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The term social construction is stated in the book as gender that focuses on sociological
understanding of gender and sex. Gender is defined as social and cultural differences which
does shape an individuals perception of sex. Sex however, refers to biological facts to
determine whether an individual is a female or male. Throughout chapter 12 it states that it is
crucial that we look beyond just characteristics and anatomy when determining ones gender.
In this chapter Fausto Sterling explains that he determined that humans are biologically
divided into five categories of sexes.
2. In this chapter, feminism is described as the belief in which all women should be at least
entitled to political, social, and economic equality. The first wave of the feminist movement
took place in Seneca Falls in 1848. The outcome of these fights lead to the first start of the
feminist movement which changed the 19th amendment. The 19thamendment granted
women the right to vote and the second wave made the debate for feminism stronger. Many
women back than did believe that they had a much greater role in society and that their roles
of housewife were much greater. Most women where limited as a member of their society
due to economic, cultural, and social resources. Many women fought to bring more
opportunities for equal women rights and the right to have a voice. Most of the third wave
movement was to lead more modern outlook of feminism. Sexism definition is stated that
ones ideology which one sex is superior to the other. During this time most women faced a
lot of crap throughout their working environments and societies. The institutional
discrimination is basically denying the specific resources or opportunities to a group.
Institutional sexism usually occurs throughout institutions in the states because they are
controlled by men. And lastly glass ceiling is prevention of a qualified person who cant
receive a promotion due to their gender, and race
3. I believe men are linked to occupations which can be involved in masculinity? Engineers
and law enforcement are some occupations that came into mind which men are usually
become to be. Women usually chose a medical field, teaching and receptionists as a career.
Most women earned less than men due to being a woman and they could be earning less than
an average man earned. Woman couldve earned 80 cents less than a man who earned a
dollar. Sexism can cause a big wager differences between men and women.
4. The second shift is described as a double responsibility in which most women and a small
amount of men that face when they both work inside and outside of their house. Most
housewives from a household could be working in the morning and which they come back
during the early stages of the evening. Most of them usually take care of their children, cook
and cleaned. With having so much heavy responsibilities it can make the second shift to be
extremely hard. I believe that it wouldnt be possible to create a sharing factor between men
and women to share the same effort that women put into the second shift. I also believe that
companies should create a childcare which can help these families create a equal share of
work such as, day cares at their work or receive longer breaks.