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Legal and Ethical Considerations of Choosing a Celebrity Endorser
By: Sydney Altman, Daniel Gahagan, Zechariah Garcia, Madison Howeller
The purpose of this paper is to describe how celebrity endorsements impact the public
relations and advertising fields and to explain the importance of choosing the proper celebrity
to increase brand awareness. The main problem involved with this type of advertising deals
with the importance of choosing the right person. An endorser must be strategically chosen.
All societies have been fascinated with celebrities for centuries. People see famous
figures and want to know every detail about their lives. The obsession began in the ancient
days when the Greeks idolized the gods, goddesses and even Olympic athletes. These figures
were people to aspire to be. As time progressed, religious leaders, political figures, and war
heroes became the revered people. In modern society, celebrity culture exploded. The
changes in technology allowed new entertainment mediums to form. In the early 1900s radio
and film were introduced. Movie stars became the elite. The new technology and the
introduction of television helped celebrity culture exponentially. Television provided the
means to broadcast sports, sitcoms, movies, concerts, etc. This was what helped athletes,
actors, and musicians gain more popularity. Now, our society has included reality TV stars to
this list of famous people.
Today, the National Enquirer is the number one print magazine. It features stories,
though often false, about the most popular celebrities and their intimate lives. In addition,
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E! News in 2013 has a viewership of 15.5 million people over two week periods. Our society
is hungry for celebrity knowledge and wants to constantly know more about the people we
look up to.
Celebrity endorsements have been popular for decades, with the first one dating back
over 100 years. Lillie Langtry, a popular stage actress, appeared on the packages for Pears
Soap. This new technique sparked interest among marketers and a new way to advertise a
product was born. Whether it is athletes, musicians, or actors, celebrities have a lot of
influence over the general public.
In a New York Times article called Nothing Sells Like Celebrity, the author
comments on why endorsements are so powerful. The reality is people want a piece of
something they cant be, says Eli Portnoy, a branding strategist. They live vicariously
through the products and services that those celebrities are tied to. Years from now, our
descendants may look at us and say, God, these were the most gullible people who ever
lived.
A company must think long and hard about the celebrity they decide to choose for
their product. Many companies consider the Q-Score of a celebrity before choosing who they
want for their campaign. Q-Scores assess the familiarity and appeal of a celebrity. If a
company is going to spend millions of dollars on a person, they want to ensure that they are
dealing with a likeable person. According to an article entitled The Trouble With Celebrity
Endorsements,Borrowed equity is the term used to describe the value of a celebrity
spokesperson But borrowed equity is just thatborrowed. It may rub off on the brand
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endorsed, but in the long run it belongs to the celebrity. Endorsements are risky because
even the most respected person will have people who dislike everything they do.
Statistics from Millward Brown prove that marketers love to take the risk, though. In
the United States, 10 percent of all television advertisements feature celebrities. The statistics
prove that ads with or without celebrities produce similar levels of enjoyment, involvement,
and branding among consumers, but they also prove that the celebrity does become
synonymous to the brand when it involves long term campaigns. Also, when the celebrity is
recognized, 74 percent of consumers said theyd buy the product. When the celebrity isnt
recognized then 56 percent said they would buy the product. Again, this is why choosing the
proper celebrity with a high Q-Score is something that marketers look heavily into.
Many people are involved in the production process for advertisements that could
impact everything. For example, the celebrity themself is probably the biggest stakeholder in
the campaign because they are deciding whether to attach their name, face, and image to a
company. They need to think long and hard about whether the endorsement will help their
personal branding in the future. They have the ability to say no and must choose projects that
they fully believe in.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) provides guidelines when dealing with
celebrity endorsements. If a famous person is going to attach himself or herself to a product
they must be a regular user and must believe in the product. New guidelines also came into
effect in 2009 that proved that the celebrity is responsible for the endorsements legitimacy as
well as the advertiser.
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Celebrity endorsers also are addressed in the revised Guides. While the 1980 Guides
did not explicitly state that endorsers as well as advertisers could be liable under the FTC Act
for statements they make in an endorsement, the revised Guides reflect Commission case law
and clearly state that both advertisers and endorsers may be liable for false or unsubstantiated
claims made in an endorsement or for failure to disclose material connections between the
advertiser and endorsers. The revised Guides also make it clear that celebrities have a duty to
disclose their relationships with advertisers when making endorsements outside the context of
traditional ads, such as on talk shows or in social media. The FTC is going to make sure that
companies abide by the rules to ensure consumers are protected, first and foremost.
In addition to the celebrity and FTC having a stake in the issue, the advertising agency
is also responsible for the partnership. The advertiser must know that the celebrity is chosen
properly, is a legitimate user, will make sense with the product, and will promote a positive
image of the brand. If a celebrity makes a mistake in their personal life, it will have a direct
negative impact on the brand. The advertiser needs to recognize the risk and needs to realize
whats at stake. If the advertisement is a success and the celebrity is responsible for their
actions, the campaign could bring a lot of profit and could take the brand to a whole new
level. If the celebrity does mess up, then the brand could lose credibility and profitability.
There is a lot of potential for any outcome.
Lastly, the consumer also has a stake in the issue. Though there are two categories of
consumers-the passive and active person-there is still some sort of persuasion that occurs in
advertising. If the audience sees a partnership between a celebrity and a product they may
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automatically assume that the product is legitimate. Realizing how much celebrity culture
impacts our lives, its clear that endorsements can have a lot of sway in decision-making.
Since these types of ads are transformational in nature, they can have a great impact on the
public. They suggest life will be better, more like the Hollywood stars life, if you use this
product. They can be seen as manipulative and unfair so they must be used with caution.
Choosing the right person can make or break a product, campaign, and brand. When
deciding whether to use a celebrity in a promotion and, if so, which one, its important to
think about the legal and ethical issues that could arise.
Ethical Considerations in Celebrity Endorsements
A company has a lot to take into account before selecting the proper celebrity to
represent their brand. When choosing a celebrity, companies are faced with selecting the
right person that will act as a reflection of the brand to its publics. "Finding the right celebrity
to endorse a product, service or brand, is a delicate process that involves thoroughly checking
into that individual's personal activities and history, along with considering whether his
reputation meshes with the brand's values" (Darlene). Once a company seals an endorsement
deal, theyre investing in someone that will be able to boost their brand image and attract new
audiences.
When discussing ethical issues involving celebrity endorsements, companies expect
the celebrity endorser to reflect the values in which the company stands for. Once the
endorser is chosen, its nearly impossible for the company to retain their control. A company
cant necessarily tell a celebrity how to live their life and they cant make ethical decisions for
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them. They just have to hope the celebrity has good moral values and character to make the
right decisions.
In order to analyze the ethics of a potential celebrity endorser, a company must first
define their own ethics. For example, when the Tiger Woods scandal rocked the nation,
Proctor & Gamble, Pepsi Co., and the rest of his sponsors clearly believed Woods was not
upholding their personal values because they did drop him from his many endorsement deals.
Family is a huge ideal value for these companies and Woods defied that valueover twenty
times.
Legal Issues of Celebrity Endorsements: The Tiger Woods Case
The recent Tiger Woods scandal and controversy forced companies to reexamine the
use of celebrity endorsements to market products. On November 27
th
, 2009, Woods was
involved in a car accident outside of his Florida home. After further investigation from news
sources about the crash, Woods admitted to infidelity and ten days later announced an
indefinite leave from golf. At the time, he was making nearly $100 million annually in
endorsement income. His top five sponsorship deals were from world-renowned companies
Nike, Gillette, Accenture, Entertainment Arts, and Gatorade (Knittel, 2010).
Many of his sponsors stopped running commercials with Woods in them and most of
them dropped him completely. According to a study by Knittel and Stango (2010), the major
economic loss felt was by the shareholders of the parent companies of the brands who
dropped Woods, and not for Woods himself. Two of the major parent companies are Proctor
and Gamble, who supply Gillette, and PepsiCo, makers of Gatorade. The study finds that his
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top five endorsement companies together may have lost up to $12 billion in wealth as a result
of his actions. It is also worth mention that the economic detriment was more widespread
than initially considered. The monetary loss was not only incurred by Woods, but by each
brand, their parent company, and their parent companys shareholders. The study estimates
that because of the scandal, Woods top five endorsers or their parent companies lost 2-4
percent of their market share (Knittel, 2010).
Advertising and public relations practitioners need to take this widespread example of
loss into consideration when choosing an endorser. Not only will a negative endorser impact
their brand directly, it will cause future investors to reconsider before investing in a brand that
is endorsement-intensive. Brands that rely on celebrity endorsements for promotion and
advertising have a higher risk of damaging their reputation due to the third party involvement
of an individual not otherwise associated with the company (Knittel, 2012).
One way companies can address the problem of a celebrity behaving out of line with
their brand image is through a morals clause. Morals clauses originated in Major League
Baseball contracts immediately following the 1919 Black Sox Scandal in which players threw
World Series games in exchange for money. In part to avoid censorship and further
regulation, the film industry followed suit and introduced morals clauses into contracts with
actors and actresses as early as 1921 (Kressler, 2005). These morals clauses are used today in
almost any contract involving a company and talent, like television commercials, sports
teams, movies, and celebrity endorsements.
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A morals clause references any number of contractual terms that cite certain behavior
of the contracting individual and serve as a basis for termination of the agreement
(Pinguelo). In a broader sense, a morals clause is a gateway for companies to drop a specific
endorser if their actions do not align with that of the brand or company. These clauses can
include a variety of language and limitations. A standard morals clause states that
disregarding public conventions and morals, an act that degrades the contracting individual
in society, an act tending to bring him into public disrepute, contempt, scorn or ridicule, or an
act tending to shock, insult or offend the community or public morals or decency are grounds
for termination of the contract and dropping the individual from sponsorship. Managers of
athletes and entertainers are well aware of these clauses and carefully negotiate the terms of
them particular to their client prior to signing the contracts (Pinguelo).
It is necessary to carefully outline a morals clause for a contractual agreement with
any celebrity endorser, no matter their reputation at the time of signing. Before the accident,
Tiger Woods was widely acknowledged to have the most valuable brand of any athlete in
the world a fact accruing both from his athletic success and from his clean public image
(Knittel, 2012). Woods was a top-notch celebrity endorser and his scandal came as a shock to
society as well as his endorsers. Luckily, the endorsing companies had the necessary morals
clauses in place to terminate their contracts with him.
Other Legal Issues Surrounding Celebrity Endorsements
A major issue concerning companies involved in endorsements is false advertising on
behalf of their endorser. With new technology and media outlets, well-meaning celebrities
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may want to speak out about a product they endorse and try to give it a great review.
However, few celebrities are well-versed in the FTCs guidelines for endorsements and may
not know if what they are saying is deceptive or not.
It becomes an added job for an advertising company to carefully monitor what
information their endorsees are providing to the public and what statements they make. As
mentioned earlier, the FTCs endorsement guides state that an advertiser is fully responsible
for statements made by the endorsee regarding claims about the product and the endorsee
themselves may also be held responsible. Any statement made by the endorsee that cannot
be substantiated will qualify as false advertising and the company may be required to pull the
advertisement or drop the endorsee fearing further actions by the FTC (FTC, 2009).
The expansive media outlets for celebrities to endorse products have brought to light a
new set of guidelines from the FTC regarding Dot Com Disclosures. Released in March of
2013, the Dot Com Disclosure Guide outlines the application of FTC law to online
advertisements and requires a clear and conspicuous disclosure on all online
advertisements.
For advertisers, this means a new avenue to monitor their endorsements on. The
recent rise in endorsements via social media is one contributing factor to the publication of
these new guides. The new guides address the problem of sponsored tweets and other
space-constrained sponsored advertisements. An endorsed tweet must contain the word
Ad: or Sponsored: before the advertising text. Abbreviating the word to Spon: is not
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adequate, and neither is supplying the sponsorship link in a subsequent tweet. All of the
information must be in one tweet, within 140 characters (FTC, 2013).
Stars like Elizabeth Hurley and Lily Allen may face court time for non-disclosure of
payment information in their tweets about luxury products. According to a Daily Mail
article, the Office of Fair Trade has the power to take the tweeting offenders to court.
Although no one has yet been convicted, these new guidelines send a serious signal to
endorsers and endorsees about disclosing sponsorship information (Gould).
One last notable legal issue that advertisers and endorsees need to be aware of is the
right of first refusal clause of celebrity endorsement contracts. A right of first refusal clause
is essentially a portion of the contract that states that once the contract has expired, the
contracted company has the right to match any endorsement offer by a competing company
covering the same product categories. This allows them the ability to keep their celebrity
endorser after the contract has expired (Brenner, 2013).
Golfer Rory McIlroy is currently involved in litigation regarding his right of first
refusal with the sunglass makers, Oakley. McIlroy had a two year sunglasses, apparel, and
accessories endorsement from Oakley that expired in early 2013. After success on the golf
course in 2012, Nike offered McIlroy a head-to-toe endorsement including golf equipment.
McIlroy took the Nike offer without reviewing Oakleys matching offer (Brenner, 2013).
This case brings up an interesting dilemma in this aspect of a celebrity endorsement.
While litigation is still pending, it is an interesting case of right of first refusal because Oakley
offers a smaller product line than Nike does, but should legally still be afforded the
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opportunity to match Nikes offer. What this means for advertising agencies thinking about
using a right of first refusal clause is that they will have to think about the other possible
product categories that could compete with their brand and sponsorships.
The situation with Woods is not uncommon among endorsement contracts. In recent
years many famous endorsers have been dropped from their contracts as a result of
controversy that occurred after signing their sponsorships. As advertising or public relations
professionals, it is always necessary to think of the crisis management that would need to be
in place in case of a failure.
Public relations practitioners especially have to be careful when relaying information
about a failed endorsement to the public. In 2000, the Public Relations Society of America
(PRSA) created a set of ethical codes for its members to abide by. Though public relations
practitioners are not required to be members of the PRSA, it is beneficial to abide by the
codes to add validity to their practice. "The 2000 PRSA code of ethics attempts to provide
guidelines and examples of what is and is not ethical behavior" (Gower, 2008). They follow
six professional values that "PRSA believes are vital to the integrity of the professional as a
whole" (Gower, 2008). Those six values are: advocacy, honesty, expertise, independence,
loyalty and fairness.
If the practitioner follows these codes, he or she is likely to uphold the values of the
company in the eye of the public. When a company severs ties with an endorser, it is putting
itself in the spotlight and opening itself to ridicule from the endorsers fans and supporters.
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The brand would typically have a crisis communication plan in place in case an issue was to
occur.
When the Tiger Woods debacle occurred, not only did his public relations staff go into
overdrive, but the brands he represented also had their public relations teams working hard.
One brand in particular, Accenture, decided to sever ties and follow this very clear crisis
management plan. First, they saw the warning stages. Though the incident was unexpected,
they were able to predict how the bad press would impact their brand. If they kept Woods,
theyd be seen as in support of his actions, which could impact their sales if the public
disagreed with the action.
Second, the company released their official statement declaring they severed ties with
the golfer. Accenture said in statement mentioned in an article on ESPN.com, "After careful
consideration and analysis, the company has determined that he is no longer the right
representative for its advertising," adding that "it wishes only the best for Tiger Woods and
his family." The crisis was unavoidable and some damage has been done to the company.
They lost their celebrity endorser, who was bringing in millions, and after dropping him they
lost customers who supported him.
After the statement was released, Accenture had to quickly begin the cleanup process.
They had to remove all advertisements that contained Woods and had to begin a new
campaign. This clean up was a big process since they did structure most of their campaign
around Woods, portraying his ability to sink a key putt or hit out of the rough. They had
ideas set in place in case an incident like this were ever to occur, since its impossible to
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completely control the actions of the endorser. Though there may be initial financial loss, the
company tried to hold off any severe damage to rebuild its reputation.
The last step in the crisis communication plan for a public relations person would be
that things return to normal. After Accenture remedied their advertisements, they did regain
financial stability and continue to thrive today. The relationships that are important in long-
term business practices were saved.
Having a crisis management plan is an essential thing that public relations
professionals must keep in place when dealing with unpredictable circumstances. The use of a
celebrity is an unpredictable relationship so there must be some security in the partnership.
Risks Associated with Using a Celebrity Endorser
Though there are plenty of benefits and rewards that are brought on by celebrity
endorsements, getting a publicly known figure to endorse a product or brand is a double-
edged sword that comes with an equal amount of risk. When a company or brand decides to
select a celebrity to be the face of their product, theyre entering into a long-term relationship
with the person. Regardless of whether the business relationship ends rather soon, that
celebrity acts as a spokesperson for the brand and it remains in the memory of the public.
An unintended effect of connecting a brands reputation with a celebrity is that
negative personality traits and actions of that celebrity get transferred to the brand that they
endorse along with the positive traits. Margaret Campbell (2012), an associate professor of
marketing with the University of Colorados Leeds School of Business stated, In three
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different studies, negative celebrity associations always transferred to an endorsed brand, even
under conditions when positive associations did not (Campbell, 2012).
As a brand associates themselves with a celebrity, they are also associating themselves
with what that celebrity does in their personal life and how they condone themselves in
society, in which a celebritys bad behavior becoming a public speculation could undermine
any sales and support of the brand. While a celebrity misbehaving could be damaging on its
own, in our current world of social networking and mass media, these risks become more
dangerous.
Patti Williams (2013), professor of marketing at the University of Pennsylvanias
Wharton College of Business says, In the past, the downside [of such endorsements] was
relatively limited: It might have been a failed ad that a few customers might have mentioned
to their friends Today, when something goes wrong, its no longer just a failed ad the
rejection of the message takes on a life of its own. [The endorsement] can very quickly
become an object of mass ridicule (Williams, 2013). In todays society, news and the spread
of information is a 24/7 cycle with anybody and everybody having the ability to catch a
celebrity at an inopportune time. This puts a stress on brands and companies to continually
stay updated and to keep a watchful eye on those that theyve invested in.
The cereal makers Kelloggs severed ties with Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps after
a photograph of him smoking marijuana appeared online. Phelps admitted to his actions and
the company released a statement saying, this type of behavior [is] not consistent with the
image of the cereal maker (Pheifer, 2009). Phelps negative actions were thrust into the
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limelight and reflected poorly upon the organization he endorsed. With their main target
audience being children, it was a good business decision for Kelloggs to drop Phelps
endorsement to avoid controversy, and the added statement from the Public Relations
department helped reinforce their decision.
Though always in the public light, celebrities are humans like the rest of us and are
bound to make a mistake. However, unlike the rest of us, celebrities are heavily scrutinized,
especially when labeled as a spokesperson for a particular brand (Wharton, 2013).
Considerations Surrounding Endorsements
Before selecting a celebrity to represent them, a company should make sure that the
person has a positive image in society and has the necessary knowledge to endorse the
product. According to Karla Gower (2008), author of Legal and Ethical Considerations for
Public Relations, the celebrity endorser must be a bona fide user of the product at the time of
the endorsement. Products and advertisements lose credibility if a celebrity actually doesnt
believe in or use the product. This could also lead to deceptive advertising that could be
prosecuted by the FTC.
Because celebrities are engrained deeply into our culture, they have a lot of power to
persuade audiences. An intended effect of a company associating themselves with a celebrity
is that they instantly open and identify a new target market.
In a study by Anita Elberse, brands saw sales rise more than 20 percent after teaming
with an endorser (Elberse, 2009). Choosing the right celebrity to represent a brand not only
opens a company to the target market that follows that celebrity, but also helps to distinguish
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and differentiate brands from competitors. In many cases when a celebrity endorsement
includes a prominent figure such as a professional athlete, the success of that athlete often
becomes synonymous with the brand that is associated with them. The more a celebrity is in
the spotlight and gaining more appeal in the publics mind, it serves as a constant reassurance
of the quality of the brand that sponsors them.
Internalization is another area that could be identified with celebrity endorsements and
the target audience because a certain degree of social influence occurs when the celebrity is
viewed by the public as honest and sincere and they adopt similar beliefs (Mukherjee, 2009).
Selecting a celebrity that matches well with the brand is the best way to make an endorsement
believable. Most brands will look for celebrity endorsers whose profession goes hand-in-
hand with the product being endorsed, like Tiger Woods association with Nike. This
professional backing of the celebrity helps to further reassure the public that the brand is
trusted and produces a top quality product that can be relied on (Mukherjee, 2009).
Another intended effect of a celebrity endorsement is that it helps to sever confusion
between competing brands and helps the brand to build awareness. One way in which that is
done is through the use of unique endorsers. If a brand is using the same celebrity endorser as
a competing brand, it would be easy for the two to be confused in the publics eye. A brand
should look for an endorser that is unique to the product category, but must remember that
they are still looking for a celebrity, and the more well-known and well-liked, the better.
A Recommended Endorsement Model: Proactiv
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One company that serves as a model for why celebrity endorsements work so well is
Proactiv. The skincare company who is marketed by Guthy-Renker spends an estimated $15
million annually on celebrity endorsements alone (Casserly, 2010). The idea to celebritize
the product through spokespeople was a focal point in building Proactivs brand awareness
and reputation.
When starting off advertising for the company, Proactiv needed to appeal to both teens
facing acne problems and parents alike. Guthy-Renker felt that the best way to do this
through advertising would be with a celebrity endorsement. To capture both the authoritative
voice needed and the celebrity appeal, the company endorsed their first celebrity in Judith
Light, who had played the role of a mother in Whos the Boss, a popular TV show.
Guthy-Renker has since supplied a large list of celebrities who have endorsed the
product. A tactic used in Proactivs celebrity endorsement marketing is having multiple
celebrities signed at a time. Greg Renker, co-founder of Guthy-Renker, stated that Proactiv
will often have between five and eight stars signed at a given time (Casserly, 2010).
The amount of celebrities in Proactivs line-up not only adds diversity to their
advertisements, but also adds depth in the event that an endorsement crisis occurs and certain
advertisements need to be pulled off the air. After Lindsay Lohans troubles with the law and
rehab, Proactiv was quick to separate themselves from that connection and have done so by
removing any pictures associated with Lohan from the companys website and have
discontinued Lohans Proactiv commercials.
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Greg Renker admits in regards to finding the right celebrity to endorse a product is a
process of trial and error (Casserly, 2010). Guthy-Renkers careful selection, as with Judith
Light when first beginning campaigns, has continued to this day and still strives to reach the
target audience with a sense of honesty, reliability and sympathy. As demographics shifted
from television sitcom mothers, such as Judith Light, towards things like reality television, so
did Proactiv in their choosing of endorsements. When reality television became the hot trend,
Proactiv responded by casting Kelly Clarkson and Jessica Simpson, both very popular
television stars.
With more recent celebrity signings such as Justin Bieber, Proactiv has been making
the shift from television celebrities towards the music culture. Greg Renker states that,
Popstars permeate the culture right now, especially through the Web. And so that is where
were watching (Casserly, 2010).
Justin Biebers alignment with Proactiv seemed like a match made in heaven. Bieber
is a worldwide sensation. His albums have gone multi-platinum, he sells out arenas instantly,
and has almost 47 million followers on twitter. Biebers fans consist mainly of teenage girls,
which happen to be Proactivs target audience as well. "Celebrities are truly the most
influential icons that people admire. These sorts of influential powers arise from star power
celebrities such as Justin Bieber" (Francis &Yazdanifard, 2013). Proactiv and Justin Bieber is
a perfect example of how a positive, beneficial endorsement deal is done.
At the time, Justin Bieber was ethically sound and had no public relations issues
trailing him. Endorsing a young teen pop star attracts a large market but holds a
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responsibility to sustain a good image. Public relations professionals would have to be
careful of any potential harm that may come from failure of the product and/or unethical
judgment calls from the endorser. "Famous faces are symbolic, representing the morals and
aspirations of a company...[and this] makes them ideal tools for promoting and marketing a
campaign or product" (Borrell, 2012). As an advertiser and public relations practitioner, it is
vital to find the perfect match with a celebrity endorser. Clauses are in place in contracts with
celebrity endorsers that have to abide by rules, but any fatal mistake or wrongdoing can
jeopardize the whole campaign.
Future Recommendations
Because of the popularity of celebrities in our society, celebrity endorsements are not
going to be going away any time soon. It is a marketing strategy that has been proven
successful, but there is always room for improvement.
As mentioned earlier, it is vital that all contracts between the endorser and the brand
have a morals clause. It helps provide an out for both the celebrity and the company. Though
we have mainly discussed how celebrities actions can harm a brand, it is also possible that a
brands actions can harm a celebritys reputation. For example, if a celebrity supported gay
rights and endorsed Chik-fil-A, the statements from the brands CEO would greatly impact
the celebrity associated with the brand. A morals clause provides a mutually beneficial
relationship between the brand and the celebrity and helps both parties remain loyal to their
personal ethics.
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In addition, many brands should look into short-term contracts with celebrities. The
example provided about Woods needed intervention because he was integral in long-term
campaigns. Tiger Woods was the main spokesperson for Proctor & Gamble products and
Accentures strategic campaigns. When his scandal hit nearly every news station in the
country, the companies had to completely redesign their advertisements. If they had a short-
term relationship with the professional golfer, they could have had a successful campaign, but
could have moved on to the next big celebrity in a new round of advertisements after the
controversy.
Proactiv is the best company to look to for this strategy. They seek out popular
celebrities at their peak of public support and ask them to endorse their product. Justin Bieber
was used when he was the apple of every teenage girls eyes. When his popularity faded and
his public relations nightmare of a life filled magazines everywhere, Proactiv had already
moved on to their next celebrity. At the current moment, Adam Levine is promoting their
products. He is the lead singer of Maroon 5 and a coach on the Emmy-award winning series,
The Voice. Hes constantly seen in the media and is the hottest celebrity on the market now.
Lastly, its important to realize that a celebrity endorsement is a tactic that should be
used sparingly. They are expensive to produce, risky, and unoriginal. For the future, these
advertisements should be used very strategically and only when it is relevant to the product.
Conclusion
Overall, celebrity endorsements are an effective way to get the advertising agencys
message out to the public. When used properly, endorsements can increase sales, create brand
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equity, and improve relationships in the public. Though there are many benefits, the use of
celebrity endorsements can also impact the celebrity, consumer, and brand in a negative way
if the venture turns sour. Through this analysis we were able to understand the advertising
technique, learn how important it is to choose the right celebrity for the product, and realize
the proper time and place to use a celebrity endorser.



















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Bibliography

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Accenture cuts Woods as sponsor. (2009, December 14). Retrieved from ESPN website:
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From the Gods to Reality TV Stars A History of Celebrity. (2007, May 9). Retrieved from
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