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Short History

A calculator is a device that can be used to


make many different types of mathematical
calculations, so there are many different
types of calculators to handle the different
functions.
The designs and sizes of calculators vary
based on what they are to be used for. Some
calculators are designed for specific
purposes, such as different trades or
businesses, while others can be used just
for basic mathematical calculations, like
addition and multiplication.

The abacus was one of the first
mathematical devices to be used, and it is
simply a series of beads or stones that
represent numbers.

It wasnt until 1623 that the first calculating
machine was designed by Wilhelm
Schickard, which was made to calculate
astronomical tables.

In 1645, Blaise Pascal designed his own
calculator, called the Pascaline, which was
used to add and subtract.
For the first half of the 20th century,
mechanical adding machines were the
main types of calculators used.

These devices used keys, cranks, gears,
and other components mostly to add and
subtract multiplication and division
were done with multiple additions or
subtractions.
The most basic kind of electronic calculator
today is the pocket calculator, which in its
simplest form can be solar powered and
used to do most standard math problems.

Scientific and graphing calculators are
much more advanced than more
simple calculators, and they are used
primarily in the areas of science,
mathematics, engineering and physics.
In the modern world, some pocket
calculators are now so powerful that
they are really computers in their own.

Many come with powerful
programming capabilities and
graphics.
Scientific calculators offer, in addition
to the basic arithmetic operations,
transcendental functions such as
sines, logarithms and powers.

These functions are computed as
required by the calculator using series
expansions.
Some manufacturers have tried to
make scientific calculators easier to
use by having a two-line display. An
algebraic style expression is entered
on one line and the answer can be
displayed on the second line. The
advantage is that the expression can
be edited and the result re-calculated.
Graphing calculators allow you to
display an expression in graphical
form. This tends to be of most use in
education where a student can quickly
display a transcendental function or
expression, which helps in
understanding.
Financial calculators are designed for
people working with money, particularly
those making investment decisions over
long periods where the time value of
money becomes significant.
Care should be taken in selecting the
scientific calculator to fit your needs.

The calculator you choose
must have more than the
basic functions.

You will be performing
operations beyond
addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division.

Many of the functions are only
available when the correct
MODE KEY is selected.


Some of the function keys
are usually blue or yellow
keys marked [ 2
nd
] and [
3
rd
] depending on the
model of your calculator.
Inverse
Trigonometric
functions
Trigonometric
functions
Degree and
Radian mode
Pi [ ].
Change sign
Logarithms
Last Answer
Memory
Percent
Inputs Fractions
Factorials
Time
calculation
The most common
scientific calculators
use algebraic
parenthetical
notation.
With algebraic parenthetical
notation, the rules of algebra
are followed when entering the
values correctly.

The exponential
function will vary
between scientific
calculators.
The exponential key allows
you to enter values that
have a power of ten
associated with them.
The
exponent
Some have an
[ENG] key
The exponential function is not to be confused with the exponent function
of raising a value to a power.
The most common
is of course the
square key, [ x
2
].
When you enter a value and
press the [ x
2
] key you calculate
the square of the value.

Like the square key, [ x
2
], a key
marked [ x
y
] allows you to
calculate values raised to a
power above 2.

The square root key , calculates the square root of a
value
In some calculators
you must enter the
value first,
then press the
key.
x
x
Recall that x

=

x
Memory in a scientific calculator
is a nice option, but not a
necessity.


Many come equipped
with a memory storage
location on-board and
available on the keypad.

The [ STO ] and [ RCL ]
keys are the keys for
storing one element at a
time in memory.
.
Some scientific calculators use an
[M+] and [M-] as well, to operate
on elements stored in memory.
This function is handy if
you are adding or
subtracting from the value
stored in memory.

This function finds the number of
the different possible ordering in
selecting r objects from a set of n
objects.

For example:
In how many different ways
may four newly admitted patients
be assigned to four available beds
in the hospital?

Solution:
n
P
r
= 24
4(nPr)4 = 24


This function finds the number of
selecting r objects from a set of n
objects.

For example:
Find the number of
combinations when 5 pieces of
flowers are to be given to 5 girls.

Solution:
n
C
r
= N
5(nCr)5 = 1


Applications:

Used in Statistics (probability
calculations) and in simulation of
hypothesis in fields such as medicine,
pharmaceutics and physics. Also can be
used to determine the chances of
winning in the lotteries.
You can only become skilled using your
calculator if you take the time to learn
how to properly use it.
Keep your owners guide handy and with
you.
Work sample problems so that you gain
proficiency.
Practice using your calculator!