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- A Unified Approach for Stability Bracing Requirements
- BS5950 Appendix
- Python Finite Element Method
- AD-A281 365
- GE-16 Lateral Bracing
- CGNA18404ENS_001
- Buckling Analysis
- CSA Beam Column Design
- Rangka_balok_WF400x200
- Pipe Stresses
- 3. Sample_ Custom Channel
- Most Commonly Used Materials
- Bridge
- Structural_Steel_Design_Bowles.pdf
- Construction of the interaction curve of concrete.docx
- Stability of Thin Walled Members Having Arbitrary Flange Shape and Flexible Web 1992
- AS1 Notes
- EAE-ENG
- novel
- SOM-Important Theory Questions

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Hiroyuki Ikeda

Bridge and structural Engineering Division, Chubu Branch, Japan Highway Public Corporation

Aichi, JAPAN

Kenichirou Ashiduka

Bridge and Suructural Engineering Division, Japan Highway Public Corporation

Tokyo, JAPAN

Toshimichi Ichinomiya

Civil Engineering Department, Kajima Technical Research Institute

Tokyo , JAPAN

Yoshihide Okimi

I.T. Solutions Department, Kajima Corporation

Tokyo, JAPAN

Toru Yamamoto

Nagoya Branch, Kajima Corporation

Aichi, JAPAN

Masato Kano

Research and Development Division, Bridge and Computer Engineering Co., Ltd.

Osaka , JAPAN

Keywords: shear buckling, bending moment, strain distribution, finite element analysis

1 INTRODUCTION

Prestressed Concrete box girders with corrugated steel webs were put to practical use in France as

alternatives with lighter weight to conventional prestressed concrete box girders. They have recently

been used in Japan. Shear and flexural behavior of bridges with prestressed concrete girders with

corrugated steel webs has been studied by basic tests and analyses and taken into consideration in

actual design [1].

Shear buckling of corrugated steel webs has been checked using a formula for buckling strength that

is based on Easley's formula and takes the inelastic range into consideration. Prestressed concrete

girders with corrugated steel webs have been applied to medium spans around 80 m, so shear buckling

has not been of predominant concern in design. When the depth of the girder affected by shear

buckling of the web was large, the web exceeding 5 m in depth that is found on the existing bridges has

been lined with concrete to prevent buckling. Effectively treating the cross section of girder that is

expected to increase with the increase of bridge length demands greater accuracy of shear buckling

analysis.

For designing prestressed concrete bridges with corrugated steel webs considering bending

moments and axial forces, only top and bottom concrete slabs of the girder are considered as the cross

sections effective in resisting the forces while ignoring webs, and the Bernoulli's assumption that plane

sections remain plane after bending is loaded. The Bernoulli's assumption is considered applicable

because the strain distribution obtained in loading tests on specimens and actual bridges is close to

285

Composite structures Session 5

that obtained by calculation based on the assumption. Most of the tests conducted so far involved shear.

It was therefore considered necessary to measure strain distribution using specimens with sufficiently

long sections subject to pure bending to verify the applicability of the Bernoulli's assumption.

In this study, therefore, the applicability of analysis considering both material nonlinearity and

geometric was verified for accurately predicting shear buckling strength. Strain distribution on the top

and bottom concrete slabs was measured using specimens with sections subject to pure bending, and

the validity of the Bernoulli's assumption when bending was predominant was verified.

2 STUDY ON SHEAR BUCKLING

2.1 Specimen

Efforts have been made to accurately predict shear buckling by analysis considering both material

and geometric nonlinearity [2]. Studies have been made in the cases where shear yielding preceded

shear buckling and where buckling occurred in the inelastic range. Specifications of the specimens

used in the past test are shown in Table 1. Buckling strength considering the inelastic range is shown in

Fig. 1. The specimen with a girder depth of 1.2 m and a wave height of 20 mm buckled in the inelastic

range and the one with a wave height of 60 mm buckled after shear yielding occurred. In both cases,

material nonlinearity had a great effect.

For making composite nonlinear analysis to check the shear buckling of corrugated steel webs,

verification of its validity in the range of high geometric nonlinearity is considered necessary. Then, the

applicability of composite nonlinear analysis was examined in the case of buckling in the elastic range,

which was greatly affected by geometric nonlinearity. Buckling in the elastic range could be caused by

reducing the wave height or increasing the girder depth. The girder depth was increased because

reduction of the wave height was likely to cause tests to be affected by fabrication accuracy.

Table 1 Specifications of the specimens used in the past test

Height Thickness Wave length Wave height

(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

No.1-1

[2]

20

No.1-2

[2)

30

No.1-3

[2)

60

1200 3.2 400

Fig.1 Shear buckling strength curve

Proceedings of the 1st fib Congress

286

Analysis was made of the specimens used in the past tests and another specimen of greater girder

depth using various analytical methods (Fig. 2). For the specimen with a girder depth of 1.2 m and a

wave height of 60 mm, the results of composite nonlinear and material nonlinear analyses formed the

same line. The specimen buckled at the range where the load became nearly constant after yielding

occurred. This shows the predominance of material nonlinearity. The specimen with a girder depth of

2.1 m and a wave height of 20 mm, on the other hand, buckled before the effect of material nonlinearity

became apparent, which indicates a predominant influence of geometric nonlinearity. The specimen

with a girder depth of 1.2 m and a wave height of 20 mm buckled after the effect of material nonlinearity

became apparent. Its behavior is at midway between the behavior of the above two specimens.

As a result, in this study, a specimen with a girder depth of 2.1 m, a wave height of 20 mm, a wave

length of 400 mm, a web thickness of 3.2 mm and a span of 4.2 m was tested. Fig. 3 shows the

specimen.

2.2 Test

The specimen was supported on bearings at both ends which allowing free rotation and longitudinal

sliding, and load was applied at midspan by a hydraulic jack (Fig. 4). The load point and supports were

reinforced by ribs with a thickness of 22 mm. In order to prevent the lateral buckling of the specimen,

lateral displacement of the specimen was restrained at top and bottom ends of the supports and at the

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

0 10 20 30

Vertical displacement (mm)

L

o

a

d

(

k

N

)

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

0 5 10 15

Vertical displacement (mm)

L

o

a

d

(

k

N

)

(a) Girder height 2100mm, wave height 20mm

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

0 2.5 5 7.5 10

Vertical displacement (mm)

L

o

a

d

(

k

N

)

Complicated nonlinearity

Material nonlinearity

Geometric nonlinearity

Linear

(b) Girder height 1200mm, wave height

(c) Girder height 1200mm, wave height

Fig.2 Parametric analysis

287

Composite structures Session 5

load point by roller bearings.

The load and vertical displacement were measured by the load cell and displacement meter,

respectively. Another displacement gauge was placed on the web of the specimen to measure

out-of-plane deformation. The specimen was expected to be affected by its initial shape because it was

designed to buckle in the elastic range, so its initial shape was measured. Initial shape of the specimen

was measured at positions vertically placed at a spacing of 150 mm and at two points each 20 mm

away from the center of the panel of the web that was parallel to the span of the specimen.

2.3 Analysis

For analyzing the shear buckling of corrugated

steel webs, "SLAP" [3], a complicated nonlinear

analysis program, was used. A panel was divided

into four elements horizontally. A nearly square

mesh was formed. The measurements for the

initial shape of the specimen described above

were input as nodal coordinates of the analytical

model.

The results of a material test using test pieces

obtained from the same production lot that

provided the steel plates of the specimen, and

the stress-strain curve for the analytical model

are shown in Fig. 5. The load-displacement curve

was found by prior studies to be greatly affected

by the stress-strain relationship of the steel plate,

so a multi-linear model was used to accurately

reproduce material properties.

2.4 Test and analytical results

Table 2 shows the values of buckling loads

obtained by analysis and test. Fig. 6 shows the

relationship between the load and vertical

displacement. The analytical values deviated

from the test values by 10% or less. Accurate

prediction of shear buckling was verified. The

relationship between the load and vertical

displacement could be analyzed slightly more

accurately when the initial shape was taken into

consideration. The variance was, however, small.

For specimen No. 2-3, loading was continued

2000 2000

2

1

0

0

2

1

0

0

1

9

1

9

4200

180

2

0

400

101 101 99 99

3

,

2

2

0

400

101 101 99 99

3

,

2

2

0

400

101 101 99 99

3

,

2

Fig.3 Dimensions of specimen

F8-1

Fig.4 Loading method

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

0 1000 2000 3000

Strrain (10-6)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

Material test

Analytical model

Fig.5 Stress-strain curve model

Unit (mm)

Proceedings of the 1st fib Congress

288

after buckling. Post-buckling strength was found to be about 80% of the maximum buckling strength.

Fig. 7 shows the relationship between the load and out-of-plane displacement. Fig. 8 shows the

distribution of out-of-plane displacement. According to these figures, it was verified that out-of-plane

deformation that rules buckling can be accurately analyzed by faithfully considering the initial shape of

the specimen.

Fig. 9 is a diagram of out-of-plane deformation obtained by analysis under the maximum load.

Photograph 1 shows buckling encountered during the test. It was known that specimens were subject

to local buckling when they were made inaccurately because they had a small plate thickness. The

specimen used in the test suffered total buckling on one side, which corresponded to the deformation

identified by analysis.

Table 2 Specifications of the specimens and buckling load

With initial

imperfection

Without initial

imperfection

No.1-1

[2]

20 907 894 911

No.1-3

[2]

60 1153 1172 1229

No.2-1 998 1003

No.2-2 941 1020

No.2-3 995 1087

Wave height Height Thickness Wave length

20 1085

Dimension of web (mm)

Analysis

Buckling load (kN)

1200

2100

3.2 400

Experiment

(a) Specimen No.2-1

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0

Vertical displacement mm

L

o

a

d

(

k

N

)

With initial

imperfection

Without initial

imperfection

Experiment

(b) Specimen No.2-3

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0

Vertical displacement mm

L

o

a

d

(

k

N

)

With initial imperfection

Without initial imperfection

Experiment

Fig.6 Load-vertical displacement relationship

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

-20 -10 0 10 20 30

Transverse dispacement (mm)

L

o

a

d

(

k

N

)

With initial

imperfection

Without initial

imperfection

Experiment

0

0.35

0.7

1.05

1.4

1.75

2.1

-5 0 5 10 15

Transverse displacement (mm)

H

e

i

g

h

t

o

f

s

p

e

c

i

m

e

n

(

m

m

)

With initial

imperfection

Without initial

imperfection

Experiment

Fig.7 Load-lateral displacement relationship Fig.8 Lateral displacement distribution

289

Composite structures Session 5

3 STUDY ON BENDING MOMENTS AND AXIAL FORCES

3.1 Specimen

The specifications of the specimen and its dimensions are shown Fig. 10. For the corrugated steel

web, a 3.2-mm-thick steel plate was used. The height of the corrugated steel web was set at 1200 mm.

Two variations of wave height, 30 mm and 60 mm, were applied. Concrete slabs with thickness of 250

mm thick and width of 800 mm were combined into the corrugated steel web by angled shear

connectors. The total depth of the girder including the concrete slabs was 1.7 m. The shear span was

set at 3.4 m, double the total girder depth. The length of the pure bending section was set at 5 m, about

three times the girder depth.

Fig.9 Deformation at maximum load (No.2-1) Photo. 1 Specimen after buckling (No.2-1)

Shape of wave Angle shear connector

Fig. 10 Dimensions of specimen

Table 3 Strength of specimen

Event Load (kN)

Cracking of concrete slab 764

Yield of reinforcing bar 2,323

Yield of web plate 1,137

Unit (mm)

Proceedings of the 1st fib Congress

290

The concrete had strength of 40 MPa. Eleven D13 reinforcing bars were placed in either the top or

bottom slab as longitudinal reinforcement. In order to prevent cracking in the initial stages of loading,

one and two prestressing bars of a diameter of 23 mm were placed in the top and bottom slabs, and

prestresses of 152 kN and 583 kN were applied on the top and bottom slabs, respectively. The

compressive stresses applied by prestressing were 0.5 MPa on the top edge of the top slab and 2.8

MPa on the bottom edge of the bottom slab. The shear and flexural strengths of the specimen are listed

in Table 3. The specimen was designed to suffer the shear yielding of the corrugated steel web after

cracking occurred and before the main reinforcement was subjected to flexural yielding.

3.2 Test method

Loads were applied at two points of the specimen simply supported on either end using a 10000-kN

loading machine. Loads were increased monotonously.

Strains were measured at the positions shown in Fig. 11. Strains of the reinforcing bars, corrugated

steel web and steel flanges were measured in three cross sections in the pure bending section

including the midpoint in the specimen, and in another cross section in the shear span. The loads

applied, vertical displacements, out-of-plane displacements and shear displacements in the concrete

slab and corrugated steel web were also measured.

3.3 Analysis

For analyzing the shear buckling of corrugated steel webs, "J-F-C-P" [4], a complicated nonlinear

analysis program, was used. The analysis model is shown in Fig. 12. Only a half of the specimen was

modeled for analysis because the specimen was symmetric. The stress-strain curves used for analysis

are shown in Fig. 13. A bilinear model of the corrugated steel web was made based on material tests.

The part of concrete in tension was represented by a bilinear model to facilitate convergence. The

tensile strength of concrete was set at 0.5 MPa, about one-sixth the actual strength to prevent local

cracking during prestressing.

CL

B

F E D

1700 1700 1200 800 500

Fig. 11 Position of strain gauge

Fig. 12 Analytical model

Support

Center of span

Unit (mm)

291

Composite structures Session 5

3.4 Test and analytical results

The distribution of strain immediately after prestressing is shown in Fig. 14. The strains in the figure

almost agreed to the strains due to the axial force and eccentric loading that were calculated based on

the Bernoullis assumption.

Fig. 15 shows the relationships between the load and vertical displacement. Although the tensile

strength of concrete was estimated low in the analysis, cracking load and rigidity after cracking were

almost the same comparing the test results and analysis.

0

100

200

300

400

500

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

Strain

S

t

r

e

s

s

M

P

a

Test

Analysis

(

M

P

a

)

(%)

(a) Web plate (b) Concrete

Fig. 13 Analytical model of stress-strain curves

Strain (%)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

M

P

a

)

0

250

500

750

1000

1250

1500

1750

-150 -100 -50 0 50

Strain ()

H

e

i

g

h

t

(

m

m

)

Wave height 30mm

Wave height 60mm

Bernoulli's theorem

Fig. 14 Strain distribution for prestressing

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

0 20 40 60 80

Vertical displacement (mm)

L

o

a

d

(

k

N

)

Test

Analysis

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

0 20 40 60 80 100

Vertical displacement (mm)

L

o

a

d

(

k

N

)

Test

Analysis

Fig. 15 Load-vertical displacement relationship

Proceedings of the 1st fib Congress

292

In the specimen with a wave height of 30 mm, experiencing shear buckling and shear yielding almost

simultaneously (Fig. 1), shear buckling occurred immediately following shear yielding and the load

decreased rapidly. In the specimen with a wave height of 60 mm, suffering shear yielding before shear

buckling (Fig. 1), the rate of increase in load decreased after shear yielding and the load started

gradually decreasing. Then, shear buckling caused the load to decrease rapidly.

Continued loading after shear buckling created a tension field in the specimen with a wave height of

30 mm and caused the load to increase gradually. The axial reinforcing bars yielded before the load

was applied which induced shear buckling, decreasing the load, and deformation started to vary at the

two load points. Then, loading was discontinued. In the specimen with a wave height of 60 mm,

displacement increased before a tension field was created, and the concrete of the top slab suffered

compressive failure between the load points.

Fig. 16 shows the strain distribution for the specimen with a wave height of 30 mm at a load of 500

kN, the load before cracking occurred. The figure also shows the strain distribution obtained by

three-dimensional finite element analysis and that obtained based on the Bernoullis assumption and

assuming that the full cross section was effective in resisting forces. In cross sections E and F in the

pure bending section, the strain distribution obtained based on the Bernoulli's assumption almost

agreed to the test result for concrete slabs. The Bernoulli's assumption was evidently effective. In cross

section D, although it is in the pure bending section, the Bernoulli's assumption was not true owing to

the influence of concentrated loading. In cross section B in the shear span, the strain distribution

identified by the analysis deviated slightly from the distribution obtained based on the Bernoulli's

assumption because of the influence of shearing force, but the variance was small. In all cross sections,

the results of the test and the three-dimensional finite element analysis almost agreed to each other. It

Section B

0

250

500

750

1000

1250

1500

1750

-15

0

-10

0

-50 0 50 100 150

Strain

H

e

i

g

h

t

m

m

Section D

0

250

500

750

1000

1250

1500

1750

-15

0

-10

0

-50 0 50 100 150

Strain

H

e

i

g

h

t

m

m

Test

Bernoulli's

theorem

Section E

0

250

500

750

1000

1250

1500

1750

-150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150

Strain

H

e

i

g

h

t

m

m

Section F

0

250

500

750

1000

1250

1500

1750

-15

0

-10

0

-50 0 50 100 150

Strain

H

e

i

g

h

t

m

m

Test

Bernoulli's

theorem

Fig. 16 Strain distribution at load of 50kN

293

Composite structures Session 5

was therefore verified that the analysis could accurately predict the strains of corrugated steel plate and

concrete not only in the case where the Bernoulli's assumption was true but also in the sections under

the influence of concentrated loads. Similar results were also obtained for the specimen with a wave

height of 60 mm.

4 CONCLUSIONS

The test and analysis made in this study produced the following results.

(1) It was verified that shear buckling strength and the relationship between load and deformation could

be analyzed accurately even in the range under a great influence of geometric nonlinearity. Thus, the

validity of the analysis method was verified.

(2) It was revealed that the analysis considering the initial shape of the specimen could analyze the

relationship between load and vertical displacement and the relationship between load and

out-of-plane deformation more accurately than the analysis without such considerations.

(3) As a result of a flexural load test on specimens with concrete slabs, it was found that the Bernoulli's

assumption was true in the elastic range in the pure bending section.

(4) In cross sections near the position where loads were concentrated, the Bernoulli's assumption did

not hold true even in the pure bending section. The analysis, however, could predict the test results

accurately.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank the members in the technical committee of the long span composite

bridges with corrugated steel webs (the chairman: Prof. E. Watanabe, Kyoto University) for their helpful

suggestions and comments. They also would like to acknowledge the assistance of Mr. J. Okada (NKK

Corporation) for accomplishment of the experimental program.

REFERENCES

[1] Research Group of Composite Structure with Corrugated Steel Web : Design Manual of PC Box

girders with corrugated steel webs. Dec., 1998 (in Japanese)

[2] Watanabe, E., Kadotani, T., Miyauchi, M., Tomimoto, M. and Kano, M. : Shear Buckling of

Corrugated Steel Web. The First International Conference on Structural Stability and Dynamics

Dec., 2000

[3] Okimi, Y. and Ukon, H. : A Frame Analysis System with Geometrical and Material Nonlinear

Properties. Journal of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 80, Jan., 1995 (in Japanese)

[4] Kano, M., T. Yamano, M. Nibu, and T. : A Computer Program, USSP, for Analyzing Ultimate

Strength of Steel Plated Structures. Proceedings of the 5th International Colloquium on Stability

and Ductility of Steel Structures, Jul., 1997

Proceedings of the 1st fib Congress

294

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