with, to
approve of, to consist in, to e:cuse from, to insist on, to prevent from, to
rely on, to succeed in, to think of, etc.
Ex" They accused me of cheating.
) rely on your supporting me.
8. phrasal verbs" to go on, to keep on, to give up, etc.
Ex" [eep on tryingH
Fe gave up drinking two years ago.
(1
4. nouns with prepositions" apology for, disappointment at, e:perience in,
habit of, necessity of, pleasure of, possibility of, reason for, surprise at, etc.
Ex" Fe has the bad habit of smoking.
,lease accept my apology for having been so rude.
2. expressions with be5get 7 ad1ective5past participle 7 preposition" to be
afraid of, to be annoyed at, to be capable of, to be interested in, to be
responsible for, to be suitable for, to be surprised at, to be5get used to, to
be5get accustomed to, etc.
Ex" They are responsible for having lost the elections.
/y son is interested in collecting stamps.
<. expressions" can>t help, can>t stand, it>s no good5use, to be looking
forward to, to be worth, to feel like, etc.
Ex" )tBs no use trying again.
The boo! is worth reading.
There are some verbs which can be followed either by the gerund or
by the infnitive, with or without any di@erence in meaning (,aidos, %&&8"
0%100()"
V"+6 I$#$%&%:" !"+)$.
to begin, to cease Expresses and
involuntary action"
Ex" )t began5ceased to
rain.
Expresses a deliberate
action"
Ex" Fe began5ceased
playing the piano.
to stop /eans the cessation of
something else in order
to start doing an
action.
Ex" *he stopped to talk
to us.
/eans the cessation of
an action.
Ex" Dtop talking during
the lectureH
to attempt, to intend,
to learn, canBt bear
Psed in informal
English.
Ex" ) can>t bear to be
alone.
Psed in formal English.
Ex" ) can>t bear being
alone.
to hate, to love, to li!e,
to disli!e, to prefer
Psed for special
occasions.
Ex" ) hate to wake up
early on *undays.
Psed for general
activities.
Ex" ) hate waking up
early.
to remember, to forget,
to neglect, to omit
Psed for an action that
follows these verbs.
Ex" $emember to call
meH
Psed for an action that
precedes these verbs.
Ex" *he remembered
calling me the other
day.
to deserve, to need, to
re6uire, to want
Psed in the passive
voice.
Ex" This door needs to
be painted.
Psed more fre6uently.
Ex" This door needs
painting.
to try The meaning is to
make an
The meaning is to test,
to make an e:periment.
(2
e2ort5attempt.
Ex" 7lthough she didnBt
have too many
chances, she tried to
win the competition.
Ex" Fe tried mi:ing the
two substances.
to propose The meaning is to
intend.
Ex" *he proposed to
spend a wee! abroad.
The meaning is to
suggest.
Ex" *he proposed
spending a wee!
abroad.
to mean The meaning is to
intend.
Ex" They mean to
reach ,aris early in the
morning.
The meaning is to
signify, to involve.
Ex" To become a boss
means working very
hard.
III.8.3. T(" P,+&%/%*3"
There are two participles in English" the present participle (ending in
/ing) and the past participle (ending in /ed, in the case of regular verbs, or
having a special form, in the case of irregular verbs).
%. The present participle is the nonfnite form of the verb which
combines the properties of the verb with those of the ad3ective and
adverb. )t coincides in form with the gerund (they both end in the suQx /
ing). The present participle can have tense and voice, as verbal
characteristics"
,resent" calling
,erfect" having called
7ctive" calling
,assive" being called 5 having been called
The present participle is used as part of the progressive aspect and it
can be modifed by an adverb"
Ex" ) am calling her now.

7s an ad3ective, the present participle can be used predicatively and
also in di@erent degrees of comparison"
Ex" Fis story is more amusing than yours.
Fe told us the most amusing story we have ever heard.

There should be made a distinction between the present participle as
a modifer and the gerund as a modifer (the present participle can be
changed into an ad3ective clause)"
,resent participle" working class Z a class that is wor!ing
Serund" working-shoes Z shoes for wor!ing
,resent participle" a swimming child Z a child who is swimming
Serund" a swimming-pool Z a pool for swimming
(3
The present participle can be used as an adverb"
Ex" They waved at us smilingly.

There are several construction with the present participle (,aidos,
%&&8" 08%080)"
a) the 7ccusative with the participle ? used after verbs of perception (to
see, to hear, to feel, to watch, etc.), to express an incomplete action and
after such verbs as to catch, to 8nd, to imagine, to keep, to leave, to start"
Ex" ) saw her crossing the street.
Fe found her reading a newspaper.
b) the >ominative with the participle ? used with verbs of perception in the
passive"
Ex" The boss was seen leaving the frm.
c) the 7bsolute >ominative ? in this construction, the sub3ect of the
present participle is di@erent from the sub3ect of the sentence"
Ex" 5eather permitting, weBll go out for a wal! in the par!.
d) the 7bsolute participle ? in this construction, the present participle has
no sub3ect"
Ex" Senerally speaking, her wor! is very important for our company.
0. The past participle is the nonfnite form of the verb which
combines the properties of the verb with those of the ad3ective.
7s a verb, the past participle is used in the formation of perfect
tenses"
Ex" *he has changed her car.
Fe had called her before he visited her.
7s an ad3ective, it can function"
a) as a simple ad3ective"
Ex" ) saw in front of me a defeated man.
) am not 8nished yet.
b) as a compound ad3ective"
Ex" Fe came up with well-grounded ob3ections.
This is what ) call a well-appointed expedition
III.9. M'.,3%&1 ,$. &(" 5'.,3 ,)=%3%,+%"-
/odality is the category by which spea!ers express their attitude
towards what they are uttering. )t covers such notions as possibility,
probability, necessity, volition, obligation, permission, doubt, wish, regret,
desire.
The reali+ation of modal meanings can be achieved through"
a) modal auxiliaries
central modal auxiliaries" can, could, may, might, shall, should, will,
would, must.
marginal modal auxiliaries" ought to, used to, need, dare0
b) semiauxiliaries" had better, would rather, have to, -have. got to, be
supposed to, be going to, be able to, be obliged to, be likely to, be willing
to.
(4
c) lexical verbs" to allow, to beg, to command, to forbid, to guarantee, to
guess, to suggest, to warn, to wonder, to wish, etc.
d) adverbs" probably, possibly, surely, hopefully, thankfully, obviously.
e) ad3ectives" possible, probable, likely
f) nouns" possibility, probability, chance, likelihood
g) certain types of intonation (for example, the fallrise intonation)
h) the use of hesitation phenomena in speech
The modal auxiliaries have certain characteristics that di@erentiate
them from the other verbs"
- they do not have long infnitive9
Ex" Tto can
Tto must
they are not followed by long infnitive9
Ex" TYou must to wake up early.
they do not have ?ing participle9
Ex" Tmaying
they do not add /-e.s to the )))
rd
person singular9
Ex" Fe can spea! *panish very well.
there is no cooccurrence between the modal auxiliaries9
Ex" T) can must go.
(there is, though, cooccurrence between a modal and a semi
auxiliary"
Ex" You will have to spea! louder)
they have only two formal tenses" present and past9
Ex" ) can drive a car.
) could ride a bi!e when ) was a child.
they can combine with aspect and voice"
Ex" They may not have meant what they said. (perfect aspect)
They should be called. (passive voice)
the negation is formed by adding not after the modal9
Ex" You may not leave now.
the interrogative is formed with an inversion.
Ex" ,an ) go nowU
III.9.1. C,$
)n the aQrmative, can has the following meanings"
a) present or future physical or mental ability (the alternative construction
is to be able to)
Ex" ) can lift this table.
Fe can help us tomorrow.
b) action in progress (with verbs of perception)
Ex" ) can see you now.
c) permission (in informal English)
Ex" Fe can go there next time.
d) possibility
Ex" The doctor can see you now.
)n the interrogative, can is used"
(5
a) to as! about present or future physical or mental ability
Ex" ,an you lift this tableU
,an he help us tomorrowU
b) to as! about actions in progress (with verbs of perception)
Ex" ,an you see me nowU
c) to as! for permission in informal English
Ex" ,an ) borrow your carU
d) to express disbelief
Ex" ,an he be that badU
e) to express polite re6uests
Ex" ,an ) visit you laterU
The negative form expresses"
a) incapacity
Ex" ) can>t lift this table.
Fe can>t help us tomorrow.
b) action in progress (with verbs of perception)
Ex" ) can>t see you.
c) lac! of permission
Ex" You can>t go out.
d) impossibility
Ex" )tBs only ' oBcloc!9 she can>t be at wor! now.
Fe can>t have given a better answer than this one.
III.9.2. C')3.
,ould denotes in the aQrmative"
a) a past physical or mental ability
Ex" 5hen she was young she could s!ate very well.
Fe could spea! English when he was younger.
b) past permission
Ex" 5hen we were children we could play outside every day.
c) possibility regarded from a moment in the past
Ex" ) wondered if she could remember my address.
,ould in the interrogative is used"
a) to as! about a past physical or mental ability
Ex" ,ould you s!ate when you were a childU
,ould you spea! English when you were youngerU
b) to express a polite re6uest (more polite than can)
Ex" ,ould you show me the way to the airportU
The negative construction denotes"
a) lac! of physical or mental ability
Ex" 5hen she was young she couldn>t s!ate very well.
Fe couldn>t spea! English when he was younger.
b) impossibility
Ex" 5e couldn>t see anything in the fog.
III.9.3. M,1
(6
May in the aQrmative is used"
a) to express formal permission in the present or future (it can be replaced
by to be allowed to 5 to be permitted to)
Ex" You may leave.
b) to express possibility (it can be replaced by it is possible 5 maybe 5
perhaps)
Ex" )t may snow today.
*he may be working now. (may R ,rogressive )nfnitive Z
possibility of something that continues now)
Fe may have called you twice yesterday. (may R ,erfect
)nfnitive Z possibility that an action too! place in the past)
c) to express wish, hope
Ex" May all your dreams come trueH
)n the interrogative may is used"
a) to as! for permission (formal style)
Ex" May ) go outU
b) to express doubt, uncertainty
Ex" 5ho may that young lady beU
)n the negative may is used"
a) to express prohibition
Ex" You may not bring your boo!s into the examination room.
b) to negate the possibility
Ex" *he may not be the best in her class, but she is the most hard
wor!ing student.
III.9.4. M%2(&
Might denotes"
a) permission connected with the past (alternative constructions are was
allowed to 5 was permitted to)
Ex" *he told me ) might visit her whenever ) wanted.
b) present C future C past possibility (a little remote than the one expressed
by may)
Ex" Your sister might be at wor! now. (present)
Fe might leave tomorrow. (future)
) thought ) might manage abroad. (past)
Fe might still be working. (might R ,rogressive )nfnitive Z
possibility of something to continue)
They might have told the truth. (might R ,erfect )nfnitive Z
past possibility)
c) uncertainty
Ex" ) wonder who that old man might be.

III.9.4. M)-&
Must denotes"
a) obligation imposed by the spea!er. )ts substitute is to have to, but there
is a slight di@erence between them" the latter expresses obligation
('
imposed by external authority or circumstances, which the spea!er cannot
control.
Ex" ) must wa!e up early every day.
) have to play with my son whenever he as!s me.
b) command and necessity
Ex" You must listen carefully to my advice.
They must wor! hard if they want to earn more money.
c) deduction, logical conclusion, probability
Ex" )tBs late. Fe must be home.
*he must be still sleeping.
*he lost some weight. *he must have kept a diet.
The negative construction shows prohibition"
Ex" You must not par! the car here.
The lac! of obligation is not rendered by must not, but by don>t have
to, haven>t -got. to or needn>t.
Ex" You must learn all these poems.
You don>t have to 5 haven>t got to 5 needn>t learn all these
poems.
The negative deduction is not rendered by must not, but by can>t 5
couldn>t.
Ex" Fe must be in his oQce.
Fe can>t 5 couldn>t be in his oQce.
III.9.6. S(,33
Dhall shows"
a) the intention of punishment (in the oQcial style)
Ex" 7nyone who copies in the exam shall be punished.
b) threat (in the third person)
Ex" )f they brea! the rule they shall pay for it.
c) promise
Ex" )f you help me you shall be well paid.
d)command
Ex" You shall answer the letter immediately.
)n the interrogative form (frst person) shall shows the will of the
interlocutor"
Ex" Dhall ) help youU (;o you want me to help youU)
5hen shall ) call youU (5hen do you want me to call youU)
)n the negative form shall denotes"
a) refusal
Ex" 7s you have bro!en my car, you shall not borrow it from me
again another timeH
b) prohibition (synonymous with must not)
Ex" You shall not tal! to anybody on your way to schoolH

III.9.7. S(')3.
(8
Dhould expresses"
a) obligation (wea!er than the one expressed by must)
Ex" You should write your essay for tomorrow. (must Z have no other
choice)
b) an unfulflled duty in the past
Ex" You should have come here earlier. (but you didnBt)
c) supposition
Ex" )f itBs %( oBcloc!, he should be in his oQce.
d) advice
Ex" You should !eep a diet.
e) almost certainty (similar to ought to)
Ex" This should be their house.
III.9.8. D%33
'ill can express"
a) volition, willingness in aQrmative, interrogative and negative sentences
(it can also appear in if clauses)
Ex" ) will pay you if you will help me.
'ill you help meU
) won>t as! him anything.
b) possibility, assumption
Ex" This will be his car.
c) something unavoidable or that occurs very often (the will of fate)
Ex" 7ccidents will happen.
III.9.9. D')3.
'ould denotes"
a) volition in aQrmative, interrogative and negative sentences
Ex" )f ) would want that car, ) would buy it.
'ould you pass me the salt, pleaseU
) wouldn>t tell him the truth.
b) probability
Ex" That woman would be his sister.
c) a habit, a repeated action in the past
Ex" They would come every day for tea when they were my
neighbours.
III.9.10. O)2(& &'
*ught to expresses"
a) duty, moral obligation
Ex" You ought to phone home every day.
You ought to have phoned home every day. (unfulflled duty or
obligation)
b) a strong suggestion
Ex" You ought to !eep a diet.
c) expectation
Ex" There ought to come a lot of people at the wedding.
((
There ought to have come a lot of people at the wedding.
(expectation in the past which was not fulflled)
III.9.11. U-". &'
(sed to shows"
a) habitual actions in the past
Ex" ) used to come home late when ) was wor!ing.
b) habitual states in the past
Ex" There used to be a cinema near my house.
III.9.12. N"".
7s a modal auxiliary, need has the meaning to have to. )t has the
same form for all persons and is mainly used in the interrogative and
negative.
Ex" )eed ) wa!e up early every dayU C Yes, you must.
You needn>t wa!e up early every day.
)n aQrmative sentences need occurs with such words as never,
hardly and scarcely, which have negative implications"
Ex" ) hardlyCscarcely need mention their duty, since everybody
!nows what to do.
There are two variants for the negative form in the past, with
di@erent meanings" didn>t need to (the action was not necessary and was
not performed) and needn>t have 7 past participle (the action was not
necessary, but was performed).
Ex" ) didn>t need to !noc! at the door since it was already open.
) needn>t have knocked at the door since, in this way, ) awo!e
the baby.
III.9.13. D,+"
%are denotes"
a) doubt
Ex" %are he come here againU
b) bravery
Ex" Fe dare spea!.
c) impudence
Ex" Fow dare you say something li!e thisU
There are two main types of modality"
- epistemic (extrinsic) modality" the modal auxiliaries and semi
auxiliaries state the degree of li!elihood regarding the truth of the
proposition. The spea!er comments on the content of the clause.
- deontic (intrinsic) modality" the modal auxiliaries and semi
auxiliaries refer to ability, permission, duty, willingness in relation to
the sub3ect. The spea!er intervenes in the speech event.
10
EPISTEMIC
DEONTIC
>ecessity, probability, possibility of
the proposition
Xolition, obligation, permission of
the sub3ect
CAN
a) possibility (aQrmative,
interrogative and negative forms)
Ex" 7nybody can ma!e mista!es.
,an ) be wrongU
Fe can>t be in his oQce.
(negation of modality" )t is not
possible that b)
TT,ould is also used, as a tentative
form.
a) permission (in informal style)
Ex" You can inspect the school.
,an ) goU
You can>t go. (negation of
modality" refuse permission)
b) necessity (only interrogative and
negative forms. The aQrmative form
is with must).
Ex" They must be on holiday.
,an they be on holidayU
They can>t be on holiday.
b) possibility (granting for
permission)
Ex" You can see for yourself.
)Bll see what can be done and
give you a ring.
c) ability
Ex" ) can spea! English.
MAY
,ossibility (aQrmative and negative
forms)
Ex" You may be wrong.
Fe may not be in his oQce.
(negation of proposition" )t is
possible that he is not b)
a) permission (in formal style)
Ex" You may inspect the school.
May ) goU
You may not go. (negation of
modality" refuse permission)

b) possibility (granting for
permission)
Ex" You may see for yourself.
MUST
#ogical necessity (aQrmative form)
Ex" They must be on holiday.
a) inescapable obligation
Ex" ) must go.
b) necessity
Ex" You must !eep a diet.
DILL7DOULD
a) prediction
Ex" The course will be over by now.
a) willingness
Ex" 'ill you help meU
b) would habituality
Ex" ) would swim when ) was at the
seaside.
b) refusal
Ex" The door won>t open.
c) insistence
Ex" ) will come, no matter what you
say.
d) intention
Ex" ) will wait here until you come.
SHALL
10
a) o@er or suggestion
Ex" Dhall ) ma!e some tea for youU
Dhall we wal! in the par!U
b) inescapable obligation
Ex" 7ll candidates shall remain in
their seats.
SHOULD7OU!HT TO
,robability
Ex" They should be5ought to be
home by now.
Escapable obligationCadvisability
Ex" You should5ought to !eep a diet.
IV. THE ADVERB
IV.1. D"#$%&%'$
IV.2. T(" ,.:"+6%,3 *(+,-" ,$. %&- -&+)/&)+"
IV.3. C(,+,/&"+%-&%/- '0 &(" ,.:"+6
IV.4. T(" 0)$/&%'$- '0 &(" ,.:"+6-
IV.4. T(" 0'+5 '0 ,.:"+6-
IV.6. T1*'3'21 '0 ,.:"+6-
IV.6.1. A.:"+6- '0 5,$$"+
IV.6.2. A.:"+6- '0 *3,/"
IV.6.3. A.:"+6- '0 &%5"
10
IV.6.4. A.:"+6- '0 ."2+""
IV.6.4. I$&"++'2,&%:" ,.:"+6-
IV.6.6. C'$$"/&%:"7R"3,&%:" ,.:"+6-
IV.6.7. F'/)- ,.:"+6-
IV.6.8. V%"8*'%$& ,.:"+6-
IV.7. T(" /'5*,+%-'$ '0 ,.:"+6-
IV.8. I$:"+-%'$ ,0&"+ ,.:"+6-
IV.1. D"#$%&%'$
The adverb is the principal part of speech which, as the name
suggests (adverb), adds something to the meaning of the verb or modifes
it, showing how, when, where, etc. something happens or is done
(7lexander, %&11" %00). :rom a semantic point of view, many adverbs
express 6ualities of processes and situations (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<"
2(0).
Ex" Fe gently e:plained the truth to his daughter.
The adverb can also modify (7lexander, %&11" %009 Fuddleston and
,ullum, 0((2" %00)"
a) ad3ectives" The test was e:tremely easy.
b) other adverbs" Tell her )Bll come home very late.
c) prepositional phrases" Your car is completely out of order.
d) complete sentences" Dtrangely enough, he lost the competition.
e) nouns" The little girl here is my niece.
f) pronouns" The initiative was mostly his.
IV.2. T(" -&+)/&)+" '0 &(" ,.:"+6%,3 *(+,-"
The structure of the adverbial phrase is similar to that of the
ad3ectival phrase9 that is, it is composed potentially of three elements" the
head (, the modifer 5 and the posthead element, either 5(postmodifer)
or / (complement). These elements combine to form the following four
basic structures (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 2(8)"
M'.%#"+ H",. P'-&(",. @*'-&>5'.%#"+7/'5*3"5"$&A
T'' ",+31 %$ &(" 5'+$%$2 7&(,$ $"/"--,+1
Mther adverbial phrases"
Ex" very late in the evening (mhm)
far away from civilisation (mhc)
6uite clearly enough (mhc)
The head element is always realised by an adverb . The modifer is
realised typically by grading and intensifying adverbs. The complement
expresses a di@erent type of meaning from that of the modifer, as it does
in the ad3ectival phrases. )t expresses the scope or context of the meaning
expressed by the head (e.g. luc!ily for us)9 alternatively, it can serve to
defne the modifer more explicitly (e.g. more correctly than before). )t is
for this reason that complements of ad3ectives and adverbs are mostly
realised by prepositional phrases and clauses, whereas premodifers are
usually realised by words (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 2(4).
10
IV.3. C(,+,/&"+%-&%/- '0 &(" ,.:"+6
The adverb has a series of characteristic features (;owning . #oc!e,
0((<" 2(4)"
%. adverbs modify verbs, nouns, pronouns, clauses, ad3ectives and other
adverbs.
0. adverbs function typically in the clause as adverbial modifers, and in
group structures as premodifer and postmodifer. )n addition, they
marginally realise sub3ect, ob3ect, complement and ad3unct functions in
clauses.
8. they express a wide variety of types and subtypes of meaning.
4. they can occupy di@erent positions in clause structure.
2. they are very fre6uently optional, in the sense that they can be omitted
without the clause becoming ungrammatical.
IV.4. T(" 0)$/&%'$- '0 &(" ,.:"+6-
The adverb may function (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 2(&)"
in clause structure as" adverbial modifer (of manner, place, time) (Fe
plays piano well.)9 sub3ect complement (ThatBs all right.)9 direct ob3ect ()
donBt !now why.)9 stance ad3unct (uckily, she was at home.)9 sub3ect
(Today is the last /onday in the month.).
in phrase structure as"
a) modifer in ad3ectival phrases" all wet9 =uite strange9 too short.
b) modifer in adverbial phrases" nearly there9 more easily9 very often.
c) modifer in noun phrases" the then ,resident9 a nearby restaurant9 =uite
a success.
d) modifer of determiners" about double9 roughly half9 almost all.
e) postmodifer in ad3ectival phrases" 6uic! enough9 very beautiful indeed.
f) postmodifer in adverbial phrases" 6uic!ly enough9 beautifully indeed;
never again.
g) postmodifer in noun phrases" the 3ourney back9 the way ahead.
h) particle in verb phrases" pic! up9 put on9 ta!e out9 pull o29 go in.
IV.4. T(" 0'+5 '0 ,.:"+6-
7dverbs may be single words, derived from ad3ectives and nouns
with prefxes and suQxes (,aidos, %&&8" %1&%&4) or compound forms
(;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 2(4).
a) single words" here, there, now, then, etc.
b) derived from noun, followed by the suQxes /ways, -wards, -wise"
sideways, backwards, clockwise0
c) derived from ad3ective C noun, preceded by the prefx a-(indicating
mainly position or direction)" abroad, ashore, ahead, along, away.
d) derived from ad3ective C noun, followed by the suQx /ly" gently,
nicely, hourly, etc.
e) shortened forms from prepositional phrases" downhill, indoors,
inside, outside, downstairs, etc.
f) combinations of other classes of words" somewhere,
anywhere, nowhere, everywhere, etc.
10
There are also adverbial phrases" after all, at all, at 8rst, at least, at
present, by all means, by the way, in fact, in general, in vain, not at all, of
course, here and there, in and out, every now and then, to and fro, up and
down, etc.
)n the case of the adverbs derived from ad3ectives, there appear two
distinctive cases (7lexander, %&11" %029 ,aidos, %&&8" %&(%&4)"
a) some ad3ectives add /ly to form the adverb, but they can also
function as adverbs in their ad3ective form"
bright 5 brightly
Ex" The diamond on her ring was shining bright 5
brightly.
cheap 5 cheaply
Ex" ) do not intend to sell my car cheap 5 cheaply.
dead 5 deadly
Ex" Fe is dead 5 deadly for this !ind of food.
dear 5 dearly
Ex" YouBll pay dear 5 dearly for what you did.
fair 5 fairly
Ex" They didnBt fght fair 5 fairly for the frst pri+e.
sound 5 soundly
Ex" The baby is sleeping sound 5 soundly.
tight 5 tightly
Ex" ) couldnBt open the box as it was pac!ed tight 5
tightly.
b) some ad3ectives add /ly to form the adverb9 the ad3ective form
can be also used as adverb, but the meaning changes"
clean Z completely, entirely
Ex" Fe clean forgot to come to the
meeting.
cleanly Z in a clean manner
Ex" /y son played the violin
accompaniment cleanly.
clear Z completely
Ex" ) slept clear through the night.
clearly Z in a clear manner
Ex" ) could read clearly with my
glasses on.
close Z near
Ex" ;onBt say a word until he comes
close.
closely Z in a close manner
(descriptive use)
Ex" These two events are closely
connected.
deep Z far down, into
Ex" ;ug deep and youBll fnd the
treasure.
deeply Z very greatly
Ex" Fe loved her deeply.
10
Fe disappeared deep into the
night.
direct Z straight and short, without
deviation
Ex" They came direct to my house.
directly Z without delay or
hesitation
Ex" Lome home directly.
due Z exactly (used before the
points of the compass)
Ex" 5e went due 5est.
duly Z at the proper time,
punctually
Ex" The plane duly landed.
easy Z with ease, in a relaxed
manner, without speed
Ex" So easy here, as the road is
slippery.
easily Z in an easy manner, without
6uestion, very probably
Ex" Fe could be easily recogni+ed.
This is easily your best boo!.
Ta!e your umbrella9 it may
easily rain.
free Z without restraint
Ex" The horses were running free in
the feld.
freely Z in a free manner, willingly
Ex" ) canBt spea! freely with my
parents.
) freely 3oin you everywhere.
full Z completely, entirely
Ex" )t was a full5fully grown tree.
fully Z completely, at least
Ex" )t will ta!e you fully two days to
fnish this report.
hard Z with
e@ortCpainCforceCfrmness, slowly
and with diQculty
Ex" *he slammed the door hard.
Iad habits die hard.
hardly Z almost noCnotCnoneCnever
Ex" Fe hardly ever calls me.
high Z at a great altitude, in a rich
manner
Ex" The !ite Gew high in the s!y.
They live high.
highly Z very much, with approval
Ex" Fe highly appreciates you.
*he spea!s highly of his wor!.
3ust Z exactly, very recently, on the
point of, absolutely
Ex" This piece of news is 1ust what )
expected.
Fe has 1ust called.
) was 1ust about to leave the
house when they came.
The present you have given me
is 1ust wonderfulH
3ustly Z with honesty
Ex" They were 1ustly considered the
best players in the team.
large Z at a distance, in a boastful
manner
Ex" They sailed large to the *outh.
Fe tal!ed large about his
achievements.
largely Z mainly, to a great extent
Ex" This success is largely due to our
common e@orts.
Mur performance has been
largely appreciated.
late Z after the expected or usual
time
Ex" Fe comes late at wor! every
day.
lately Z recently
Ex" ) havenBt seen them lately.
most Z to a great extent mostly Z mainly, usually, as a rule
10
Ex" 5hat upset me most was his
rudeness.
Ex" Mostly, ) spend my holidays
abroad.
near Z at a very small distance from
somethingCsomeone
Ex" They moved near the big city.
nearly Z in a close manner, almost
Ex" These events are nearly
connected.
5e have nearly fnished.
pretty Z fairly
Ex" They live pretty far from the
town.
prettily Z in a pretty manner
Ex" The little girl was prettily
dressed.
right Z exactly, immediately,
completely, in a correct manner
Ex" Fe fell right on his arm.
They came right after dinner.
Fere ) feel right at home.
Fe didnBt do his 3ob right.
rightly Z accurately, with honesty
Ex" Fe was rightly considered the
best writer of his generation.
sharp Z punctually, 6uic!ly
Ex" The meeting started at eight
oBcloc! sharp.
The car turned sharp left.
sharply Z in an aggressive manner,
suddenly
Ex" The shar! attac!ed sharply.
short Z suddenly, abruptly
Ex" /y lecture was stopped short.
shortly Z soon, in a concise manner
Ex" Fe called me shortly after ) got
home.
Fe answered the police shortly.
IV.6. T1*'3'21 '0 ,.:"+6-
IV.6.1. A.:"+6- '0 5,$$"+
These adverbs generally answer the 6uestions &owH and Cn what
way5mannerH and they show"
a) the manner in which the action of the verb is performed" accurately,
badly, beautifully, carefully, correctly, di2erently, easily, 8ercely, 9uently,
gently, heavily, nicely, peacefully, =uietly, rapidly, silently, simply,
thoroughly, urgently, violently, warmly, willingly, etc.
b) the circumstances of an event or situation" alone, collectively,
illegally, legally, mechanically, naturally, openly, personally, publicly, etc.
c) the feelings of the person who performs the action" angrily, boldly,
calmly, desperately, eagerly, furiously, gladly, happily, miserably,
nervously, proudly, sadly, sincerely, etc.
There are several types of adverbs of manner (IJdescu, %&14" 4<%)"
a) 7dverbs of 6uality" badly, beautifully, fairly, 9uently, kindly, nicely,
perfectly, well, etc.
b) 7dverbs of amount or degree" almost, completely, entirely, hardly,
largely, wholly, etc.
c) 7dverbs of aQrmation, probability or negation" yes, indeed,
undoubtedly, certainly, truly, maybe, perhaps, possibly, probably, no, not,
never, etc.
d) )ntensive adverbs4 especially, e:actly, only, precisely, simply, surely, at
least, at most, etc.
e) Restrictive adverbs" only, but, 1ust, etc.
10
f) Explanatory adverbs" as, namely, such as, that is -to say., etc.
g) Exclamatory adverbs" &owS 'hatS Do whatS
h) )ntroductory adverbs" accordingly, conse=uently, however, therefore, in
any case, of course, etc.
>ormally, the adverbs of manner are placed after the verb or after
the ob3ect"
Ex" *he spo!e openly to me about her situation.
Fe spea!s English 9uently.
*ometimes the adverbs of manner can appear between the sub3ect
and the verb to emphasi+e the sub3ect, or they can open a sentence for
dramatic e@ect or to create suspense (7lexander, %&11" %0') (in narrative
writing and only with such adverbs of manner such as gently, =uietly,
slowly, suddenly)"
Ex" /ary gladly accepted the 3ob proposal.
They were all writing their papers 6uietly. Duddenly, a loud noise
scared them all.

5hen there are more di@erent adverbs in a sentence, the usual
order is" manner / place / time0
IV.6.2. A.:"+6- '0 *3,/"
The adverbs of place generally o@er information about (7lexander,
%&11" %0')"
a) location" ahead, anywhere, around, ashore, downstairs, everywhere,
here, indoors, nowhere, outdoors, somewhere, there, under, upstairs, etc.
These adverbs showing location answer the 6uestion 'hereH and usually
follow static verbs (be, live, stay, etc.)
b) direction" along, back, backward, forward, left, right, east, eastward,
north, northward, south, southward, west, westward, etc. These adverbs
showing direction answer the 6uestions 'here to5fromH and usually follow
dynamic verbs (come, go, run, etc.)
The adverbs of place, no matter whether they show location or
direction, usually follow the verb"
Ex" 5e stayed indoors most of our holiday as it rained a lot.
Fe drove eastward to reach the big city.
)n descriptive writing, however, the adverbs of place can begin the
sentence in order to emphasi+e the location"
Ex" (pstairs it was 6uiet. %ownstairs it was noisy.
IV.6.3. A.:"+6- '0 &%5"
These adverbs refer to (7lexander, %&11" %01)"
a) defnite time ? they indicate current time or certain days, months,
years (referring to past or future time) and answer the 6uestion 'henH"
today, yesterday, last week5month5year, before, ago, on Monday5Tuesday
J, at noon5dawn, etc. >ormally this type of adverbs occurs at the end of
the sentence"
Ex" ) met them last year.
10
Fowever, there are cases when they can appear at the beginning of
the sentence"
Ex" Today )Bve received a very strange phone call.
)n the case of more adverbs of defnite time in the same sentence,
the progress is from the more particular to the more general and thus the
order is time 7 day 7 date 7 year"
Ex" The meeting is at Q o>clock in the afternoon on Tuesday "une ?Q
th
QA?A.
b) indefnite time ? they do not answer time 6uestions precisely
(7lexander, %&11" %0&)" afterwards, already, another day5time, at last, at
once, eventually, immediately, lately, nowadays, yet, etc.
They are normally placed at the end of the sentence. Fowever, they
can appear before the verb or at the beginning of the sentence when the
purpose is to focus the interest"
Ex" ) phoned her immediately. (the normal unmar!ed position)
) immediately phoned her. (the focus is on the action phoned)
Cmmediately, ) phoned her. (the focus is on the whole clause)
c) duration ? the adverbs and prepositional phrases in this category
show how long the action of the verb lasts or ta!es and answer the
6uestions Dince whenH and #or how longH.
adverbs" ago, always, all day long, -not. any more, -not. any
longer, no longer, no more, brie9y, inde8nitely, permanently,
temporarily, etc.
Ex" They moved here temporarily.
7mong these adverbs there can be distinguished those which show
how often an action is repeated (they answer the 6uestion &ow oftenH).
There are two cases (,aidos, %&&8" %&&)"
adverbs indicating defnite fre6uency" once, twice,
three5fourJtimes -a day5week5month5year., every
day5week5month5year, daily, weekly, monthly, etc.
adverbs indicating indefnite fre6uency" always, fre=uently,
often, rarely, seldom, sometimes, etc.
prepositional phrases beginning with the prepositions" after,
before, by, during, for, from J to5till, since, throughout0
Ex" ) havenBt spo!en to him for three months.
IV.6.4. A.:"+6- '0 ."2+""
The adverbs of degree show Nthe extent of an action or the degree
to which and action is performedO (,aidos, %&&8" %&&) and they answer the
6uestions To what e:tent5degreeH0 *ome of the most common adverbs of
degree are" absolutely, almost, ama+ingly, awfully, badly, barely,
completely, deeply, enormously, enough, entirely, e:tremely, fairly, far,
fully, greatly, hardly, immensely, 1ust, mainly, nearly, pretty, =uite, rather,
simply, terribly, truly, very, well, wonderfully, etc.
These adverbs are normally placed before the words they modify"
a) ad3ectives" Your essay is fairly interesting.
10
b) adverbs" Fe spea!s English =uite well.
c) verbs" *he simply 6uit her 3ob.
d) nouns (not very often)" *he is =uite a specialist in linguistics.
IV.6.4. I$&"++'2,&%:" ,.:"+6-
These adverbs are used in the beginning of 6uestions and they are
how, when, where and why.
Ex" &ow did you solve the problemU
'hen were they supposed to comeU
'here will you go this summerU
'hy are you upsetU
IV.6.6. C'$$"/&%:"7R"3,&%:" ,.:"+6-
They are used to lin! clauses in various circumstances"
a) to introduce additional information" also, as well, besides,
furthermore, moreover.
Ex" This trip is very expensive9 besides, we donBt have time for a
holiday.
b) to introduce a comparison" as compared to, e=ually, likewise,
similarly.
Ex" /y husband was fred and similarly, so was ).
c) to add a contrast" alternately, conversely, even so, however, instead,
nevertheless, nonetheless, rather, still, though, yet.
Ex" 5e didnBt trust -ohn at all. &owever, we appointed him for this
3ob.
d) to show that something too! place before or after an event already
mentioned" afterwards, beforehand, earlier, 8nally, 8rst, last,
meanwhile, ne:t, presently, simultaneously, soon, suddenly, then,
throughout.
Ex" Fe wor!ed all day to repair his car. #inally, he as!ed for some
help.
e) to summari+e the things already mentioned" all in all, and so on,
essentially.
Ex" This is what happened last year. 6ll in all, it was a good year.
f) to show how, when, where or why an action too! place (the
interrogative adverbs are used as relative adverbs)
Ex" ) as!ed them how and where they had spent their holiday.
Lonnective adverbs may appear in the beginning of the sentence or
in midposition.
IV.6.7. F'/)- ,.:"+6-
These adverbs focus attention on the word they 6ualify and they are"
alone, chie9y, especially, even, 1ust, mainly, merely, mostly, notably, only,
particularly, really, simply, solely, specially0 Mther adverbs such as too,
also, as well, not J either focus attention by adding more information.
Ex" ) was particularly interested in this matter.
/ary is a student. *he is also a nurse.
11
7ccording to the word they want to emphasi+e, the position in the
sentence of some adverbs such as even and only is Gexible and the
meaning slightly changes"
Ex" !ven -im could repair the car. (i.e. although he is not very good
at repairing things)
-im could repair even this car. (i.e. although the problem was
very serious)
*nly Tom entered this room. (i.e. nobody else)
Tom only entered this room. (i.e. and did nothing else)
Tom entered only this room. (i.e. and nowhere else)
IV.6.8. V%"8*'%$& ,.:"+6-
Xiewpoint adverbs 6ualify what is said or written, indicating the
spea!erBs or writerBs attitude to what he is saying or writing (7lexander,
%&11" %40). Thus, they may indicate (,aidos, %&&8" 0(40(2)"
a) how sure the spea!erCwriter is about something" certainly, clearly,
de8nitely, honestly, maybe, naturally, obviously, perhaps, possibly, really,
remarkably, strictly.
Ex" You de8nitely need some help.
b) what the spea!erBsCwriterCs opinion is" curiously, fortunately, frankly,
happily, honestly, hopefully, ironically, miraculously, mysteriously, sadly,
surprisingly, unfortunately, -un.luckily, unnecessarily0
Ex" uckily, he o@ered to help me.
c) that the spea!erCwriter is not going into details" anyhow, anyway,
brie9y, in brief5short.
Ex" 6nyway, this is all he told me.
Xiewpoint adverbs may appear in the beginning of the sentence, in
midposition or at the end of the sentence"
Ex" ) donBt thin! this will wor!, but you may try anyway.
IV.7. T(" /'5*,+%-'$ '0 ,.:"+6-
The comparative and the superlative degree apply only to gradable
adverbs and this category includes most adverbs of manner, some
adverbs of time and some adverbs of place.
The comparison of adverbs functions li!e in the case of ad3ectives"
the adverbs have three degrees of comparison" the ,ositive, the
Lomparative (of superiority, of e6uality and of inferiority) and the
*uperlative (the Relative *uperlative and the 7bsolute *uperlative).
7ccording to the way they form the comparative of superiority and
the relative superlative adverbs may be divided into regular and irregular.
:or the regular adverbs the following rules apply"
a) the comparative of superiority is formed by adding /er and the
relative superlative is formed by adding /est to the adverbs which have
the same form as ad3ectives" early, fast, high, late, long, near.
Ex" Fe came earlier than you did.
Fe came the earliest of all.
11
b) the comparative of superiority is formed by adding more and the
relative superlative is formed by adding (the. most in front of adverbs
made up of ad1ective 7 ly4 carefully, nicely, slowly.
Ex" *he planned her trip more carefully this time.
This time she planned her trip most carefully.
The irregular adverbs have the following forms for the comparative
of superiority and the relative superlative"
5ell ? better ? (the) best
Iadly ? worse ? (the) worst
:ar ? further ? (the) furthest
The formula for the comparative of e6uality is as 7 adverb 7 as"
Ex" Fe plays tennis as badly as his son.
The formula for the comparative of inferiority is not J so5as 7
adverb 7 as"
Ex" Fe does not play tennis so5as badly as his son.
The absolute superlative is formed with the help of very 7 adverb"
Ex" Fe plays tennis very badly.
IV.8. I$:"+-%'$ ,0&"+ ,.:"+6-
*ometimes, an adverb may begin a sentence, with a direct
conse6uence for the normal sub3ectverb order. This means the sentence
will have the following form" adverb R verb R sub3ect R b. The adverbs
which may appear in the beginning of the sentence triggering an inversion
are"
a) negative adverbs" never, seldom, scarcely J when, no sooner J
than, under no circumstances, on no account, little, not until, neither, nor,
rarely.
Ex4 ittle did he know about her problems.
Dcarcely had we gone out when it started to rain.
$arely did he come to visit me.
b) restrictive adverbs" only now, only when, only then, only in this way,
only there, not only.
Ex" *nly now do C reali+e that he was right.
c) adverbs of place li!e here and there with verbs of motion or with the
verb be when o@ering things or identifying location.
Ex" There goes the last busH
&ere comes the brideH
&ere>s a soda for youH
There>s your stopH
d) adverbs of time or place may be followed by inversion for stylistic
purposes.
Ex" Cn that green 8eld lay the beautiful mansion.
*ften have C wondered about you.
11
PART II
THE SECONDARY PARTS OF SPEECH
V. THE PRONOUN
V.1. D"#$%&%'$
V.2. C3,--%#/,&%'$ '0 *+'$')$-
V.3. T(" *"+-'$,3 *+'$')$-
V.4. T(" +"F"=%:" *+'$')$-
V.4. T(" *'--"--%:" *+'$')$-
V.6. T(" +"3,&%:" *+'$')$-
V.7. T(" %$&"++'2,&%:" *+'$')$-
11
V.8. T(" ."5'$-&+,&%:" *+'$')$-
V.9. T(" %$."#$%&" *+'$')$-
V.1. D"#$%&%'$
The pronoun is the secondary part of speech that can be used in
place of a noun or a noun phrase. )t has a deictic function, as it points Nto
ob3ects, to their properties and relations, their local and temporal
reference, or placement, without naming them.O (Ie!lyarova, 0(('" 4%8)
V.2. C3,--%#/,&%'$ '0 *+'$')$-
There are several subclasses of pronouns (=uir! et al., %&&%" %4()"
central pronouns, which include"
personal pronouns
reGexive pronouns
possessive pronouns
relative pronouns
interrogative pronouns
demonstrative pronouns
indefnite pronouns, that can be"
positive
universal
assertive
nonassertive
negative
V.3. T(" *"+-'$,3 *+'$')$-
They have the forms" C, you, he, she, it, we, you, they (in the
>ominative) and me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them (in the ;ative and
7ccusative). Iesides these distinctions in case, it can be seen that the
personal pronouns have also distinctions in person (frst, second and third)
and in number (singular and plural) (Sreenbaum . >elson, 0((&" 4<).
The forms in the nominative are normally used as the sub3ect of the
sentence" They are my friends.
The forms in the ;ative and 7ccusative are generally used"
as direct ob3ects" )Bll call her tomorrow.
as indirect ob3ects" ,aul o@ered me some Gowers.
as ob3ects of prepositions" Explain to them the whole truth.
in short answers" 7re you tiredU C MeU >o.
The main function of the personal pronouns is Nto help establish ma3or
referents in the discourse by setting up referential (or identity) chains by
means of anaphora. This is an important part of referential coherence, of
ma!ing important referents continuous and salient enough to be perceived
and remembered by listeners and readers.O (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 4%2)
There are some things to be mentioned about some of the personal
pronouns"
a) we can usually refer"
11
to the locutor and interlocutor together (the inclusive we, that
means me R you)" #isten to what ) suggest" we shall stay home
tomorrow.
to the locutor and (an)other person(s), excluding the interlocutor
(the exclusive we, that means me R other-s. ? you)" Ex" 'e donBt
understand why you are acting so irrational.
to a group which the locutor is a part of (school, local
community, etc.)" 'e are a multicultural society.
There are also some atypical uses of we, when it may be used for"
one person alone (the locutor), who is an important person. )tBs best
!nown usage is by a monarch (that is why it is called royal we or ma1estic
plural), such as a !ing, 6ueen or pope, who is not only spea!ing on his own
behalf, but also as leader of a nation or institution"
Ex" N)n agreement with the )mperial ;uma 'e have thought it well to
renounce the throne of the Russian Empire and to lay down the
supreme power
04
.O
the locutorCauthor (the editorial columnist in a newspaper, who spea!s on
behalf of the media institution who employs him, or an academic, who
spea!s on behalf of the readers who agree with him) R the reader
Ex" N'e hope Sov. Eliot *pit+er can help brea! a %2yearold
stalemate over a measure that would allow family members in
>ew Yor! *tate to act as decision ma!ers for patients unable to
direct their own care
02
.O
the interlocutor (the patroni+ing we). This usage of we may be
considered ironic or condescending.
Ex" 7re we feeling all right todayU (the doctor may as! a patient)
b)you may refer"
to the person(s) you are tal!ing to" ) want to tal! to you,
/ary.9 Lou are not allowed to go out, boysH
to people in general (can be used interchangeably with one)"
Lou -one. never !now(s) what you -one. can do until you -one.
try (tries).
c) he and she are used when referring to persons, but they may also be
used instead of it with personifcations"
- he may refer to
0<
" nouns denoting passions9 names of things
that suggest power, dignity
- she may refer to
0'
" nouns that suggest beauty, gentleness9
nouns that denote negative traits of character9 nouns that
denote elements of nature9 names of countries9 names of
ships, planes.
24
the abdication statement of >icholas )) of Rusia, www.wi!ipedia.org, retrieved on
;ecember &
th
, 0(%(.
25
The >ew Yor! Times, /ay %8, 0(('
26
*ee also the Sender of >ouns
2'
*ee also the Sender of >ouns
11
d) it is used to refer to things or abstract notions, but also"
to refer to animals and insects" The cat is not in the house9 it
must have gone out.
to refer to persons (baby, infant, child)" 5hen the baby wo!e
up, it began to cry.
in impersonal constructions"
to denote time" CtBs ten oBcloc!.
to denote weather conditions" CtBs sunny.
to denote distances" CtBs no distance to the hospital.
in introductoryanticipatory constructions"
with verbs in the )nfnitive" CtBs diQcult to drive.
with sub3ect thatclauses" CtBs necessary that she
should come home early.
in introductoryemphatic constructions" Ct is ,aul who bro!e
the window.
with such verbs as" to ama+e, to bother, to disgust, to please,
to interest, to surprise, etc." Ct surprises me that you are still so
undecided.
with some verbs in the ,assive Xoice" to believe, to consider,
to e:pect, to imagine, to suppose, etc." Ct is believed that he
will move soon.
to replace a whole sentence" Fe hurt me9 )Bll never forget it.
e) they is often used
to refer to people or things in general" They say sheBll leave
town next year.
to refer to a group of people whose identity does not need to
be stated" They arrested the thief. (Z it is clear that they refers
to the police)
after indefnite pronouns such as someone or anyone (even if
the reference is 3ust to the singular)" )f anyone wants to be a
mediator, they must attend a course.
*ne is sometimes used as a singular personal pronoun, to ma!e
statements about people in general, but this use is considered formal
(Lobuild, %&&(" 42).
Ex" Soing round Romania, one is struc! by the beautiful scenery.
V.4. T(" +"F"=%:" *+'$')$-
They have the forms myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself,
ourselves, yourselves, themselves. There is another reGexive pronoun,
oneself, which is the general form"
Ex" Mne may hurt oneself with such a toy.
The reGexive pronouns NreGect another nominal element of the
sentence, usually the sub3ect, with which it is in coreferential relationO
(=uir! et al., %&&%" 0%%)"
sub3ect and direct ob3ect" The !iller hurt himself.
sub3ect and indirect ob3ect" *he coo!ed herself a big lunch.
11
sub3ect and sub3ect complement" The one who did this for the frst
time was himself.
sub3ect and prepositional complement" Tal! about yourselfH
- sub3ect and apposition" *he herself couldnBt come.
There are two distinct uses of the reGexive pronouns" nonemphatic
and emphatic (=uir! et al., %&&%" 0%%0%8).
%. >onemphatic use (they refer to the same person or thing as the
sub3ect does)
)t occurs in the following cases"
a) with verbs which always re6uire a reGexive ob3ect" to avail
oneself -of., to betake oneself, to pride oneself -on.4 Fe always
prides himself on his achievements.
b) with verbs where the reGexive pronoun may be omitted with little
or no change in meaning" to ad1ust -oneself., to dress -oneself.,
to prove -oneself to be competent., to shave -oneself., to wash
-oneself.4 The little girl canBt dress herself.
c) with nonreGexive verbs where the reGexive pronouns are used to
denote coreference in contrast with noncoreferential ob3ects"
*he saw herself C her in the mirror.
Therself Z coreferent with the sub3ect she
Ther Z refers to another person
d) after as, like, but, e:cept, in variation with personal pronouns" :or
somebody li!e me5myself, this is a big accomplishment.
0. Emphatic use (they give emphasis to a person or thing)
ReGexive pronouns in emphatic use occur in apposition and have
greater positional mobility (unli!e the pronouns in nonemphatic use).
Ex" ) wouldnBt trust him myself.
) myself wouldnBt trust him.
Myself, ) wouldnBt trust him.
V.4. T(" *'--"--%:" *+'$')$-
The possessive pronouns indicate that something belongs to
someone or is associated with them. They have the forms mine5ours,
yours, his5hers5theirs. )n terms of syntactic functions, they can be"
the sub3ect of a sentence" Your house is small, but mine is big.
a sub3ect complement of the verb to be" )tBs not my car, itBs yours.
the direct ob3ect" Fe is driving -aneBs car today and -ane is driving his.
a prepositional ob3ect" 5e are not waiting for your friends, but for
ours.
V.6. T(" +"3,&%:" *+'$')$-
They are" who, whom, whoever, which, whichever, that, whatever.
They Nintroduce relative clauses postmodifying nominal headsO (=uir! et
al., %&&%" 0%4).
- who refers to persons and it is the sub3ect of a relative clause"
Ex" The girl who is playing outside is my daughter.
11
- whom refers to persons and it is the ob3ect of a relative clause (the
form who may also be accepted)"
Ex" This is the boy who-m. ) was telling you about.
- which refers to things or animals and may be the sub3ect or the ob3ect
of a relative clause"
Ex" The boo! which ) read is very interesting.
) saw the bear which attac!ed him.
- that refers to people, things or animals and may be the sub3ect or the
ob3ect of a relative clause"
Ex" The girl that is playing outside is my daughter.
The boo! that ) read is very interesting.
) saw the bear that attac!ed him.
That is preferred"
after superlatives" *he is the meanest girl that ) have ever seen.
after ordinal numbers" Fe was the frst runner that fnished the race.
after indefnite pronouns" )s there anything that ) can do for youU
when the antecedent is both a person and a thing" Tell me about the
people and places that you have seen there.
- whoever, whichever and whatever refer to persons or things that are
un!nown or indefnite"
Ex" )Bll help whoever needs my help.
) have several umbrellas9 ta!e whichever you want.
Tell me whatever you want.
V.7. T(" %$&"++'2,&%:" *+'$')$-
They are who, whose, whom, what and which. They appear in
interrogative sentences, being used as the sub3ect or ob3ect of a clause, or
the ob3ect of a preposition"
Ex" 'ho has 3ust calledU
) have found a boo!9 whose is itU
'hom did you see thereU
'hat are you doing nowU
'hat are you thin!ing aboutU
'hich of you is guiltyU
There are some idiomatic expressions with interrogative pronouns"
what about JH, which is which, who is who, what>s what.
V.8. T(" ."5'$-&+,&%:" *+'$')$-
They are" this5these, that5those, the former5the latter, the other5the
others, the same, so, such, one5ones.
this5these, that5those may have several uses (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<"
0%'9 =uir! et al., %&&%" 0%')"
a) anaphoric (referring to a previous part of the discourse), with optional
one5ones.
Ex" Mf all the cars, ) prefer this5that -one.
these5those -ones.
11
b) cataphoric (referring to a part of the discourse that is to come)"
Ex" This is a test" Mne, two, overH
c) exophoric (referring to something outside the discourse)"
Ex" They never imagined things would come to this.
d) deictic"
Ex" This5that is my house.
e) determinative use (only that and those)
Ex" That which upset me most was his behaviour.
Those who are la+y will never pass.
f) emotive use in informal style"
Ex" ,lease donBt mention this againH
- the former5the latter ? they have the meaning of the 8rst and,
respectively, the second of the two.
Ex" /ary and -ane are my friends9 the former is %1, the latter is 0(
years old.
- the other5the others have the meaning not this5these ones, referring to
people and things.
Ex" )Bll ta!e this car and you may ta!e the other.
*ome guests came on time, the others came late.
- the same means not di2erent"
Ex" Fe o@ered her a glass of wine and the same to me.
- so is normally used to replace a whole sentence"
Ex" Fe pretends he is telling the truth, but ) donBt thin! so.
- such means in this way"
Ex" Duch is the present situation.
- one5ones"
Ex" Fe gave me two boo!s" a Romanian one and an English one.
They are the ones elected.
V.9. T(" %$."#$%&" *+'$')$-
They are of several types"
a) positive
universal" each" They each helped me.
all" They are all absent.
every series (everyone, everybody, everything)" )
!now everyone5everybody5everything here.
assertive" the multal group" much, many, more, most
Ex" 5e have much to learn about them.
7 few people were absent, but many were present.
They as!ed for more.
Most !now English very well.
the paucal group" little5a little, few5a few
01
"
Ex" ittle is !nown about her.
)s there any co@ee leftU Yes, a little.
5e expected many people, but few came.
6 few survived.
several, enough"
28
:or their rules of usage, see The 7d3ective and the 7d3ectival ,hrase
11
Ex" ) found the eggs, but several were bro!en.
) had enough to eat.
one"
Ex" *ne can never be sure of anything.
some series (someone, somebody,
something)
0&
"
Ex" ) !now someone5somebody5something interesting.
nonassertive" any series (anyone, anybody, anything)
8(
"
Ex" ) donBt !now anyone5anybody5anything.
either"
Ex" 5hich car do you preferU
!ither.
b) negative" no series (no one, nobody, nothing)
8%
"
Ex" ) !now no one5nobody5nothing.
neither"
Ex" ;onBt mention ,aul and ,eter. )either of them is my friend.
7s they constitute a closed system, all the types of pronouns
mentioned above can be organi+ed and exemplifed in the following chart"
S)6/3,--"- '0 *+'$')$- F'+5-
Lentral pronouns" personal
pronouns
- C, you, he, she, it, we, you,
they(>ominative)
- me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them
(;ative and 7ccusative)
Lentral pronouns" reGexive
pronouns
myself, yourself, himself, herself,
itself, ourselves, yourselves,
themselves
Lentral pronouns" possessive
pronouns
mine5ours, yours, his5hers5theirs
Relative pronouns who, whom, whoever, which,
whichever, that, whatever
)nterrogative pronouns whoH, whoseH, whomH, whatH,
whichH
;emonstrative pronouns this5these, that5those, the
former5the latter, the other5the
others, the same, so, such,
one5ones
)ndefnite pronouns" positive
universal
- each
- all
- every series -everyone, everybody,
everything
)ndefnite pronouns" positive ? the multal group" much, many,
2(
:or their rules of usage, see The 7d3ective
30
:or their rules of usage, see The 7d3ective
31
:or their rules of usage, see The 7d3ective
12
assertive more, most
the paucal group" little5a little,
few5a few
several, enough
one
some series (someone, somebody,
something)
)ndefnite pronouns" positive ? non
assertive
any series (anyone, anybody,
anything.
either
)ndefnite pronouns" negative no series (no one, nobody, nothing)
neither
12
VI. THE PREPOSITION
VI.1. D"#$%&%'$
VI.2. T(" *+"*'-%&%'$,3 *(+,-" ,$. %&- -&+)/&)+"
VI.3. T(" -1$&,/&%/ 0)$/&%'$- '0 *+"*'-%&%'$-
VI.4. T(" /3,--%#/,&%'$ '0 *+"*'-%&%'$-
VI.4. C3,--"- '0 8'+.- 8%&( &(" -,5" 0'+5 ,-
*+"*'-%&%'$-
VI.6. C'$-&+)/&%'$- 8%&( *+"*'-%&%'$-
VI.1. D"#$%&%'$
The preposition is the secondary part of speech which has a relating
function (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 28%)" it connects a noun or a noun
structure to other structures in the sentence (,aidos, %&&8" 002), the two
parts of the sentence connected by the preposition having di@erent
syntactic functions (about, by, during, from, in, on, over, to, under, with,
etc.). The prepositional phrase consists of a preposition together with its
complement, which is typically a noun, a noun phrase or a clause (wh
clause or nonfnite ?ing clause) in nominal function (with certainty, in the
school yard, from what she said, by signing the agreement, etc.).
VI.2. T(" *+"*'-%&%'$,3 *(+,-" ,$. %&-
-&+)/&)+"
7 prepositional phrase consists of a preposition and its complement,
both being obligatory, and an optional modifer, which intensifes the
preposition (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 280). Pnli!e the case of the noun
phrase, the ad3ectival phrase or the adverbial phrase, the preposition in
the prepositional phrase cannot function alone as a head. The
prepositional phrase can be thus represented as follows"
M'.%#"+ P+"*'-%&%'$ C'5*3"5"$&
right into his arms
3ust at that moment
completely out of control
straight along this road
The modifer generally shows intensifcation, but it can also ta!e the
form of direction, attenuation, 6uantifcation, description, focusing and
reinforcement (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 281).
a. intensifying modifers" completely, directly, badly, right, well, all, etc.
Ex" directly through the window
all about this sub3ect
b. directional modifers" up, down, out, over
Ex" down by the river
12
over on the other side
c. attenuating modifers" partly, slightly, a bit, hardly, a little
Ex" slightly5a bit out of reach
hardly than!s to you
d. 6uantifying modifers" nearly, almost, miles, way back
Ex" way back in time
almost at the same time
e. descriptive modifers" surprisingly, hopelessly, une:pectedly
Ex" hopelessly in love with her
une:pectedly close to failure
f. focusing and reinforcing modifers" precisely, mainly, 1ust, chie9y,
only
Ex" 1ust for this purpose
mainly after dinner
VI.3. T(" -1$&,/&%/ 0)$/&%'$- '0 *+"*'-%&%'$-
The prepositions may have the following syntactic functions
(;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 24%2409 =uir! et al., %&&%" 8(4)"
a) sub3ect" 6fter dark is the best moment to go for a wal!.
b) direct ob3ect" ) donBt thin! ne:t to the highway a good place to
live.
c) prepositional ob3ect" *top tampering with the digital cameraH
d) sub3ect complement" You must be out of your mind to acceptH
e) ob3ect complement" The accident left him without a family.
f) ad3unct" The children were playing in the garden.
g) postmodifer in a noun phrase" The children in the garden were
playing.
h) complement in a noun phrase" *he is a teacher of !nglish
literature.
i) premodifer in a noun phrase" *2-the-record information cannot
be used during the trial.
3) complement of a verb" They were listening to his speech.
!) complement in an ad3ectival phrase" )Bm sorry for your loss.
l) complement in an adverbial phrase" ) live far from here.
m) complement in a prepositional phrase" The museum is opened
every day e:cept on Mondays.
n) dis3unct (expresses information that is not essential to the
sentence, but it shows the spea!erBs attitude towards the content
of the sentence)" *he did, in all fairness, try to tell you the truth.
o) con3unct (adds information to the sentence that is not considered
part of the propositional content, but which connects the
sentence with previous parts of the discourse)" Cn conclusion, they
did not leave at all.
VI.4. T(" /3,--%#/,&%'$ '0 *+"*'-%&%'$-
a) according to their form, prepositions can be (Loghill . /agedan+,
0((" p.%2%)"
- simple (oneword)" about, across, after, as, at, by, down, during, for,
from, in, near, of, o2, on, round, to, with, etc.
12
- complex (twoword, multiword). 7ccording to the parts of speech
involved, there can be distinguished three categories"
adverb R preposition" along with, apart from, away from, out
of, up to, etc.
verbCad3ectiveCcon3unction R preposition" owing to, due to,
contrary to, but for, because of, etc.
preposition R noun R preposition" by means of, in
comparison with, etc.
b) according to their meaning, prepositions can be"
- of place, which have the functions of ad3uncts (relating an event to a
location), postmodifers (relating an ob3ect to a location) or
predicatives (following the verb to be). The prepositions indicating
place show (=uir! et al., %&&%" 8('8%<)"
simple position and destination" at, to, on, in-to., etc.
negative position" away from, o2, out of, etc.
relative position or destination" by, over, under, etc.
passage" across, through, past, etc.
movement with reference to a directional path" up, down,
along, etc.
orientation" beyond, over, past, etc.
of time, which occur as ad3uncts or postmodifers. They are (=uir! et
al., %&&%" 8%'8%1)"
prepositions that indicate time when" at, on, in
prepositions that indicate duration" for
before, after, since, until
between, by, up to
of cause" because of, on account of, owing to, thanks to
of purpose" for
of instrument" with, by, without
VI.4. C3,--"- '0 8'+.- 8%&( &(" -,5" 0'+5 ,-
*+"*'-%&%'$-
*ome oneword prepositions can have functions characteristic of
verbs, con3unctions and adverbs (;owning . #oc!e, 0((<" 248242).
a) prepositions and verbs" some participial forms can function as
both prepositions and verbs" considering, e:cluding, following, including,
regarding, given, granted.
Ex" The museum is open every day e:cluding /onday. (preposition)
)Bm not e:cluding this possibility. (verb)
b) prepositions and con3unctions" when referring to moments of time
and introducing declarative fnite clauses, some items are regarded more
as con3unctions than as prepositions" after, before, since, until.
Ex" before his departure9 before leaving (preposition)
before he left (con3unction)
c) prepositions and adverbs" when expressing circumstantial
meaning, some words can function as both prepositions and adverbs"
aboard, above, about, across, after, behind, below, between, down, in,
inside, on, outside, under, up.
12
Ex" 5e wal!ed in the house. (preposition)
5e wal!ed in. (con3unction)
VI.6. C'$-&+)/&%'$- 8%&( *+"*'-%&%'$-
7 number of verbs, nouns and ad3ectives re6uire the use of certain
prepositions"
a) verbs with preposition
80
" to abound in, to account for, to accuse of, to
belong to, to bring about, to call for, to depend on, to laugh at, to listen to,
to look after, etc.
b) nouns with prepositions
88
" aptitude for, astonishment at, belief in,
con8dence in, desire for, hunger for, in honour of, master of, ob1ection to,
a thirst for, a witness to, etc.
c) ad3ectives with prepositions
84
" able to, absent from, curious about,
disappointed with, guilty of, mad about, patient with, suitable for, unaware
of, useful for, worried about, etc.
There are also some idioms with prepositions" above suspicion, at a
loss, behind bars, by all means, from cover to cover, in no time, o2 the
beaten track, out of touch, etc.
32
:or a longer list see 7ppendix X).a
33
:or a longer list see 7ppendix X).b
34
:or a longer list see 7ppendix X).c
12
VII. THE CONJUNCTION
VII.1. D"#$%&%'$
VII.2. M'+*('3'2%/,3 /3,--%#/,&%'$ '0 /'$;)$/&%'$-
VII.3. S1$&,/&%/ /3,--%#/,&%'$ '0 /'$;)$/&%'$-
VII.1. D"#$%&%'$
The con3unction is the part of speech that lin!s two words that have
the same syntactic function or two sentences that share similar ideas
(Loghill . /agedan+, 0((8" %82).
Ex" ,ainting and dancing are his favourite hobbies.
Fe called but he couldnBt fnd me.
VII.2. M'+*('3'2%/,3 /3,--%#/,&%'$ '0
/'$;)$/&%'$-
7ccording to their form, con3unctions can be classifed into"
a) simple con3unctions ? consist in one word" after, and, as, but, if,
when, while, why, etc.
Ex" The boss entered the oQce after the secretary had typed all the
letters.
b) compound con3unctions ? formed of two or more parts of speech
written in one word" however, otherwise, therefore, whenever, whereas,
etc.
Ex" You are guilty, therefore you should pay for your deeds.
c) correlative con3unctions ? consist in two con3unctions separated by
sentences or by parts of sentences" if J then, either J or, neither J nor,
as J as, both J and, not only J but also, so J as, no sooner J than, etc.
Ex" )o sooner had we entered the house than the rain started.
Your letter was both a@ectionate and !ind.
d) con3unctional phrases ? formed of di@erent parts of speech,
combined with con3unctions or with other parts of speech" as if, as though,
as well as, for that reason, on that account, so long as, or else, in order to,
that is why, as if, for instance, etc.
12
Ex" Fe behaves as though he didnBt !now us.
VII.3. S1$&,/&%/ /3,--%#/,&%'$ '0 /'$;)$/&%'$-
7ccording to their function, con3unctions can be coordinating or
subordinating (IJdescu, %&14" 02()"
%) The coordinating con3unctions ? they connect two similar parts of
sentence, with the same syntactic role, or two coordinate sentences. There
are several types of coordinating con3unctions.
a) copulative or cumulative con3unctions ? when a notion ads
to another one" and, besides, further, as well as, both J and, neither J
nor, not only J but also, etc.
Ex" )either ,aula nor her children !new about his accident.
b) adversative con3unctions ? when they express a contrast"
but, but then, whereas, while, etc.
Ex" /ichael is talented, but he is la+y.
c) dis3unctive con3unctions ? when they express an alternative"
or, else, or else, otherwise, either J or, etc.
Ex" #isten to her advice, or youBll be sorryH
d) conclusiveCillative con3unctions ? when they express a
conclusion" accordingly, conse=uently, hence, therefore, for that reason,
on that account, that is why, etc.
Ex" ) had to wor! late, that is why ) couldnBt come to the
meeting.
e) explicative con3unctions ? when they help an explanation"
because, namely, for instance, let us say, such as, that is to say, etc.
Ex" *he wor!s hard because she has to raise four children.
0) The subordinating con3unctions and phrases ? they lin! the
subordinate clause to the main clause. There are several types of
subordinating con3unctions and phrases.
a) con3unctions of time ? they introduce temporal clauses"
after, before, -ever. since, till, until, when, whenever, while, the 8rst time,
all the time, as soon as, by the time, etc.
Ex" The rain had already started by the time we got home.
b) con3unctions of place ? they introduce adverbial clauses of
place" where, wherever, as far as, etc.
Ex" Fe wonBt tell me where heBs going to spend his holiday.
c) con3unctions of manner ? they introduce adverbial clauses of
manner" as, as if, as though, etc.
Ex" They behave as if they were rich.
d) con3unctions of cause ? they introduce adverbial clauses of
cause" so, because, for, now -that., since, etc.
Ex" Fe didnBt ta!e part in that race because he was not very
well prepared.
e) con3unctions of purpose ? they introduce adverbial clauses
of purpose" in order that, for fear, lest, so as, so that, etc.
Ex" They stopped tal!ing lest they should be heard by the
boss.
f) con3unctions of comparison ? they introduce adverbial
clauses of comparison" than, as if, as J as, not so5as J as, etc.
Ex" This movie is not so5as good as you thin!.
g) con3unctions of concession ? they introduce adverbial
clauses of concession" although, even if, in spite of, etc.
Ex" 6lthough we are not very good friends, ) feel sorry for her
loss.
h) conditional con3unctions ? they introduce conditional
clauses" as long as, if, if only, on condition -that., provided -that.,
providing, suppose, supposing, unless, etc.
Ex" (nless you stop yelling, we canBt continue our
conversation.
i) con3unctions of result they introduce adverbial clauses of
result" -so J. that, such J that, etc.
Ex" :ortunately he helped us, so that we ended our wor! on
time.
3) relative con3unctions they introduce relative clauses" that,
which, who, whose, as, etc.
Ex" This is the man who is going to run the frm.
!) sub3ect clause con3unction ? it introduces sub3ect clauses"
that
Ex" That you should go there is not surprising.
l) ob3ect clause con3unction it introduces direct ob3ect
clauses" that
Ex" They !new that ) wanted to 6uit my 3ob.
m) attributive clause con3unction it introduces attributive
clauses" that
Ex" The news that he was fred shoc!ed me.
VIII. THE NUMERAL
VIII.1. D"#$%&%'$
VIII.2. T1*"- '0 $)5"+,3-
VIII.3. T(" /,+.%$,3 $)5"+,3
VIII.4. T(" '+.%$,3 $)5"+,3
VIII.4. T(" 0+,/&%'$,3 $)5"+,3
VIII.6. T(" /'33"/&%:" $)5"+,3
VIII.7. T(" 5)3&%*3%/,&%:" $)5"+,3
VIII.8. T(" .%-&+%6)&%:" $)5"+,3
VIII.9. T(" ,.:"+6%,3 $)5"+,3
VIII.10. T(" %$."#$%&" $)5"+,3
VIII.1. D"#$%&%'$
The numeral is the secondary part of speech that expresses an
abstract number, a numerical determination of ob3ects or the order of
ob3ects through counting (IJdescu, %&14" 08%).
VIII.2. T1*"- '0 $)5"+,3-
There can be distinguished the following types of numerals in English
(IJdescu, %&14" 08%)"
a) cardinal numerals
b) ordinal numerals
c) fractional numerals
d) collective numerals
e) multiplicative numerals
f) distributive numerals
g) adverbial numerals
h) indefnite numerals
VIII.3. T(" /,+.%$,3 $)5"+,3
The cardinal numeral expresses an abstract number or a defnite and
exact number of ob3ects. The cardinal numerals are" +ero, one, two, three
J one hundred, two thousand, three million, etc.
)n terms of their morphological composition, the cardinal numerals
are of three types (Ie!lyarova, 0(('" 48')"
simple" the cardinals from one to twelve, hundred, thousand,
million9
derived" the cardinals from thirteen to nineteen (derived from the
simple ones by means of the suQx /teen) and the cardinals
denoting tens (derived from the simple ones by means of the
suQx /ty)9
compound" the cardinals from twenty-one to twenty-nine, thirty-
one to thirty-nine, etc. and those over hundred.
The numerals hundred, thousand, million, do+en -?Q., score -QA. and
gross -?TT. are never used in the plural if they are preceded by a defnite
number or by several, a few or a couple of0
Ex" Three hundred years
Two thousand euros
*everal million pounds
7 few do+en boo!s
>ine score boxes
Two gross of pencils
These numerals can be used in the plural when they express an
indefnite number"
Ex" &undreds5thousands5millions5do+ens5scores5grosses of people
The cardinal numeral can function as"
a) an ad3ective, determining a noun" Ex" There were nine candidates
for the elections.
b) a noun (in this case, it can have a plural form as well)" Ex" *he is
in her 8fties.
c) one can also function as a pronoun" Ex" *ne !nows oneBs own
story.
VIII.4. T(" '+.%$,3 $)5"+,3
The ordinal numeral indicates the order in a series or se6uence
(-espersen, 0((<" %28). 5ith the exception of the frst three numerals and
the compound numbers formed with their help, the ordinal numbers are
formed by adding the suQx ?th to the cardinal numerals or to their
e6uivalents. Thus, in terms of their morphological composition, the ordinal
numerals are of three types (Ie!lyarova, 0(('" 481)"
simple" 8rst, second, third9
derivative" 8fth, seventeenth, thirty-8fth, etc09
compound" thirty-8rst, twenty-second, 8fty-third, etc.
The ordinal number may have the function of"
a) an ad3ective" Ex" Fer son is the 8rst student in his class.
b) a noun" Ex" ) boo!ed two 8rsts to Iucharest.
c) a pronoun" Ex" The frst house we visited was 6uite large, but the
second was huge.
d) an adverb" Ex" 5hen ) 8rst came here ) was a young student.
VIII.4. T(" 0+,/&%'$,3 $)5"+,3
The fractional numeral expresses fractions, that means one or
several e6ual parts from a whole.
There are two types of fractions"
a) The commonCvulgar fraction ? it has two terms" the numerator
and the denominator"
Ex" 2C%( ? numeratorCdenominator
(fvetens)
b) The decimal fraction ? in some cases a fraction can be also
expressed through a decimal number"
Ex" 8.02 ? three point twentyfve
VIII.6. T(" /'33"/&%:" $)5"+,3
The collective numeral expresses in a singular form the numerical
idea of plural. )t includes" couple, pair, brace, do+en, score, gross, etc.
,ouple, pair, brace refer to groups of two"
Ex" a couple of friends
a pair of gloves
a brace of dogsCduc!sCpheasants (brace is a term used to refer
to hunting)
%o+en, score, gross refer to groups larger than two.
Ex" two do+en boxes
three score years
two gross of pens

VIII.7. T(" 5)3&%*3%/,&%:" $)5"+,3
The multiplicative numeral shows the proportion in which a 6uantity
raises. )t includes" single, double -twofold., triple -threefold., fourfold,
tenfold, etc. The forms with the suQx ?fold are especially used in the
literary style, the technical or the oQcial style. )n speech, they have been
replaced by adverbial numerals" once, twice, thrice5three times, four
times, ten times, etc.
13
VIII.8. T(" .%-&+%6)&%:" $)5"+,3
The distributive numeral shows the distribution of ob3ects in e6ual
groups" one at a time, two by two, by threes, by the hundred, four and
four, every 8ve days, etc.
VIII.9. T(" ,.:"+6%,3 $)5"+,3
The adverbial numeral functions as an adverb and it shows"
a) the fre6uency or the periodicity of an action" once, twice,
three times, once more, once again, etc.
b) the place in a series" 8rst, 8rstly, secondly, thirdly, in the 8rst
place, etc.
VIII.10. T(" %$."#$%&" $)5"+,3
The indefnite numeral shows an indefnite number of ob3ects and it
includes" a number -of., a lot, lots, plenty, etc.
7ll the types of numerals mentioned above can be followed in the
following chart"
T1*"- '0 $)5"+,3- F'+5-
Lardinal numerals +ero, one, two, three, J, thirteen,
fourteen, J, twenty, twenty-one,
J, one hundred, two thousand,
three million, etc.
Mrdinal numerals 8rst, second, third, fourth,
si:teenth, fourty-third, si:ty-si:th,
etc.
:ractional numerals two-tens, two point twenty, etc.
Lollective numerals couple, pair, brace, do+en, score,
gross, etc.
/ultiplicative numerals single, double -twofold., triple
-threefold., fourfold, tenfold, etc.
;istributive numerals one at a time, two by two, by
threes, by the hundred, four and
four, every 8ve days, etc.
7dverbial numerals - once, twice, three times, once
more, once again, etc.
- 8rst, 8rstly, secondly, thirdly, in the
8rst place, etc.
)ndefnite numerals a number -of., a lot, lots, plenty, etc.
13
APPENDI
A**"$.%= I.,
P,+&%&%:"- @C'6)%3.B 1990? 38>39A
a. )ouns referring to single items or amounts
a bar of chocolate C soap C metal
a blade of grass
a bloc! of marble C ice C wood
a box of matches
a boo! of stamps
a cube of ice
a dash of soda
a Gash of light C lightening C inspiration
a head of hair C cattle C cabbage C lettuce
13
a heap of coal C dirt C rubbish
an item C a piece of news C information
a 3ar of 3am
a 3et of water
a loaf of bread
a lump of coal C sugar
a clap of thunder
a piece of wood C furniture C paper C glass C chal! C cotton C bread C advice C
information C gossip C scandal C wisdom C !nowledge
a portion of food
a roll of paper
a scrap of paper
a slice of bread C ca!e C meat
a sheet of paper
a stic! of chal!
a strand of hair C wool
b. )ouns referring to small =uantities
a breath of air
a cloud of dust
a drop of oil C rain C water
a grain of corn C dirt C rice C sand
a pinch of salt
a pu@ of smo!e C wind
a sip of tea
a spec! of dust
c. )ouns referring to measures
a gallon of petrol
a length of cloth
a litre of oil
an ounce of gold
a pint of beer C mil!
a pound of co@ee
a spoonful of medicine
a yard of cloth
d. )ouns referring to containers
a barrel of beer
a bas!et of fruit
a bottle of mil! C wine C 3uice
a Gas! of tea
a glass of water
a tin of soup
a tube of paste
a vase of Gowers
e. )ouns referring to types and species
a brand of soap
a !ind of biscuit
13
a species of fsh
a type of drug
a variety of pasta
a ma!e of car
a sort of ca!e
f. )ouns referring to games
a game of billiards C bridge C cards C chess C cric!et C darts C tennis C
volleyball
g. )ouns referring to pairs
a pair of boots C braces C glasses C gloves C 3eans C pants C pliers C py3amas C
scissors C shoes C s!is C slippers C soc!s C tights C tongs C trousers
h. )ouns referring to abstract concepts
a bit C piece of advice
a bit of !nowledgs
a grain of truth
a period of calm
a ft of anger
a win! of sleep
a piece of research
a shred of evidence
a spot of trouble
A**"$.%= I.6
C'33"/&%:" N')$- @C'6)%3.B 1990? 40>41A
a. $eferring to people
a company of actors
a bench of bishops
a troupe of dancers
a board of directors
a party of friends
a gang of labourers
a bevy of ladies
a bench of magistrates
a troupe of minstrels
a band of musicians
a tribe of natives
a band of pilgrims
a class C school of pupils
a crew of sailors
a horde of savages
13
a sta@ of servants
a choir of singers
a crowd of spectators
a sta@ of teachers
a gang of thieves
a congregation of worshippers

b. $eferring to animals, birds, insects
a swarm C hive of bees
a Goc! of birds
a herd of bu@aloes
a herd of cattle
a brood of chic!s
a herd of elephants
a shoal of fsh
a tribe of goats
a team of horses
a swarm C plague of insects
a litter of !ittens
a troop C pride of lions
a plague of locusts
a troop of mon!eys
a team of oxen
a litter of pups
a nest of rabbits
a Gight of swallows
a school of whales
a pac! of wolves

c. $eferring to plants and fruit
a bunch C hand of bananas
a bunch C bou6uet of Gowers
a bunch of grapes
a tuft of grass
a stac! of hay
a clump C forest of trees

d. $eferring to things
a Gight C s6uadron of airplanes
a sheaf C 6uiver of arrows
a library of boo!s
a pac! of cards
a set of china
a pac!et of cigarettes
a cluster of diamonds
a chest of drawers
a clutch C sitting of eggs
a suite of furniture
a group of islands
a rope C string of pearls
13
a collection of pictures
a Geet C Gotilla C s6uadron of ships
a collection of stamps
a cluster of stars
a Gight of steps
a bundle of stic!s
a pile C heap of stones
a set C !it of tools
A**"$.%= II.,
34
L%-& '0 D"-/+%*&%:"
A.;"/&%:"- D"-/+%6%$2
A**",+,$/"
L%-& '0 D"-/+%*&%:"
A.;"/&%:"- D"-/+%6%$2
P"+-'$,3%&1
L%-& '0 D"-/+%*&%:"
A.;"/&%:"-
D"-/+%6%$2 F""3%$2-
7dorable 7ggressive 7fraid
7ttractive 7mbitious 7ngry
7lluring 7mused 7nxious
Ieautiful Irave Iad
Iewildered Iright Iored
Lonfdent Lruel Lalm
Lheerful Lombative Lonfused
Lultured Looperative Lomfortable
Llumsy Lowardly Lreepy
;rab ;angerous ;epressed
;ull ;iligent ;isturbed
35
http"CCwww.bu++le.comCarticlesClistofdescriptivead3ectives.html, retrieved on -anuary
%(
th
, 0(%%.
13
;ynamic ;etermined ;ominating
;isillusioned ;isagreeable ;eceitful
Elegant Evil Envious
:air :ran! :aithful
:ilthy :earless :ine
Sentle Senerous Sood
Slamorous Sifted Srieving
Fandsome Felpful Forrible
Fomely Farmonious Fappy
Furt Fesitant Fungry
)llmannered )nstinctive )ll
-olly -ealous -ovial
[indhearted [nowledgeable [ind
#ovely #oner #ively
/agnifcent /ysterious /ature
>ervous >aughty >ice
,leasant ,leasing ,roud
,erfect ,lacid ,eaceful
,luc!y ,unctual ,rotective
*miling *uccessful *orrowful
*plendid *edate *illy
*elfassured *incere *ombre
*nobbish *elfsh *ore
Thoughtful Talented Tired
Tense Thrifty Troubled
Timid Truculent Testy
Ppset Pnbiased Pnwell
Xivacious Xoracious Xengeful
5onderful 5itty 5ic!ed
5orried 5ise 5eary
5ild 5arm 5rong
caftig cany cestful
13
eg 5hat an adorable
babyH
eg Fe was a brave
!night.
eg *he was in a 1ovial
mood.
L%-& '0
D"-/+%*&%:"
A.;"/&%:"-
D"-/+%6%$2
S(,*"
L%-& '0
D"-/+%*&%:"
A.;"/&%:"-
D"-/+%6%$2 S%9"
L%-& '0
D"-/+%*&%:"
A.;"/&%:"-
D"-/+%6%$2
T%5"
L%-& '0
D"-/+%*&%:"
A.;"/&%:"-
D"-/+%6%$2
G),$&%&1
Iroad Iig 7ncient 7bundant
Lroo!ed Lolossal 7nnual Iountiful
Lircular Sreat Irief Lumbersome
;istorted Sigantic Early Empty
:lat Fuge :ast Extra
Follow #arge #ate :ew
>arrow /iniature /odern Feavy
Round /ammoth Mld /yriad
*6uare ,etite Rapid /any
*!inny Tall *wift /ultiple
*teep Thin *low >umerous
5ide Tiny Young *ubstantial
eg 7 skinny boy
eg 7 miniature
train
eg 7n ancient
boo!
eg Myriad stars
L%-& '0
D"-/+%*&%:"
A.;"/&%:"-
D"-/+%6%$2
S')$.
L%-& '0
D"-/+%*&%:"
A.;"/&%:"-
D"-/+%6%$2
T,-&"
L%-& '0
D"-/+%*&%:"
A.;"/&%:"-
D"-/+%6%$2
T')/(
L%-& '0
D"-/+%*&%:"
A.;"/&%:"-
D"-/+%6%$2
C'3'+
Ilaring Iitter Fard 7+ure
Looing ;elicious #oose 76ua
;eafening :resh Rough Ilue
#oud Fot *mooth Ilac!
/elancholic )cy *lippery Lrimson
>oisy -uicy *tic!y Lyan
*oft *picy *harp Sold
13
*hrill *weet *cattered Sreen
*6uea!ing *our *oft /agenta
*ilent *alty Tender Mrange
Thundering Tasty Pneven ,in!
5hispering Tasteless 5et Tur6uoise
eg Blaring
loudspea!er
eg %elicious
pastry
eg $ough surface
eg Ereen
diamond
A**"$.%= II.6
A.;"/&%:"- )-". '$31 ,&&+%6)&%:"31 @C'6)%3.B 1990? 74A
atomic, bridal, cardiac, countless, cubic, digital, east, eastern, eventual,
existing, federal, forensic, indoor, institutional, introductory, investigative,
3udicial, lone, maximum, nationwide, neighbouring, north, northern,
occasional, orchestral, outdoor, phonetic, preconceived, remedial,
reproductive, smo!eless, south, southern, subterranean,, supplementary,
underlying, west, western, woollen
13
A**"$.%= II./ @C'6)%3.B 1990? 77A
,A A.;"/&%:"- )-),331 )-". *+".%/,&%:"31
afraid, alive, alone, apart, asleep, aware, content, due, glad, ill,
li!ely, ready, safe, sorry, sure, unable, unli!ely, well
6A A.;"/&%:"- )-),331 '+ ,38,1- )-". *+".%/,&%:"31
,$. 0'33'8". 61 H&'I
accustomed, ad3acent, allergic, attributable, attuned, averse, close,
conducive, devoted, impervious, in3urious, integral, prone,
proportional, proportionate, reconciled, related, resigned, resistant,
similar, sub3ect, subservient, susceptible, unaccustomed
/A A.;"/&%:"- )-),331 '+ ,38,1- )-". *+".%/,&%:"31
,$. 0'33'8". 61 H'0I
aware, bereft, capable, characteristic, desirous, devoid, fond, full,
heedless, illustrative, incapable, indicative, mindful, reminiscent,
represents
.A A.;"/&%:"- )-),331 '+ ,38,1- )-". *+".%/,&%:"31
,$. 0'33'8". 61 &(" *+"*'-%&%'$- %$.%/,&".
contingent on, descended from, inherent in, lac!ing in, rooted in,
steeped in, swathed in, unhampered by, answerable for, answerable
to, burdened by, dependent on, dependent upon, immune from,
incumbent on, incumbent upon, insensible of, parallel to, parallel
with, reliant on, burdened with, connected to, connected with,
immune to, inclined to, inclined towards, insensible to, intent on,
intent upon, reliant with, stric!en by, stric!en with
140
A**"$.%= III
I++"2)3,+ V"+6- @C5"/%) J B'$&,B 1997? 331>343A
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7K7 7L7
begin began begun
drin! dran! drun!Cdrun!enT
ring rang rung
run ran run
shrin! shran! shrun!Cshrun!enT
sing sang sung
sin! san! sun!Csun!enT
spring sprang sprung
stin! stan! stun!
swim swam swum
Tdrunken, shrunken and sunken are used attributively.
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7L7 7L7
cling clung clung
dig dug dug
Ging Gung Gung
hang hungChanged (with
a di@erence in
meaning)
hungChanged (with a
di@erence in
meaning)
sling slung slung
slin! slun! slun!
spin spun spunCspan
stic! stuc! stuc!
sting stung stung
stri!e struc! struc!Cstric!enT
swing swung swung
win won won
wring wrung wrung
Tstricken is used attributively.
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7')7 7')7
141
brea! bro!e bro!en
choose chose chosen
free+e fro+e fro+en
steal stole stolen
spea! spo!e spo!en
wa!e wo!e wo!en
weave woveCweaved wovenCweaved
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7'?7 7'?7
bear bore borneCborn
swear swore sworn
tear tore torn
wear wore worn
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7"7 7"7
bereave bereavedCbereft bereavedCbereft
bleed bled bled
breed bred bred
creep crept crept
dream dreamedCdreamt dreamedCdreamt
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
Gee Ged Ged
!eep !ept !ept
!neel !nelt !nelt
lead led led
leap leapt leapt
leave left left
mean meant meant
meet met met
read read read
sleep slept slept
smell smeltCsmelled smeltCsmelled
speed spedCspeeded spedCspeeded
spell spelledCspelt spelledCspelt
sweep swept swept
weep wept wept
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7)?7 7'?7
draw drew drawn
overdraw overdrew overdrawn
withdrawn withdrew withdrawn
142
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7'?7 7'?7
beseech besought besought
bring brought brought
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
fght fought fought
see! sought sought
teach taught taught
thin! thought thought
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7')7 7%7
drive drove driven
ride rode ridden
rise rose risen
arise arose arisen
shrive shrove shriven
smite smote smitten
stride strode stridden
strive strove striven
thrive throveCthrived thriven
write wrote written
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
N'
/(,$2"
N' /(,$2"
bet bet bet
burst burst burst
broadcast broadcast broadcast
cast cast cast
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
hit hit hit
hurt hurt hurt
let let let
put put put
rid rid rid
set set set
shed shed shed
shut shut shut
slit slit slit
split split split
spread spread spread
thrust thrust thrust
143
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7&7 7&7
bend bent bent
lend lent lent
rend rent rent
send sent sent
spend spent spent
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7,)7 7,)7
bind bound bound
fnd found found
grind ground ground
wind wound wound
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7')7 7')7
sell sold sold
tell told told
foretell foretold foretold
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7%7 7%7
bite bit bitten
chide chid chid
hide hid hidden
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7)7 7"%7
forsa!e forsoo! forsa!en
mista!e mistoo! mista!en
parta!e partoo! parta!en
sha!e shoo! sha!en
ta!e too! ta!en
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7"%7 7%7
bid badeCbid biddenCbid
forbid forbade forbidden
forgive forgave forgiven
give gave given
144
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7K7 7K7
sit sat sat
spit spat spat
I$#$%&%:
"
P,-& T"$-" P,-&
P,+&%/%*3"
7.7 7$7
hew hewed hewn
mow mowed mown
saw sawed sawn
sew sewed sewn
show showed shown
sow sowed sown
strew strewed strewn
M%-/"33,$"')-
abide abode abode
be wasCwere been
beat beat beaten
blend blendedCblent blendedCblent
bless blessedCblest blessedCblest
build built built
burn burnedCburnt burnedCburnt
clothe clothedCclad clothedCclad
come came come
become became become
overcome overcame overcome
deal dealt dealt
do did done
outdo outdid outdone
dwell dwelt dwelt
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
foresee foresaw foreseen
forget forgot forgotten
get got gotCgotten
go went gone
undergo underwent undergone
have had had
hear heard heard
overhear overheard overheard
hold held held
behold beheld beheldCbeholden
withhold withheld withheld
!nit !nittedC!nit !nittedC!nit
lay laid laid
145
mislay mislaid mislaid
lean leantCleaned leantCleaned
learn learnedClearnt #earnedTClearnt
lie lay lain
light lightedClit lightedClit
load loaded loadedCladenT
lose lost lost
ma!e made made
melt melted meltedCmoltenT
pay paid paid
rot rotted rottedCrottenT
say said said
see saw seen
shave shaved shavedCshaven
shear sheared shearedCshorn
shine shone shone
shoe shod shod
shoot shot shot
slide slid slid
spill spilledCspilt spilledCspilt
spoil spoiled spoiledCspoilt
stand stood stood
understand understood understood
withstand withstood withstood
swell swelled swollenCswelled
tread trod troddenCtrod
wor! wor!ed wor!edCwroughtT
Tladen, learned, molten -iron., rotten, wrought -iron. are used
attributively
146
A**"$.%= VII.,
V"+6- 8%&( *+"*'-%&%'$ @P,%.'-B 1993? 228>243A
to abandon to9 to abide by9 to abound in9 to accountCor9 to accuse
of9 to accustom to9 to ac6uaint with9 to act onCupon9 to agree
onCupon9 to agree to9 to agree with9 to aim atCfor9 to allow for9 to
answer for9 to answer to9 to apologi+e for9 to apologi+e to9 to apply
for9 to apply to9 to approve of9 to as! about9 to as! for9 to as! in9 to
assort with9 to attend to9 to be about9 to be after9 to be through9 to
be with9 to believe in9 to belong to9 to bring about9 to call at9 to call
for9 to call in9 to call on9 to care for9 to carry on9 to change for9 to
change into9 to charge for9 to come across9 to complain aboutCof9 to
connect with9 to consist of9 to consist in9 to count onCupon9 to deal
with9 to decide onCupon9 to defend againstCfrom9 to depend
onCupon9 to discern between9 to dissatisfy at9 to dissatisfy with9 to
distribute to9 to do about9 to do for9 to do in9 to do without9 to
embar! onCupon9 to endow with9 to excel in9 to feel about9 to ft
with9 to free from9 to ga+e at9 to get after9 to get to9 to go for9 to go
in(to)9 to inherit from9 to introduce to9 to involve in9 to involve with9
to !eep aboutCaround9 to !eep on9 to !eep to9 to !now aboutCof9 to
!now from9 to laugh9 to lead in9 to learn from9 to learn aboutCof9 to
leave for9 to leave with9 to listen to9 to live on9 to live through9 to
long for9 to loo! after9 to loo! at9 to loo! for9 to loo! in (on)9 to loo!
on9 to loo! to9 to ma!e after9 to ma!e at9 to ma!e for9 to ma!e of9
to match with9 to meet with9 to mingle with9 to moc! at9 to ob3ect
to9 to occupy in9 to occupy with9 to occur to9 to originate from9 to
pass by9 to pay for9 to plead for9 to plot against9 to point at9 to point
toCtowards9 to provide for9 to provide with9 to pull at9 to pull by9 to
punish for9 to punish with9 to race against9 to reach after9 to reach
for9 to read for9 to refrain from9 to re6uire of9 to rescue from9 to
resort to9 to result in9 to result from9 to revolt against9 to use
against9 to rise from9 to run after9 to run at9 to run for9 to run into9
to say about9 to say after9 to see about9 to see to9 to see! afterCfor9
to send for9 to set about9 to set for9 to show around9 to ta!e about9
to la!e after9 to ta!e for9 to tell on9 to thin! aboutCof9 to thin! in9 to
thin! to9 to throw at9 to wait for9 to wave atCto9 to wonder at9 to
wonder about.
14'
A**"$.%= VII.6
N')$- 8%&( *+"*'-%&%'$- @P,%.'-B 1993? 244>244A
access to9 accompaniment of9 accord of9 in accordance with9
account, of9 accudsation of9 act of9 action of9 advance of9
advertisement for9 advice on 9 aQnity with9 aggression againstC
towards 9 agreement amongCaboutCas toCbetween9 aim of9
amusement at9 anger against9 in answer (to)9 antagonism toC
towardsCbetween9 appointement with9 appreciation of9 aptitude for9
in associadtion with9 astonishment at9 attempt onCupon9 attendance
at9 in attendance on9 authority onCover9 aversion to9 bastion of9
battle againstCwith (another group)Cbetween (two partsrts)9 belief in9
border betweenCofCwith9 bridge acrossCover9 campaign againstCfor9
care for9 chance of9 change of9 charge with9 claim forCto9 in
command9 in company9 in competition with9 concern aboutCover9
confdence in9 in conformity with9 consultation about
(something)Cwith (somedone)9 control over9 conversion from9
conviction ofCfor9 cure for9 decision aboutCon9 decrease in9 defence
against9 by defnition9 delight of9 desire for9 in diQdculty9
disagreement between9 in disguise 9 in the distance9 distinction
between9 dream of9 on duty9 o@ duly9 on earth9 at ease (with)9
embargo on9 embardrassment at (something)Cto (someone)9
enthusiasm for9 entrance toCof9 entry in(to)9 e6uality of9 e6uivalent
of9 evidence aboutCof9 for example9 exception to9 excursion (in) to9
excuse for9 exit from9 experiment onCwith9 expert inConCat9
explanation for9 faith in9 in fashion9 out of fashion9 in favour (of)9
feeling aboutCfor9 fdelity to9 on fre9 under fre9 in Gower9 on foot9 in
general9 on the grounds of9 by hand (Z manually)9 at hand ( near)9
on hand (near and available)9 in harmony with9 haired forCof9 on
holiday9 homage to9 in honour of9 an honor to9 in the hope of9
hunger for9 by implication9 impression of9 improvement inCof9
inclination forCtowards9 an indictment againstCof someone for a
crime9 inde6uality inCofCbetween9 information aboutCon9 inspiration
for9 for instance9 instrument ofCfor9 insurance against9 intimacy with9
introduction to9 investigation into9 3o!e aboutCwith9 3udge of9
148
3udgement of9 3ustifcation for9 lac! of9 against the law 9 inCbyC under
law 9 legislation againstCforCon 9 at liberty 9 in the light (of)9 li!ing for9
limit ofCon 9 lin! between 9 at a loss for)9 love for9 in love (with)9 in
luc!9 out of luc!9 with luc! 9 mania for9 margin of9 master of9 in the
meantime 9 memorial to 9 memory of9 at the mercy of9 in a mess 9
miracle of9 by mista!e 9 misunderstanding between 9 model of9 in
moderation9 at the moment9 for the moment9 of the moment9
monopoly of9 monument to 9 by (the) name 9 in the name (of)9 by
nature (naturally)9 in the nature of9 necessity ofCfor9 need for9 at
night9 nostalgia for9 obedience to9 ob3ect of9 ob3ection to9 occasion
for9 partiality for9 participant in9 on patrol9 perspective onCof9 by
phone9 in place of9 by plane9 in possession of9 possibility of9 power
of9 power over9 prediction aboutCof9 predilection for9 preface to9
pre3udice against9 prescription for9 on prescription9 probability of9
promise to9 proof of9 in proposition toCwith9 in public9 a 6uestion
about9 beyond 6uestion9 in 6uestion (Zinvolved)9 out of 6uestion9
6uotation from 9 at random9 at any rate9 rationale forCof9 in reality 9
reason for9 by reason of9 recovery from9 reference to9 reGectionofC
onC upon9 refusal of9 relation withCbetweenCofCto 9 relationship
withCbetween 9 relit from9 remar! on9 remedy for9 replacement for9
replica of9 with reservation(s)9 in reserve9 respect for9 responsibility
for9 revelation to9 wider review 9 at (the) ris! (of)9 by road9 rumour
of9 sanctions against9 at sea9 the secret of9 se6uel to 9 in se6uence 9
out of se6uence9 in session9 by ship9 in sight9 out of sight9 on sight9 a
sign of9 signal for9 in silence9 on stage.9 in step 9 out of step9 in store
on the street (homeless)9 in the street (outside)9 the strength of9
stress on9 study of9 suggestion of9 under suspicion9 above suspicion9
beyond suspicion9 symbolof9 sympathy forCwith9 symptom of9
synonym for9 a target for9 a taste of by taxi9 in tears9 a techni6ue
ofCfor9 by telephone9 on television9 in terme of9 a testimony to9 in
theory9 a thirst for9 in touch with9 on tour9 without trace9 translation
fromCtoCinto9 a tribute to9 in trouble9 by truc!9 by tube9
understanding of9 in unison9 in vain9 on vacation9 at variance with9 a
variation ofCon9 a variety of9 a vehicle for9 verdict on9 on the verge
of9 in the vicinity of9 with a view to9 visit from9 visitor fromCto9 a
witness to.
14(
A**"$.%= VII./
A.;"/&%:"- 8%&( *+"*'-%&%'$- @P,%.'-B 1993? 246>247A
able to9 absent from9 absorbed in9 acceptable to9 accountable for9
accustomed to9 afraid of somethingCto do something9 ahead of9
aeicted by9 alarmed by9 allergic to9 ama+ed atCby9 angry about
(something)Cwith somebody9 annoyed atCaboutCby9 anxious
aboutCfor9 armed with9 ashamed aboutCof9 astonished at9 attentive
to9 available for9 averse to9 aware of9 bad atCfor9 basic to9 blind to9
bored with9 brilliant at9 busy with9 capable of9 careful ofCaboutCwith9
careless ofCwith9 certain of9 charged with9 clear aboutCof9 clever
atCto9 close to9 comparable toCwith9 complementary to9 concerned
aboutCwith9 conscious of9 content(ed) with9 contrary to9
convenientfor9 cra+y about (something)Cto do (something)9 crowded
with9 curious about9 deaf to9 delighted with (a present)Cat (hearing
something)Cto do (something)9 dependent on9 descended from9
determined to9 di@erent froCthan9 disappointed with9 displeased
with9 doubtful about9 due to9 eager for9 easy aboutCto9 embarrassed
atCaboutCby9 envious of9 e6ual to9 essential forCto9 evident to9
exclusive to9 fair to9 faithful to9 familiar toCwith9 famous for9
favourable to9 fearful of9 ft for9 fond of9 forgetful of9 free for9 friendly
to9 full of9 furious atCwith9 generous toCwith9 gentle with9 glad
aboutCofC to9 good at9 grateful toCfor9 guilty of9 happy aboutCwith9
harmful to9 hesitant aboutCto9 heavy with9 honest about9 honoured
to9 hopeful about9 hopeless at9 hungry for9 identical toCwith9 ignorant
of9 impatient atCofCwith9 important for9 impressed byCwith9 incapable
150
of9 incompatible with9 inconsistent with9 independent of9 inferior to9
indispensable to9 indistinguishable from9 inherent in9 inimical to9
insensible ofCto9 inseparable from9 interested inCto9 intolerant of9
intoxicated by9 invisible to9 involved inCwith9 invulnerable to9
irrelevant to9 3ealous of9 !een aboutCon9 !ind ofCto9 at large9 late for9
at last9 li!ely to9 loyal to9 mad about9 married to9 mirrored byCin9
mista!en aboutCas to9 native (to)9 necessary for9 nervous aboutCof9
new to9 nice to9 notorious for9 noted for9 obedient to9 obvious ofCto9
obsessed byCwith9 occupied inCwith9 of old9 optimistic about9
orientated to Ctowards9 pardoned for9 parted from9 patient with9
peculiar to9 pleasant to9 pleased withCtoCabout9 poor in9 popular with9
populated by9 positive about (sure)9 preferable to9 pre3udiced
against9 preoccupied with9 profcient in9 prompt to9 proud of9 pu++led
about9 6ualifed forCto9 ready for9 for real9 receptive to9 related to9
relevant to9 remote from9 removed from9 resident in9 responsible
forCto9 reunited with9 rich inCwith9 rooted in9 sacred to9 safe from9
satisfed with9 scornful of9 sensitive toCabout9 sentimental about9
separate from9 serious about9 short of9 forCto9 superior to9 sure
aboutCof9 surrounded by9 susceptible to9 surprised at9 symbolic of9
sympathetic toCtowards9 synonymous with9 than!ful toCfor9 thirsty
for9 thrilled about9 tired of9 true to9 unacceptable to 9 unaccustomed9
unac6uainted with9 una@ected by9 unafraid of9 unattractive to9
unavailable for9 unaware of9 uncertain aboutCof9 uncharacteristic of9
unclear about9 uneasy about9 unconcerned with9 unconnected with9
unconscious of9 undecided about9 une6ual to9 unfair to9 unfaithful to9
unfamiliar to9 unft for9 unhappy aboutCwith9 unempressed by9
uninterested in9 uni6ue to9 un!ind to9 un!nown to9 unprepared for9
unsatisfed with9 unsuited to9 unsure about9 wasted on9 wea! on9
worried about9 worthy of9 wrong with.
BIBLIO!RAPHY
%. 7lexander, #.S., !nglish Erammar, #ongman, %&11.
0. 7nderson, -ohn /., Modern Erammars of ,ase, Mxford Pniversity
,ress, 0((<.
8. IJdescu, 7lice #., Eramatica limbii engle+e, Iucurefti, Editura
gtiin$ifcJ fi EnciclopedicJ, %&14.
4. Ie!lyarova, Tamara, 6 &andbook on a Practical !nglish Erammar
Morphology, Yerevan, 0(('.
2. Iiber, ;ouglas, -ohansson, *tig, #eech, Seo@rey, Lonrad, *usan,
:inegan, Edward, ogman Erammar of Dpoken and 'ritten !nglish,
#ogman, %&&&.
<. Ionta, Raluca, Cntroducing morphology4 -the article, the noun, the
ad1ective, the pronoun.4 workbook for students, IacJu, Ed. 7lma
/ater, 0((&.
'. Llose, R.7., 6 $eference Erammar for Dtudents of !nglish,
#ongman,%&''.
1. Llose, R.7., 6 (niversity Erammar of !nglish, #ongman, %&'1.
151
&. Lmeciu, ;oina . Ionta, Elena, !ssential !nglish Topics, ,ro
Fumanitate, Iucurefti, %&&'.
%(. Lobuild, Lollins, !nglish Erammar, #ondon and Slasgow, Lollins
,ublishers, %&&(.
%%. Loghill, -e@rey . /agedan+, *tacy, !nglish Erammar, >ew Yor!,
5iley ,ublishing, 0((8.
%0. Lomrie, Iernard, 6spect, Lambridge Pniversity ,ress, %&&%.
%8. Lorbett, Sreville, Eender, Lambridge Pniversity ,ress, %&&%.
%4. Lroitoru, Elena, Modals0 Tenses0 6spect, Editura :unda$iei
Pniversitare h;unJrea de -osO Sala$i, 0((0.
%2. ;avidsen>ielsen, >iels, Tense and Mood in !nglish, Ierlin. >ew
Yor!, /outon de Sruyter, %&&(.
%<. ;owning, 7ngela . #oc!e, ,hilip, !nglish Erammar / 6
(niversity ,ourse, #ondon and >ew Yor!, Routledge, %&&0C0((<.
%'. Sreenbaum, *idney . >elson, Serald, 6n Cntroduction to !nglish
Erammar, ,earson Education #imited, 0((&.
%1. Fuddleston, Rodney . ,ullum, Seo@rey [., 6 Dtudent>s
Cntroduction to !nglish Erammar, Lambridge Pniversity ,ress, 0((2.
%&. Furford, -ames, Erammar0 6 student>s guide, Lambridge
Pniversity ,ress, %&&4.
0(. -espersen, Mtto, !ssentials of !nglish Erammar, Routledge,
0((<.
0%. -urafs!y, ;aniel . /artin, -ames F., Dpeech and anguage
Processing, ,rentice Fall, 0((1.
00. #eech, S., *vartvi!,-., 6 ,ommunicative Erammar of !nglish,
#ondon, %&'2.
08. #eech, Seo@rey9 ;euchar, /argaret9 Foogenraad, Robert,
!nglish Erammar for Today, /acmillan, %&10.
04. #evi$chi, #eon, imba engle+U contemporanU0 Morfologie,
Iucurefti, Editura ;idacticJ fi ,edagogicJ, %&'(.
02. ,aidos, Lonstantin, Eramatica limbii engle+e, )afi, )nstitutul
European, %&&8.
0<. ,almer, F., 7 Erammar of Dpoken !nglish, ,enguin, %&'1.
0'. ,opa, ). #., Modal Berbs and Modality in !nglish, Editura NEgalO,
Iacau, 0((4.
01. =uir!, Randolph9 Sreenbaum, *idney9 #eech, Seo@rey . *vartvi!,
-an, 6 Erammar of ,ontemporary !nglish, #ongman, %&'<
0&. =uir!, Randolph . Sreenbaum, *idney, 6 (niversity Erammar of
!nglish, #ongman, %&'<.
8(. =uir!, Randolph9 Sreenbaum, *idney9 #eech, Seo@rey .
*vartvi!, -an, 6 ,omprehensive Erammar of the !nglish anguage,
#ongman, %&&%.
8%. Thomson, 7.-. . /artinet, 7.X., 6 Practical !nglish Erammar,
Mxford Pniversity ,ress, %&12.
80. 5ales, [atie, Personal pronouns in present-day !nglish,
Lambridge Pniversity ,ress, %&&<.
88. Yule, Seorge, !:plaining !nglish Erammar, Mxford Pniversity
,ress, %&&1.
152
153