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Department of Structural Mechanics


Faculty of Civil Engineering, VSB - Technical University Ostrava
Elasticity and plasticity
Theme 6
Shearing stress in
bending
Basic relationships and conditions of solutions
Shearing stress in chosen cross-sections
Shear flux and shear centre
Dimension of members in shear
Composite beams
2 / 74
Shearing stress in beams
Basic relations and conditions of solution
b a
+
V V
R
bz
R
az
F
-
V V
In bending there come up usually together with bending moments also shear
forces, which causes the shearing stress.
0 ,
y z
M V 0 = = = =
z x y
M M V N
In the plane xz:
Plane bending: external and internal forces are in planes xy or xz the main
planes.
0 ,
z y
M V 0 = = = =
y x z
M M V N
In the plane xy :
3 / 74
Basic examples of shearing stress
Basic examples of shearing stress
Povodov poruchy most v roce 2002, Jin echy, foto: Prof. Ing. Vladimr Tomica, CSc.
4 / 74
Basic examples of shearing stress
Povodov poruchy most v roce 2002, Jin echy, foto: Prof. Ing. Vladimr Tomica, CSc.
Basic examples of shearing stress
2
5 / 74
Basic examples of shearing stress
Poruen konzoly betonovho skeletu vlivem nadmrnho smykovho namhn
foto: Prof. Ing. Radim ajka, CSc.
Basic examples of shearing stress 6 / 74
Basic examples of shearing stress
Zkladn vztahy a pedpoklady een
Detail of the screw connection
7 / 74
The formula of reciprocity of the shearing stresses
y
z
x
[ ]

=
z
yz y
xz xy x

sym.
Tenzor of stresses:
{ } { }
T
xy zx yz z y x
=
Vector of stresses:
more tma .9
Just 6 stresses components
S
z d
y d
x d
xy

yx

yx

xy

yx xy
=
zy yz
=
xz zx
=
similarly
Basic relations and conditions of solution 8 / 74
Basic relations for derivation of shearing stress
Shearing stress in chosen cross-sections
+y
+z
A B
T
z ( ) z
b
y
S A,
( ) z y
y z
zx xz
b I
S V
.
.
= =
statical moment of separate part of cross section ... y
S
z
V
...
Shear force in section
y
I ... moment of inertia of the whole cross section
( ) z
b
... Width of cross-section in the assessing place
Grashof formula
Cross sectional characteristics for shear stress
in bending are:
- S
y
- I
y
[ ]
3
T part
y m z A S =
3
9 / 74
Shear stress in a rectangular cross section
Shearing stress in chosen cross-sections
z
y
b
h
Cross section
max

o
2
Distribution of
xz

z
3
.
12
1
h b I
y
=
( )
b b
z
=
T
z
( )
A
V
bh
V
b bh
h bh
V
b I
S V
Z Z
z
z y
y z
ax m
2
3
2
3
12
1
4 2
.
.
3
2 / 1
= =


= = =
[ ]
3
T
prr
sti
y m z A S =
statical moment of separate part of cross section ... y
S
z
V
...
Shear force in section
y
I ... moment of inertia of the whole cross section
( ) z
b
... Width of cross-section in the assessing place
10 / 74
Design and assessment of rectangular cross section in
shear
Dimensioning
Assessment after Ultimate Limit
State
Design
Realisation
Dimensioning
d req Ed
f A V , ,
Rd Ed
V V
Rd
V
To make bigger section
M
k
d
f
f

=
3
.
2
3
max
d z
f
A
V
=
d
z
req
f
V
A
. 2
. 3 3
=
1
Rd
Ed
V
V
11 / 74
Shearing stress in thin-walled members
Shearing stress in chosen cross-sections
h t t t
w f
<< , ,
t
h
Symmetric I
h
w
h
f
t
f
t
f
b
w
t
w (web)
f (flange)
Thin-walled beam
Open cross sections: I, U, T, C, Z Box-beam sections:
12 / 74
Shear stress in I profile
Shearing stress in chosen cross-sections
Section
Distribution of
z
y
Distribution of
xz

xy

max , xz

o
2
h
w
h
f
t
f
t
f
b
w
t
o
1
Condition of solutions:
shearing stress is constant in the vertical
cut to the fragment of the wall (see Detail)
is parallel to circumference of the section
xy

Detail
Detail
4
13 / 74
Shear stress in the wall of the I-profile
Shearing stress in chosen cross-sections
Distribution
z
y
xz

max , xz

o
2
h
w
h
f
t
f
t
f
b
w
t
z
t I
S V
y
y z
x
.
.
=
Basic formula:
t ... Thickness in the assessing
fragment
y
S ...
statical moment of a
separate partn of the section
x

... Shearing stress in the plane


perpendicular to the axis x
xz

xy

vertical part
horizontal part
Shearing stress in the wall xz

(quadratic function)
[ ]
3
T part
y m z A S =
14 / 74
Shear stress in the flange of I-profile
Shearing stress in chosen cross-sections
z
y h
w
h
f
t
f
t
f
b
w
t
y
Distribution of xy

o
1
t I
S V
y
y z
x
.
.
= Basic formula
Shearing stress in the flange xy

(Linear function)
[ ]
3
T part
y m z A S =
15 / 74
Maximum stress in the I-profile
Shearing stress in chosen cross-sections
Distribution of
z
y
Distribution of
xz

xy

max , xz

o
2
h
w
h
f
t
f
t
f
b
w
t
o
1
( )( ) [ ]
2
max
. . . . 4 .
. . 8
h t t h t b t
t I
V
w f w f
w y
z
+ =
0 = z
16 / 74
Shear centre
Shear flux and shear centre
At double symmetric cross sections the resulting force goes throught the centre of
gravity, at non symmetric sections it is different if a plane of the load is not a plane
of symmetry, than the load must go throught the shear centre A, otherwise the
member would be twisted (stress from torsion).
We obtain resulting shear forces Q
f
in the profile by the integration of shearing
stresses along the single walls of the open profile. They are equivalent to shear force
V
z
.
+y
+z
T
A
0
h
0
h
t
t
z
V
o
45
f
Q
f
Q
x

z
V
f
Q
f
Q
2
z
f
V
Q =
5
17 / 74
Shear centre of the U-profile
Shear flux and shear centre
z
y
T
0
h
A
z
V
f
Q
f
Q
0
b a
w
Q
xy

xy

xz

s h t
h
s t S
f f y
. . .
2
1
2
. .
0
0
= =
s
y
z
f y
y z
xy
I
s h V
t I
S V
. 2
. .
.
.
0
= =
Flange:
Profiles U, UE, UPE - size a viz tables
18 / 74
shear centre profil U
Shear flux and shear centre
z
y
T
0
h
A
z
V
f
Q
f
Q
0
b a
w
Q
xy

xy

xz

s
M
( ) [ ]
2 2
0 0 0
4 . . . . 4 .
. . 8
z h t h b t
t I
V
w f
w y
z
xz
+ =
Web
... likewise I profile
z w
V Q =
0
. . h Q a V
f z
= Statical moments to point M
y
f
z
f
I
h b t
V
h Q
a
. 4
. . .
2
0
2
0 0
= =
19 / 74
Composite members
Composite members
a b
b
a
b
0 V
welds, screws, bolts
a
a
( ) ( )
( ) y
y z
z y
y z
z zx z x
I
S V
b I
S V
b b Q
.
.
.
. .
*
= = =
[kN/m]
a
I
S V
a Q Q
y
y z
x x
.
.
.
*
= =
[kN]
Shear force for one
connecting member

20 / 74
Pklad
Composite members
I240
U160
+y
+z
T
Zadn: Smykov sla pipadajc na 1 roub
( )
2
mm 2400 U160 = A
Vstupn daje:
Prez
inek zaten kN 200 =
z
V
4 6
mm 10 . 482 , 73 =
y
I
mm 6 , 72
mm 4 , 18
Tit prezu viz obr.
Vzdlenost mezi rouby m 2 , 0 = a
( )
3 3
mm 10 . 4 , 218 4 , 18 6 , 72 . 2400 = + =
y
S
een:
kN 89 , 118 10 . 10 . 200 .
10 . 482 , 73
10 . 4 , 218 . 10 . 200
.
.
3 3
6
6 3
= = =

a
I
S V
Q
y
y z
x
Na 1 roub:
kN 44 , 59
2
=
x
Q
6
21 / 74
Questions for the exam
1. Shearing stress in bending of the rectangular
cross section
2. Shearing stress in bending of thin-walled
members, shear centre
3. Assessment of the members under shear
stress in bending
4. Composite members
Questions for the exam