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10/9/2014

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I . FORMS OF POLI TI CAL PARTI CI PATI ON
I I . WHY PEOPLE PARTI CI PATE ( OR DON T)
I I I . WHI CH STATES HAVE HI GHER TURNOUT?
I V. STATES AND ELECTI ONS
V. DI RECT DEMOCRACY
VI . PROTEST AND PUBLI C OPI NI ON
Ch 5: Political Attitudes and
Participation
Part 2: Participation & Opinion
History of Vote By Mail in Oregon
VBM adopted locally 1987; statewide used 1993
special election
Practical concerns
Measure 60 in 1998
Gronke, Paul and Peter Miller. 2012.
Voting by mail and turount in Oregon:
Revisiting Southwell and Burchett
American Politics Research 40: 976.
Turnout in Oregon
Source: Gronke, Paul and Peter Miller. 2012. Voting by mail and turount in
Oregon: Revisiting Southwell and Burchett American Politics Research 40: 976.
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Turnout in Oregon
Source: Gronke, Paul and Peter Miller. 2012. Voting by mail and turount in
Oregon: Revisiting Southwell and Burchett American Politics Research 40: 976.
Turnout in Oregon
Source: Gronke, Paul and Peter Miller. 2012. Voting by mail and turount in
Oregon: Revisiting Southwell and Burchett American Politics Research 40: 976.
VBM & Turnout in Oregon
So what?
Limitation of the impact of BVM
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III. Which states participate? (cont)
C. The type of election can influence turnout
D. How competitive the election is matters too
E. Voting laws can change outcomes
1. Elections by Mail
2. Registration requirements
3. Motor Voter Laws
a. Why is 1993 Voter Registration Act a big deal?
Texas voting registration requirements
Must register to vote 30 days before the election
http://votetexas.gov
Automatically receive a new certificate every two
years if you havent moved.
Texas voting requirements
Required:
Texas Drivers License
Texas ID card
US passport
Military id (with picture)
US Citizenship certificate
(with photo)
Election identification
certificate
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III. Which states participate? (cont)
C. The type of election can influence turnout
D. How competitive the election is matters too
E. Voting laws can change outcomes
1. Elections by Mail
2. Registration requirements
3. Motor Voter Laws
a. Why is 1993 Voter Registration Act a big deal?
F. Poll closing times matter!
III. Which states participate
F. Why turnout rates matter
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1. TEXAS ELECTION TURNOUT
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002
SMITH
BRISCOE
WHITE
RICHARDS
BUSH
BUSH
CLEMENTS
CLEMENTS PERRY
III. Which states participate
C. Why turnout rates matter
1. Texas Election Turnout: patterns?
2. PARADOX OF THE TEXAS REPUBLICAN PARTY
30% is key
Below 30% Republicans
have an advantage
Over 30% Democrats
have the advantage
WHY?
DEMOCRATS
REPUBLICANS
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III. Which states participate
C. Why turnout rates matter
1. Texas Election Turnout: patterns?
2. Paradox of the Texas Republican Party
3. Turnout can determine partisan control
IV. States and Elections
A. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
B. STATE GOVERNMENTS
C. MUNI CI PAL GOVERNMENTS
D. THE LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS
E. THE FEDERAL ELECTORAL TRI BUNAL
Who has primary responsibility
for conducting elections?
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IV. States and Elections
A. U.S. Constitution and voting
1. The electors in each state shall have the qualifications
requisite for electors for the most numerous branch of the
state legislature.
- Article 1, US Constitution
IV. States and Elections (cont.)
B. States control elections through ballot regulation
1. States impose different regulations on elections.
2. Regulations reinforce political culture.
3. This leads to 50 different election codes.
IV. States and Elections
C. Control over elections meant control over who
voted
1. Limited (restricted) suffrage.
2. Restrictions , registration rule still matter.
Well come back to
implications for
parties!
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IV. States and Elections
Consider how history might affect turnout today
D. Regulating who votes in Texas
A. 1902 1964 (1966) Poll Tax
B. 1923 1945 White Primary
C. Until 1970s Property requirements
IV. States and Elections
D. Regulating who votes in Texas (cont)
D. 1966 1971 Annual Registration System
E. 1972 Progressive Permanent Registration System
F. Presently requires registration 30 days before election.
G. Voter ID law (discussed above)
All these things successfully restricted voter registration
which may be why turnout in Texas is lower than
elsewhere in the country.
V. Direct Democracy
POPULAR PARTI CI PATI ON I N GOVERNMENT
THROUGH DI RECT VOTER I NI TI ATI ON OF
POLI CY AND VOTER APPROVAL OR
REJECTI ON OF POLI CY DECI SI ONS BY
POPULAR VOTE
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V. Direct Democracy
A. Direct Democracy vs. Representative
Democracy
1. Direct: citizens decide on issues.
2. Representative: citizens elect leaders to decide for them.
V. Direct democracy (cont.)
B. Mechanisms
1. Ballot initiatives
2. Referenda (Referendum)
3. Recall
4. Ballot initiative v. legislative referendum?
V. Direct democracy (cont.)
C. Consequences (examples)
1. Amendments to state constitutions to prohibit same sex
marriages.
2. Voters have approved initiatives that make medical
marijuana legal.
3. Californias Prop 13 which rolled back property taxes
4. Californias Prop 87 which denied education and health
benefits to illegal immigrants
D. Limits
1. Term Limits
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V. Direct Democracy (cont.)
E. Arguments for Direct Democracy
1. Increases government responsiveness
2. Allows representation of issues that are ignored
3. Stimulates public debate
4. Increases interest in elections and turnout
5. Can reduce citizen alienation
V. Direct Democracy (cont.)
F. Arguments against Direct Democracy (or why
Representative Democracy is better)
1. Can promote tyranny of the majority.
2. Can lead to the adoption of unsound policy.
3. Voters may not be well informed.
4. No provision for compromise or modification.
V. Direct Democracy (cont.)
G. Where?
1. Progressive Era (1902 1918)
a. 16 states adopted ballot initiative procedures
b. Only 5 later
2. Many of the states that allow ballot initiates are Western
States
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VI. Protest and Public Opinion
VI. Protest and Public Opinion
A. Public Opinion matters
1. In general politicians respond to public opinion.
2. How do politicians know what citizens think?
VI. Protest and Public Opinion (cont.)
B. Protest as Participation
1. Organized protests marches, demonstrations, disruptions,
civil disobedience are all forms of political activity.
2. Do they work? It depends
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VI. Protest and Public Opinion (cont.)
C. E-Democracy: Fact or fiction?
1. Internet Voting/blogs/town halls
2. Marylands Red Bridge