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INTRODUCTION TO

AUTOMATION
SYSTEM
Prepared by: Aftas Azman
jke/psa/jun2010
INTRODUCTION
Control system now converge a lot to
Automation Control System. Now are days,
we were surrounded by this system for
example at home, in vehicle and buildings.
In industry Automation Control System are
used to improve quality and increase
productivity.
Automation Control System are influence
our future lifestyle.
Automation Control System
needs in Industry
Automation Control System are able to
control a process with or without manual
help.

Automation Control System had capacity
to start, posting, act present or measure
variable in process and stop process for
product output.
Automation Control System
needs in Industry

Main purpose Automation Control System
used in industry is to:-

Increase output quantity.
Improve production's quality.
Control the expenditure cost.
Fixed Automation / Hard-
Wire Control
This control system designed to do a
specific task. The control circuit
function is still and remain.

Work would be complicated if we
wish to perform other then usual
task.
Flexible Automation /
Programmable Control System
Flexible Automation is a complex control
system that can perform various task.
Control circuit function are programmed by
consumer and can be modified.

When doing modification we need only change
the control program to meet new task.
COMPARISON BETWEEN FIXED
WITH FLEXIBLE AUTOMATION
Automation When to consider Advantages Disadvantages
Fixed High demand volume, long
product life cycle
maximum efficiency
low unit cost
large initial
investment
inflexibility
Programmable Batch production, products
with the different options
flexibility to deal
with changes in
product
low unit cost for
large batches

new product
requires long set up
time
high unit cost
relative to fixed
automation
Flexible Low production rates,
varying demand, short
product life cycles
flexibility to deal
with design variations
customized product
large initial
investment
high unit cost
relative to fixed or
programmable
automation
Exp 1
men
tol
S1 S2
V
B
00000 00001
10000
S
1

S2
programming

LD
00000
AND
00001
OUT
10000
END (01)
COM
mentol
COM
VB
VB
Fixed controller Flexible controller
PLC
IN OP
Exp 2
S1
S2
mentol
V
B
B
00000
00001
10000
S
1

S2
COM
M
mentol
ATURCARA

LD 00000
OR 00001
OUT 10000
END (01)
Litar kawalan
COM
Fixed controller Flexible controller
SUIS
1
6
4 3 2
13
5
9
14
12 11
8
10
7
16 15
1 2 3
Fixed
Automation
Fixed
Automation
Fixed
Automation
Fixed
Automation
PLC
OUTPUT
INPUT
PROGRAM
When
switch no 1
ON, lamp
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 11
12 13 14 15
16 will ON
PLC
OUTPUT
INPUT
Automasi Boleh
Aturcara
Flexible
Automation
PLC
OUTPUT
INPUT
PROGRAM
When
Switch no
1 ON, lamp
1 3 5 10
will ON
PLC
OUTPUT
INPUT
Automasi Boleh
Aturcara
Flexible
Automation
INTRODUCTION
of RELAYS
Introduction
Relays open and close electrical contacts to
operate other devices (switches).

They are often used because, less cost then
electronic switches.

But some relay qualities are superior to solid-
state devices. For example, input and output
circuits in relays are electrically isolated unlike
those of most solid-state devices.
Introduction
Relays have numerous of electrical
contacts that isolated one from another.

In addition, electromechanical relays are
becoming smaller, now available in PCB-
mount and surface-mount packages that
are suitable for automated soldering.
Basic electro magnetic
relay
D.C
supply
N/O
N/C
COM
Relay schematic diagram
N/O N/C N/O N/C N/O N/C N/O N/C
RELAY COIL
COMM COMM COMM COMM
+ v
- v
Principle
Functionally, armature and a relay is a
solenoid operated switch, it consists of a coil
of wire, one or more contacts. Figure bellow
shows the principle.
How relay works
13
14
5
9
Basic relay Structure
Relay functions
The main function of relays is:-
Changing from a normally closed to a normally
open contact (Inversion)

Multiplying contacts from one (to energize the
coil) to any reasonable number of contacts.

Power amplification

Voltage change

Memory function
Relay functions
The latter function is realized with the
most important basic relay circuit is called
a holding Circuit. Methods that are used
are shown bellow:-
Types of Relay
There are several type of relay that
used nowadays, some of its are:-

Plug-in Relays
Print Relays
Special Function Relays
Plug-in Relays
There are various types of relays. A
distinction can be made according to
the mounting method: plug-in type or
print type.
Print Relays
Print Relays are designed to be soldered on
circuit boards.
They have terminals in the form of small strips or
pins to be inserted in the holes of printed plate
and to be soldered in the same process as
electronic components.
Special Function Relays
Latching Relays
Special function
relay are made
according to the
function.
A bistable device,
made of two relays
with a latch on the
moving armature.
Relays POLE and Throw
There are many type of pole and
throw of relay, such as:
Single pole double throw SPDT,
Double pole double throw DPDT,
Four pole double throw 4PDT and
others.
49
Figure : Relay Contact Configuration
Single Pole relay have 1 common
Double Pole relay have 2 common
Single Throw relay have NC or NO
Double Throw relay have NC and NO
50
This is a Single Pole Single
Throw (SPST) relay. Current will
only flow through the contacts
when the relay coil is energized.
51
This is a Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT)
relay. Current will flow between the movable
contact and one fixed contact when the coil is D-
energized and between the movable contact and
the alternate fixed contact when the relay coil is
energized. The most commonly used relay in car
audio, the Bosch relay, is a SPDT relay.
52
This is a Double Pole Single Throw
(DPST) relay. When the relay coil is
energized, two separate and electrically
isolated sets of contacts are pulled down to
make contact with their stationary
counterparts. There is no complete circuit
path when the relay is D-energized.
53
This relay is a Double Pole Double
Throw (DPDT) relay. It operates like
the SPDT relay but has twice as
many contacts. There are two
completely isolated sets of contacts.
SBO/ PMM/ EJ501/ Jun2011 54
This is a 4 Pole Double
Throw (4PDT) relay. It
operates like the SPDT
relay but it has 4 sets of
isolated contacts.
55
Figure : Wiring of relay
Pin no 1 Common
Pin no 2 NC
Pin no 3 NO
Ratings
Relay is rated firstly by the voltage
requirements of its coil that is
12Vdc, 24Vdc and 110Vac.
Secondly the switch contacts are
rated for maximum voltage and
current flow, for use in both AC and
DC circuits.
Maintenance

Service life will very with loads placed
upon them, but most breakdowns occur due
to open circuit.
Coil bum out, when switch contacts weld
due to excessive current or voltage.
Maintenance

The relay is an electromechanical
device. The relay offers a simple
ON/OFF switching action and response
to a control signal.
INTRODUCTION
of CONTACTOR
Contactors
A contactor works exactly the
same principle as a control
relay but usually much larger,
built to control the larger
currents drawn by electric
motors.
A contactor can be fitted with
overload protection, and this is
not usually available for control
relays.
Contactors
Relays can be used to
directly control small
motors only if the current
required by the motor, is
within the operating range
of the relay.
Contactors Symbols
Contactors Connection
Building Diagram

Operation
When a relay is used to switch a large
amount of electrical power through its
contacts, it is designated by a special
name: contactor.

Operation
Contactors typically have multiple
contacts, and those contacts are
usually (but not always) normally-open,
so that power to the load is shut off
when the coil is de-energized.

Perhaps the most common industrial
use for contactors is the control of
electric motors.
Operation
The top three contacts switch the
respective phases of the incoming 3-
phase AC power, typically at least 415
Volts for motors 1 horsepower or
greater.

Operation
The lowest contact is an "auxiliary" contact
which has a current rating much lower than
that of the large motor power contacts, but
is actuated by the same armature as the
power contacts.
Operation
The auxiliary contact is often used in a
relay logic circuit, or for some other part
of the motor control scheme, typically
switching 120/240 Volt AC power instead
of the motor voltage.
Operation
One contactor may have several
auxiliary contacts, either normally-
open or normally-closed, if required.
INTRODUCTION
of Electromechanical
Timer
Electromechanical timer
Symbol of Electromechanical timer
Contact symbols determine the time of timer
action:-
On-delay action - TR energized, contacts
change state after set time interval
Off-delay action - TR de-energized, contacts
change state after set time interval
Electromechanical timer
Define
Electromechanical timers are used to start or
stop a machine or other device at preset or
delayed intervals.

They consist of both electrical and mechanical
components, and often feature an electric
motor that drives one or more gears.

They typically accept electric or electronic
inputs to operate a mechanical output such as
rotating wheels or knobs.
Electromechanical timer
A category of timers that operate
through a combination of electricity
and mechanical motion.
Electro mechanical timers are
gradually being replaced by solid
state technology
INTRODUCTION
of Electromechanical
Counter
Electromechanical
counter
A category of counters that operate
through a combination of electricity and
mechanical motion.

Electromechanical counters receive an
electrical input signal and convert it to
mechanical action to output a count, stop a
count, or reset the counter to zero.
Electromechanical
counter
Electromechanical counters are used to
detect, totalize, and indicate a sequence of
events.
They typically accept electric or electronic
inputs to operate mechanical outputs such as
rotating wheels or knobs.
These devices may count UP and/or DOWN,
support multiple functions, and provide reset
capabilities.
Electromechanical counter
Symbol Electromechanical Counter
Electromechanical counter
Simple Logical Control/ Automation Sequence
Application of relay and
contactor
81
82
Relay
Contactor
83
3ph Starter/1ph Motor