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This study examined the effects of different processing techniques on the
organoleptic quality of soymilk processing and storage. The utilization of
soybean for the production of soy milk was studied. Soy milk was extracted
from whole and dehulled seed, pasteurized and fermented. All soy milk
samples were analyzed for proximate composition (moisture, ash , total
solids, fat! and the organoleptic tests (color, thickness, appearance, body,
texture, taste, smell, fla"or and o"erall acceptability! of the soy milk
samples were e"aluated to determine the shelf#stability of the products
during refrigeration and room temperature storage. The moisture, protein,
fibre, fat, ash, carbohydrate and total solids of soy milk from whole and
dehulled seed differed significantly (p$%.%&!. There was marked "ariation in
the fat content of the products. The results of the sensory e"aluation
re"ealed that fla"or with respect to taste and smell had significant influence
(p$%.%&! on o"erall acceptability of soy milk product. The sensory
properties of yam bean yoghurt samples were compared with soybean
yoghurt. The sensory properties showed that sample stored at refrigeration
temperature maintained good quality up to '( days storage while samples
stored at room temperature were of poor quality by the )th day. The
implication of these results is discussed. So, the soy milk manufacturers
need to impro"e on the sensory properties in particular fla"or and taste for
better consumer acceptability. Also, they may impro"e on packaging by
labeling to specifications that precisely represent the content and type.
Title *age
Appro"al *age
Table of ,ontent
1.1 -istory of Soybeans
1.2 .ses of Soybeans
1.3 ,omposition of Soybeans
1.4 /utritional 0uality of Soybeans
1. Antinutritional 1actors
1.! Trypsin 2nhibitor
1." -aemagluttins
1.# Soybeans Saponings
1.$ *rotein 0uality of Soubeans
1.10 Aims and 3b4ecti"es
5iterature 6e"iew
2.1 7ilk from Soybeans
2.2 /utritional 8alue of Soybeans
2.3 9ssential Amino Acid ,ontent of Soybeans
3.1 7aterials and method
6esult and +iscussion
,onclusion and 6ecommendation
-is of Soymilk: Soybeans belongs to the family leguminous,
subfamily papiliondase and the genus ;lycine 7ax. (6icker and 7orse,
'<=)!, other normendatures which ha"e been used include phaseolus 7ax,
So4a 7ax *iper and So4a hispide moech.
2t is not known when this remarkable legume, soybean was first
culti"ated in ,hina. -owe"er as the first legume of which a written record
was made. This was in the books of the 9mperor Shen hung, dated
'=%%>, which describes the fi"e principal and sacred crops of ,hina, rice,
bean, wheat barely and millet, lafter in his milliohm there were chinses
writing, gi"ing expert ad"ice on growing soybean which was culti"ated
more extensi"ely in /orth than in Southern ,hina, it reached -apan and
other countries in 9ast Asia at an early date.
Soybean contain about )( protein and '= fat, characteristics
which ha"e influenced it?s history: the ancient ,hinese e"ol"ed methods of
making from it?s preparations with high protein content for example, ,urd
and Shoyu, Shoyu is a dark brown liquid made by fermentation of a
combination of soybeans and cereals (1.A.3. '<@%!. The ,hinese also ate
soybeans as a "egetable after it ahs sprouted.
The soybean was first heard of in 9urope in '@'A through the
;erman >otanist 9gelbant Balmpfer who had "isited Capan. 2n the '=
century, it was grown in some 9uropean botanical gardens (1.A.3, '<@%!, it
is first appearance in the .nited States in '=%), when ,ommander *erry
brought home two "arieties from Capan (1.A.3, '<@%!.
Dhat was called the second stage in the history of soybeans did not
begin until the first decade of the present century, when it become an
important export from 9ast E Asia at first mainly to 9urope and alter to the
importing countries was as a source of oil for soap making and other
purposes and for the manufacture of li"estock feed.
Then the third stage began in the early nineteen thirties, it is silent
feature has been the large stage culti"ation of the soybean in the .nited
States, combined with the application of 7odern Technology which enable
it to be put to a "ariety of uses both as food and folder and as raw materials
for manufacturing processes, while soybean has to a considerable extent
becomes an industrial crop in the .nited States, it continues to be grown in
9ast Asia as a food crop processed for consumption by time honoured
methods. (1A3, '<@%!.
The fourth stage began during the first decade of the A%
A.+. at the period in which this crop was first introduced of soybeans in
/igeria shows that middle belt of the country to be the best producer of
soybean production (9zedinmma, '<()!. 2n /igeria, nearly all of the
soybean production estimated at F%,%%% tons is used for human food. A
response to increase in demand for soybean for soybean as a source of
protein and "egetable oil, national programme in /igeria ha"e explained
their research on the crop. Since '<=@ (22TAG Annual 6eport '<=&! currently
more feather ha"e been added to the number of products that can be
obtained from soybeans in /igeria, such products like soymilk as it had
been recently demonstrated at the food in"estigation centuries in 9nugu.
Soymilk in the traditional sense is simply an aqueous extract of whole
soybean, A detailed description of the technique used for the preparation of
the soymilk as well as its composition will be found in chapter F.
Soymilk according to the nutritionist a possible substitute for cow or
human milk particularly in the feeding of infant who are allegic to animal
milk or where cows milk may be found to be two expensi"e or una"ailable.
7iller, ('<(A! soybean or "egetable milk or flu#changin chinse is reported to
ha"e been de"eloped and used in china before the ,hristian era (paker
and 7orse '<)F! by the philosopher who was credited with the first step in
the processing of tofu and yuba. Then, the traditional milk is made by
soaking the bean in water o"ernight, wet milling the bean, heating the wet
mash to impro"e fla"our and nutritional "alue and filtration. The milk
produce is sold to the public in streets and canteens in china in '<=).
2n recent years large scale production ha e"ol"ed along with
commercial marketing of soymilk in -ongkong, Taiwan, Thailand, South
Borea, Sinapere, 7alaysiaa and not the .nited States (>abara, '<=)!.
Uses of Soybeans
Soybeans are a nati"e crop of 9astern Asia where they ha"e Hser"ed
as an important part of the diet for centuries. The Capanese for example
obtain 'A E 'F of their dietary protein from soybean product, for many of
their traditional soy foods, the oriental people soak soybeans in water and
then grind or cook them.
-ot water extraction of ground beans yields soybean milk which is
consumed as such or is treated with calcium salts to precipitate the protein
plus oil in the form of bean curd or tofu, fermentation of cooked soybeans
yield products including soy sauce, misso, notto and tempheh.
9xcept for soy sauce, one of the traditional oriental foods is
consumed in significant amounts in this country. Soybeans are a relati"e
new corner to the American scene. They ha"e only been gown in quantity
since the late '<A%?s when soybean processing become an established
industry, the two ma4or products were oil and defaulted meals.
2n the mid E 'H<F%?s large portion of the oil began to be used for
foods such as shortening, margarine, cooking oil mayonnaise and salad
dressing, because of its high protein content and good nutritional "alue,
when properly processed, the meal was used primarily for animal feeds.
Soybeans ha"e expanded in the last F% year from a minor crop to a
ma4or cash crops. 2ndeed in "alue to the farmer soybeans now rank second
to corn and abo"e wheat, potatoes, oats, cotton and a "ariety of other
crops better known to the consumers, only within the last ten years
howe"er, ha"e e"ery many edible products. ,ontaining soybean deri"ati"es
been directly associated with their source. 2n shortening their presence was
IhiddenJ by statements similar to the followings. KA blend of hydrogenated
"egetable oils or in salad dressing, merely I"egetable oil or a blend of
"egetable oilJ. Today a long list of foods containing soybean deri"ed
product can be prepared by careful reading of the labels in the
supermarket, yet most of these are e"en not specifically identified as
soybean. *roduct from corn, wheat, oats and many other commodities are
so labeled for example corn flakes, wheat, garn, oatmeal, but not soybean.
There are se"eral reasons for this an enmity, soybean ha"e a short history
of sue in the ..S.A. the fla"our and texture of soybean products are
comparati"ely strange to people outside the orient.
Although the ,hinese and Capanese ha"e co"ered soybeans into a
"ariety of products most of these foods ha"e little physical or fla"our
identity with the original bean. Some people agree that green soybean are
a delicious dish when properly har"ested and cooked but their sale and the
sale and the ale of mature beans for baking are extremely small. Soybean
products ha"e problems related to their fla"our and fla"our stability to their
ruction in foods and to their physiological effects. +espite these problems
soybean oils ha"e become a ma4or material in our food industry. Soybean
now supply more than half of the total "isible fits and oils consumed in the
Soybean composition (*69L27AT9!, commercial soybean constitute
and A hypocotyls and phumule. *roximate composition for whole beans
and fractions are gi"en in Table '
F'()*+,- P',*.+- /N
!.21 F(* 2 C('3,456'(*.
A74 2
Dhole bean )% A' F) ).<
,otyledon )F AF A< &.%
-all =.= ' =( ).F
-ypocotyls )' '' )F ).)
The constituents of ma4or interest oil and protein make#up about (%
of the bean, but about one third consist of carbohydrates including
polysaccharides, stachyose (F.=!, raffinese '.' phosphatides, sterols,
ash and other minor constituents are also depend on "ariety, soil fertility
and weather conditions.
3"er &% years ago 3sborne and 7endel ('<=%! found that rates grew
poorly when feed with raw soybean meal and that dry head did not impro"e
the nutritional "alue of the meal.
6ates grew normally, howe"er when the meal was cooked on a
steam for Fhrs. 2n the past &%yrs a "ast literature was de"eloped on the
nutriti"e properties of soybean protein, but moist heat is still used to
impro"e the nutritional quality of soybean protein product for foods and
The literature on this sub4ect is often confusing and contradictory G
two recent re"iews gi"es concise summaries of pertinent work for the last
F%yrs. Alleged antinutritional factors and protein quality therefore are
discussed only briefly.
Since moist heat readily inacti"ates the anti#growth factors raw
soybean meal, many workers belie"e that the factors are proteininhibitors
and hemagluthins, non protein components such as sapynins ha"e b
suggested as anti#nutritional factors but recent work does not support this
7ore than fi"e trysin inhibitors are reported for soybeans but only
two#the kenitz and the >owman >irk inhibitors ha"e been purified and
studied in details Baw soybean meal contains '.) kunity inhibitor and
%.(M >owman#>irk inhibitor.
Although both inhibitors are acti"e against boline trypsin the kunity
inhibitor has any how acti"ity the esterase acti"ity of human trypsin. The
acti"ity of human trypsin howe"er is inhibited to a significant extent by
kunity inhibition when case is sued as a substrate to measure proteolytic
acti"ity. 2t is not known whether ingestion of the inhibiters affects the
presence in humans.
1rom the practical standpoint, Trypsin inhibitors do not appear to be a
serious problem in feeds and food since they are largely inacti"ated by
moist heat. ,ondition of heating time, temperature, moisture content and
particle size influence the rate and extent of trypsin inhibitors inacti"ation
for example, atmospheric steaming ('%%
,! inacti"ates more than <& of
the trypsin inhibitor acti"ity of raw, defatted soybean flakes in '&mins.
*rotein efficiency shows an accompanying increase in this same time and
flakes of '< moisture ga"e a higher protein efficiency ratio than flakes of
& moisture. 2n contrast, steaming whole soybeans chips, or cotyledons for
A%mins only partially inacti"ated trypsin inhibitors apparently because of the
large particle size. Atmospheric steaming inacti"ates most of the trypsin
inhibitor in whole soybeans in '&mins. 2n initial moisture content is A%. 2f
the beans are soaked in water o"ernight (% moisture A&mins. 2n boiling
water sufficient to inacti"ate the inhibitors. Small but measurable trypsin
inhibitors acti"ity can often be deflected after heating the known stability of
>owman#kirk inhibitor suggested that the residual inhibitor may be of this
types. 7easurements of residual chymotrypsin inhibitor acti"ity would
clarify this point because the >owman#kirk inhibitor is a strong inhibitor of
At recent study reports trypsin inhibitor acti"ity commercial protein
isolate but no inhibitor was detected in canned frankfurters containing '.&
isolate. The heat treatment during canning inacti"ated the residual inhibitor.
7any of the conclusion drawn from studies on kunity inhibitor must
be "iewed with some reser"ations because of the heterogeneity of certain
commercial preparation e"en when crystallized fi"e times. The possibility
that a protein impurities or a tightly bound non#protein impurity is
responsible for some of the biological properties of the inhibitor has
recei"ed slight consideration until recently.
-emagglatinins ESoybean contain at least four proteins capable of
causing clumping of red blood cells of rabbits and rates in in"itrotests.
These proteins are designated haemagluttininsG these proteins are in many
legumes. +efected soy flour contains about F lemaglutinins. The ma4or
hemagluttinin in soybeans has been insolated and characterized. 2t is a
glycoprotein containing ).& mannose and ' glucesanine and has a
molecular weight of ''%,%% and appear to contain two polypeptide chains.
The ability of hemaggluttinins to cause clumping of red blood cells in a test
tube ser"es as a useful assay procedure but there is no e"idence that
agglutination of red cells occurs when hemagluttinins are ingested.
-emagglutinins is readily inacti"ated by pepsinG thus it probably does not
ser"ice passage through the stomach. 1urthermore, undigested
hemagglutinin would ha"e to be absorbed from the intestine to come into
contact with red blood cells an occurrence which seems unliky because of
the high molecular weight of the hemagglutinin.
Soybean hemagglutinins are readily inacti"ated when maximum
growth response is obtain. -emagglutinins this Gpresent no known
problems in foods of preparation includes proper heating of the soy
ingredient at some step of processing.
Soybean saponings E saponins are complex glycosides of
triterpenoid alcohols and occur in soybeans to the extent of %.& and
because of their polarity, the saponins are insoluble in hexane and remain
in defatted mealG defatted meal contains %.(M saponins. Although
antinutritional properties ha"e been ascribed to soybean saponins, recent
studies show t hem to be harmless when ingested by chicks rates and nice
aft %.& to F of the diet. At the highest le"el the saponins content was
about three fold higher than in a &% soybean meal supplemented diet.
/either saponings nor sapogenine were found in blood of rates, mice or
chicks kept in diet containing A% soybean seed, thus the saponins are
not absorbed thy remain intact until they lea"e the enzymes in the colon.
The saponin inhibit "arious enzymes including cholinesterase and
chymotrypsin but inhibition is not specific. Soyprotein and other dietary
protein will also bind saponins. Approximately %.) saponins were
obtained from a laboratory preparation of soyprotein isolate when isolates
where ehated in dilate and solutions crystalline bit apparently modified.
Saponins were obtained. The effect of interaction of the saponins with soy
protein is still unknown, the saponins are an extremely complex mixture
and only limited separations ha"e been obtained to date.
*rotein quality of soybean.
.ntil the '<(%?s information on the nutriti"e "alue of soybean protein
was largely limited to defatted flakes, meals and flours. 7oreo"er most of
the studied were concerned with use of soybean means as an animals
feed. Since commercial introduction of concentrates and isolates in '<&<
and their increasing use in foods, these fractions ha"e recei"ed
considerably more attention studies with human, howe"er, are still limited.
The quality of soy protein depends on se"eral factors:#
a! Amino acids composition
b! *resence of anti#nutritional factors
c! +igestibility
d! 3"erall composition of the diet
e! /utrient requirement of the species in"ol"es. 2tem a, b, and c
are of primary importance in considering the "arious soy protein forms as
protein sources.
2n the preparation of isolates for example fractionation occursG this
results in a change in amino acid composition as well as in remo"al of the
antinutritional factors occurring in the whey, items of and e are of greater
importance when a specific food is being considered i.e. an infant food
dietary item or a soack food nutritional requirements for an infant differ
greatly from the needs of an adult who may be trying too loose weight.
The processing of soybeans into soymilk is aimed at gaining
consumer acceptance of the legume by remo"al of the toxicants that
contain and also impro"ing organoleptic qualities of soymilk with special
consideration to some ad"erse effect of these operation in soymilk quality.
This pro4ect re "iews the effects of different methods used in the
processing of soybeans into soymilk on the quality of the milk produced
during processing and storage.
Soybean (Glycine max! belongs to the family of 5eguminoseae. 2t is about
the most utilized legume as well as the most well researched and health#
promoting food material in the world today (Dilliam and Akiko, A%%%,
Akubor et al. A%%A!. This can be attributed to its high nutrient content and
low cost. Soybean is processed into a "ariety of food items, feed and
industrial products which include soymilk, soy flour, soy meal, soy oil, soy
infant formula, soy cultured products (soy ice#cream, soy yoghurt, tempeh,
soy cheese!, soy#based meat substitute, textured protein, soy dog foods,
soap, cosmetics, biodiesel (5iu, '<<@G 9ndres, A%%'G ;iampiatro et al.
A%%)G 7erritt and Cenks, A%%)G -oogenkamp, A%%&G 6iaz, A%%(G
Anonymous, A%%=!. Soymilk is a water extract of whole soybeans at a
beanNwater ratio of between ':& and ':'%. 2t is an off#white emulsion or
suspension containing the water soluble proteins and most of the oils of the
soybean. 2t doesn?t contain lactose and therefore suitable for lactose#
intolerant indi"iduals (/elson et al, '<@'G 3sundahunsi et al. A%%@G Sanful,
A%%<G Anonymous,
A%'A!..nlike some other beans, soybean offers a complete protein profile
and polyunsaturated fatty acids (-enkel, A%%%G 5indsey, A%'A!. The *rotein
+igestibility ,orrected Amino Acid Score (*+,AAS! which is the standard
for measuring protein quality rated soy protein to be nutritionally equi"alent
to meat, eggs and casein with soy protein isolate ha"ing a biological "alue
of @), whole soybeans <(, soymilk <' and eggs <@ (1A3ND-3, '<=<!. 1or
this reason, soy products are good alternati"es for "egetarians and "egans
(3sundahunsi et al, A%%@G Sanful, A%%<G Anonymous, A%'A!. 8arious
processing techniques (-auman, '<=)G 22TA, '<=@G 2/TS3O, '<=@! as well
as associated numerous health benefits of soy products deri"ed from its
content of bioacti"e, functional and phytochemical ingredients such as
natural phenols, phytic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (predominantly
omega#(!, glyceollins, and others ha"e been reported (/elson et al. '<@'G
Ooon et al. '<=FG Anderson et al. '<<&G Briz#Sil"erstein et al. A%%FG 8ucenik
and Shamsuddin, A%%FG Sudheer et al. A%%)G Symolon et al. A%%)G Sacks et
al. A%%(G -oger"ost et al. A%%=G Cenkins et al. A%'%G Santo et al. A%'%G
Anonymous, A%''!. Soymilk, like other plant protein has poor consumer
acceptability. -owe"er, the principal reasons for the poor acceptability of
soy products are beany off#fla"ours and flatulenceinducing
oligosaccharides namely starchyose and raffinose (>uono et al, '<<%G
3sundahunsi et al, A%%@!. This ob4ectionable fla"our is as a result of some
ketones and aldehydes, particularly hexanals and heptanals, produced
through endogenous lipoxydase#catalysed oxidation of soybean oil. These
compounds are not contained in the whole soybean but are produced as
soon the bean is wetted and ground. 6esearch efforts ha"e been deployed
towards combating this off#fla"our through both genetic and processing.
5egumes generally, including soybean contain potentially toxic and anti#
nutritional factors such as saponins, phytohaemaglutinins, protease and
amylase inhibitors, etc., which must be inacti"ated or destroyed by heat
before usage (;iami and >akebain, '<<AG Soetan and 3yewole, A%%<G
Akande et al., A%'%!. ,onsidering its unique nutritional and health benefits,
soy products, e.g. soymilk, ha"e a utility role to play in addressing
malnutrition in poor sub#regions of the world as an inexpensi"e substitute
for animal products (2/TS3O, '<=@G /sofor and 7aduako, '<<AG /sofor
and 3su4i, '<<@G >aghei et al, A%%=G Akubor, A%%FG -oogenkamp, A%%&!.
The ob4ecti"e of this research, therefore, was to e"aluate the extent to
which "arious processing technique qes would affect the nutrient content,
sensory qualities and andorganoleptic acceptability of soymilk.
7ilk is an excellent source of all nutrients except iron and ascorbate. 7ilk
has been recognized as an importan food for infants and growing children
(3bizoba and Anyika, '<<&!. 2n de"eloping countries, the cost of dairy milk
and their products are prohibiti"e. Adults who consume milk do so by
adding small amount to breakfast cereals, porridge, cocoa be"erage, tea or
coffee probably owing to its exceptional scarcity. The high cost of milk in
de"eloping countries has led to the de"elopment of alternati"e source of
milk from plant materials (Singh and >ains, '<==!. An inexpensi"e
substitute in the form of a milk or be"erage made from locally a"ailable
plant foods, high in protein, with satisfactory quality could play an important
role to reduce protein malnutrition. 3nly soybean has been extensi"ely
in"estigated while other oil seeds and tubers such as soybean, ha"e not
been studied comprehensi"ely. -owe"er, prior to the de"elopment of such
phyto milk like and gastrointestinal diseases (Anderson et al., '<<)!. 2t
soybean milk which ser"es as a less expensi"e substitute for dairy milk,
direct milk consumption as a be"erage was not common in /igeria (2wuoha
and .munnakwe, '<<@G 3nweluzo and 3wo, A%%&!.
+e"elopment of milk substitutes extracted from legumes ser"es as an
alternati"e source of producing an acceptable nutritious drink (-arkins and
Sarret, '<(@!.
Among the sources of "egetable milk, soybean has recei"ed "ery high
research attention and more research is still being designed to impro"e the
quality of soy milk (Sun#young et al., A%%%!. 5ittle research attention has
been gi"en to bambaranut (3bizoba and 9gbunna, '<<A!,
Soybeans can be processed into "arieties of milk products like natural
soybean milk, pasteurized soybean milk, sterilized soybean milk, ultra#high
temperature soybean milk and concentrated and condensed soybean milk.
Soybean milk can be used by special people ha"ing milk allergies such as
galactosemia and lactose intolerance. Soybean, an under#utilized crop,
was reported to be high in dietary fibre content, which could be effecti"e in
the treatment and pre"ention of many diseases including colon cancer,
coronary heart diseases, obesity, diabetes has &.= moisture, rich in
protein (@! (Temple et al., '<<%! and carbohydrate such as reducing
sugar (@.)!, soluble polysaccharide (@.)! and starch (=(.)! (Temple,
'<=<!. According to 34obe and Tempo ('<=F! the protein in soybean is of
high biological "alue considering the many essential amino acids it
1or human consumption, soybeans must be cooked with PwetP heat to
destroy the trypsin inhibitors (serine protease inhibitors!. 6aw soybeans,
including the immature green form, are toxic to all monogastric animals.
Soybeans are considered by many agencies to be a source of complete
A complete protein is one that contains significant amounts of all
the essential amino acids that must be pro"ided to the human body
because of the bodySs inability to synthesize them. 1or this reason, soy is a
good source of protein, amongst many others, for "egetarians and "egans
or for people who want to reduce the amount of meat they eat. According to
the .S 1ood and +rug Administration:
Soy protein products can be good substitutes for animal products because,
unlike some other beans, soy offers a ScompleteS protein profile. ... Soy
protein products can replace animal#based foodsTwhich also ha"e
complete proteins but tend to contain more fat, especially saturated fatT
without requiring ma4or ad4ustments elsewhere in the diet.
The gold standard for measuring protein quality, since '<<%, is the *rotein
+igestibility ,orrected Amino Acid Score (*+,AAS! and by this criterion
soy protein is the nutritional equi"alent of meat, eggs, and casein for
human growth and health. Soybean protein isolate has a biological "alue of
@), whole soybeans <(, soybean milk <', and eggs <@.
Soy protein is essentially identical to the protein of other legume seeds and
pulses. 7oreo"er, soybeans can produce at least twice as much protein per
acre than any other ma4or "egetable or grain crop besides hemp, fi"e to '%
times more protein per acre than land set aside for grazing animals to
make milk, and up to '& times more protein per acre than land set aside for
meat production.
+ietary protein pro"ides the chemical building blocks, called amino acids,
to manufacture the many different types of proteins your body needs to
function. /onessential amino acids are those your body can produce with
its own cellular machinery. 2n contrast, your body is incapable of producing
the essential amino acidsG they must be obtained from your diet. Although
many animal proteins pro"ide you with the full complement of amino acids,
soybeans and quinoa are the only plant#deri"ed foods that contain all nine
essential amino acids.
2.3.1 A78('*(*. F(9+:5
9ssential amino acids are grouped based on chemical similarity. 5ysine,
methionine and threonine are members of the aspartate family of essential
amino acids, and are found in both immature and mature soybeans. 5ysine
is incorporated into many important proteins and is particularly important for
your bone, muscle and 4oint health. 7ethionine is one of only two amino
acids that contain sulfur. Oour body uses methionine to form the chemical
S#adenosyl#5#methionine, better known as SA7e. This chemical
participates in many metabolic processes in se"eral organs, including your
brain and li"er. Threonine has a region that commonly reacts with
phosphate molecules. The addition of phosphate to amino acids like
threonine is important in acti"ating and deacti"ating proteins.
Approximately =& of the worldSs soybean crop is processed into soybean
meal and "egetable oil.Q<)R Soybeans can be broadly classified as
P"egetableP (garden! or field (oil! types. 8egetable types cook more easily,
ha"e a mild, nutty fla"or, better texture, are larger in size, higher in protein,
and lower in oil than field types. Tofu and soy milk producers prefer the
higher protein culti"ars bred from "egetable soybeans originally brought to
the .nited States in the late '<F%s. The PgardenP culti"ars are generally not
suitable for mechanical combine har"esting because there is a tendency for
the pods to shatter upon reaching maturity.
Among the legumes, the soybean, also classed as an oilseed, is
preeminent for its high (F=E)&! protein content as well as its high
(approximately A%! oil content. Soybeans are the second#most "aluable
agricultural export in the .nited States behind corn. The bulk of the
soybean crop is grown for oil production, with the high#protein defatted and
PtoastedP soy meal used as li"estock feed. A smaller percentage of
soybeans are used directly for human consumption.
5unasin is a peptide found in soy and some cereal grains and has been the
sub4ect of research since '<<( focusing on cancer, cholesterol and
cardio"ascular disease and inflammation.
According to the American ,ancer Society, PStudies in humans ha"e not
shown harm from eating soy foods. 7oderate consumption of soy foods
appears safe for both breast cancer sur"i"ors and the general population,
and may e"en lower breast cancer risk.P They caution howe"er that soy
supplements should be a"oided.
6ecent studies ha"e shown impro"ement in postmenopausal womenSs
cogniti"e function, particularly "erbal memory,
and in frontal lobe
with the use of soy supplements.
Soybean was purchased from mile ' market and kept at ambient
temperature prior to usage. They were analyzed within a day of purchase.
Soymilk was prepared using two methods modified from 2llinois method.
3.2.1. M.*4,6 1% soybean was sorted to remo"e stones and damaged,
deformed seeds. The soybean was washed and soaked in water (&%%g in '
5iter! for 'A hours. 2t was rinsed and blanched in '.A& /a-,3
for F%
minutes. The soybean was washed, manually dehulled and rinsed. The
soybean seeds were ground in blender (kenwood! and expressed in the
ratio of F:' to remo"e the okra. The resultant slurry was formulated by
adding %.' of sodium benzoate and %.' potassium sorbate, A sucrose
and propy gallate and Ascorbic pamitate at this ratios: '%%ppm Ascorbic
palmitate and '%%ppm propyl gallate, A%%ppm Ascorbic palmitate, A%%ppm
propyl gallate and ,ontrol (without preser"ati"e and antioxidant!. The milk
was heated at @'
, for '& seconds and subsequently bottled and stored at
ambient and refrigeration temperature.
3.2.2. M.*4,6 2% soybean was sorted to remo"e stones and damaged,
deformed seeds. The soybean was washed and soaked in water (&%%g in '
5iter! for 'A hours. 2t was rinsed and blanched in '.A& /a
for F%
minutes. The soybean was washed, manually dehulled and rinsed. The
soybean seeds were ground in blender (kenwood! and expressed in the
ratio of F:' to remo"e the okra. The resultant slurry was formulated by
adding %.' of sodium benzoate and %.' potassium sorbate, A sucrose
and propy gallate and Ascorbic pamitate at this ratios: '%%ppm Ascorbic
palmitate and '%%ppm propyl gallate, A%%ppm Ascorbic palmitate, A%%ppm
propyl gallate and ,ontrol (without preser"ati"e and antioxidant!. The milk
was heated at @'
, for '& seconds and subsequently bottled and stored at
ambient and refrigeration temperature. 1igure ' shows the processing of
soybean to soymilk.
The soy milk samples were stored at ambient temperature (A@U, V A
,! for
) days and refrigerated temperature () V A U,! for '( days.
About %.'g of sample was weighed and added into a clean conical flask of
A&%ml capacity. Fg digestion catalyst was added into the flask and A%ms
concentrated sulphuric acid was also added and the flask was heated to
digest the content from black to sky blue colouration. The digest was cooed
to room temperature and was diluted to '%%ml with distilled water.
About A%ml diluted digest was measured into a distillation flask and the
flask was held in place on an electro#thermal heater hot plate. To the
distillation flask was attached condenser, )% sodium hydroxide is in4ected
into the digest "ia a syringe at the head to the micro arm steel head until
the digest becomes strongly alkaline. The mixture was heated to boil and
distill the ammonia gas "ia the condenser into the recei"er beaker. The
colour of the acid changed from purple to greenish. Ammonia distillate was
introduces into the acid.
The distillate was titrated with %.'/ -ydrochlorinc acid back to purple
colour from greenish. The "olume of hydrochloric acid added to effect the
change was recorded as titre "alue. CALCUATION% / W titre "alue
F+<;'. 1% F:,=)4('* +::;7*'(*+-< *4. 8',6;)*+,- 7.>;.-). ,? 74.:?
7*(3:. 9+:@
7ethod ' 7ethod A
Soya bean
Soaking in water
12 hours
Blanching in 1.25%
(3 !ins"
#rin$ an$ e%&ress
('atio 1(3"
(anti+o%i$ants an$
Soya bean
Soaking in water
12 hours
Blanching in 1.25%
(3 !ins"
#rin$ an$ e%&ress
('atio 1(3"
(anti+o%i$ants an$
About %.'g sample was weighed into A&ml "olumetric flask.'.Fml (A
perchloric acid was added and shaking for a period of A%minutes to
homogenize completely. The flask was made up to A&ml mark withn
distilled water and stopped. The solution formed was filtered through a
glass filter paper or allowed to sediment and decanted. 'ml of the titrated
was colleted and transformed into a '%ml "olumetric flask. This was diluted
to "olume with distilled water. ''ml of this working solution was pipette into
a clean test tube and &mls anthrone reagent was added. 'ml distilled water
and &m of anthrone reagent was mixed similarly and the whole mixture was
read at (F%nm.
the standard glucose was read and the "alue of the carbohydrates using
the formula: carbohydrates as glucose W A&xabsorbance of
sampleNabsorbance of standard x'g.
About 'g sample was weighed into a clean dried porcelain e"aporating
dish. This was placed on an o"en maintained at '%&o, for (hours. The
e"aporating dish was cooled in desiccators to room temperature, and then
this was re#weighed and recorded. Deight of moisture was calculated by
subtracting the weight of dried samples from the fresh. 7oisture W fresh
weight # dried weightNweight of fresh sampex'%%N'.
About Ag sample was placed into a soxhlet extractor. The extractor was
placed into a pre# weighed dried distillation flask. Then the sol"ent
(acetone! was introduced into the distillation flask "ia the condenser end
attached to the soxhlet extractor. The setup was held in place with a retort
stand clamp. ,ooled water 4et was allowed to flow into the condenser and
the heated sol"ent was refluxed as a result, the lipid in the soxhlet chamber
was extracted in the process of continuous refluxing. Dhen the lipid was
obser"ably extractedG to concentrate the lipidG the flask was then dried with
the air o"en to constant weight and re#weighed to obtain the weight of lipid.
lipid W weight of flask and extract # weight of flaskNweight of sample
Sample was weighed into a porcelain crucible which was pre"iously
preheated and weighed. The crucible was inserted into a muffle furnace
and regulated to a temperature of (F%
,. This was heated for Fhours and
allowed to cool.
All the samples were e"aluated for organoleptic characteristics and o"erall
acceptability by A% panelists that comprised undergraduate, graduate
students, teaching and non#teaching staff members of .ni"ersity of *ort
-arcourt, 6i"ers State, /igeriaG using nine point hedonic scale ranging from
excellent (score W <! to "ery poor (score W %! as extremes (3bi et al., A%'%!.
*rior to each assessment, the sub4ects were informed about the task of the
test. 2n addition to the information, a detailed set of written instruction on
testing method was a"ailable in each table. A '%ml portion of soymilk was
ser"ed to each sub4ect in coded in#transparent plastic tumblers. 7ineral
water and cream crackers biscuits were a"ailable as neutralizers. The test
was performed under conditions of standard light and temperature A%
The same sub4ects were used in all the steps of the sensory e"aluation, so
accurate data collection could be obtained.
The data obtained were sub4ected to analysis of "ariance (A/38A! using
;raph *ad *rism Software, "ersion &.%'. Significant difference between
means were determined at p$%.%&. The result of the experiment collated at
the end of the storage was analyzed using statistical means to determine if
there were any significant differences among their means. T# test was used
to determine the relationship (difference! between the different
temperatures of storage for both the market and sample soymilk. This was
because t#test measureSs the differences between the means of two
"ariables. Also t#test was used to analyze if significant differences exist
between the soymilk treated with acid salt (/a-,3
! and the soymilk
treated with alkaline salt (/a
!. 1or sensory analysis, two way analysis
of "ariance (A/38A! was used to determine the significant differences
between the indi"idual samples of the sample soymilk.
2n this study, sample A was /a-,3
Soymilk treated with *ropyl ;allate,
sample > was /a-,3
Soymilk treated with Ascorbyl *almitate, sample ,
was /a-,3
Soymilk treated with both *ropyl ;allate and Ascorbyl
*almitate, sample + was /a-,3
,ontrol, sample 9 was /a
treated with *ropyl ;allate, sample 1 was /a
Soymilk treated with
Ascorbyl *almitate, sample ; was /a
Soymilk treated with both
*ropyl ;allate and Ascorbyl *almitate while sample - was /a
The soy milk samples stored at ambient temperature were of poor quality
by the )
day while the soy milk samples stored at refrigeration
temperature maintained good quality up to '( days of storage.
The soy bean from whole seed had high protein, fibre, fat, ash,
carbohydrate and mositure. The proximate composition of soy milk
samples is presented in Table '. The crude protein content of produced soy
milk ranged from A.(( to A.='. Total carbohydrates ranged from '.<< to
A.(<. The fat content ranged from '.=' to A.F(. The ash content ranged
from %.AA to %.)%. 3n the other hand, the moisture content of the
produced soy milk samples
ranged from =<.A% to <F.A< (Table '!. There was no significant difference
(*X%.%&! between the "alues recorded for /a-,3
and that of /a
T(3:. 1% P',0+9(*. ),98,7+*+,- /21 ,? 8',6;).6 7,59+:@
S(98:.7 P',*.+- F(* C('3,456'(*. M,+7*;'.
A %.)% A.=% A.F& A.(< =<.A%
B %.)% A.=% A.F( A.(= =<.A%
C %.)' A.=' A.F) A.(@ =<.A%
D %.)% A.=% A.F& A.%= =<.'<
E %.A) A.(@ '.=' '.<< <F.A<
F %.AF A.(( '.=' '.<< <F.A<
G %.A) A.(@ '.=' '.<< <F.A<
H %.AA A.(< '.=' '.<< <F.A<
The mean scores for the aroma and "isual appearanceNcolour of samples
decreased with storage time (Table A!. 3n day %, samples treated with
/a-,3F had higher "isual appearance scores in comparison to samples
treated with /a
. Sample + had the highest score for "isual appearance
with sample > and , ha"ing the lowest score for samples treated with
. 1or samples treated with /a
, they had a lower score with
sample - ha"ing the highest score (&.)! and sample 1 ha"ing the lowest
score (&.%!. 1or taste, samples treated with /a
, they showed the
highest score in comparison with samples treated with /a-,3F, with
sample - ha"ing the highest score for taste and sample 1 with the lowest
score for taste. 1or samples treated with /a-,3F, sample , had the least
score at &.% and sample A with the highest score. At the end of assessment
(day 'A! the aroma and "isual appearance of all the samples had become
unacceptable with sample treated with /a
ha"ing higher scores than
samples treated with /a-,3
T(3:. 2% M.(- 7),'.7 ,? 7.-7,'5 .A(:;(*+,-
A**'+3;*. A B C D E F G H
Taste &.= &.) &.% &.& (.< (.@ (.= @.%
,olour @.A @.% @.% @.& &.F &.% &.A &.)
Aroma &.& &.) &.F &.) (.= (.) (.& (.)
(.& (.% (.) (.' @.F @.A @.A @.'
+AO (
Taste ).& ).) ).% F.& (.% &.@ &.= &.'
,olour (.' &.= (.% &.& ).F ).@ ).( ).)
Aroma ).& ).) ).( ).) ).= ).F ).& ).F
&.& &.% &.) ).' (.) (.A (.& &.'
,olour F.( F.A F.@ A.& ).F ).' ).) ).%
Aroma F.F F.% F.' A.% F.& ).% F.= F.F
F.% A.< F.' '.) ).) ).A ).( F.'
The changes in the o"erall acceptability of the different samples are shown
in 1igure A. The o"erall acceptability decreased within the entire sample
with control sample showing the most change. The samples treated with
retained better quality for longer periods. This is further illustrated
in the samples treated with /a
which showed less curdling and whey
separation (better quality!. These changes (curdling and whey formation!
occurred in samples at the ')
day of storage at refrigeration temperature
and day A at ambient temperature. 3"erall, less ad"erse changes (i.e.
better acceptability! occurred in the indi"idual samples treated with propyl
gallate singly and in combination with Ascorbyl *almitate. -owe"er, at the
end of storage, they were all "irtually unacceptable. Statistically, it was
shown that there was no significant difference (*X%.%&! in all the samples
Soymilk is an idea medium for bacteria growth and hence and hence a
thermal treatment is necessary to extend its shelf life. -eat processes are
in"ol"ed at se"eral stages during soymilk preparation, including the pre#
treatment of beans and extraction to produce the soymilk, followed by
either pasteurization or sterilization to increase its shelf life. >y controlling
the microbiology of the product and packaging it in appropriate containers,
the shelf life of soymilk can be greatly extended and the product can be
distributed o"er a wider area.
*roximate analysis of the Psoy milkP from each "ariety of soybeans shows
that a"eragely it has a water content of <'.A), *rotein of A.@), fat content of
A.%=, Ash content of %.FA and ,arbohydrate of A.A( this agrees with the
findings of /elson et al. ('<@=! and ;esinde et al. (A%%=! with the exception
of protein and carbohydrate content which is lower in their own report. This
may be due to the "ariety of soybean used, the method of extraction and
other equipments used (;esinde et al., A%%=!. 2t has been reported that
soybean "arieties greatly affect the protein content and colour of soymilk
(7in et al., A%%&, ;esinde et al., A%%=!. Soy milk prepared from beans pre#
soaked in /a-,3
contained more protein and a higher "iscosity than milk
prepared from beans pre#soaked in /a
. Soaking with /a-,3F as well
as blanching ga"e a higher protein content of soymilk because soaking
gi"es a tender product which results in finer slurry and thus more filtrate will
pass thru the filter cloth thereby increasing yield and subsequently the
protein content of soymilk (>ourne, '<@(!. The low protein "alue for
/aA,3F method can also be because /aA,3F reacts with protein and
forms a complex, which reduces the protein a"ailability of produced soymilk
(Tunde#Akintunde and Souley, A%%<!.
The higher ash content of /a-,3F could be due to more mineral being
extracted in soymilk due to the action of the acid. These "alues are
comparable to 3nuorah et al. (A%%@! findings. The higher moisture content
of /a
could be as a result of coagulation of protein and hereby
restricting more water expulsions from the cake (>ourne, '<@(!. The
carbohydrate content of /a-,3
milk was higher and similar to that
reported by Dikens et al. ('<(@!. The fat content of /a-,3
was higher
and it correlated with the report obtained by Adetun4i et al. (A%%(!. 1arinde
et al. (A%%=! suggested that the total solid of soymilk could be impro"ed by
adding soybean flour to the soymilk. 2ncreasing the total solid increases the
nutriti"e "alue of the product thereby impro"ing the keeping quality.
The sensory properties showed that sample stored at refrigeration
temperature maintained good quality up to '( days storage while samples
stored at room temperature were of poor quality by the )
day. *reser"ation
of soymilk by refrigeration has been shown to be relati"ely effecti"e in
retarding microbial growth. The shelf life of pasteurized milk products
sub4ected to ultra high temperature (.-T! is usually extended especially if
adequately stored (Saidu, A%%&!. This can be done through the use of
chemical preser"ati"es to minimize food spoilage. 2n economically under
de"eloped countries, lack of functional storage facilities and the inadequacy
of transportation and communications may increase the necessity of using
certain food additi"es for purpose of preser"ation. 2n tropical regions, high
temperature and humidity fa"our microbial attack and increase the rate of
de"elopment of oxidati"e rancidity. 1ood additi"es might be used to
supplement the effecti"eness of traditional methods of food preser"ation
rather than to replace these methods (Alais and 5inden, '<<< cited in
9gbo, A%'A!.
The sensory attributes of percei"ed color and fla"or are the most important
characteristics in soymilk because they are readily assessed by
consumers. Soymilk when sub4ected to se"ere heating acquires a brown
color and cooked fla"or (Bwok et al., A%%% cited in 9gbo, A%'A!. Bwok and
/iran4an ('<<& cited in 9gbo, A%'A! ha"e demonstrated the effects of
thermal processing on the quality of soymilk and concluded that the main
chemical reaction that gi"es rise to heat#induced color and fla"or changes
is the maillard reaction. 7ost work done on soybean products made
reference to future research to be done to impro"e colour, taste and aroma
of soybean products either through fla"our additi"es and heat treatments
(1arinde et al., A%%=G 2kpeme et al, A%%<!. 2t has been reported that the use
of preser"ati"es also reduced Staphylococcus aureus population in soymilk
to less than hazardous le"el at the end of ambient storage and lag#phase
periods were extended by the preser"ati"es resulting in longer shelf life
(/wanebu, '<<) cited in 9gbo, A%'A!.
The sensory e"aluation shows that sample produced with /a
has a
higher preference for smell and taste because the methods reduced the
beany fla"or as reported by 5iu ('<<@ cited in 9gbo, A%'A!. -owe"er these
samples ha"e the lowest preference in terms of colour. Tunde#Akintunde
and Souley (A%%<! reported that from their results, they noticed that the
sensory properties of soymilk increased with decrease in nutritional quality
indicating that methods which increase sensory properties of soymilk by
reducing its beany fla"or ha"e lower nutritional qualities. Dikens et al.
('<(@! found that the off#fla"ours of soymilk were present in the dry
soybean but were formed during the processing and that blanching the
beans in hot water pre"ented the formation of the strong beany fla"ours.
They attributed this result to the rapid heat inacti"ation of the lipoxidase in
the soybean precluding its attacking the unsaturated fatty acid chains in the
soybean oil to form a number of lower molecular weight compounds that
ha"e ob4ectionable fla"or impact. 5ipoxygenase catalyze the
hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated lipids in the presence of molecular
oxygen and the primary products are hydroperoxide. The "olatile carbonyl
compounds including aldehydes, ketones and alcohols are partly
responsible for the ob4ectionable odor and fla"or in soymilk. +uring the
preparation of soymilk, soybean is ground with water and the 53L acti"ity
is greatly enhanced when the soybean is damaged or crushed. Therefore
the inacti"ation is carried out at a higher temperature of =%#'%%
, during
the preparation of soymilk. 2n"ersely at these temperature, protein
molecules are denatured (*rabhakaran, A%%&!, therefore other methods
(antioxidants! are sort to complement the use of high temperature.
Although soymilk is a potential substitute for cow milk and could be used
for sol"ing malnutrition problems in de"eloping countries, its utilization is
hampered by a number of factors. -owe"er, acceptability of soybean
products has been enhanced by modification of processing methods. Some
of the modified soymilk extraction methods include application of heat,
soaking of soybean in ethanol or alkali and acid grinding (2we, A%%F!.
Bolapo and 3ladime4i (A%%=! reported on the use of natural fla"ourants to
impro"e soymilk acceptability. 2t has been reported that pasteurization of
"egetable milk extract at 'A'
, for '& minutes effects maximum destruction
of microorganisms and made the products microbiologically safe
(3nweluzo and /wakalor, A%%<!. The effect of pre#soaking soybean in
solutions of "arious chemicals on the reduction of beany fla"or in soymilk
was in"estigated. /a
had a significant effect on the reduction of beany
fla"or in soymilk. /a
soaking at '.A& for 'A hours was significantly
better than /a-,3
pre# soaking treatment. >eans pre#soaked in
carbonate were easier to process than /a-,3
(Bhaleque et al, '<@%!.
The shelf life of the soy milk produced at room temperature was up to )
days, this de"iated from the a"erage shelf life reported generally for most
milk and milk# based products. This is the reason why se"eral workers are
exploring the use of chemical preser"ati"es for prolonging the shelf life of
milk products (Sumati and Shalini, '<=(G .riah and 2wagbe, '<<%G ;esinde
et al., A%%=!. Statistical analysis of the data on the organoleptic assay
showed that there was no significant different among the "ariety for
sweetness of their soymilk. There were no significant difference (*X%.%&! in
the color, odor and texture of the soy milks treated with /a-,3
. >enzoic and sorbic acid are among the most commonly used as
preser"ati"es in their salt forms (Sodium or potassium! (Dibbertmann et
al., A%%&!. *otassium sorbate has been reported to be more effecti"e
against moulds in"ol"ed in spoilage of foods at p- of ).% to (.% than
against the bacterial flora especially lactic acid. Sodium benzoate has been
reported to be less effecti"e than potassium sorbate against moulds though
the two preser"ati"es are capable of inhibiting aerobic and catalase
positi"e bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, coliforms and
psychotropic spoilage bacteria (/wanebu, '<<) cited in 9gbo, A%'AG
Dibbertmann et al., A%%&!.
Soybean can be processed using "arious techniques into different
products. ;enerally, processing treatment significantly affected the quality
of the products. The milk products were highly acceptable. 1ermentation
increased the protein content of the product. 8ariations in chemical "alues
of the samples were a function of processing treatment. The products were
microbiologically stable during storage. the samples had no growth of
microorganisms throughout storage. >ased on these results, an acceptable
standard procedure can be de"eloped for processing soybean into "arious
products with an effecti"e process control programme.
The effect of certain preser"ati"es at "arious concentrations within their
maximum permissible le"els along with pasteurization and refrigeration
storage on the microbial keeping quality of soymilk used showed that
soymilk samples blanched in /a-,3F, pasteurized at @&
, for '& seconds
and then formulated with %.'potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate in
addition with either A%%ppm propyl gallate or '%%ppm propyl gallate and
ascorbyl palmitate, ga"e soymilk of high microbial quality and shelf life
stability. Study on the suspension stability of soymilk should be considered
as the soymilk separated during the period of study unlike the most market
soymilk which is relati"ely stable. Also other method of preser"ing soymilk,
so as to extend its shelf life should be studied (carbonation!.
2n line with other studies, it was demonstrated that processing method,
storage temperature and storage duration ha"e significant combined
effects on the proximate chemical composition and sensory attributes of
soymilk. According to most authors, soymilk produced from flour produces
better nutritional profile and more desirable sensory properties than milk
produced from wet blanched beans. -owe"er, liquid soymilk produced from
the traditional wet methods, are most stable in sensory attributes when
stored at "ery low temperatures. ,onclusi"ely, the quest for cheap source
of protein has enhanced small scale production of "egetable protein
products of which soymilk is an example. Soymilk consumption has
encouraged small scale production of the product under household
condition with little or no regard to quality control measures. Soymilk
therefore has the potential to substitute dairy milk.
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7icrobial and physico# chemical quality of powdered soymilk samples in
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(13! 3"##$3"%1
A. Adeleke, 3. 9., >. A. Adeniyi, and A. A. Akinrinmisi, (A%%%!.
7icrobiological quality of local soymilk: a public health appraisal. American
Journal of &oo' (echnology, (: A<=#F%&.
F. Adetun4i, 3.A., 9. >etiku, A. 34o, A. and >.3 Solomon (A%%(!. 9ffect
of some processing routes on the nutritional "alue of soy yoghurt. Journal
of applie' sciences, (: &A@#&F%.
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fla"or of soymilk. Journal of foo' science, )':(A#((
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