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MAY 2014



MATRICULATION NO : 801218125288
IDENTITY CARD NO. : 801218-12-5288
TELEPHONE NO. : 016-3220602
Manager is a person responsible for controlling or administering the activities, business
dealings, and other aspects of a company or similar organization. They plan and direct the
work of a group or individuals, monitoring their work, and taking corrective action when
necessary. According to Henry Mintzberg, in 1973, manager plays different roles and
there are ten roles that managers are expected to perform. These roles can be defined as
the organized sets of behaviors identified with the position. These ten roles can be
classified into three categories which are Interpersonal Roles, Informational Roles, and
Decisional Roles. The first category of interpersonal roles arises directly from the
managers position and the formal authority bestowed upon him. The second category
of informational roles is played as a direct result of interpersonal roles and these two
categories lead to the third category of decisional roles. In this assignment I will explain
all ten roles in details.
There are three major roles in Interpersonal Role which is Figurehead, Leader, and
Liaison. In Interpersonal Role, manager spends a substantial amount of time in
interacting with other people both within their own organizations as well as outside.
These people include superiors, peers, suppliers, subordinates, customers, government
officials and community leaders. All these interactions need an understanding of
interpersonal relations and these interactions involve the following three major
interpersonal roles stated as below.
Figurehead: Managers act as a symbolic figureheads carrying out social or legal
obligations. These duties include greeting visitors, attending a subordinates
wedding or speaking at functions in school as an example, signing legal
documents, and taking important customers to lunch. All these, are duties of a
ceremonial nature but are important for the smooth functioning of the
Leader: The influence of the manager is most clearly seen in his role as a leader
of the unit or organization. He must guide and coordinate their activities in
meeting task-related goals and encourage them to perform better since he is
responsible for the activities of his subordinates. In order for his subordinates to
follow his directions and guidelines with respect and dedication, he must be an
exemplary leader.
Liaison: In this role, apart from their good relation with their own subordinates,
peers, and superiors, the managers can build up their own external information
system by maintaining a network of outside contacts in order to assess the
external environment of competition, social charges or changes in governmental
rules, regulations and laws.
In addition, they develop networks of mutual obligations with other managers in the
organization. They also form alliances to win support for their proposals or decisions.
The liaison with external sources of information can be developed by attending meetings
and professional conferences, by personal phone calls, trade journals and by informal
personal contacts within outside agencies.
The next role category is Informational Role. By virtue of his interpersonal contacts, a
manager appears as a source of information about a diversity of issues concerning the
organization. In this capacity of information processing, a manager carry out the
following three roles as stated below.
Monitor: The managers are continually seeking and receiving the latest
information, both internal and external, collecting and studying information
regarding their organization and the outside environment affecting their
organization. This can be done by reading reports and printed material, by asking
their liaison contacts and through gossip, hearsay and speculation.
Disseminator: The managers disseminate information regarding changes in
policies or other matters to other workers within the organization. This can be
done through phone calls, written or electronic memorandums, and by holding
individual or group meetings.
Spokesperson: The manager has to be a spokesman to disseminate information
about plans, policies and organizational action to people outside his unit. This
may be in the form of the president of the company provide information to media
or an engineer suggesting a product modification to a supplier.
Another category is Decisional Role that includes four important roles which is
Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator and Negotiator.
Entrepreneur: Managers are constantly involved in improving their organization
to face the challenges by continuously on the lookout for new ideas for product
improvement or products addition. They start feasibility studies, arrange for
capital for new products, and ask for opinions from the employees for ways to
improve the organization.
Disturbance Handler: Managers involved as arbitrators in solving problem
among the subordinates. He must anticipate such problems and take preventive
action if possible or take corrective action once the problems have arisen.
Resource Allocator: Managers set up priorities among various projects or
programs and make budgetary allocations to the different activities of the
organization. They assign personnel to jobs, they allocate their own time to
different activities and they allocate funds for new equipment, advertising and pay
Negotiator: Managers represent their organizations in negotiating deals and
agreements within and outside of the organization. For example, they negotiate
with the unions, sale managers negotiate price with prime customers or
purchasing managers may negotiate prices with vendors.
All these ten roles are vital in a managers job and are interrelated even through some
roles may be more influential than others, depending upon the managerial position. Lets
see in details three of these managerial roles based on the articles taken from local
newspaper. Ive decided to explain three managerial roles based on the articles Ive read
which are Spokesperson, Entrepreneur, and Negotiator.
The first role that I will explain is Spokesperson. Based on the article taken from The Sun
newspaper dated 12
May 2014, with the title of A caring plan from the start, its about
one of the well-known insurance provider in our country, Great Eastern offering
insurance plan with critical illness coverage. The identified spokesperson in this article
after reading and analyzing it is the Great Eastern Life director and chief executive
officer Datuk Koh Yaw Hui. As Ive mentioned earlier, a spokesperson is the one who
disseminate information about plan, policies and organizational action to people outside
his organization in a form of the president of the company provide information to media.
In this article, Datuk Koh Yaw Hui is the Director and CEO of Great Eastern and he was
giving the information of the new insurance plan to the media and public such as what the
new insurance plan covered for and what is the advantages of it. He became the
spokesperson by telling the media what are the critical illnesses covered by the new plan
and the example of paragraphs taken from the article are; Simply put, one in three
Malaysian adults has either high cholesterol, high blood pressure or is overweight,
These health conditions put this group in the high-risk category where access to early
critical illness coverage is either limited or declined, We pride ourselves in being the
first in the country to offer early critical illness coverage for this category of customers
through our Advantage and Wellness Programme. These are the parts where he
explained about the critical illnesses covered by the new plan. In his next statement is he
explained what are the benefits of the programme by telling them that The Advantage
Programme evaluates customers with borderline elevation of these three health conditions
with the objective of offering early critical illness coverage at standard rate meanwhile,
the Wellness Programme aims to motivate those with higher elevation to a healthier
status through this two-year programme. Here are some more examples of paragraphs in
the article showing he spoke about the plan; Great Early Living Care is designed with
inflation protection in mind where the sum assured is set to increase automatically at a
rate of 10% every two years up to a maximum of 180% of the initial sum assured,

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