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LOW POWER DESIGNING OF FIR FILTERS

Sarita Chouhan1, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota, Rajasthan India

Yogesh Kumar2, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota, Rajasthan India

Abstract

There are different entities that one would like to optimize

when designing a VLSI circuit. The design of an efficient

integrated circuit in terms of power, area, and speed

simultaneously, has become a very challenging problem.

Power dissipation is a critical parameter in modern VLSI

design field. Multiplication occurs frequently in finite

impulse response (FIR) filters, fast Fourier transforms,

discrete cosine transforms, convolution, and to save

significant power consumption of a VLSI design, it is a

good direction to reduce its dynamic power that is the

major part of total power dissipation. Here, we propose

designing of FIR filter using high speed low-power

multiplier adopting the new implementing approach. The

multiplier is designed by a modified Booth Algorithm

which is controlled by a detection unit using an AND gate

and carry save adder. The modified booth algorithm will

reduce the number of partial products generated by a

factor of 2. The carry save adder will avoid the unwanted

addition and thus minimize the switching power

dissipation. The proposed high speed low power

multiplier can attain 30 percent speed improvement and

22 percent power reduction in the modified booth

algorithm when compared with the conventional array

multipliers.

Index key: Multipliers, Modified Booths algorithm,

Spartan-3E FPGA, VHDL

1. Introduction

Multipliers play an important part in todays digital signal

processing (DSP) systems. Examples of their use occur in

implementations of recursive and transverse filters,

discrete Fourier transforms, correlation, range

measurement and in most of these cases it is enough with

a multiplier unit design for specific purpose. Multipliers

have large area, long latency and consume considerable

power. Therefore, low-power multiplier design has been

an important part in low-power VLSI system design. The

main research hypothesis of this work is that high-level

optimization of multiplier designs produces more power-

efficient solutions than optimization only at low levels.

Specifically, we consider how to optimize the internal

algorithm and architecture of multipliers and how to

control active multiplier resource to match external data

characteristics. The primary objective is power reduction

with small area and delay overhead. By using new

algorithms or architectures, it is even possible to achieve

both power reduction and area/delay reduction, which is

another strength of high-level optimization. For these

requirements of smaller area occupation, less power

consumption and faster operation, Booths algorithm is

practically used.

This encoding algorithm is suitable for 2s

complementary and signed number multiplication.

Booths algorithm also requires redundant partial product

generations, so-called sign-extension. In any

multiplication algorithm, the operation is decomposed in a

partial product summation. Each partial product

represents a multiple of the multiplicand to be added to

the final result. Nowadays almost all high-speed

multipliers apply a radix-4 recoding multiplication

algorithm. In a radix-2 algorithm, first we make a series

of products between the multiplicand, Y, and every bit of

the multiplier, X, generating in this way a set of words

called partial products. Next, all the partial products are

added. We use some kind of redundant arithmetic to get

the additions as fast as possible.

Usually the speed is increased with a Wallace reduction

tree . In the conventional Wallace tree, multi-input partial

product bits, at the same bit position, are consecutively

compressed to a final sum and carry signal pair by using a

series of single-bit full adders (also called 3-2

compressors). At the output, we have two words (sum and

carry) which have to be added as fast as possible by a

carry-propagate adder (CPA). The Wallace tree structure

is a version of the carry-save adders (CSA). Radix-4

multiplication obtains an improvement in the

multiplication algorithm due to the less number of partial

products entering the Wallace tree to be reduced. This can

be achieved by the application of the multiplier recoding,

changing from a 2s-complement format to a signed-digit

representation from the set.

2. Related Work

A substantial amount of research work has been put into

developing efficient architectures for multipliers given

their widespread use and complexity. Schemes such as

bisection, Baugh-Wooley and Hwang propose the

implementation of a 2s complement architecture, using

repetitive modules with uniform interconnection patterns.

However, it is not permitted an efficient VLSI realization

due to the irregular tree array form used.

International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER)

ISSN NO: 2250-3536 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 2, MAY2012 60

More regular and suitable multiplier designs based on the

Booth recoding technique have been proposed. The main

purpose of these designs is to increase the performance of

the circuit by the reduction of the number of partial

products. Although the Booth algorithm provides

simplicity, it is sometimes difficult to design for higher

radices due to the complexity to pre-compute an

increasing number of multiples of the multiplicand within

the multiplier unit. In the Modified Booth algorithm

approximately half of the partial products that need to be

added is used. In our work, the improvement in delay and

power has the same principal source as for the Booth

architecture, the reduction of the partial product terms,

while keeping the regularity of an array multiplier. We

show that our architecture can be more naturally

extended for higher radices, using less logic levels and

hence presenting much less spurious transitions.

3. Booth Algorithm

Booths algorithm involves repeatedly adding one of two

predetermined values A and S to a product P, then

performing a rightward arithmetic shift on P. Let m and r

be the multiplicand and multiplier, respectively; and let x

and y represent the number of bits in m and r. [4]

1. Determine the values of A and S, and the initial value

of P. All of these numbers should have a length equal to

(x + y + 1).

(a) A: Fill the most significant (leftmost) bits with the

value of m. Fill the remaining (y + 1) bits with zeros.

(b) S: Fill the most significant bits with the value of (-m)

in twos complement notation. Fill the remaining (y + 1)

bits with zeros.

(c) P: Fill the most significant x bits with zeros. To the

right of this, append the value of r. Fill the least

significant (rightmost) bit with a zero.

2. Determine the two least significant (rightmost) bits of

P.

(a) If they are 01, find the value of P + A. Ignore any

overflow.

(b) If they are 10, find the value of P + S. Ignore any

overflow.

(c) If they are 00, do nothing. Use P directly in the next

step.

(d) If they are 11, do nothing. Use P directly in the next

step.

3. Arithmetically shift the value obtained in the 2nd step

by a single place to the right. Let P now equal this new

value.

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until they have been done y times.

5. Drop the least significant (rightmost) bit from P. This is

the product of m and r.

Booth algorithm itself can be of two types 1. Radix-2

algorithm and 2. Radix-4 algorithm. These are described

in the later sections.

4. Hardware Architecture

Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) can be

reprogrammed as many times in order to achieve the

desired result. The major design benefit in this lies in the

ability to test designs that might work. Prior to the

development of the FPGA, the fabrication process can be

quite expensive and very time consuming. The use of

FPGAs in the design process allows the more design

flexibility, and reducing a cost and developing time. If the

design fails after being tested on a FPGA, the designer

can simply rework the design and download it again to the

FPGA. Use of an FPGA would thus eliminate the loss in

development time caused by a faulty initial design, as

well as giving the designer knowledge of whether or not

the design works.

4.1 Adders

4.1.1 Ripple Carry Adder

This is the simplest type of adder but bot very efficient

when large number of bits are used. Delay increases

linearly with bit length.

Figure 1: Block diagram of Ripple carry adder

International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER)

ISSN NO: 2250-3536 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 2, MAY2012 61

Figure 2: Simulation Output

4.1.2 Carry Select Adder

Here in this scheme, blocks of bits are added in two ways:

(1) One assuming a carry in of 0'.

(2) Other with a carry in of 1.

Figure 3: Block diagram of Carry select adder

Figure 4: Simulation Output

4.1.3 Carry Look Ahead Adder

It can produce carries faster due to carry bits generated in

parallel by an additional circuitry whenever inputs

change. This technique uses carry bypass logic to speedup

carry propagation.

Figure 5: Block diagram of Carry Look ahead adder

Pi = ai + bi

Gi = aibi

Si = ((ai xor bi) xor ci)

Ci+1 = Gi +PiCi

Figure 6: Simulation Output

4.1.4 Sixteen Bit Full Adder

It is just simply a 16- bit full adder in which we have two

16 bit input with one carry in and a 16 bit sum output with

a single bit carry out.

Figure 7: Simulation Output

International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER)

ISSN NO: 2250-3536 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 2, MAY2012 62

4.1.5 Carry Save Adder

First we compute the sum ignoring any carries and

separately we can compute carry on a column by column

basis. Now sum can be computed by addition 's' and 'c' in

final stage of addition.

Figure 8: Block Diagram of Carry Save adder

Figure 9: Simulation Output

4.1.6 Carry Skip Adder

It is used to speed-up operation, propagation is skipped to

position i without waiting for ripp-ling operation time

varies according to operands as in carry-complete

addition to implement carry-skip adder, stages are divided

into blocks.

Carry-skip logic is added to each block to detect when

carry-in the block can be passed directly to the next block.

Figure 10: Block Diagram of Carry Skip Adder

Figure 11: Simulation Output

4.2 Multipliers

4.2.1 Array Multiplier

A binary multiplier is an electronic hardware device used

in Digital Electronic or a computer or other electronic

devices to perform rapid multiplication of two numbers in

binary representation. It is built up by using binary adder.

[10]

Figure 12: Block Diagram of Array Multiplier

International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER)

ISSN NO: 2250-3536 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 2, MAY2012 63

Figure 13: Simulation Output

4.2.2 Booth Multiplier

Booth multiplication is a technique that allows for

smaller, faster multiplication circuits, by recoding the

numbers that are multiplied. It is the standard technique

used in chip design, and provides significant

improvements over the long multiplication technique.

[7]

The booth multiplier is widely used in ASIC- oriented

products due to the higher computing speed and smaller

area. This encoding techniques has two advantages : a)

only about half of the product are needed during the

computation, that is, the number of partial products is

reduced by a factor 2 : b) delay on the critical path is less

than that of the Baugh- Wooley Multiplier.

4.2.2.1 Radix 2 Multiplier

This is technique that allows for smaller, faster

multiplication circuit by recoding the numbers that

are multiplied.

It allows only half of product which is needed during

computation that is no. Of partial products is reduced by

factor 2.It has two major drawback:

1) As no of add/subtraction operations become variable

which is inconvenient for parallel multiplier.

2) It is inefficient when there are isolated 1's.

Figure 14: Block diagram of Radix 2 multiplier

Figure 15: Simulation output

4.2.2.2 Radix 4 Multiplier

These multiplication schemes handle more than one bit of

the multiplier in each cycle. A higher representation radix

leads to fewer digits. Thus, a digit-at-a time multiplication

algorithm requires fewer cycles as we move to higher

radices, which means fewer partial products. The

reduction in the number of cycles, along with the use of

recoding and carry-save adders, leads to significant gains

in speed over basic multipliers. [6]

Four decades ago. MacSorley proposed a modification of

Booths algorithm a decade after. The modified Booths

algorithm (radix-4 recoding) starts by appending a zero to

the right of x0 (multiplier LSB). Triplets are taken

beginning at position x -1 and continuing to the MSB with

one bit overlapping between adjacent Triplets. If the

number of bits in X (excluding x -1) is odd, the sign

(MSB) is extended one position to Ensure that the last

triplet contains 3 bits. In every step we will get a signed

digit that will multiply the multiplicand to generate a

partial product entering the Wallace reduction tree. The

meaning of each triplet can be seen in figure:

Table 1: Radix 4

This recoding scheme applied to a parallel multiplier

halves the number of partial products so the multiplication

time and the hardware requirements decrease. [2]

4.2.2.3 Modified Radix 4 Multiplier using Carry

Save Adder

International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER)

ISSN NO: 2250-3536 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 2, MAY2012 64

One of the major speed enhancement techniques used in

modern digital circuits is the ability to add numbers with

minimal carry propagation. Carry save adders are one of

the most widely used techniques for fast arithmetic in

industry.

In this work, we use carry save adders in the partial

product lines of the new multiplier proposed in in order to

speed-up the carry propagation along the array. In this

multiplier, a new approach is used to handle operands in

2s-complement with exactly the same structure as an

array multiplier, with the same unsigned bit products for

all the bits except those that involve a sign bit. The

regularity of this multiplier makes it suitable for the

application of carry save adders, since the ability of it to

combine three or four numbers to two, in a time that is

independent of the width of the numbers, is a much more

efficient alternative than using traditional ripple carry

adder.

Carry-save adders (CSA) can be used to reduce the

number of addition cycles as well as to make each cycle

faster. A row of binary FA is used as a mechanism to

reduce three numbers to two numbers, rather than finding

a single sum A carry save adder is very fast because it

simply outputs the carry bits instead of propagating them

to the left. As will be presented in the next section, we

apply carry save adders in the partial product lines of an

array multiplier circuit in order to speed-up the carry

propagation along the array. [3]

Figure 16: Radix 4 Using Carry Save Adder

Figure 17: Simulation Output

Considering the multiplication of two 2 s-complement

integers with n-bit multiplicand A and n-bit multiplier B

as

P1 denotes the I-th output product bit. Note that a

i

, and b

i

,

indicate data bits of multiplicand and (i multiplier,

respectively. Assume n is even and the n-bit multiplier B

can be rewritten as

where b-1=0 . Note that the terms in the bracket in Eq (4)

have values of (-2, -1, 0, 1, 2). Each recoded value

performs a certain operation on the multiplicand A, and

then the multiple additions at each stage would be

required in order to generate the correct partial product. It

is worth mentioning that the operation of -A can be

realized by the inversion of the multiplicand and addition

of I at the least significant bit. Substituting Eq. (4) into

Eq. (1), we can obtain Eq. (5) as

and it is known that the scanning of triplets begins from

b-I to the MSB with one-bit overlapping. Thus, only the

number of n/2 partial-product rows needs to be computed.

International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER)

ISSN NO: 2250-3536 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 2, MAY2012 65

4.2.3 Wallace Tree Multiplier

A Wallace tree is an efficient hardware implementation of

a digital circuit that multiplies two integers. The WT

multiplier sums up all the bits of the same weights in a

merged

tree rather than completely adding the partial products in

pairs. Full adder (FA) and Half adder (HA) cells are used

to add three or two equally weighted bits respectively to

produce two bits: the sum bit with a weight equal to that

of the

operands and the carry bit with a weight equal to one

more than that of the operands. The height of the WT is

reduced by a factor of 3:2, whenever a FA is used. The

final tree is composed of as many levels of FA and HA

cells as are necessary to reduce the height of the tree to 2.

The hardware synthesis process for a WT multiplier

mainly consists of two steps. The first step is to arrange

the partial product bits as the initial WT structure, as

shown in Fig. 2 for the case of a 4x4 multiplier with

operands (a3; a2; a1; a0) and (b3; b2; b1; b0). Secondly, a

series of FA and HA transformations are applied on the

WT structure until the tree height is reduced to 2. At this

point, any n-bit conventional adder may be used to add

the remaining two n-bit rows of the tree to get the final

multiplication result.

Figure 18: Block Diagram of Wallace Tree Multiplier

Figure 19: Simulation Output

4.3 FIR Filter

A FIR filter provides variable length taps have been

widely used in many application fields. It is memory chip

in which an address generation unit & modulo unit to

access memory in a circular manner. A simple FIR filter

is described by a convolution operation.

Figure 20: Block Diagram of FIR Filter

Difference equation

Where, B

k

is the set of filter coefficients.

5. Simulations and Result

In this work we are evaluating the performance of the

proposed FIR filter using low power consumption

multiplier by comparing Radix 4 multiplier with the

different multipliers. These multipliers can be

implemented using VHDL coding. In order to get the

power report and delay report we are synthesizing these

multipliers using Xilinx and Modelsim. Simulation result

for the FIR filter using array multiplier are given in figure

Figure 21: Simulation Output Of FIR Filter

The comparison of synthesis report for different adders

are given in below Table 2

International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER)

ISSN NO: 2250-3536 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 2, MAY2012 66

Table 2: Analysis of adders

Param--

eters

16 bit

full

adde-

r

Rippl-

e carry

adder

Carr-

y

look

ahea

d

Carry

save

adder

Car-

ry

sele

-ct

add-

er

Cary

skip

adde-

r

No. of

slices

18 18 16 18 16 16

No. of

4 input

LUTS

31 32 28 32 32 32

No. of

bonded

inputs

49 50 42 81 32 32

No. of

bonded

outputs

49 50 42 81 32 32

Delay

(ns)

32.93

0

34.559

28.43

9

10.448 12.9

8

15.86

2

Memor

y (in

kb)

7195

2

69584

6958

4

69392

693

90

6939

0

Power

evaluat

ed

( in W)

0.144 0.140 0.144 0.151 0.13

8

0.137

Power

delay

product

4.742 4.838 4.095 1.583 1.79

1

2.173

The comparison of synthesis report for different

multipliers are given in below Table 3

Table 3: Analysis of multipliers

Parameters

Array

Multipli-

er

Radix 2

Multipli-

er

Radix 4

Multipli-

er

Wallac-e

Tree

Multip-

lier

No. of slices 76 55 14 192

No. of 4

input LUTS

133 99 24 384

No. of

bonded

inputs

32 34 27 90

No. of

bonded

outputs

32 34 27 90

Delay

(ns)

32.237 18.726 13.798 286.487

Memory (in

kb)

72272

70480

69712

113684

Power

evaluated

(in Watt)

0.143 0.140 0.143 0.155

Power delay

Product

4.609 2.621 1.973 44.405

6. Conclusion

Here, we proposed a novel design for a FIR filter using

Parallel Multiplier with carry save adder (Modified Booth

Algorithm. The implementation of the algorithm with an

architecture and logic design is presented where in the

Speed, Power and complexity of the design are compared

to other designs. Also, the proposed design is an area

efficient multiplier useful in decreasing area consequently

reduces the cost. The delay encountered is reduced and

the processing speed is increased than those obtained in

other conventional techniques. The proposed activity

evaluation method leads to consumed low power

estimations and very fast estimation times.

At the end we calculate and compare the power delay

product of various adders and multipliers and concluded

that for the minimal power design of FIR filter Radix-4

multiplier using carry save adder should be used as the

power delay product of carry save adder and Radix-4

multiplier is minimum as compare to other adders and

multipliers.

References

[1] A. Tisserand, Automatic generation of low-power

circuits for the evaluation of polynomials, in Proc. 40

th

Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and

Computers. Pacific Grove, California, U.S.A.:IEEE, Oct.

2006, pp. 20532057.

[2] Zhijun Huang,High level optimization techniques for

low power multiplier design University of California, los

angels, 2003.

[3] L. Ciminiera, P. Montuschi, Carry-Save

Multiplication Schemes Without Final Addition, IEEE

Transaction on Computer, vol. 45, no. 9, Sep. 1996.

International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER)

ISSN NO: 2250-3536 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 2, MAY2012 67

[4] A. D. Booth, A signed binary multiplication

technique, Quart. J. Mechanical and Applied Math.,

vol.4, pp. 235240, 1951.

[5] W.-C. Yeh and C.-W. Jen, High-speed booth encoded

parallel multiplier design, IEEE Transactions on

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[6] B. S. Cherkauer, E. G. Friedman, A Hybrid Radix-

4/Radix-8 Low Power Signed Multiplier Architecture,

IEEE Transaction on Circuits and Systems, vol.44, no. 8,

Aug. 1997.

[7] H. Lee, A power-aware scalable pipelined Booth

multiplier, in Proc. IEEE Int. SOC Conf., 2004, pp.123-

126.

[8] Tisserand, Low-power arithmetic operators, in Low

Power Electronics Design, C. Piguet, Ed. CRC Press,

Nov. 2004, ch. 9.

[9] Nagendra, M. J. Irwin, and R. M. Owens, Area-

timepower tradeoffs in parallel adders, IEEE

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Digital Signal Processing, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 689-702,

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[10] Z. Huang and M. D. Ercegovac, High-performance

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IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. C-24, pp

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[14] C. S. Wallace, Suggestion for a Fast Multiplier,

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pp. 1417, 1964.

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[16] E. Costa, J. Monteiro, and S. Bampi. A New

Architecture for Signed Radix 2 Pure Array Multipliers.

In IEEE International Conference on Computer Design,

pages 112117, 2002.

[17] K.H. Tsoi, P.H.W. Leong, "Mullet - a parallel

multiplier generator," fpl, pp.691-694, International

Conference on Field Programmable Logic and

Applications, 2005., 2005.

[18] S. Tahmasbi Oskuii, P. G. Kjeldsberg, and O.

Gustafsson, "Transition activity aware design of

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[19] Ayman A. Fayed, Magdy A. Bayoumi, "A Novel

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Biographies

SARITA CHOUHAN received her B. Eng. Degree in

Electronics & Communication from Rajeev Gandhi

Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal, India in 2002 and

M.Tech degree in VLSI design from Mewar University,

Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India. Currently she is an

Assistant Prof. in Electronics and Communication

department in Manikya Lal Verma Govt. Textile & Engg.

College, Bhilwara, Rajasthan, India. Her area of interest

are applied electronics, Microelectronics, VLSI, VHDL,

Verilog, EDA, Analog CMOS designing and Low Power

optimization. She has authored textbook: 1. EDA and

Logic Synthesis, S.K. Kataria and Sons, Delhi, India,

2009 and books on VLSI Design and VHDL Design are

under publishing process. She can be reached at

sarita.mlvtec@yahoo.co.in

YOGESH KUMAR is a student of final year B.Tech.

Pursuing his Degree in Electronics & Communication

from Rajasthan Technical University, Kota, Rajasthan,

India .His area of interest are in VLSI design and

MATLAB. He presented papers in National and

International conferences on Analog CMOS design using

signal processing and currently working on Image

processing. He can be reached at

yogeshkumar989@ymail.com

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