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How to Clean Dark Cooking Oil by wikiHow

Clean the dark cooking oil in your deep fryer in one easy go.
Steps
1
Clean a garlic bulb without washing.
2
Place the garlic in the fryer oil and warm it.
3
Cool the oil and remove the garlic.
You will see it has absorbed all the black stuff and crumbs.
The rest will collect at the bottom making it easy to drain/filter.


How to Filter Fry Oil for Reuse by wikiHow
Do you like to fry food but don't because the cost of fresh cooking oil is too high? One of the best things about frying is
that the oil can be used more than once and used oil can add flavor. Don't worry about the cost of expensive
"professional" or "industrial" oil filters. Here is how to do it on the cheap.
Steps
1
When you are done frying for the day, scoop out any large chunks that are left in the oil.
2
Allow the oil to cool to 150 - 170 F, 65 - 75 C.
3
Place a coffee filter or a cheesecloth in the mason jar and roll the edge of the filter over the lip of the jar.
4
Loosely install just the ring and make snug to secure the paper coffee filter or cheesecloth.
5
Pour the warm oil into the filter through the hole in the ring being careful not to overfill the filter. It will take a few
minutes for the oil to pass through. Caution, the oil is still hot enough to cause a burn.
6
When the oil has run through the filter, carefully remove the ring and filter. Discard the filter, place the lid on the jar
and secure with the ring.
7
Store your oil for your next cooking adventure, be it deep frying, stir frying, pan seasoning or just lubricant duty.







How to Make Bio Diesel
By wikiHow

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines made from vegetable oil and/or animal fat. Since it is derived from
renewable organic materials and has been shown to reduce certain harmful emissions when burned compared to
conventional diesel, biodiesel has received wide attention as a "green" source of energy. Here are steps to synthesize
this renewable fuel yourself.

Method 1 of 2: Preparations
1
Work in a safe place. This can mean in a clinical laboratory setting. You can find suitable laboratories at most colleges
and research institutions. Working at home is also possible but requires caution - manufacturing your own biodiesel
may be illegal and can put your house at risk of a fire

A good work place will be well-ventilated and have access to running water, eye-wash stations, fire extinguishers, spill
containment supplies, and a telephone.

2
Observe laboratory dress codes. Most laboratories will have posted dress instructions you should follow. You should
always wear a long-sleeve shirt, long pants, and shoes in any laboratory setting.

When making biodiesel, you should also wear a heavy-duty apron, chemical-resistant gloves (butyl rubber is best
when handling methanol and lye) and protective goggles or eyewear. The gloves should come up to your elbows or
have cuffs you can pull over your long-sleeve shirt.

3
Obtain good-quality oil. The easiest oils to use for biodiesel are neutral vegetable oils like canola, corn, and sunflower
oil - these oils are readily available at grocery stores and have a low melting point, which means they won't solidify if
they get too cold.

Avoid using peanut oil, coconut oil, palm oil, tallow, and lard. These sources of oil solidify at relatively high
temperatures. Biodiesel usually has a lower melting point than the oil it's made from[5], but these oils can still be
difficult for beginners.

Also avoid olive oil. It, peanut oil, palm oil, tallow, and lard all contain more acids than in the recommended neutral
oils. These extra acids can interfere with the reactions that take place to create the biodiesel.

It's also possible to use waste vegetable oil which has been used for cooking. However, waste oil should be filtered to
remove particulates, then allowed to settle for 24 hours to separate the oil from any water or other impurities. Pure oil
will be clear and bright, with no sediment.

4
Ensure all containers are well-labeled. Only use containers for making biodiesel - don't use them for storing food
afterwards, even if you wash them well.

Method 2 of 2: Procedure
1
Add 200 ml methanol to glass blender or mixer. Take care not to splash or spill. Set the blender or mixer to "low."

2
Add 3.5 grams of lye. Try to weigh the lye quickly, as it absorbs moisture from the air. For this reason, be sure tightly
seal the container you got the lye from.

The ensuing reaction between the methanol and lye produces sodium methoxide. Sodium methoxide cannot be
allowed to sit for long, as it degrades in the presence of air and moisture.

3
Allow the lye to completely dissolve in the methanol. The process should take about two minutes. Proceed when
mixture is clear, with no undissolved particles.

Again, be attentive - the sodium methoxide will degrade rapidly, so proceed to the next step as soon as the lye is
completely dissolved.

4
Heat 1 liter of vegetable oil to 130 F (55 C) Add the hot oil to the mixture. Allow the new mixture to blend for about
20-30 minutes.

As the reaction proceeds, two products are formed - biodiesel and glycerin.

5
Pour the mixture into a wide-mouthed glass container or pitcher. Allow the mixture to sit.
The mixture should separate into two layers - biodiesel and glycerin. Because biodiesel is less dense than glycerin, it
should float, forming the top layer.

6
Allow the mixture to sit for several hours. When it has separated completely, carefully keep the top layer to use as
your biodiesel fuel.

Separate the top layer from the bottom by pouring it off very carefully or using a baster or pump.

7
Dispose of the glycerin properly. Check with local waste disposal authorities to see whether glycerin can be thrown
out with your normal garbage - it usually can.

If you don't want to waste your glycerin, consider pouring it on a compost heap to increase the rate of decomposition
or using it to make soap. Consult our wikiHow on Making Glycerin Soap for more information.

Tips
Increasing the temperature of the mixture will cause the reaction to proceed more quickly. However, temperatures that
are too high will yield less overall biodiesel.

If a deposit forms at the bottom of your bio diesel, make sure you avoid getting it in your fuel tank. Filter the biodiesel
until the deposit is removed.

Use glass (not plastic) containers. Methanol can react with plastics, altering the course of the reaction.

Work in a well-ventilated area. Most college and research laboratories should have work areas with vacuum hoods
designed to minimize the risks posed by harmful fumes.

Work near a sink with running water.

Warnings
Do not bring any food or drink into the work area.

Lye is corrosive to skin. Keep a bottle of vinegar on hand - in the event you splash any lye on your skin, rinse the area
immediately with vinegar to neutralize the chemical, then rinse with water.

Keep the work area clear of distractions. Do not attempt to synthesize biodiesel around children or animals.

Consult your owner's manual or vehicle manufacturer before using biodiesel in a vehicle. Biodiesel can harm vehicles
that are not built to run on it.

Handle methanol with extreme care. Methanol is the most dangerous chemical used to produce biodiesel. It is
extremely flammable and can be caused to burn or explode with a single spark. It is also poisonous and can cause
blindness if inhaled or ingested.







How to Test Fuels in a Lab
By Jack Brubaker, eHow Contributor

Instructions
1
Fill an alcohol burner about three-fourths full with the fuel to be tested. Light the wick and observe the flame. The
flame should be no more than 1 inch in height and produce minimal soot. If necessary, extinguish the flame and
adjust the wick until the flame height is correct.
2
Set up a ring stand with a 4-inch diameter iron ring. Cut the top off of an empty aluminum can, and punch two holes
through the sides of the can directly across from one another near the top. Insert a glass stirring rod through the
holes, then suspend the can by the stirring rod across the iron ring.

3.
Fill a 400-ml beaker about half full and add two or three ice cubes. Stir the water, then measure 100-ml of the cold
water in a 100-ml graduated cylinder and transfer it to the aluminum can.
4
Place a thermometer in the water inside the aluminum can and record the starting temperature as T(initial). Weigh the
burner on a balance and record its starting mass as m(initial).
5
Place the burner inside an 800-ml beaker, then position the burner underneath the can. Place the unlit burner under
the aluminum can and adjust the iron ring so that the bottom of the can sits about 3 inches above the burners wick.
The beaker will prevent air drafts from interfering with the heat transfer between the flame and can.
6
Light the burner with an elongated grill lighter. Use the thermometer to periodically stir the water. Monitor the
temperature of the water until it reaches about 45 degrees Celsius, then raise the can by adjusting the iron ring and
extinguish the burner by capping it. Continue to stir the water until the temperature begins to drop, then record the
highest observed temperature as T(final). Remove the burner from the beaker and re-weigh it. Record this weight as
the m(final).
7
Calculate the heat transferred to the water in kilojoules, kJ, according to q = m * s * delta(T), where m represents the
mass of water (in this case 100 g), s is the specific heat capacity of water, 0.004184 kJ/gC, and delta(T) is T(final) -
T(initial). For example, if the temperature of the water increased from 20 C to 47 C, then delta(T) = 27 C, and q = 100
* 0.004184 * 27 = 11.3 kJ.
8
Calculate the heat of combustion, H, of the fuel according to H = -q / m(fuel), where -q represents the negative value
of the heat transferred to the calorimeter as determined in step 7 and m(fuel) represents the mass of fuel burned.
Thus, if the burners mass decreased from 165.66 to 164.95, then m(fuel) = 165.66 - 164.95 = 0.71 g, and H = -11.3
kJ / 0.71 g = 16 kJ/g.