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active / passive overview

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009


1

tense active passive
Ich schreibe ein Buch. Ein Buch wird (von mir) geschrieben.
Prsens
Infinitiv
form of werden +
Partizip II
Ich schrieb ein Buch. Ein Buch wurde (von mir) geschrieben.
Prteritum
Prteritum of the verb
form of wurden +
Partizip II
Ich habe ein Buch geschrieben. Ein Buch ist (von mir) geschrieben worden.
Perfekt
form of haben or sein
+ Partizip II
form of sein +
Partizip II + worden
Ich hatte ein Buch geschrieben. Ein Buch war (von mir) geschrieben worden.
Plusquamperfekt
form of hatte or war
+ Partizip II
form of war +
Partizip II + worden
Ich werde ein Buch schreiben. Ein Buch wird (von mir) geschrieben werden.
Futur I
form of werden
+ Infinitiv
form of werden +
Partizip II + werden

Adjektivendungen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

You have probably noticed that added certain endin!s to the ad"ectives in the messa!es sent you#
Today $ant to ma%e clear $hen you have to use $hich endin!#

German English
&ie hat eine nette &ch$ester#
'eutsches (rot schmec%t sehr !ut#
ch sehe den neuen )rofessor#
&he*s !ot a nice sister#
German bread tastes very !ood#
see the new professor#

rules

How do you find out which ending you have to use?
+ll you have to do is to ans$er these , -uestions and to loo% for the ri!ht endin! in the table#
.hat %ind of article has the noun/ 0definite 1 indefinite 1 none2
.hich gender does the noun have/ 0male 1 female 1 neutral2
.hat*s the numerus of the noun/ 0sin!ual 1 plural2
n $hich case is the noun/ 0nominative 1 !enitive 1 dative 1 accusative2

e3ample 14
Die groe Frau trgt einen Hut! 0The tall $oman is $earin! a hut#2
5et6s analyse the sentence# The noun $e analyse is 78rau7# The ad"ective $hich describes the $oman is 7!ro97#
.hat %ind of article has !ot the noun 78rau7/ :; Die :; The noun has a definite article#
.hat !ender does the noun 78rau7 have/ :; The !ender of 78rau7 is female#
.hich numerus has the noun 78rau7/ :; t is "ust one $oman# &o< it*s sin!ular#
n $hich case is the noun 78rau7/ :; The $oman is the sub"ect of the sentence#
&he is doin! somethin!# &o< =8rau> is in the nominative case#
?o$ let*s have a loo% at the table for definite articles# 5oo% for sin!ular< female< nominative#
The endin! is 7e7# &o< it must be 7die !ro9e 8rau7#




Adjektivendungen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
e3ample 24
Ein netter "ann sit#t im $af%! 0+ nice man is sittin! in the cafe#2
article4 ein 0indefinite article2
!ender4 male
numerus4 sin!ular
case4 nominative case
f you loo% for indefinite article< sin!ular< male< nominative you6ll find the endin! 7er7#
&o it must be 7ein netter @ann7#
e3ample A4
&ch schrei'e einen langen (rief! 0 $rite a lon! letter#2
The noun $e have to consider here is 7(rief7 0$ord orer $ron!2 The ad"ective $hich describes the letter is
7lan!7#
article4 einen 0indefinite article2
!ender4 (rief is male
numerus4 sin!ular
case4 7ch7 is the sub"ect of the sentence# 7ch7 is in the nominative case#
7(rief7 is the direct ob"ect of the sentence# 7(rief7 is in the accusative case#
f you loo% for indefinite article< sin!ular< male< accusative you6ll find the endin! 7en7#
&o it must be 7einen lan!en (rief7#

A way to cheat
f you are unsure $hich !ender or case is re-uired you can often reco!niBe it $ith the help of the the article
$hich precedes the ad"ective#
e3amples4
Cr %auft das neue Handy# :; The article 7das7 sho$s that Handy is neutral#
ch ma! den roten Hut nicht# :; The article 7den7 sho$s that the Hut is male and in the accusative
case#
The same tric% $or%s $ith 7einen< %einen< meinen### 0all articels< pronouns< derD$ords $hich end
$ith 7en72#
&ie spielt mit dem %leinen )ind# :; The article 7dem7 sho$s that the Eind is in the dative case#
The same tric% $or%s $ith 7einem< %einem< meinem### 0all articels< pronouns< derD$ords $hich end
$ith 7em72#


Adjektivendungen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
A

*ther words which have the same function as arcticles
(esides the 7normal7 articles there are some $ords $hich have the same function as 7normal7 articles
They re-uire you to put the correct endin! at the end of the ad"ective as $ell#
All words which "work" like a definite article
German English
der< die< das< den< dem the
dieser< diese< dieses< diesen< diesem this F these
"ener< "ene< "enes< "enen< "enem that F those
"eder< "ede< "edes< "eden< "edem every F each
solcher< solche< solches< solchen< solchem such
$elcher< $elche< $elches< $elchen< $elchem $hich
mancher< manche< manches< manchen< manchem some
alle< beide all F both

All words which "work" like an indefinite article
German English
ein< eine< einen< einem< einer a F an
%ein< %eine< %einen< %einem< %einer no F none
mein< dein< sein< ihr< unser< euer< hr my F your F his F her F our F your F Your












Adjektivendungen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
,
ta'les


declension of adjectives without article
case sin!ular plural
male female neuter D
nominative !uter @ann !ute 8rau !utes Eind !ute 8amilien
!enitive !uten @annes !uter 8rau !uten Eindes !uter 8amilien
dative !utem @ann !uter 8rau !utem Eind !uten 8amilien
accusative !uten @ann !ute 8rau !utes Eind !ute 8amilien

declension of adjectives with definite article +der, die, das-
case sin!ular plural
male female neuter D
nominative der !ute @ann die !ute 8rau das !ute Eind die !uten 8amilien
!enitive des !uten @annes der !uten 8rau des !uten Eindes der !uten 8amilien
dative dem !uten @ann der !uten 8rau dem !uten Eind den !uten 8amilien
accusative den !uten @ann die !ute 8rau das !ute Eind die !uten 8amilien

declension of adjectives with indefinite article +ein-
case &in!ular )lural
male female neuter D
nominative ein !uter @ann eine !ute 8rau ein !utes Eind %eine !uten Einder G
!enitive eines !uten @annes einer !uten 8rau eines !uten Eindes %einer !uten Einder G
dative einem !uten @ann einer !uten 8rau einem !uten Eind %einen !uten Eindern G
accusative einen !uten @ann eine !ute 8rau ein !utes Eind %eine !uten Einder G

G kein und ein behave the same# + plural form of 7ein7 doesn*t e3ist# That*s $hy replaced it here by 7%ein7#
+s you already noticed not only the article chan!es# &ome nouns !et an additional endin! as $ell#
8or more details chec% the topic HDeklination der .u'stantive/#

Vergangenheit
All irregular verbs

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
Irregular are all strong and mixed verbs
I sorted all verbs in three categories depending on how important they are in my opinion.
Category I is very important and you should know them by heart
Category II is also important but it's OK if you don't know all
Category III consists seldom used verbs and you should leave them out for now

Category I - often used
Infinitiv Prteritum Partizip II Englisch
beginnen begann begonnen (h) begin
bitten bat gebeten (h) ask / request
bleiben blieb geblieben (s) stay
bringen brachte gebracht (h) bring
denken dachte gedacht (h) think
drfen durfte gedurft (h) may
essen a gegessen (h) eat
fahren fuhr gefahren (s/h) drive
finden fand gefunden (h) find
fliegen flog geflogen (s/h) fly
geben gab gegeben (h) give
gehen ging gegangen (s) go
gewinnen gewann gewonnen (h) win
haben hatte gehabt (h) have
halten hielt gehalten (h) hold
heien hie geheien (h) be called
helfen half geholfen (h) help
kennen kannte gekannt (h) know
kommen kam gekommen (s) come
knnen konnte gekonnt (h) can
lassen lie gelassen (h) let
laufen lief gelaufen (s) walk
lesen las gelesen (h) read
liegen lag gelegen (h) lie (lie down)
lgen log gelogen (h) lie (tell a lie)
mgen mochte gemocht (h) like
mssen musste gemusst (h) must
Vergangenheit
All irregular verbs

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2

Infinitiv Prteritum Partizip II Englisch
nehmen nahm genommen (h) take
nennen nannte genannt (h) call
rennen rannte gerannt (s) run
riechen roch gerochen (h) smell
rufen rief gerufen (h) call
schlafen schlief geschlafen (h) sleep
schlieen schloss geschlossen (h) close / lock
schreiben schrieb geschrieben (h) write
schwimmen schwamm geschwommen (s/h) swim
sehen sah gesehen (h) see
sein war gewesen (s) be
senden sandte gesandt (h) send
singen sang gesungen (h) sing
sitzen sa gesessen (h) sit
sollen sollte gesollt (h) should
sprechen sprach gesprochen (h) speak
stehen stand gestanden (h) stand
sterben starb gestorben (s) die
tragen trug getragen (h) carry
treffen traf getroffen (h) meet
treten trat getreten (s/h) step / kick
trinken trank getrunken (h) drink
tun tat getan (h) do
vergessen verga vergessen (h) forget
verlieren verlor verloren (h) loose
wachsen wuchs gewachsen (s) grow
waschen wusch gewaschen (h) wash
werden wurde geworden (s) become
wissen wusste gewusst (h) know
wollen wollte gewollt (h) want







Vergangenheit
All irregular verbs

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
Category II - sometimes used
Infinitiv Prteritum Partizip II Englisch
backen backte gebacken (h) bake
befehlen befahl befohlen (h) order / command
beien biss gebissen (h) bite
biegen bog gebogen (s/h) bend
bieten bot geboten (h) bid
binden band gebunden (h) bind
blasen blies geblasen (h) blow
braten briet gebraten (h) fry / roast
brechen brach gebrochen (s/h) break
brennen brannte gebrannt (h) burn
empfangen empfing empfangen (h) receive
empfehlen empfahl empfohlen (h) recommend
erschrecken erschrak erschrocken (s) be frighten
fallen fiel gefallen (s) fall
fangen fing gefangen (h) catch
fliehen floh geflohen (s) flee / escape
flieen floss geflossen (s) flow
fressen fra gefressen (h) eat (animals)
frieren fror gefroren (h) freeze
gelingen gelang gelungen (s) succeed
genieen genoss genossen (h) enjoy
geschehen geschah geschehen (s) happen
gieen goss gegossen (h) pour
graben grub gegraben (h) dig
greifen griff gegriffen (h) grab / seize
hngen hing gehangen (h) hang
heben hob gehoben (h) lift / raise
klingen klang geklungen (h) sound
kneifen kniff gekniffen (h) pinch, shirk
kriechen kroch gekrochen (s) crawl, creep
laden lud geladen (h) load
leiden litt gelitten (h) suffer
leihen lieh geliehen (h) lend, borrow
messen ma gemessen (h) measure
Vergangenheit
All irregular verbs

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
Infinitiv Prteritum Partizip II Englisch
pfeifen pfiff gepfiffen (h) whistle
raten riet geraten (h) guess
reiben rieb gerieben (h) rub
reien riss gerissen (s/h) tear, rib
reiten ritt geritten (s/h) ride
saufen soff gesoffen (h) drink (animals)
saugen sog gesogen (h) suck
schaffen schuf geschaffen (h) create
scheinen schien geschienen (h) shine / seem
scheien schiss geschissen (h) shit
schieben schob geschoben (h) push
schieen schoss geschossen (s/h) shoot
schlagen schlug geschlagen (h) hit / beat
schleichen schlich geschlichen (s) sneak / slink
schmeien schmiss geschmissen (h) throw
schneiden schnitt geschnitten (h) cut
schreien schrie geschrieen (h) scream
schweigen schwieg geschwiegen (h) be silent
schwren schwur geschworen (h) swear, take an oath
sinken sank gesunken (s) sink
springen sprang gesprungen (s) jump
stechen stach gestochen (h) sting
stehlen stahl gestohlen (h) steal
steigen stieg gestiegen (s) climb / rise
stinken stank gestunken (h) stink
stoen stie gestoen (s/h) push / prod
streichen strich gestrichen (h) paint / strike
streiten stritt gestritten (h) quarrel, argue
treiben trieb getrieben (h) propel / push
verderben verdarb verdorben (s/h) spoil / ruin
verzeihen verzieh verziehen (h) forgive
werfen warf geworfen (h) throw
wiegen wog gewogen (h) weigh
ziehen zog gezogen (s/h) pull
zwingen zwang gezwungen (h) force / compel
Vergangenheit
All irregular verbs

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
Category III - seldom used
Infinitiv Prteritum Partizip II Englisch
bewegen bewog bewogen (h) persuade
bergen barg geborgen (h) retrieve, rescue
bersten barst geborsten (s) burst
bleichen blich geblichen (h) bleach
dreschen drosch gedroschen (h) thrash
dringen drang gedrungen (s/h) pierce / penetrate
erlschen erlosch erloschen (s) dim / go out
fechten focht gefochten (h) fence (fight)
flechten flocht geflochten (h) braid
gren gor gegoren (s) brew
gebren gebar geboren (s/h) birth
gedeihen gedieh gediehen (s) thrive
gelten galt gegolten (h) count / apply
genesen genas genesen (s) recover
gleichen glich geglichen (h) be equal
gleiten glitt geglitten (s) slide / glide
glimmen glomm geglommen (h) glow
hauen hieb gehauen (h) hit / hew
klimmen klomm geklommen (h) climb
mahlen mahlte gemahlen (h) grind
meiden mied gemieden (h) avoid, shun
misslingen misslang misslungen (s) fail
preisen pries gepriesen (h) praise
quellen quoll gequollen (s) gush
ringen rang gerungen (h) wrestle / struggle
rinnen ran geronnen (s) flow
scheiden schied geschieden (s/h) separate
schelten schalt gescholten (h) scold
schinden schund geschunden (s/h) flay (time)
schleifen schliff geschliffen (h) grind / polish
schlingen schlang geschlungen (h) gulp
schmelzen schmolz geschmolzen (s) melt
schreiten schritt geschritten (s) stride
schwellen schwoll geschwollen (s) swell
Vergangenheit
All irregular verbs

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
6
Infinitiv Prteritum Partizip II Englisch
schwinden schwand geschwunden (s) dwindle
schwingen schwang geschwungen (h) swing
sinnen sann gesonnen (h) think / reflect
spalten spaltete gespalten (h) split
speien spie gespieen (h) spit, vomit
spinnen spann gesponnen (h) spin, be crazy
sprieen spross gesprossen (s) sprout
trgen trog getrogen (h) deceive
verlschen verlosch verloschen (s) go out
wgen wog gewogen (h) weigh
weben wob gewoben (h) weave
weichen wich gewichen (s) give way / yield
weisen wies gewiesen (h) show / point out
wenden wandte gewandt (h) turn / reverse
werben warb geworben (h) advertise
winden wand gewunden (h) twist
wringen wrang gewrungen (h) wring


als, wann und wenn (time)
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn the correct use of als, wenn and wann.
German English
Wann besuchst du uns?
Als er ein Kind war, ...
Wenn wir ein Problem haben, ...
When are you going to visit us?
When he was a child ...
When we have a problem ...



rules

There are 3 words in German to express the English word when.

wann

Wann is used in question and indirect "questions".

examples (direct questions):
Wann bist du nach Deutschland gekommen? (When did you come to Germany?)
Wann beginnt der Unterricht? (When will the class start?)
Weit du, wann du die Prfung machst? (Do you know when you will take the exam?)
Knnten Sie mir sagen, wann der Zug abfhrt? (Could tell me when train is leaving?)

examples (indirect "questions"):
Ich wei nicht, wann meine Eltern kommen. (I don't know when my parents will come.)
Es ist nicht klar, wann sie ins Ausland geht. (It's not clear when she will go abroad.)
Wir haben keine Ahnung, wann der Unterricht beginnt. (We have no idea when the class will start.)

As you can see indirect "questions" are in fact statements!
Actually, they are the answer to a question where you have to use "wann".
question: Weit du, wann deine Eltern kommen? (Do you know when your parents are coming?)
answer: Ich wei nicht, wann meine Eltern kommen. (I don't know when my parents are coming.)

als, wann und wenn (time)
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
als

Als is used to speak about a single event in the past.
Als is used to speak about a period of time in the past which can regarded as one event.
Clear indicators for "als" are time expressions like:
- gestern (yesterday)
- letzte Woche (last week)
- letztes Jahr (last year)
Consider that you can use "als" only in the past tense!

examples:
single event: Als Cathy nach Deutschland kam, ... (When Cathy came to Germany ...)
single event: Als ich 18 Jahre alt wurde, ... (When I turned 18 ...)
single event: Als er mich gestern anrief, ... (When he called me yesterday ...)
period of time: Als ich auf den Philippinen war, ... (When I was in the Philippines ...)
period of time: Als ich in Berlin lebte, ... (When I lived in Berlin ...)
period of time: Als ich ein Kind war, ... (When I was a child ...)

wenn

Wenn is used to speak about present events.
Wenn is used to speak about future events.
Wenn is used to speak about a repeated event in the past.
The best way to find out if you have to use "wenn" or "als" in the past tense is:
Try to replace when by whenever. If it's possible you have to use "wenn".

Clear indicators for "wenn" are:
- immer (always)
- jedes Mal (every time)




als, wann und wenn (time)
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
examples:
present tense: Wenn ich zur Schule fahre, nehme ich den Bus. (When I go to school I take the bus.)
present tense: Wenn du Zeit hast, kannst du mich gerne besuchen. (When you have time you can
visit me.)
present tense: Wenn ich durstig bin, trinke ich Wasser. (When I'm thirsty I drink water.)
future tense: Wenn ich gro bin, werde ich Arzt. (When I'm mature I'll become doctor.)
future tense: Wenn wir im Sommer nach Amerika fliegen, besuchen wir euch. (When we go to
America this summer we will visit you.)
future tense: Wenn wir mit der Arbeit fertig sind, gehen wir Billiard spielen. (When we have finished
work we'll go playing billiard.)
repeated event - past tense: (Immer) Wenn ich zur Schule fuhr, nahm ich den Bus. (When
(Whenever) I went to school I took the bus.)
repeated event - past tense: (Immer) Wenn wir eine Party machten, gab es rger. (When
(Whenever) we had a party there was trouble.)
repeated event - past tense: (Immer) Wenn wir in Mnchen waren, sind wir ins Museum gegangen.
(When (Whenever) we were in Munich we went to the museum.)

Besides the meaning of "when" wenn has a second meaning (=if).
For further infomation ckeck the topic ob und wenn.











ausdruecke.doc
1
Ausdrcke
Deutsch Englisch Deutsch Englisch
ab und zu from time to time
Auf Wiedersehen! good buy!
















A

B


ausdruecke.doc
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Deutsch Englisch Deutsch Englisch
Durst haben to be thirsty


















C

D


ausdruecke.doc
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Deutsch Englisch Deutsch Englisch
es gibt there is / there are
Es tut mir Leid. Im sorry.
einen schnen Gru bestellen
to say hi to somebody /
to send someones regards
















E

F


ausdruecke.doc
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Deutsch Englisch Deutsch Englisch
Gott segne dich! God bless you! Herzliche Gre best wishes


















G

H


ausdruecke.doc
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Deutsch Englisch Deutsch Englisch



















I

J


ausdruecke.doc
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Deutsch Englisch Deutsch Englisch
Lust haben auf to feel like doing


















K

L


ausdruecke.doc
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Deutsch Englisch Deutsch Englisch



















M

N


ausdruecke.doc
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Deutsch Englisch Deutsch Englisch
Pass auf dich auf! take care!


















O

P


ausdruecke.doc
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Deutsch Englisch Deutsch Englisch



















Q

R


ausdruecke.doc
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Deutsch Englisch Deutsch Englisch
sag mal tell me


















S

T


ausdruecke.doc
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Deutsch Englisch Deutsch Englisch
vielen Dank thanks a lot


















U

V


ausdruecke.doc
12
Deutsch Englisch Deutsch Englisch
Was ist los? Whats up?
Wie geht es dir? How are you?

X

Deutsch Englisch



Y

Deutsch Englisch











W

Z


Beim Arzt
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2012
1
Allgemeine Begriffe
general terms

Deutsch Englisch
Anmeldung (f) | +en registration
Arzt (m) | +e do!tor
As"irin | # as"irin
$es!h%erde (f) | +n "ain&dis!omfort
'iagnose (f) | +n diagnosis
(ran)en)arte (f) | +n health insuran!e !ard
(ran)en)asse (f) | +n health insuran!e
(ran)heit (f) | +n illness
*edi)ament (n) | +e medi!ament
*edizin (f) | # medi!ine
+ra,isge-.hr (f) | +en medi!al !harge&fee
/eze"t (n) | +e "res!ri"tion
0"re!hstunde (f) | +n !onsultation hour
01m"tom (n) | +e s1m"tom
Ta-lette (f) | +n ta-let
Termin (m) | +e a""ointment
2ntersu!hung (f) | +en "h1si!al e,amination& !he!)u"
3-er%eisung (f) | +en -an) transfer
%ehtun hurts

Organe
organs

Deutsch Englisch
$lase (f) | +n -ladder
'arm (m) | +e intestine
4e-5rmutter (f) | %om- & uterus
4ehirn (n) | +e -rain
Herz (n) | +en heart
Beim Arzt
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2012
2
Deutsch Englisch
6e-er (f) | +n li7er
6unge (f) | +n lung
*agen (m) | stoma!h
*ilz (f) | +en s"leen
8iere (f) | +n )idne1
0"eiserhre (f) | +n eso"hagus

Krankheiten
illnesses
Deutsch Englisch
$au!hs!hmerz (m) | +en stoma!h a!he
$ru!h (m) | +e fra!ture
'ur!hfall (m) | +e diarrhea
9r)5ltung (f) | +en !ommon !old
:ie-er (n) | same fe7er
4ri""e (f) | +n flue
Halss!hmerz (m) | +en sore throat
Herzanfall (m) | +e heart atta!)
Husten (m) | # !ough
(o"fs!hmerz (m) | +en heada!he
0!hlaganfall (m) | +e stro)e
0!hmerz (m) | +en "ain
0!hnu"fen (m) | same !old
;erletzung (f) | +en in<ur1
=unde (f) | +n %und


Computer
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
Substantive
nouns

Deutsch Englisch
Anbieter (m) | same provier
Arbeitsspei!her (m) | " #A$ (memor%)
&etriebss%stem (n) | 'e operation s%stem (e()( *ino+s)
&ils!hirm (m) | 'e monitor , s!reen
-."#/$ (f) | 's !"rom
-ursor (m) | 's !ursor
.aten (pl) | " ata
.is0ette (f) | 'n flopp% is0
.ru!0er (m) | same printer
1"$ail (f) | 's e"mail
2estplatte (f) | 'n har is0
Har+are (f) | " har+are
Homepa)e (f) | s homepa)e
3nternet (n) | " internet
4abel (n) | same !or
4opfhrer (m) | same hea set
5aptop (n,m) | 's laptop
5auf+er0 (n) | 'e rive
5autspre!her (m) | same lousspea0er
5a%out (n) | 's la%out
$ailbo6 (f) | 'en mailbo6
$aus (f) | 7 'e mouse
$auspa (n) | 's mouse pa
$i0rofon (n) | 'e mi!rophone
$oem (n) | s moem
8ro)ramm (n) | 'e pro)ram
9!anner (m) | s s!anner
9oft+are (f) | " soft+are
Computer
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Tastatur (f) | 'en 0e%boar
*eb!am (f) | 's +eb !am


Verben
verbs

Deutsch Englisch
!hatten to !hat
surfen to surf
mailen to mail
0opieren to !op%
ls!hen to elete
vers!hieben to move
auss!hneien to !ut out
ausf:hren to e6e!ute

Deklination der Substantive
Theorie

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learning target

Aim of this section is to learn the correct use of noun endings.
German English
Die Farbe des Hauses gefllt mir sehr gut.
Das Auto des Nachbarn ist nagelneu.
Sie geben den Kindern neue Hoffnung.
I like the color of the house.
The neighbor's car is brand-new.
They give the children new hope.



rules

The 4 noun classes
Like adjektives nouns take different endings according to their gender, case and class.
Fortunately, there are just a few endings to learn.
We distinguish between 4 different noun classes:
strong nouns
weak nouns
mixed nouns
irregular nouns

strong nouns
Strong nouns are all nouns:
in which singular and plural is the same
which form the plural by adding "e"
which form the plural by adding "er"

ending scheme
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative - - - -
genitive +(e)s - +(e)s -
dative - - - +n
accusative - - - -


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Theorie

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examples:
Der Mann kauft ein Buch. (The man buys a book.) [nominative, male, singular]
Die Frau des Mannes ist rztin. (The husband's wife is a doctor.) [genitive, male, singular]
Das Kind isst ein Eis. (The child eats ice cream.) [nominative, neuter, singluar]
Das Spielzeug des Kindes ist kaputt. (The child's toy is damaged.) [genitive, neuter, singular]
Die Mnner bauen ein Haus. (The men are building a house.) [nominative, plural]
Ich bringe den Mnnern etwas zu essen. (I bring something to eat to the men.) [dative, plural]

ending "s" or "es"?
Strong male/neuter nouns have either a "s" or "es" as ending in the gentive case:
Nouns with 1 syllable and all nouns which end with s, , z, x, t or d: add "es"
All other nouns with more than one syllable: add "s"

examples:
der Mann (one syllable) => des Mannes
das Bad (one syllable, ends with d) => des Bades
das Gesetz (two syllables, ends with z) => des Gesetzes
der Vater (two syllables) => des Vaters
der Fernseher (three syllables) => des Fernsehers

behaviour of loan words
Some loan words from other languages are a kind of subclass of the strong nouns.
To this group belong all nouns which form the plural by adding "s".
They behave in the singluar like "normal" strong verbs but don't get an additional "n" in the dative plural.
example ending scheme:
case singular plural
nominative das Auto die Autos
genitive des Autos der Autos
dative dem Auto den Autos
accusative das Auto die Autos






Deklination der Substantive
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other loan words:
der Park
(the park)
das Kino
(the cinema)
das Taxi
(the taxi)
der Krimi
(the crime story)
der Onkel
(the uncle)
das Radio
(the radio)
der Job
(the job)
das Auto
(the car)
das Caf
(the caf)



weak nouns
Weak nouns are:
almost all female nouns
all male nouns which form the plural by adding (e)n (see below for more details)
neuter weak nouns don't exist

ending scheme
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative - - - -
genitive +(e)n - - -
dative +(e)n - - -
accusative +(e)n - - -

The declination of weak nouns is also called n-declination
since you have to add (e)n to the male nouns in all cases except from nominative.
examples:
Der Junge geht in die Schule. (The boy goes to school.) [nominative, male, singular]
Ich kenne die Mutter des Jungen. (I know the boy's mother.) [genitive, male, singular]
Ich gebe dem Jungen ein Buch. (I give a book to the boy.) [dative, male, singular]
Sie begrt den Jungen. (She welcomes the boy.) [accusative, male, singular]









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Which male nouns are weak?
Male nouns which end with "e".
These are mostly male living beings.
examples:
der Junge
(the boy)
der Neffe
(the nephew)
der Verwandte
(the relative)
der Lwe
(the lion)
der Affe
(the monkey)
der Hase
(the rabbit)
der Kunde
(the customer)
der Kollege
(the colleague)
der Fremde
(the stranger)
der Beamte
(the clerk)
der Erwachsene
(the adult)
der Verlobte
(the fianc)
der Riese
(the giant)
der Drache
(the dragon)
der Gatte
(the spouse)
der Heilige
(the saint)
der Zeuge
(the witness)
der Schtige
(the addict)
der Erbe
(the inheritor)
der Bube
(the jack)
der Rivale
(the contender)

exception:
der Kse
(the cheese)

Male nouns which used to end with "e".
examples:
der Held
(the hero)
der Mensch
(the human)
der Nachbar
(the neighbor)
der Graf
(the count)
der Frst
(the ruler)
der Prinz
(the prince)
der Geck
(the fop)
der Bauer
(the farmer)
der Br
(the bear)
der Fink
(the finch)
der Spatz
(the sparrow)
der Ochs
(the ox)
der Narr
(the fool)
der Tor
(the sap)
der Hirt
(the herdsman)
Deklination der Substantive
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Male nouns from Greek or other foreign languages
The following endings are indicator for these words:
-ant
-ent
-ist
-oge

examples:
der Student
(the student)
der Tourist
(the tourist)
der Polizist
(the police officer)
der Soldat
(the soldier)
der Prsident
(the president)
der Agent
(the agent)
der Architekt
(the architect)
der Elephant
(the elephant)
der Patient
(the patient)
der Assistent
(the assistant)
der Lieferant
(the deliveryman)
der Terrorist
(the terrorist)
der Diplomat
(the diplomat)
der Dozent
(the lecturer)
der Paragraph
(the paragraph)
der Philosoph
(the philosopher)
der Christ
(the Christ)
der Kamerad
(the companion)

some nationalities / races and culture names

examples:
der Deutsche
(the German)
der Russe
(the Russian)
der Brite
(the Briton)
der Franzose
(the Frenchman)
der Dne
(the Dane)
der Chinese
(the Chinese)
der Schwede
(the Swede)
der Trke
(the Turk)
der Pole
(the Pole)
der Bayer
(the Bavarian)
der Sachse
(the Saxon)
der Preue
(the Prussian)



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some (technic) terms

examples:
der Automat
(the automat)
der Telegraph
(the telegraph)
der Satellit
(the satellite)
der Planet
(the planet)
der Diamant
(the diamond)
der Komet
(the comet)

der Herr

Der Herr (=Mr) is a little exception since you just have to add "n"
in the genitive, dative and accusative (singular) and not "en" as usually.
case singular plural
nominative der Herr die Herren
genitive des Herrn der Herren
dative dem Herrn den Herren
accusative den Herrn die Herren



mixed nouns
Mixed nouns behave like strong and weak nouns.
They add (e)s in the genitive case of male and neuter nouns (=strong noun behaviour)
but form the plural by adding (e)n (=weak noun behaviour).
ending scheme
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative - - - -
genitive +(e)s - +(e)s -
dative - - - -
accusative - - - -

examples:
Der Professor kann sehr gut erklren. (The professor can explain very well.) [nominative, male,
singular]
Der Name des Professors ist sehr lustig. (The professor's name is very funny.) [genitive, male,
singular]
Die Professoren kommen aus den USA. (The professors come from the USA.) [nominative, plural]
Deklination der Substantive
Theorie

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examples:
der Staat
(the
country)
der Direktor
(the
headmaster)
der Schmerz
(the pain)
der See
(the lake)
der Mast
(the pylon)
der Vetter
(the cousin)

der Motor
(the engine)
das Ohr
(the ear)
das Ende
(the end)
das Drama
(the drama)
das Bett
(the bed)
das Auge
(the eye)



irregular nouns
There are just a few irregular nouns. They form the plural by adding (e)n (=weak noun behaviour)
and add (e)n in genitive, dative and accusative case of male nouns (=weak noun behaviour).
What distigiush them from weak nouns is that they add an additional "s" in the genitive case
and the neuter noun (only one: das Herz) behaves similar.
ending scheme


examples:
Der Name ist lang. (The name is long.) [nominative, male, singular]
Die Aussprache des Namens ist schwierig. (The pronouncation of the name is difficult.) [genitive,
male, singular]
Sie sagt mir den Namen ihres Exfreundes. (She tells me her ex boyfriend's name.) [dative, male,
singular]
Ich kann mir all diese Namen nicht merken. (I can't remember all these names.) [accusative, plural]
Das Herz ist gro. (The heart is big.) [nominative, neuter, singular]
Die Farbe des Herzens ist rot. (The color of the heart is red.) [genitive, neuter, singular]
Sie geben dem Herzen noch ein Jahr. (They give the heart one more year.) [dative, neuter,
singular]
Die Herzen sehen gleich aus. (The hearts look the same.) [nominative, plural]
all irregular nouns:
der Name
(the name)
der Gedanke
(the thought)
der Buchstabe
(the letter)
der Wille
(the will)
der Glaube
(the faith)
der Friede
(the peace)

der Funke
(the spark

das Herz
(the heart)


singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative - - - -
genitive +(e)ns - +(e)ns -
dative +(e)n - +(e)n -
accusative +(e)n - - -
Deklination der Substantive
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summary
The declination of nouns is not as complicate as it might look.
The things, you have to consider, can be summarized with a few keypoints.
Female nouns don't get an additional ending in the singular.
They only have to be considered in the dative plural.
The dative plural always ends with "n" regardless if it's a
strong, weak, mixed or irregular noun.
Either the noun has already the n in the plural form or it gets it from the declination.
You have to keep in mind that most of the nouns (=strong nouns)
take these endings:
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative - - - -
genitive +(e)s - +(e)s -
dative - - - +n
accusative - - - -
... and just a few nouns (=weak nouns) take these endings:
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative - - - -
genitive +(e)n - - -
dative +(e)n - - -
accusative +(e)n - - -

Keep in mind: Weak nouns form the plural always by adding (e)n.
There are three anomalies which have to be considered:
strong nouns which form their plural by adding "s" (no "n" in the dative plural)
Der Herr (add only "n" - not "en" - in genitive, dative and accusative)
the 8 irregular nouns (add an additional "s" in the genitive case)
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative - - - -
genitive +(e)ns - +(e)ns -
dative +(e)n - +(e)n -
accusative +(e)n - - -
Name, Gedanke, Buchstabe, Funke, Wille, Glaube, Friede, Herz

Essen
Vokabeln

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Essen: Obst und Gemse
(food: fruit and vegetables)

Deutsch Englisch
Ananas (die) | same pineapple
Apfel (der) | apple
Banane (die) | +n banana
Birne (die) | +n pear
Bohne (die) | +n bean
Erbse (die) | +n pea
Erdbeere (die) | +n strawberry
Erdnuss (die) | +e peanut
Gemse (das) | no vegetables
Kartoffel (die) | +n potato
Kirsche (die) | +n cherry
Kokosnuss (die) | (3rd) +e coconut
Mhre (die) | +n carrot
Obst (das) | no fruit
Orange (die) | +n orange
Paprikaschote (die) | +n sweet paprika
Pilz (der) | +e mushroom
Salat (der) | +e salad
Tomate (die) | +n tomato
Weintraube (die) | +n grape
Zitrone (die) | +n lemon
Zwiebel (die) | +n onion
Essen: gemischt
(food: mixed)

Deutsch Englisch
Brot (das) | +e bread
Brtchen (das) | same bread roll
Butter (die) | no butter
Ei (das) | +er egg
Eis (das) | no ice cream
Fisch (der) | +e fish
Fleisch (das) | no meat
Hhnchen (das) | same chicken
Kse (der) | same cheese
Kuchen (der) | same cake / pie
Marmelade (die) | +n jam
Nudel (die) | +n noodle
Pizza (die) | Pizzen pizza
Pommes frites (die) | no french fries
Reis (der) | +e rice
Schokolade (die) | +n chocolate
Schinken (der) | same ham
Suppe (die) | +n soup
Toast (der) | +s toast
Wurst (die) | +e sausage

















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Essen: Zutaten
(food: ingredients)

Deutsch Englisch
Essig (der) | +e vinegar
Pfeffer (der) | same pepper
Ketchup (der) | +s ketchup
Knoblauch (der) | +e garlic
Mehl (das) | +e flour
l (das) | +e oil
Salz (das) | +e salt
Senf (der) | +e mustard
Zucker (der) | same suggar
Zwiebel (die) | +n onion
Getrnke
(drinks)

Deutsch Englisch
Bier (das) | +e beer
Cola (die) | +s cola
Kaffee (der) | +s coffee
Kakao (der) | +s hot chocolate
Limonade (die) | +n lemonade
Milch (die) | no milk
Saft (der) | +e juice
Tee (der) | +s tea
Wein (der) | +e wine
Wasser (das) | same water


Some food is not countable or the plural form exists but is hardly used.
To make these things countable (maybe you need 2 or more of them) use the following container and units:
Gefe und Einheiten
(container and units)

Deutsch Englisch use in conection with:
Dose (die) | +n can Bohnen, Erbsen, Ananas, ...
Flasche (die) | +n bottle Bier, Milch, Cola, ...
Glas (das) | +er glass Bier, Milch, Marmelade, ...
Bund (das) | +e bunch Zwiebeln, Knoblauch, Mhren, ...
Packung (die) | +en pack Saft, Milch, Eis, ...
Sack (der) | +e sack Kartoffeln, Reis, Erdnsse, ...
Scheibe (die) | +n slice Brot, Wurst, Toast, ...
Stck (das) | +e piece Zucker, Butter, Kse, Fleisch ...
Tasse (die) | +n cup Kaffee, Milch, Kakao, ...
Tte (die) | +n bag Nudeln, Mehl, Suppe







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learning target

The four cases is one of the most important topics in German grammar but also one of the most difficult ones.
That's why we will spend more time than usual to cover it. When you understood the cases you can handle a lot
of problems like:

"declension" of definite and indefinite articles
German English
Der Mann schreibt einen Brief.
Die Frau gibt dem Kind einen Kuss.
Eine Frau geht ber die Strae.
The man writes a letter.
The woman gives the child a kiss.
A woman crosses the street.

"declension" of personal pronouns
German English
Ich sehe dich.
Ich gebe dir etwas.
Er schickt ihr einen Brief.
I see you.
I give you something.
He sends a letter to her.

"declension" of possessive pronouns
German English
Mein Vater heit Gerhard.
Meine Mutter heit Regina.
Wie heit deine Schwester?
My father's name is Gerhard.
My mother's name is Regina.
What's the name of your sister?

declension of adjectives (adjective endings)
German English
Ich habe eine hbsche Freundin.
Ich kenne diesen bsen Mann.
Schne Strnde gibt es berall.
I've got a pretty girlfriend.
I know this bad man.
Nice beaches are everywhere.

"declension" of "der-words"
German English
Solche Leute lernen es nie.
Welches Glas mchtest du?
Dieses Haus ist sehr gro.
Such people won't never learn it.
Which glas do you want?
This house is very big






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rules

What are the four cases?
1. Fall
Nominativ

2. Fall
Genitiv

3. Fall
Dativ

4. Fall
Akkusativ


What is a case and what do we need it for?
The case (= Fall or Kasus) is a "tool" to explain which purpose has a noun in a sentence and in which relation is
the noun to the other words. The case itself is no word. It's a fictional "thing" to help you to understand which
ending words get or which article / pronoun we have to choose.

I want to test you. What's wrong with the following sentence?
Her gives my a kiss.

The correct sentence has to be: She gives me a kiss.
But why is it "She" and "me"? That's exaxtly the question! "She" is in the nominative case and "I" am in the
dative case.

How can you find out which part of the sentence is in which case?
That's the master question. To answer it I will give you for every single case rules and then we will practise at
first only 2 cases together, later 3 and finally all 4. Let's start!


1. Fall: Nominativ

1.) Every subject is in the nominative case.

What is the subject of a sentence?
The subject is the acting person / thing in a sentence. The subject is "doing" something.
example 1:
Der Mann geht nach Hause. (The man goes home.)
You can ask who does something in the sentence? Who goes home? --> answer: der Mann

example 2:
Eine Frau ksst einen Mann. (A woman kisses a man.)
You can ask who does something in the sentence? Who kisses a man? --> answer: eine Frau

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2.) Every noun or pronoun which follows a form of "be" is in the nominative case.
The noun / pronoun after the "be" is a so-called "predicate complement".

example 1:
Er war ein Doktor. (He was a doctor.)
"Er" and "Doktor" are in the nominative case. "Er" is the subject of the sentence.
"Doktor" follows a form of "be" and is thus a predicate complement.
example 2:
Ich bin ein Student. (I am a student.)
"Ich" and "Student" are in the nominative case. "Ich" is the subject of the sentence.
"Student" follows a form of "be" and is thus a predicate complement.

4. Fall: Akkusativ

1.) The direct object is in the accusative case.

What is the direct object of a sentence?
The direct object is the not-acting person / thing in a sentence. The direct object receives the action of the
verb.
Der Mann ksst die Frau.

The man is doing something. He kisses the woman. So the man is the subject of the sentence (=nominative
case).
The woman is being kissed. She is not acting. So she is the direct object (=accusative case).








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2.) Nouns / pronouns which follow accusative prepositions are in
the accusative case.

Accusative prepositionen
bis (till, to, by)
durch (through)
fr (for)
gegen (against)
ohne (without)
um (around, to, at)
Whenever you see one of these prepositions it must be a signal for you that the following noun / pronoun is in
the accusative case.
example 1:
Ich kann ohne dich nicht leben. (I can't live without you.)
example 2:
Ich kaufe ein Geschenk fr meinen Vater. (I buy a present for my father.)

3.) Nouns / pronouns which follow "two-way" prepositions are either in
the accusative case or the dative case.

"two-way" prepositionen
an (at, on, to)
auf (at, on, to, upon)
hinter (behind)
in (in, into)
neben (beside, near, next to)
ber (about, above, across, over)
unter (under, among)
vor (before, in front of, ago)
zwischen (between)
Your question is surely now how do you find out which of the two cases you have to use. The answer is quite
easy.
When you can ask "Wohin?" (=whereto?) then the object is in the accusative
case. That means you describe a motion towards a destination.

When you can ask "Wo?" (=where?) then the object is in the dative case.
That means you describe a single location or a state of rest.

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examples:
Ich gehe in die Kirche. (I'm going to the church.) ->Whereto do I go? -> to the church (I'm in
motion. -> accusative case)
Ich bin in der Kirche. (I'm in the church.) ->Where am I? -> in the church (I don't move. I'm
staying there. -> dative case)




4.) Most time expressions are in the accusative case.
example 1:
Ich gehe jeden Tag in die Schule. (I go every day to school.)
example 2:
Ich war letzten August auf den Philippinen. (Last August I've been to the Philippines.)

3. Fall: Dativ

1.) The indirect object is in the dative case.

What is the indirect object of a sentence?
The indirect object is the beneficiary of the action in the sentence. Usually it's a person.
You can also say the indirect object is the receiver of the direct object.
Der Mann gibt dem Kind das Buch.

- The man is doing something. He gives a book to the child. So the man is the subject of the sentence
(=nominative case).
- The book is given. It's not acting. So it's the direct object (=accusative case).
- The child benefits from this action. After the action it owns a new book. So the child is the indirect object
(=dative case).

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2.) Nouns / pronouns which follow dative prepositions are in the dative case.

Dative prepositionen
aus (from, out of)
auer (except for, besides)
bei (at, near)
gegenber (across from, opposite)
mit (with, by)
nach (after, to)
seit (since, for)
von (from, by)
zu (at, to)
Whenever you see one of these prepositions it must be a signal for you that the following noun / pronoun is in
the dative case.
example 1:
Ich bleibe bei dir. (I stay with you.)
example 2:
Ich fahre mit dem Auto. (I drive with the car.)

3.) Nouns / pronouns which follow "two-way" prepositions are either in the
accusative case or the dative case.
See accusative case

4.) Nouns / pronouns which follow "dative verbs" are in the dative case.

Dative verbs
group 1 (often used)
antworten (answer)
danken (thank)
einfallen (think of)
erlauben (allow)
fehlen (to be missed)
gefallen (like)
gehren (belong to)
glauben (believe)
gratulieren (congratulate)


helfen (help)
Leid tun (be sorry)
passen (suit)
passieren (happen)
schmecken (taste)
vertrauen (trust)
verzeihen (forgive)
wehtun (hurt)
zuhren (listen to)
zustimmen (agree with)

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group 2 (rarely used)
hneln (resemble)
befehlen (command)
begegnen (encounter)
dienen (serve)
drohen (threaten)
folgen (follow)
gehorchen (obey)
gelingen (succeed)
geraten (turn out well)
gengen (be enough)
geschehen (happen)
gleichen (be like)

glcken (be lucky)
lauschen (overhear)
misslingen (fail)
munden (taste)
ntzen (be of use)
raten (advise)
schaden (harm)
schmeicheln (flatter)
trauen (trust)
widersprechen (contradict)
winken (wave)
zrnen (be angry with)
Whenever you see one of these verbs it must be a signal for you that the following noun / pronoun is in the
dative case.
example 1:
Vertrau mir! (Trust me!)
example 2:
Er antwortet mir nicht. (He doesn't answer me.)

5.) Nouns / pronouns are in the dative case when they are used with certain
adjective and adverb expressions.

adjective and adverb expressions
hnlich (similar)
angenehm (pleasant )
bekannt (familiar )
bse (angry)
dankbar (grateful )
egal (all the same )
gleichgltig (indifferent )
klar (clear )
lstig (bothersome )
lieb (dear )
mglich (possible )
ntzlich (useful )
peinlich (embarrassing )
recht (OK )
unangenehm (unpleasant )
unbegreiflich (incomprehensible )
unbequem (unpleasant )
unerklrlich (unpleasant )
unklar (unclear )
unmglich (impossible )
unntz (impossible )
unverstndlich (incomprehensible )
wichtig (important )



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Because just a form of "be" is the verb in these sentences, only the adjectives/adverbs indicate the dative case.
example 1:
Das ist mir klar. (That's clear to me.)
example 2:
Das ist ihm peinlich. (That's embarrassing for him.)

2. Fall: Genitiv

1.) The genetive case is used when you describe possession / ownership.

example 1:
Der Familienname meiner Freundin ist Pacana. (My girlfriend's family name is Pacana.)
example 2:
Das Kleid der Frau ist schn. (The woman's skirt is nice.)

2.) The genetive case is used when you refer to a part of something else.
In English the "of-genitive" is used for this.

example 1:
Am Anfang des Sommers sehe ich sie wieder. (At the beginning of summer I will see her again.)
example 2:
Das Ende des Films war schlecht. (The end of the film was bad.)

3.) Nouns / pronouns which follow genitive prepositions are in the
genitive case.

Genitive prepositionen
anstatt / statt (instead of)
auerhalb (outside of)
innerhalb (inside of, within)
trotz (in spite of)
whrend (during)
wegen (because of)

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Whenever you see one of these prepositions it must be a signal for you that the following noun / pronoun is in
the genitive case.
example 1:
Trotz der Probleme machen wir weiter. (Despite the problems we carry on.)
example 2:
Whrend des Urlaubs habe ich mich verliebt. (During the holiday I fell in love.)

The "s" - genitive
Like in English there is a way to indicate possessive by adding a "s" to the noun. Be careful, however.
Only if the person, city or country - which "possesses" something - is called by their personal name you are
allowed to use this form of genitive. Furthermore you should consider that you add the "s" without apostrophe.
Der Familienname meiner Freundin ist Pacana. ("standard" genitive | translated word by word: The
family name of my girlfriend is Pacana.)
Cathys Familienname ist Pacana. ("s" - genitive | Cathy's family name is Pacana.)

An alternative way
An alternative way to indicate that something belongs to somebody (possessive) is the "von construct".
The "real" genitive is mostly used in written German. In daily spoken German you will often hear the "von
construct".
Consider that "von" is dative preposition and the following article, pronoun etc.
must be in the dative case and not in the genitive case even though you express possessive.
Der Familienname von Cathy ist Pacana. (translated word by word: The family name of Cathy is
Pacana.)










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Question words
At the end of the theory part I want you to show the way how Germans are taught the 4 cases at school.
We just use some question words to find out which part of the sentence is in which case.
My experience showed me, however, that it's less helpful for foreigners. Nevertheless, I want you to show you
this way.
case question words
Nominativ Wer oder Was? (Who or What?)
Genitive Wessen? (Whose?)
Dative Wem? (to Whom?)
[furthermore: Wo? (Where?) / Woher? (Wherefrom?)]
Akkusativ Wen oder Was? (Whom or What?)
[furthermore: Wohin? (Whereto?)]

example 1:
Der Mann gibt dem Kind das Buch.
Wer oder Was? gibt dem Kind das Buch? answer: der Mann (so "the man" has to be in the
nominative case)
Wem? gibt der Mann das Buch? answer: dem Kind (so "the child" has to be in the dative case)
Wen oder Was? gibt er dem Kind? answer: das Buch (so "the book" has to be in the accusative case)

example 2:
Der Familienname meiner Freundin ist Pacana.
Wessen Familienname ist Pacana? answer: meiner Freundin (so "my girlfriend's" has to be in the
genitive case)
The rest of the sentence "Der Familienname ... ist Pacana" is a classical "predicate complement" (see
nominative case, point 2). It's both in the nominative case.









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tables

The following collection of tables is just an information source for the weeks and months to come.
You don't have to learn them by heart.
"declension" of definite article (der, die, das = the)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative der Mann die Frau das Kind die Familien
genitive des Mannes der Frau des Kindes der Familien
dative dem Mann der Frau dem Kind den Familien
accusative den Mann die Frau das Kind die Familien

As you already noticed not just the article changes. Some nouns get an additional ending as well.
For more details check the topic Deklination der Substantive.

declension" of indefinite article (ein = a, an)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative ein Mann eine Frau ein Kind -
genitive eines Mannes einer Frau eines Kindes -
dative einem Mann einer Frau einem Kind -
accusative einen Mann eine Frau ein Kind -


"declension" of indefinite "article" (kein = no, none)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative kein Mann keine Frau kein Kind keine Kinder
genitive keines Mannes keiner Frau keines Kindes keiner Kinder
dative keinem Mann keiner Frau keinem Kind keinen Kindern
accusative keinen Mann keine Frau kein Kind keine Kinder

Basically, "ein" and "kein" are the same. They've got the same endings. "Kein" is just the negation of "ein".
Regard that "ein" has (of course) no plural form because "ein" describes just one thing of something.









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"declension" of personal pronouns (ich, du, er ... = I, you, he ...)
nominative genitive dative accusative
ich mein(e/er) mir mich
du dein(e/er) dir dich
er sein(e/er) ihm ihn
sie ihr(e/er) ihr sie
es sein(e/er) ihm es
wir unser(e) uns uns
ihr euer(e) euch euch
sie ihr(e/er ihnen sie
Sie Ihr(e/er) Ihnen Sie

For the endings in the genitive case check the following tables: possessive pronouns.

"declension" of possessive pronouns (mein, dein, sein ... = my, your, his ...)

declension" of the possessive pronoun (mein = my)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative mein Mann meine Frau mein Kind meine Kinder
genitive meines Mannes meiner Frau meines Kindes meiner Kinder
dative meinem Mann meiner Frau meinem Kind meinen Kindern
accusative meinen Mann meine Frau mein Kind meine Kinder

"declension" of the possessive pronoun (dein = your, singular)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative dein Mann deine Frau dein Kind deine Kinder
genitive deines Mannes deiner Frau deines Kindes deiner Kinder
dative deinem Mann deiner Frau deinem Kind deinen Kindern
accusative deinen Mann deine Frau dein Kind deine Kinder

"declension" of the possessive pronoun (sein = his)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative sein Mann seine Frau sein Kind seine Kinder
genitive seines Mannes seiner Frau seines Kindes seiner Kinder
dative seinem Mann seiner Frau seinem Kind seinen Kindern
accusative seinen Mann seine Frau sein Kind seine Kinder



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"declension" of the possessive pronoun (ihr = her)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative ihr Mann ihre Frau ihr Kind ihre Kinder
genitive ihres Mannes ihrer Frau ihres Kindes ihrer Kinder
dative ihrem Mann ihrer Frau ihrem Kind ihren Kindern
accusative ihren Mann ihre Frau ihr Kind ihre Kinder

"declension" of the possessive pronoun (unser = our)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative unser Vater unsere Mutter unser Kind unsere Kinder
genitive unseres Vaters unserer Mutter unseres Kindes unserer Kinder
dative unserem Vater unserer Mutter unserem Kind unseren Kindern
accusative unseren Vater unsere Mutter unser Kind unsere Kinder

"declension" of the possessive pronoun (euer = your, plural)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative euer Vater eure Mutter* euer Kind eure Kinder*
genitive eures Vaters* eurer Mutter* eures Kindes* eurer Kinder*
dative eurem Vater* eurer Mutter* eurem Kind* euren Kindern*
accusative euren Vater* eure Mutter* euer Kind eure Kinder*

As you can see all the possessive pronouns have got the same endings. So you have to know just one and you
know all. If you compare it with the "declension" of indifinite article you will see they also have the same
ending. That makes it much easier. Of course there is an exception. The possessive pronoun "euer" (=your,
plural ) sometimes drops the "e" in the middle (marked with a *). Forget this for now.











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declension of adjectives (adjective endings)

declension of adjectives without article
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative guter Mann gute Frau gutes Kind gute Familien
genitive guten Mannes guter Frau guten Kindes guter Familien
dative gutem Mann guter Frau gutem Kind guten Familien
accusative guten Mann gute Frau gutes Kind gute Familien

declension of adjectives with definite article (der, die, das)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative der gute Mann die gute Frau das gute Kind die guten Familien
genitive des guten Mannes der guten Frau des guten Kindes der guten Familien
dative dem guten Mann der guten Frau dem guten Kind den guten Familien
accusative den guten Mann die gute Frau das gute Kind die guten Familien

declension of adjectives with indefinite article (ein)
case Singular Plural
male female neuter -
nominative ein guter Mann eine gute Frau ein gutes Kind -
genitive eines guten Mannes einer guten Frau eines guten Kindes -
dative einem guten Mann einer guten Frau einem guten Kind -
accusative einen guten Mann eine gute Frau ein gutes Kind -

"declension" of "der-words"

"declension" of the pronoun (dies- = this, these)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative dieser Mann diese Frau dieses Kind diese Kinder
genitive dieses Mannes dieser Frau dieses Kindes dieser Kinder
dative diesem Mann dieser Frau diesem Kind diesen Kindern
accusative diesen Mann diese Frau dieses Kind diese Kinder







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"declension" of the pronoun (jen- = that, those)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative jener Mann jene Frau jenes Kind jene Kinder
genitive jenes Mannes jener Frau jenes Kindes jener Kinder
dative jenem Mann jener Frau jenem Kind jenen Kindern
accusative jenen Mann jene Frau jenes Kind jene Kinder

"declension" of the pronoun (welch- = which)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative welcher Mann welche Frau welches Kind welche Kinder
genitive welches Mannes welcher Frau welches Kindes welcher Kinder
dative welchem Mann welcher Frau welchem Kind welchen Kindern
accusative welchen Mann welche Frau welches Kind welche Kinder

"declension" of the pronoun (solch- = such)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative solcher Mann solche Frau solches Kind solche Kinder
genitive solches Mannes solcher Frau solches Kindes solcher Kinder
dative solchem Mann solcher Frau solchem Kind solchen Kindern
accusative solchen Mann solche Frau solches Kind solche Kinder

"declension" of the pronoun (jed- = each, every)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative jeder Mann jede Frau jedes Kind jede Kinder
genitive jedes Mannes jeder Frau jedes Kindes jeder Kinder
dative jedem Mann jeder Frau jedem Kind jeden Kindern
accusative jeden Mann jede Frau jedes Kind jede Kinder

"declension" of the pronoun (manch- = some)
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative mancher Mann manche Frau manches Kind manche Kinder
genitive manches Mannes mancher Frau manches Kindes mancher Kinder
dative manchem Mann mancher Frau manchem Kind manchen Kindern
accusative manchen Mann manche Frau manches Kind manche Kinder

As you can see all "der-words" have got the same ending. If you know one then you know all.
Familienmitglieder
Vokabeln

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1

Verwandtschaft
(relations)

Deutsch Englisch
Bruder (der) brother
Cousin (der) cousin (male)
Cousine (die) cousin (female)
n!el (der) "randson
n!elin (die) "randdau"hter
#rau $ hefrau (die) %ife
&ro'mutter $ (ma (die) "randmother
&ro')ater $ (*a (der) "randfather
+effe (der) ne*he%
+ichte (die) niece
,ann $ hemann (der) husband
,utter (die) mother
(n!el (der) uncle
-ch%a"er (der) brother.in.la%
-ch%/"erin (die) sister.in.la%
-ch%ester (die) sister
-ch%ie"ereltern (die) *arents.in.la%
-ch%ie"ermutter (die) mother.in.la%
-ch%ie"ersohn (der) son.in.la%
-ch%ie"ertochter (die) dau"hter.in.la%
-ch%ie"er)ater (der) father.in.la%
-ohn (der) son
Tante (die) aunt
Tochter (die) dau"hter
0ater (die) father
weitere Begriffe
(further terms)

Deutsch Englisch
ltern (die) *arents
n!el!ind (das) "randchild
#reund (der) male friend $ bo1friend
#reundin (die) female friend $ "irlfriend
&esch%ister (die) brothers and sisters
&ro'eltern (die) "rand*arents
Halbbruder (der) half brother
Halbsch%ester (die) half sister
2ind (das) child
-tiefmutter (die) ste*mother
-tiefsohn (der) ste*son
-tieftochter (die) ste*dau"hter
-tief)ater (der) ste*father
0erlobte (die) fianc3
0erlobte (der) fianc3e
)er%andt related



Fragewrter
Vokabeln


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Deutsch Englisch
Wann? When?
Warum? Why?
Was? What?
Wer? Who?
Weshalb? Why?
Wie? How?
Wieviel? How much / How many?
Wo? Where?
Woher? Where from?
Wohin? Where to?
Wozu? What for?
Wem? Whom?
Wen? Who?
Welcher? Which?
Wessen? Whose?
Wofr? What for?
Wieso? Why?


German Grammar
Die grten Unterschiede


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Die grten Unterschiede zwischen deutscher und englischer Grammatik

preliminary note
Even though German and English are quite similar, at least compared to German<->Cebuano (=Cathy's
language), there are some significant differences. I want to concentrate on these differences which caused
most problems during the first time of Cathy's studies.

No Present Perfect tense in German Grammar
German grammar English grammar
Ich lebe seit 6 Jahren in Kln.
Er wartet seit 12 Uhr auf dich.
Wie lange lernst du schon Deutsch?
I have been living in Cologne for 6 years.
He has been waiting for you since 12am.
How long have you learned German?

There is no tense in German to describe actions which started in the past and have continued on until now.
We just use the present tense (Prsens) instead.

No progressive/continuous form in German Grammar
German grammar English grammar
Ich lese gerade ein Buch.
Ich arbeite gerade an einem neuen Projekt.
Als ich gestern ankam, wartete Cathy auf mich.
I am reading a book.
I am working at a new project.
When I arrived yesterday Cathy was waiting for me.

If you want to describe that somebody is doing something just in this moment you use in English the
continuous form.
You find the progressive form in 5 tenses in English:
present continuous: I'm working.
past continuous: I was working when he entered the room.
present perfect continuous: I have been working very hard for the last 2 months.
past perfect continuous: I had been working very hard before we met last year.
future continuous: I will be working tomorrow afternoon.
Fortunately, there is NO continuous form in German. We put one simple word to express
that we doing something just in this moment: gerade.

Often we even leave out "gerade" (especially in past tenses). You can understand the sentence nevertheless.



German Grammar
Die grten Unterschiede


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no negation with "do" in German
German grammar English grammar
Ich gehe nicht zur Schule.
Sie mochte die Reise nicht.
I don't go to school.
She didn't like the journey.

The negation is one of the points where German is easier and less complicate than English.
To negate a main verb in German we just use nicht (not) instead of using an additional verb (do).
If i didn't knew anything about English grammar I would negate the following statement like this:

statement: I know you. (Ich kenne dich.)
negation: I know you not. (Ich kenne dich nicht.)

What do we need this "do" for?

no "do" for questions in German
German grammar English grammar
Kennst du mich?
Woher kommst du?
Do you know me?
Where do you come from?

Questions is one further point where German is easier and less complicate than English.
To put a question (with a main verb*) you have to use do in English but no addtional verb in German
what makes German much easier.
If i didn't knew anything about English grammar I would translate the following questions like this:

German: Willst du ein Eis?
English: You want ice-cream?

I think everybody would understand the sentence without this additional "do".
So, what do we need it for?

* has exceptions too (to be ...)

biological and grammatical gender is not the same in German
German grammar English grammar
Heute scheint die Sonne.
Ich liebe das Meer.
Der Tag war sehr schn.
The sun is shining today.
I love the ocean.
The day was very nice.


German Grammar
Die grten Unterschiede


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In English the biological and grammatical gender are the same. "Dead things" like in the examples above are all
neutral.
In German, however, a "dead thing" can be male, female or neutral.
I noticed how confusing it is for English native speaker to use person pronouns like er (he) and sie (she) for
dead things
because in English you always have to use "it".
Wo ist der Schlssel? | Er liegt auf dem Tisch.
(Where is the key? It lies on the table.)
Ich mag die Geschichte. | Sie ist sehr schn.
(I like the story. It's very nice.)
Wir findest du den Pullover? | Ich mag ihn.
(How do you find the pullover? I like it.)
dass-sentence vs. dative-construct
German grammar English grammar
Ich will, dass er jetzt geht.
Ich mchte, dass sie meine Freunde kennenlernt.
Mchtest du, dass ich ein paar Bier besorge?
I want him to leave now.
I'd like her to meet my friends.
Do you want me to organize some beer?

This is one of the strangest English grammar construction for me as a German.
It's one of the rare cases where the German version os more logic than the English one.

In German we use a subordinate clause induced by a "dass" to express what we want other people to do.
In English, however, we use the dative case for the subject of the subordinate although the subject has to be in
the nominative case.

A logic translation of the 1st example would be: "I want that he leaves now".

change of word order in subordinate sentences
German grammar English grammar
Sie liest ein Buch.
Weit du, ob sie ein Buch liest?
She reads a book.
Do you know if she reads a book?

In English there is a strict rule for the word order in statements.
S-P-O (subject - predicate - object).
subject ~ noun
predicate ~ verb
object = object

German Grammar
Die grten Unterschiede


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This order doesn't change in subordinate sentences.
In German, however, the verb goes at the very end in subordinate sentences.

I noticed that it's quite difficult to form correct subordinate sentences
because you have to keep in mind the verb until you said all other parts and that can be quite confusing.

(almost) no Wo-/Da-compounds in English
German grammar English grammar
Wir sprechen oft darber.
Ich trume davon.
We speak about it.
I dream about it.

Wo-/Da-compounds doesn't excists in English*. That's why I find it quite difficult to find an appropriate
translation.
It's best just to translate it with "it".

Da-compounds are a kind of personal pronoun for dead things. They consits of "da" and the preposition
which belongs to the verb.

* exceptions are: therefore, thereby, therein, thereout, hereby, herein, here-on-out, whereby, wherein,
wherefore

no ly-endings for adverbs in German
German grammar English grammar
Er ist vorsichtig.
Er fhrt sehr vorsichtig.
He is careful.
He drives very carefully.

short reminder
Adjectives (careful) describe a noun (he).
Adverbs (carefully) describe a verb (drive).

Whereas in English you have to add the additional ending "ly" for adverbs
there is no difference between adjectives and adverbs in German.










German Grammar
Die grten Unterschiede


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illogical negation of must in English
German grammar English grammar
Du musst jetzt gehen.
Du musst nicht gehen.
You must go now.
You need not go.

German grammar English grammar
Du darfst jetzt gehen.
Du darfst nicht gehen.
You may go now.
You must not go.

The verb must (=mssen) belongs to the modal verbs.
Mssen is used to describe that somebody must do someting (=a duty/command).

Must not, however, describes that something is forbidden. You are not allowed to do this.
The translaion of "must not" is thus "nicht drfen" and NOT "nicht mssen".

German is more logical than English in this case.
to be continued ...

If you have suggestions for further big differences feel to send me an e-mail:
thomas_hoefler@gmx.de


Geschlecht der Substantive
Theorie


Thomas Hfler 2005 2014
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learning target

Aim of this section is to learn which noun has got which gender.
noun gender
der Mann
die Frau
das Kind
male
female
neuter


rules

There are 3 different genders in German:
mnnlich (male)
weiblich (female)
schlich (neuter)

Each gender is indicated by an article:
der for male nouns
die for female nouns
das for neuter nouns

Which noun has which gender?
The rule is:
There is no rule or only rules with many exceptions.
I want to give some examples to show that there is no logic behind the gender in German. Let's have a look at
the three words: man, woman and girl.
der Mann (man)-> obviously male
die Frau (woman)-> obviously female
das Mdchen (girl)-> obviously female, but the grammatical gender in German is neuter!
That means the grammatical gender in German has often nothing to do with the biological gender. A second
example is the word ocean in German. We've got three different words to describe it:
der Ozean -> male
die See -> female
das Meer-> neuter
That's why we always learn the article together with the noun. See the article as part of the noun and not as an
extra word.
Nevertheless, I'd like to give you some rules which might help to remember which is the correct gender.


Geschlecht der Substantive
Theorie


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DER - male nouns
1. all days, months and seasons are male
der Montag (Monday)
der Mai (May)
der Winter (winter)
2. occupations and nationalities when you referring to a male person are male
der Arzt (male doctor)
der Student (male student)
der Deutsche (male German)
3. names of cars and trains are male
der ICE (fastest train in Germany)
der Mercedes (famous German car)
der VW (famous German car)
4. male people are usually grammatically male
der Mann (man)
der Junge (boy)
der Bruder (brother)
5. most mountains and lakes are male
der Bodensee (famous German lake)
der Mount Everest (famous mountain between Nepal and China)
der Kilimandscharo (famous mountain in Africa)
6. most nouns ending with -ich, -ig, -ling are male
der Honig (honey)
der Teppich (carpet)
der Schdling (pest)
7. most nouns ending with -el,-en, -er are male
der Wagen (car)
der Lffel (spoon)
der Becher (mug)



Geschlecht der Substantive
Theorie


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DIE - female nouns
1. all nouns ending with -heit, -keit, -schaft, -tt, -ung are female
die Freundschaft (friendship)
die Freiheit (freedom)
die Wohnung (apartment)
2. all nouns ending with -ik, -ade, -age, -enz, -ette, -ine, -ion, -ur are female
die Musik (music)
die Waage (scale)
die Nation (nation)
3. all cardinal numbers are female
die Eins (one)
die Zwei (two)
die Drei (three)
4. female people are usually grammatically female
die Frau (woman)
die Dame (lady)
die Tochter (daughter)
5. most flowers and trees are female
die Rose (rose)
die Orchidee (ordhid)
die Palme (palm)
6. most nouns ending with -ei, -ie, -ive, itis, isse are female
die Polizei (police)
die Linie (line)
die Initiative (initiative)
7. most nouns ending with -e are female
die Ecke (corner)
die Grenze (border)
die Decke (ceiling)





Geschlecht der Substantive
Theorie


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DAS - neuter nouns
1. all nouns ending with -lein, -chen are neuter
das Frulein (miss)
das Mdchen (girl)
das Ktzchen (kitten)
2. all names of hotels, cafs and theaters are neuter
das Hilton (Hilton)
das Gewandhaus (famous German theater)
das Altwerk (pizza restaurant in Nideggen)
3. all colors are neuter
das Blau (blue)
das Rot (red)
das Gelb (yellow)
4. all gerunds (verbs which become nouns) are neuter
das Lesen (reading)
das Schreiben (writing)
das Sehen (seeing)
5. many cities and countries are neuter
das Deutschland (Germany)
das Italien (Italy)
das Kln (Cologne)
6. most nouns ending with -tum, -ment, -um, -ium, -nis are neuter
das Museum (museum)
das Datum (date)
das Verhltnis (relationship)
7. most nouns starting with "Ge" and ending with "e" are neuter
das Gebude (building)
das Gefge (structure)
das Gerede (gossip)


Grammatikbegriffe
Theorie


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
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components of a sentence
term explanation example
Adjektiv (adjective) An "Adjektiv" is a word which describes a noun.
It shows how something or somebody is.
Das Mdchen ist nett.
Adverb (adverb) An "Adverb" is a word which describes a verb.
It shows how something is done.
Der Junge geht schnell.
Artikel (article) The "Artikel" is a kind of companion of the noun.
It indicates which gender the noun belongs to.

There are two types of articles:
bestimmter Artikel (definite article): der, die, das - is used if you refer to a particular person or
thing
unbestimmter Artikel (indefinite article): ein - is used if you refer to a person or thing but don't
exactly specify their identity
das Auto

ein Auto
Konjunktion (conjunction) "Konjunktionen" join together two or more sentences.

There are two types of conjunctions:
nebenordnende Konjunktion (coordinating conjunction): join two independent clauses
unterordnende Konjunktion (subordinating conjunction): join a dependent clause (subordinate
clause) to an independent clause (main clause)

examples: und, oder, aber, ...
examples: dass, weil, als, ...




Grammatikbegriffe
Theorie


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
term explanation example
Objekt (object) The "Objekt" is the not-acting person/thing in a sentence.
There are three types of objects:
Akkusativobjekt (direct object): receives the action done by the subject
Dativobjekt (indirect object): is the "beneficiary" of the action
Prpositionalobjekt (object of a preposition): is connected to the subject by a preposition
Er schickt dem Mdchen einen Brief.
Er schickt dem Mdchen einen Brief.
Er liegt auf dem Sofa.
Partikel (particle) "Partikel" are little helping words we use to emphasis something or make something sound less
demanding,
doch, mal, blo, wohl
Prposition (preposition) "Prpositionen" are small words which connect a noun to another noun, verb or adjective.
The prepostion indicates their relationhip, direction, location or function.
Der Mann lebt in Deutschland.
Pronomen (pronoun) There are several types of pronouns:
Personalpronomen (personal pronoun): replaces a noun or refers back to a noun which was
mentioned before
Possessivpronomen (possessive pronoun): a word that shows to whom something belongs
Demonstrativpronomen (demonstrative pronoun): a word to point out a particular thing or
person
Reflexivpronomen (reflexive pronoun): if subject and object (=here the pronoun) are the
same person the pronoun is called "Reflexivpronomen". It reflects back to the noun.
Relativpronomen (relative pronoun): introduces a relative clause and refers back to the noun
of the main sentence
Fragepronomen (interrogative pronoun): is a question word which is used to ask for a
pronoun
Indefinitpronomen (indefinite pronoun): is a pronoun which refers to somebody or
something in general - not a particular one
examples: ich, du, er/sie/es ...

examples: mein, dein, sein, ...
examples: dieser, jener

examples: mir, mich, dir, dich, sich ...

examples: der, den, welcher, ...

examples: Wer?, Welcher?, Wessen?, ...

examples: jeder, jemand, niemand,

Grammatikbegriffe
Theorie


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
term explanation example
Subjekt (subject) The "Subjekt" is the acting person/thing in a sentence or it is just the subject-matter of the sentence. Ich lese ein Buch.
Cathy ist ein Mdchen.
Substantiv (noun) A "Substantiv" is a person, place, thing, idea or animal.
A noun is (almost) everything what you can touch.
Ich lese ein Buch.
Verb (verb) The "Verb" is the action of the sentence and describes what is done.
Sometimes it discribes the existence or happening of somebody/something.
We distinguish verbs according to different points of view:

according to their typ
Hauptverben (main verbs): can stand alone and make sense without other verbs
Hilfsverben (helping verbs): are used to form tenses, moods and voices
Modalverben (modal verbs): are verbs which modify the maining of the main verb to express
permission, ability, ban, recommendation.
Usually a modal verb doesn't make sense without the main verb.
according to their past forms
starke Verben (strong verbs): are irregular and change mostly their stem vowel in the
"Prteritum" and "Partizip II" form
schwache Verben (weak verbs): are regular and their past forms follow a rule
gemischte Verben (mixed verbs): behave like strong verbs and weak verbs

according to their prefix
trennbare Verben (separable verbs): the prefix spilts up in certain situations
untrennbare Verben (inseparable verbs): the prefix never splits up from the stem
Dualverben (dual verbs): are separable or inseparable depending on the meaning
Ich lese ein Buch.
Ich bin ein Mann.
examples: lesen, schreiben, gehen,
examples: haben, sein, werden
examples: knnen, mssen, drfen, ...




example: lesen/las/gelesen

example: kaufen/kaufte/gekauft
example: rennen/rannte/gerannt

example: fernsehen
example: verstehen
example: bersetzen

Grammatikbegriffe
Theorie


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
other important grammar terms
term explanation example
Fall (case) The "Fall" (=Kasus) is a tool to explain the role of a person/thing in a sentence. The case shows in
which relation the person/thing is to the other words. The case itself is no word. It's a fictional
thing which helps to choose e.g. the correct ending of an adjective.

There are four cases in the German language:
Nominativ (nominative) is used for the subject/predicate complement
Genitiv (genitive) is used to express ownership/possession
Dativ (dative) is used for the indirect object
Akkusativ (accusative) is used for the direct object
The role of a noun in a sentence is one indicator for the case.
Other indicators are certain prepositions, verbs and adjectives.

der Mann
des Mannes
dem Mann
den Mann

fr, um, bis,... (accusative prepositions)
mit, nach, von, zu,... (dative prepositions)
wegen, whrend ,... (genitive prepositions)

Genus Verbi (voice) The "Genus Verbi" is a feature of a verb to focus on either the person/thing who does something
(=subject) or the process what is done (verb).

There are two "voices" in the German language:
Aktiv (active voice) is used if the focus is on the subject = It's important who does
something
Passiv (passive voice) is used if the focus is on the verb = It's not important who does
something

Tom schrieb ein Buch (Tom wrote a book.)

Ein Buch wurde geschrieben.
(A book was written.)


Grammatikbegriffe
Theorie


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
term explanation example
Geschlecht (gender) In addition to the natural (biological) gender every noun has got a grammatical gender which
often differs from the biological gender.

There are three gender in the German language:
mnnlich (male) indicated by the definite article der
weiblich (female) indicated by the definite article die
schlich (neuter) indicated by the definite article das
der Mann
die Frau
das Kind
Modus (mood) The "Modus" is a feature of a verb that shows the relationship of a verb with the reality and its
intent.

There are three moods in the German language:
Indikativ (indicative) to speak about everything what really happens
Konjunktiv (subjunctive) to speak about fictional/unreal things
Imperativ (imperative) to make a requestion or give a command
Er ist hier.
Ich wnschte, er wre hier.
Sei um 8.00 Uhr hier!
Numerus (number) The "Numerus" is a term to describe how many persons/things are involed in the action.

There are two forms in the German language:
Singular (singluar) is used for one person/thing
Plural (plural) is used for two or more persons/things

Ich habe ein Auto.
Wir haben zwei Autos.

Grammatikbegriffe
Theorie


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
6
term explanation example
Person (person) The "Person" is a term to describe the point of view in a sentence.

There are three "persons" in the German language:
1. Person (1
st
person) is used when the speaker(s) is the one who does something in
the sentence
2. Person (2
nd
person) is used if the person to whom the sentence is addressed does
something in the sentence
3. Person (3
rd
person) is used when the person you and your counterpart speak about
does something
ich, wir

du, ihr

er/sie/es, sie (pl.)
Zeitform (tense)

The "Zeitform" is a feature of a verb to express when something happens.

There are six tenses in the German language:
Prsens (present) to speak about current events
Prteritum (=Imperfekt) (simple past) to speak about past events
Perfekt (present perfect) to speak about past events
Plusquamperfekt (past perfect) to speak about an event in the past which had
happened before an event in the past
Futur I (future) to speak about future events
Futur II (future perfect) to speak about future events which will be finished by a certain
time in the future
ich sehe (I see)
ich sah (I saw)
ich habe gesehen (I have seen)
ich hatte gesehen (I had seen)

ich werde sehen (I will see)
ich werde gesehen haben (I will have seen)

Grammatikbegriffe
Theorie


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
7
"procedures" in the German grammar
term explanation example
Deklination (declension) The "Deklination" is a procedure we use to change nouns, pronouns and the endinings of
adjectives according to their case, number and gender.

eine schne Frau
einer schnen Frau
Konjugation (conjugation) The "Konjugation" is a procedure we use to change verbs according to their number,
person, mood, tense and voice.

ich gehe
du gehst
er/sie/es geht
...

Steigerung (comparison) The "Steigerung" is a procedure we use to "uplift adjectives on a higher/stronger level".

There are three "levels" of an adjective:
Positiv (positive)
Komparativ (comparative)
Superlativ (superlative)
nett
netter
am nettesten

Im Hotel
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2012
1
Substantive
nouns

Deutsch Englisch
Abreise (f) | +n departure
Anunft (f) | ! +e arri"al
#ad (n) | ! +er bath
#lindenhund (m) | +e $uide do$
%oppeltbett (n) | +en double bed
%oppelt&immer (n) | same double room
%us'he (f) | +n sho(er
)in&el&immer (n) | same sin$le room
)mpfan$sberei'h (m) +e re'eption area
)mpfan$s'hef (m) | +s re'eption 'ler
)ta$e (f) | +n floor
*r+hst+' (n) | +e breafast
*r+hst+'s&eit (f) | +en breafast time
,ast (m) | ! +e $uest
,ep-' (n) | . lu$$a$e
Halbpension (f) | . half.board
Handtu'h (n) | ! +er to(el
/a'ht (f) ! +e ni$ht
/ebensaison (f) | +s lo( season
Ho'hsaison (f) | +s pea season
Hotel (n) | +s hotel
0offer (m) | same ba$
0limaanla$e (f) | +n air 'onditioner
0reditarte (f) | +n 'redit 'ard
1ift (m) | +s lift
2ersonal (n) | . staff
3eises'he' (m) | +s tra"eler4s 'he5ue
3eser"ierun$ (f) | +en reser"ation
3e&eption (f)| +en re'eption
3e&eptionist (m) | +en re'eptionist
6'hl+ssel (m) | same e7
6tern (m) | +e star
Im Hotel
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2012
2
Deutsch Englisch
6to'(er (n) |+e floor
8ollpension (f) | . full.board
9e'ruf (m) | +e (ae.up.'all
:immer (n) | same room
:immerm-d'hen (n) | same maid
:immerser"i'e (m) | . room ser"i'e

Verbs / Adjektive
"erbs ; ad<e'ti"es

Deutsch Englisch
aus$ebu'ht full7 booed
an$enehm 'omfortable
aus'he'en to 'he' out
ausstatten to arran$e
behinderten$ere'ht disabilit7 adapted
bele$t o''upied
bu'hen to boo
ein'he'en to 'he' in
empfehlen re'ommend
empfehlens(ert re'ommendable
passend 'on"enient
reser"ieren to boo

Im Restaurant
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

ntzliche Substantive
(useful nouns)

Deutsch Englisch
Abendessen (das) | no dinner
Beilage (die) | +n side dish
Flasche (die) | +n bottle
Frhstck (das) | no breakfast
Gabel (die) | +n fork
Glas (das) | +er glass
Gericht (das) | +e meal
Hauptgang (der) | (3rd) +e
also: Hauptgericht
main course
Kellner (der) | same waiter
Kellnerin (die) | +nen waitress
Lffel (der) | same spoon
Messer (das) | same knife
Mittagessen (das) | no lunch
Nachspeise (die) | +n dessert
Rechnung (die) | +en bill
Restaurant (das) | +s restaurant
Speisekarte (die) | +n
or short: Karte
menu
Stck (das) | +e piece
Tasse (die) | +n cup
Teller (der) | same plate
Tisch (der) | +e table
Trinkgeld (das) | +er tip
Vorspeise (die) | +n starter / appetizer
ntzliche Verben
(useful verbs)

Deutsch Englisch
beschweren complain
bestellen order
bezahlen pay
essen eat
schmecken taste
trinken drink
warten wait


ntzliche Adjektive
(useful adjectives)

Deutsch Englisch
hei hot
kalt cold
lecker delicious
scharf spicy / hot
s sweet
trocken dry










Im Restaurant
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
ntzliche Ausdrcke
(useful expressions)

Deutsch Englisch
What the guest could say
Wir mchten einen Tisch fr 2 Personen. We'd like to have a table for two.
Die Speisekarte, bitte. The menu, please.
Ich bin satt. I'm full.
Ich bin hungrig. I'm hungry.
Ich mchte... (Reis und Fisch). I'd like ... (rice and fish).
Ich htte gern... (Reis und Fisch). I'd like ... (rice and fish).
Ich nehme... (Reis und Fisch). I'll take ... (rice and fish).
Ich bin satt. I'm full.
Ich mchte bezahlen. I'd like to pay.
Wo ist die Toilette? Where is the restroom?
What the waiter could say
Mchten Sie etwas trinken? Would you like something to drink?
Was mchten Sie essen? What would you like to eat?
Was darf es sein? What would you like?
Bitte schn! / Hier bitte! Here you go!
Hat es Ihnen geschmeckt? Did you enjoy your meal?
Haben Sie noch einen Wunsch? Do you have another wish?
Guten Appetit! Enjoy your meal!




















Imperativ
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn how to ask somebody for something to warn somebody to make a re!"est to
gi#e somebody an ad#ice instr"ctions or a command$
Deutsch Englisch
fa#o"r
warning
ad#ice
re!"est
instr"ctions
command
%itte schreib mir$
Iss das nicht&
Frag lieber noch mal$
Geben 'ie mir bitte das (orm"lar$
Nehmen 'ie )eden Tag *wei Tabletten$
Hren 'ie zu&
+lease write to me$
,on-t eat that&
.o"-d better ask again$
Give me the form /lease$
Take two /ills a day$
Listen to me&


rules

.o" can address yo"r re!"est s"ggestion command and so on to three different 0/eo/le01
u 2single /erson3 informal way4
!ie 2single /erson or se#eral /eo/le3 formal way4
ihr 2se#eral /eo/le3 informal way4
Imperative "orm "or #u#
1$4 5"st "se the con)"gated form of the #erb for 0d"0 witho"t the ending 0st0$
machen 2infiniti#e4 67 d" machst 67 mach& 2im/erati#e4
Lern flei8ig$ 29earn diligently$4
$omm mit$ 2:ome with me$4
!ag mal$ 2Tell me$4

2$4 ;erbs in which the stem ends with 0t0 0d0 0ig0 0chn0 0dn0 0bn0 0fn0 0gn0 0dm0 or 0tm0re!"ire an
additional 0e0 after the stem$
%rbeite schneller& 2<ork faster&4
&arte bitte$ 2+lease wait$4
Entschulige dich& 2A/ologise&4

=$4 ;erbs which end with 0ern0 or 0eln0 re!"ire also an additional 0e0 after the stem$
Erinnere dich& 2>emeber&4
'erbessere deine 9eist"ng$ 2?m/ro#e yo"r /erformance&4
L(chle & 2'mile&4


Imperativ
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
@$4 ;owel changing #erbs with 0e 67 i0 and 0e 67 ie0 kee/ the #owel change in the im/erati#e form3 #owel
changing #erbs with 0a 67 A0 don-t$ Here the 0a0 doesn-t change to 0A0$
!prich bitte langsam$ 2'/eak slowly /lease$4
'ergiss das nicht& 2,on-t forget this&4
!chla" schn$ 2'lee/ well$4

5$4 (or se/arable #erbs a//ly the same r"les yo" learned already in section BTrennbare ;erbenC$
s/lit "/ the /refiD from the #erb
bring the #erb into the im/erati#e form
/"t the /refiD at the end of the sentence
!teh bitte au"$ 2'tand "/ /lease$4
)u" mich an*$ 2:all me&4
Hr mir zu*$ 29isten to me&4

Imperative "orm "or #!ie#
5"st "se the infiniti#e from of the #erb$
!prechen 'ie bitte langsam$ 2'/eak slowly /lease$4
&arten 'ie& 2<ait&4
Nehmen 'ie mein %"ch$ 2Take my book$4
:onsider that the im/erati#e form for 0'ie0 always incl"des the /rono"n 0'ie0 and is always /laces after the
#erb$

Imperative "orm "or #ihr#
5"st "se the con)"gated form of the #erb for 0ihr0$
!precht bitte langsam$ 2'/eak slowly /lease$4
%ntwortet & 2Answer&4
$ommt *" mir$ 2:ome to me$4

How to sa+ #be something#,
The #erb 0be0 has its own r"les$ ?f yo" want to eD/ress that somebody sho"ld be /"nct"al honest and so on
"se these eD/ressions1
person "orm o" #be#
d" !ei ehrlich& 2%e honest&4
'ie !eien 'ie ehrlich& 2%e honest&4
ihr !ei ehrlich& 2%e honest&4
wir E !eien wir ehrlich& 29et "s be honest&4
E :onsider that yo" can also gi#e this ad#ice to a gro"/ which incl"des yo"rself$
Imperativ
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
=
How to make a comman soun less impolite - strong - boss+,
?f yo" say to somebody1 &arte* to make himFher wait for yo" then this so"nds #ery bossy$ ?f yo" )"st add a
0filling6word0 yo" can make yo"r statement m"ch more /olite$ Gf co"rse adding 0%itte0 to yo"r statement
always so"nds more /olite$
"illing wor How to say 0wait for me0
in a /olite wayH
mal <arte mal& 2wait for me&4
doch <arte och& 2wait for me&4
bitte <arte bitte & 2+lease wait&4


e.amples

In"initiv #u# #!ie# #ihr# Englisch
0be0 0ha#e0 and 0will0
sein sei seien 'ie seid be
haben hab haben 'ie habt ha#e
weren werde werden 'ie werdet will
eDam/les for /oint 11 standard #erbs
atmen atme atmen 'ie atmet breathe
beginnen beginn beginnen 'ie beginnt begin
bleiben bleib bleiben 'ie bleibt stay
bringen bring bringen 'ie bringt bring
r/cken drIck drIcken 'ie drIckt h"g F /"sh
enken denk denken 'ie denkt think
"ragen frag fragen 'ie fragt ask
gehen geh gehen 'ie geht go
kommen komm kommen 'ie kommt come
k/ssen kIss kIssen 'ie kIsst kiss
lernen lern lernen 'ie lernt learn
l/gen lIg lIgen 'ie lIgt lie
nehmen nimm nehmen 'ie nehmt take
rechnen rechne rechnen 'ie rechnet calc"late
ru"en r"f r"fen 'ie r"ft call
sagen sag sagen 'ie sagt say
schlie0en schlie8 schlie8en 'ie schlie8t close
schreiben schreib schreiben 'ie schreibt write
singen sing singen 'ie singt sing
sitzen sit* sit*en 'ie sit*t sit
stehen steh stehen 'ie steht stand
/bersetzen Iberset* Iberset*en 'ie Iberset*t translate
/berzeugen Iber*e"gen Iber*e"gen 'ie Iber*e"gt con#ince
Imperativ
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
@

eDam/les for /oint 21 #erbs in which the stem ends with 0t0 0d0 0ig0 $$$
antworten antworte antworten 'ie antwortet answer
beleiigen beleidige beleidigen 'ie beleidigt offend
entscheien entscheide entscheiden 'ie entscheidet decide
entschuligen entsch"ldige entsch"ldigen 'ie entsch"ldigt a/ologise
"inen finde finden 'ie findet find
halten halt halten 'ie haltet hold
""nen ffne ffnen 'ie ffnet o/en
treten tritt treten 'ie tretet ste/
warten warte warten 'ie wartet wait
eDam/les for /oint =1 #erbs which end with 0ern0 or 0eln0
(rgern Argere Argern 'ie Argert get angry
erinnern erinnerne erinnern 'ie erinnert remember
haneln handele handeln 'ie handelt act F trade
l(cheln lAchle lAcheln 'ie lAchelt smile
verbessern #erbessere #erbessern 'ie #erbessert im/ro#e
zwei"eln *weifele *weifeln 'ie *weifelt do"bt
eDam/les for /oint @1 #owel changing #erbs 2e 67 i3 e 67 ie4
essen iss essen 'ie esst eat
geben gib geben 'ie gebt gi#e
hel"en hilf helfen 'ie helft hel/
lesen lies lesen 'ie lest read
sehen sieh sehen 'ie seht see
sprechen s/rich s/rechen 'ie s/recht s/eak
vergessen #ergiss #ergessen 'ie #ergesst forget
versprechen #ers/rich #ers/rechen 'ie #ers/recht /romise
eDam/les for /oint @1 no #owel change 2a4
"ahren fahr fahren 'ie fahrt dri#e
lassen lass lassen 'ie lasst let
raten rate raten 'ie ratet g"ess
schla"en schlaf schlafen 'ie schlaft slee/
tragen trag tragen 'ie tragt carry
waschen wasch waschen 'ie wascht wash
eDam/les for /oint 51 se/arable #erbs
anru"en r"f an r"fen 'ie an r"ft an call 2/hone4
an"angen fang an fangen 'ie an fangt an start
au"wachen wach a"f wachen 'ie a"f wacht a"f wake "/
herkommen komm her kommen 'ie her kommt her come here
mitbringen bring mit bringen 'ie mit bringt mit bring along
mitkommen komm mit kommen 'ie mit kommmt *" come along
zugeben gib *" geben 'ie *" gebt *" admit
E #erbs which are an eDce/tion of the r"le are "nderlined
Indirekte Rede
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn how to say / to report what somebody else said before.
German English
Er sagte, er habe keine Zeit.
Sie meinte, sie sei nach Berlin gefahren.
Du hast allen erzhlt, ich htte im Lotto gewonnen.
He said he had no time.
She said she had gone to Berlin.
You told everybody I had won in the lottery.



rules

What's the difference between direkte Rede (direct speech) and indirekte Rede (reported speech)?
Direkte Rede is the word by word repetition. The quoted words have to be in quotation marks.

Indirekte Rede is an indirect way of repeating what somebody said.
Usually we don't use the indicative mood for this but the subjuctive mood, more precisely Konjunktiv I.

Using Konjunktiv I allows us to dissociate from the statement. This is for important for example for journalists
who can't and don't want to guarantee for the truth of the statement or don't want to make any judgement.
example:
Direkte Rede

Indirekte Rede



Let's analyse the example a bit more in detail.
Joy is using the indicative mood in her statment: Ich habe ...
In the direct speech Kristine reports what Joy said by using the indicative mood as well: Joy sagte, "ich habe
..."
In the indirect speech Kristine reports what Joy said by using the subjuctive mood - Konjunktiv I: Joy sagte, sie
habe ... (not: sie hat).

Indirekte Rede
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
The two possibilities of repeating a statement
There are always two ways to repeat a statement.
Either the second sentence is a main sentence as show above or a subordinate sentence which starts with
"dass".
statement
reported speech
with a "dass"-sentence
reported speech
with a main sentence
Joy: Ich habe einen neuen Job. Joy sagte, dass sie einen neuen Job habe. Joy sagte, sie habe einen neuen Job.
Tina: Ich bin eine Studentin. Tina sagte, dass sie eine Studentin sei. Tina sagte, sie sei eine Studentin.
Andre: Ich gehe ins Bett. Andre sagte, dass er ins Bett gehe. Andre sagte, er gehe ins Bett.

As you see the word order follows the rules we spoke already about in the topic Satzstellung.
In main sentences the main verb is at the second position and in subordinate sentences at the end.

How do you form the Konjunktiv I?
Prsens
To form the Konjunktiv I in the present tense:
take the stem of the verb and add the endings according to the following scheme:

person ending example
(haben = to have)
ich stem + e habe
du stem + est habest
er / sie / es stem + e habe
wir "infinitive" haben
ihr stem + et habet
sie "infinitive" haben

As you can see in the table below there is no difference between the indicative
and the subjunctive mood - Konjunktiv I of the ich-, sie- (plural) and wir-form.
The du- and the ihr-form is different from the indicative mood
but this forms are (almost) never used in spoken German and therefor you can forget them.
The questions is: What do you use if there is no difference between indicative and subjunctive mood or the
correct form sounds odd?
The simple answer is, use the Konjunktiv II instead.

Indirekte Rede
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
person indicative Konjunktiv I Konjunktiv II
ich habe habe -> no difference --> use --> htte
du hast habest -> sounds odd --> use --> httest
er/sie/es hat habe -> OK htte
wir haben haben -> no difference --> use --> htten
ihr habt habet -> sounds odd --> use --> httet
sie haben haben -> no difference --> use --> htten

examples
Cathy sagte, ich habe htte keine Zeit fr sie.
(Cathy said I had no time for her.)
Cathy sagte, du habest httest keine Zeit fr sie.
(Cathy said you had no time for her.)
Cathy sagte, er habe keine Zeit fr sie.
(Cathy said he had no time for her.)
Cathy sagte, wir haben htten keine Zeit fr sie.
(Cathy said we had no time for her.)
Cathy sagte, ihr habet httet keine Zeit fr sie.
(Cathy said you had no time for her.)
Cathy sagte, sie (pl.) haben htten keine Zeit fr sie.
(Cathy said they had no time for her.)
These rules have a nice side-effect. The only thing you have to keep in mind
is the er/sie/es-form of Konjunktiv I and you can forget the rest.
exception
The only verb we use the Konjunktiv I for all persons is "sein".
person indicative Konjunktiv I Konjunktiv II
ich bin sei -> OK wre
du bist seist -> OK wrest
er/sie/es ist sei -> OK wre
wir sind seien -> OK wren
ihr seid seiet -> OK wret
sie sind seien -> OK wren

Indirekte Rede
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
Perfekt
To form the Konjunktiv I in the perfekt tense:
use the Konjunktiv I of the helping verb (haben or sein)
use the Partizip II-form of the main verb as usual

example
main verb: lernen
helping verb: haben
person indicative Konjunktiv I Konjunktiv II
ich habe gelernt habe gelernt -> no difference --> use --> htte gelernt
du hast gelernt habest gelernt -> sounds odd --> use --> httest gelernt
er/sie/es hat gelernt habe gelernt -> OK htte gelernt
wir haben gelernt haben gelernt -> no difference --> use --> htten gelernt
ihr habt gelernt habet gelernt -> sounds odd --> use --> httet gelernt
sie haben gelernt haben gelernt -> no difference --> use --> htten gelernt

Cathy sagte, ich habe htte viel gelernt.
(Cathy said I had learned much.)
Cathy sagte, du habest httest viel gelernt.
(Cathy said you had learned much.)
Cathy sagte, er habe viel gelernt.
(Cathy said he had learned much.)
Cathy sagte, wir haben htten viel gelernt.
(Cathy said we had learned much.)
Cathy sagte, ihr habet httet viel gelernt.
(Cathy said you had learned much.)
Cathy sagte, sie (pl.) haben htten viel gelernt.
(Cathy said they had learned much.)






Indirekte Rede
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
Prteritum and Plusquamperfekt
There is no subjuctive mood form for the tenses Prteritum and Plusquamperfekt.
If you want to report a Prteritum or Plusquamperfekt sentesence you have to it in the same way u did it for
the Perfekt tense.
example 1
Perfekt: "Cathy hat viel gelernt." (indicative) --> Tom sagte, Cathy habe viel gelernt. (Konjunktiv
I)
Prteritum: "Cathy lernte viel." (indicative) --> Tom sagte, Cathy habe viel gelernt. (Konjunktiv I)
Plusquamperfekt: "Cathy hatte viel gelernt." (indicative) --> Tom sagte, Cathy habe viel gelernt.
(Konjunktiv I)
example 2
Perfekt: "Cathy ist schnell gelaufen." (indicative) --> Tom sagte, Cathy sei schnell gelaufen.
(Konjunktiv I)
Prteritum: "Cathy lief schnell." (indicative) --> Tom sagte, Cathy sei schnell gelaufen. (Konjunktiv
I)
Plusquamperfekt: "Cathy war schnell gelaufen." (indicative) --> Tom sagte, Cathy sei schnell
gelaufen. (Konjunktiv I)
Zukunft (Futur I)
To form the Konjunktiv I in the future tense:
use the Konjunktiv I of werden
use the infinitive of the main verb as usual

example
main verb: schreiben
helping verb: werden
person indicative Konjunktiv I Konjunktiv II
ich werde schreiben werde schreiben -> no difference --> use --> wrde schreiben *
du wirst schreiben werdest schreiben -> sounds odd --> use --> wrdest schreiben *
er/sie/es wird schreiben werde schreiben -> OK wrde schreiben *
wir werden schreiben werden schreiben -> no difference --> use --> wrden schreiben *
ihr werdet schreiben werdet schreiben -> sounds odd --> use --> wrdet schreiben *
sie werden schreiben werden schreiben -> no difference --> use --> wrden schreiben *
Indirekte Rede
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
6
* This is not the "real" Konjunktiv II of schreiben. For ich it would be "ich schriebe".
As I explained already in the topic Konjunktiv we hardly use the "real" Konjunktiv II".
For almost all verbs we use the "wrden-Konjunktiv II" instead.

Cathy sagte, ich werde wrde eines Tages ein Buch schreiben.
(Cathy said I would write a book one day.)
Cathy sagte, du werdest wrdest eines Tages ein Buch schreiben.
(Cathy said you would write a book one day.)
Cathy sagte, er werde eines Tages ein Buch schreiben.
(Cathy said he would write a book one day.)
Cathy sagte, wir werden wrden eines Tages ein Buch schreiben.
(Cathy said we would write a book one day.)
Cathy sagte, ihr werdet wrdet eines Tages ein Buch schreiben.
(Cathy said you would write a book one day.)
Cathy sagte, sie (pl.) werden wrden eines Tages ein Buch schreiben.
(Cathy said they would write a book one day.)

Modalverben
To repeat a sentence containing a modal verb:
use the Konjunktiv I of the modal verb
use the infinitive of the main verb as usual

example
main verb: gehen
modal verb: mssen
person indicative Konjunktiv I Konjunktiv II
ich muss gehen msse gehen -> OK msste gehen
du musst gehen mssest gehen -> sounds odd --> use --> msstest gehen
er/sie/es muss gehen msse gehen -> OK msste gehen
wir mssen gehen mssen gehen -> no difference --> use --> mssten gehen
ihr msst gehen msset gehen -> sounds odd --> use --> msstet gehen
sie mssen gehen mssen gehen -> no difference --> use --> mssten gehen
Indirekte Rede
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
7
All modal verbs
As you can see we only need the ich- and er/sie/es-form and they are the same.
modal verb Konjunktiv I (ich - form) Konjunktiv I (er/sie/es - form)
mssen msse msse
wollen wolle wolle
sollen solle solle
knnen knne knne
drfen drfe drfe
mgen mge mge


Questions
Direkte Rede

Indirekte Rede



There are two types of questions we can repeat:
decision-questions --> requires yes or no as answer
W-questions (with questions words like Wer, Was, Warum ...) --> requires a "real" answer
examples for decision-questions
indicative sentence: "Ist Ihre Frau krank?" --> indirect speech: Er frage mich, ob meine Frau krank
sei.
indicative sentence: "Haben Sie den Film gesehen?" --> indirect speech: Er frage mich, ob ich den
Film gesehen htte.
indicative sentence: "Knnen Sie morgen kommen?" --> indirect speech: Er frage mich, ob ich
morgen kommen knne.
Indirekte Rede
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
8
Repeating a decision-question:
we use "ob" to introduce the 2nd sentence (Nebensatz)
we transform the helping, modal and main verbs as shown in statements

examples for W-questions
indicative sentence: "Wann haben Sie Zeit?" --> indirect speech: Er frage mich, wann ich Zeit htte.
indicative sentence: "Warum sind Sie hier?" --> indirect speech: Er frage mich, warum ich dort sei.
indicative sentence: "Wer kann diesen LKW fahren?" --> indirect speech: Er frage mich, wer diesen
LKW fahren knne.
Repeating a W-question:
we use the question word (W-word) to introduce the 2nd sentence (Nebensatz)
we transform the helping, modal and main verbs as shown in statements

hint
Consider that you don't put a question mark in the reported speech of questions!

Imperative
There is no direct way of transforming an indicative imperative sentence into an subjuctive imperative
sentence.
If we want to report a command / request, somebody else made, we use two "substitute verbs": sollen or
mgen.
Sollen is used to repeat strict commands or requests.
Mgen is used ro repeat a polite asking or request.
example 1
Direkte Rede

Indirekte Rede


Indirekte Rede
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
9

To repeat an imprative sentence
use the Konjunktiv I of the sollen or mgen
use the infinitive of the main verb as usual

example 2
indicative sentence (strict command): Geh raus! (Go out!)
person indicative Konjunktiv I Konjunktiv II
ich soll gehen solle gehen -> OK sollte gehen
du sollst gehen sollest gehen -> sounds odd --> use --> solltest gehen
er/sie/es soll gehen solle gehen -> OK sollte gehen
wir sollen gehen sollen gehen -> no difference --> use --> sollten gehen
ihr sollt gehen sollet gehen -> sounds odd --> use --> solltet gehen
sie sollen gehen sollen gehen -> no difference --> use --> sollten gehen

example 3
indicative sentence (polite request): Hol bitte ein Cola. (Please fetch a cola.)
person indicative Konjunktiv I Konjunktiv II
ich mag holen mge holen --> sounds odd --> use --> mchte holen
du magst holen mgest holen -> sounds odd --> use --> mchtest holen
er/sie/es mag holen mge holen -> OK mchte holen
wir mgen holen mgen holen -> no difference --> use --> mchten holen
ihr mgt holen mget holen -> sounds odd --> use --> mchtet holen
sie mgen holen mgen holen -> no difference --> use --> mchten holen

Introducing verbs
To report what somebody else said we need an introducing sentence like: He said, ...
Here are further verbs you can use.
sagen (to say) --> sagte, sagte, gesagt
meinen (to say / to mean) --> meinen, meinte, gemeint
antworten (to answer) --> antworten, antwortete, geantwortet
erzhlen (to tell) --> erzhlen, erzhlte, erzhlt
erklren (to explain) --> erklren, erklrte, erklrt
Indirekte Rede
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
10
behaupten (to claim) --> behaupten, behauptete, behauptet
versprechen (to promise) --> versprechen, versprach, versprochen
verraten (to tell a secret) --> verraten, verriet, verraten
ankndigen (to announce) --> ankndigen, kndigte an, angekndigt
erwidern (to answer / to reply) --> erwidern, erwiderte, erwidert
erwhnen (to mention) --> erwhnen, erwhnete, erwhnt
hinweisen (to point) --> hinweisen, wies hin, hingewiesen
mitteilen (to inform) --> mitteilen, teilte mit, mitgeteilt
befehlen (to command) --> befehlen, befahl, befohlen
anordnen (to command) --> anordnen, ordnete an, angeordnet
rufen (to call / to shout) --> rufen, rief, gerufen
schreien (to shout) --> schreien, schrie, geschrieen
betonen (to emphasise) --> betonen, betonte, betont
bemerken (to comment) --> bemerken, bemerkte, bemerkt
versichern (to assure) --> versichern, versicherte, versichert
beklagen (to complain) --> beklagen, beklagte, beklagt
vorwerfen (to accuse / to blame) --> vorwerfen, warf vor, vorgeworfen
bitten (to ask for a favour) --> bitten, bat, gebeten

A last hint
At the end of the topic I want to go back to our first example. If you didn't get confused yet you will be now.

What we learned so far about Indirekte Rede was all grammatically correct.
There are, however, other ways of repeating statements which allows to express our doubt on different levels.
These ways are maybe grammatically not 100% correct but used in German too.
example
Joy: Ich habe einen neuen Job.
used mood reported speech level of doubt
Indikativ Joy sagte, sie hat einen neuen Job.
You have no doubt about this statement.
Using the Indikativ shows you are quite sure
that the statement is true.
Konjunk. I Joy sagte, sie habe einen neuen Job.
You don't know if it's true.
You don't want to make any judgement.
Using the Konjunktiv I is a neutral way of repeating
a statement.
Konjunk. II Joy sagte, sie htte einen neuen Job.
You are unsure if it's true.
Using the Konjunktiv II shows
that you doubt about the statement.
Konjunk. II
+angeblich*
Joy sagte, sie htte angeblich einen
neuen Job.
You are quite sure it's not true.
Using the Konjunktiv II in combination
with "angeblich" shows clearly your doubt.
* angeblich = allegedly / supposedly
Infinitiv mit zu
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
learning target

Aim of this topic is to speak about "infinitive + to" -structures.
German English
Es ist schn, dich zu kennen.
Ich bin hier, um sie zu sehen.
Sie ist gegangen, ohne ein Wort zu sagen.
It's nice to know you.
I'm here to see her.
She is gone without saying a word.

rules

The "infinitive + to" -structure is a kind of "attachment" of the main sentence to provide
additional information or to complete the idea of the main sentence.
The use of the "infinitive + to" -structure is in German and English almost the same.
There are some little differences, however.
"Infinitive + to" -structures of "normal" verbs
The "infinitive + to" -structure of "normal" verbs is just added to the main sentence:
main sentence + (object) + "zu" + verb

examples:
Sie hat keine Zeit zu lernen. (She has no time to learn.)
Ich bitte dich zu gehen. (I ask you to go.)
Tom versucht zu singen. (Tom tries to sing.)

"Infinitive + to" -structures of separable verbs
In "Infinitive + to" -structures of separable verbs the "zu" goes between the prefix and the stem:
main sentence + (object) + prefix+zu+stem

examples:
Sie hat kein Geld einzukaufen. (She has no money to shop.)
Ich bitte dich wegzugehen. (I ask you to go away.)
Tom versucht fernzusehen. (Tom tries to watch tv.)








Infinitiv mit zu
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
The introducing preposition: "um", "ohne" and "anstatt"
By now we just spoke about the simple infinitives.
More often, however, the infinitive structures start with one of the three propositions:
um (=in order)
ohne (=without)
anstatt (=instead)
When do you have to start an "infinitive + to" -structure with "um"?
You have to start the "infinitive + to" -structure with "um" whenever it expresses a purpose -
that means whenever you could add in English "in order".

examples:
Ich bin hier, um dich zu sehen. (I'm here [in order] to see you.)
Cathy lernt sehr viel, um das Examen zu bestehen. (Cathy studies a lot [in order] to pass the
exam.)
Er kommt zu dir, um dir zu helfen. (He comes to you [in order] to help you.)

As you can see in the examples above you would leave out "in order" in English. It sounds a bit odd.
In German, however, you must use "um".
"ohne" and "anstatt"
The use of "ohne" and "anstatt" is easy and becomes clear if you read the examples.
examples:
Ich gehe nicht nach Hause, ohne dich zu kssen. (I won't go home without kissing you.)
Sie ist gegangen, ohne ein Wort zu sagen. (She is gone without saying a word.)
Sie haben den Kuchen gegessen, ohne uns zu fragen. (They ate the cake without asking us.)
examples:
Sie macht oft Quatsch, anstatt zu lernen. (She makes often nonsense instead of learning.)
Ich schicke eine E-mail, anstatt dich anzurufen. (I send an e-mail instead of calling you.)
Er benutzt ein Deo, anstatt sich zu duschen. (He uses a deodorant instead of taking a shower.)

The comma placement
If there is more than just the "infinitive + to" -structure after the main sentence,
then put a comma after the main sentence.

examples:
Es ist schn zu lesen. (only "infinitive + to" -structure => no comma)
Es ist schn, ein Buch zu lesen. (more than just the "infinitive + to" -structure => comma)
Kennen und Wissen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

problem

The problem is that there are two words in German for the word "know".
To avoid missunderstanding it's necessary to know the difference between "wissen" and "kennen".

1.) "Kennen" is used to express that we are familar with a person or a place.

examples:
Ich kenne Nelson. Ich habe ihn letzte Woche getroffen. (I know Nelson. I met him last week.)
Wer bist du? Ich kenne dich nicht. (Who are you? I don't know you.)
Kennst du die Stadt Nideggen? (Do you know the city Nideggen?)

2.) "Wissen" is used to express that you know a fact. You've got knowledge about something.

examples:
Ich wei, wann du geboren bist. (I know when you was born.)
Er wei die Antwort nicht. (He doesn't know the answer.)
Weit du, wie spt es ist?. (Do you know what's the time?)

Unfortunately, these two easy rules don't explain all situations.
Therefore, you should consider these additional rules as well:

3.) "Kennen" is always used if you can answer a question just by one noun or pronoun.

examples:
Kennst du das Lied? (Do you know the song?)
Ja, ich kenne das Lied. / Ja, ich kenne es. (Yes, I know the song. / Yes, I know it.)
Kennst du den Unterschied zwischen "wissen" und "kennen"? (Do you know the difference between
"wissen" and "kennen"?)
Ja, ich kenne den Unterschied. / Ja, ich kenne ihn. (Yes, I know the difference. / Yes, I know it.)

4.) "Wissen" is always used if your answer requires a whole phrase, not just one word.
The answer "Ich wei es." or "Ich wei es nicht." doesn't count.
Answer the question in another way and you know if it has to be "kennen" or "wissen".


Kennen und Wissen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
examples:
Weit du, wo ich wohne? (Do you know where I live?)
Ja, ich wei, wo du wohnst. (Yes, I know where you live.)
Wissen Sie, wann Zug kommt? (Do you know when the train arrives?)
Nein, ich wei nicht, wann er kommt. (No, I don't know when it arrives.)

A last hint:
A sentence with "wissen" is usually followed by a subordinate clause
which starts with "wie, wann, wo, wer, warum ...".

conjugation of "kennen" and "wissen"
We spoke already about the conjugation of "kennen" and "wissen".
I'd like to refresh it, however.
Infinitiv ich du er / sie / es wir ihr sie / Sie
kennen kenne kennst kennt kennen kennt kennen
wissen wei weit wei wissen wisst wissen


























Kleidung
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
Kleidung
(clothing)

Deutsch Englisch
anhaben (slang) to wear
anziehen to dress
Anzug (der) | (2nd) +e suit
ausziehen to undress
BH (der) | +s bra
Bikini (der) | +s bikini
Blazer (der) | +s blazer
Bluse (die) | +n blouse
Handschuh (der) | +e glove
Hemd (das) | +en shirt
Hose (die) | +n pants / trousers
Hut (der) | +e hut
Jacke (die) | +n jacket
Jeans (die) | no jeans
Kleid (das) | +er dress
Krawatte (die) | +n tie
kurze Hose (die) | +n shorts
Mantel (der) | coat
Mtze (die) | +n cap
Pullover (der) | same pullover / sweater
Rock (der) | +e skirt
Schal (der) | +s scarf
Schlafanzug (der) | (3rd) +e pyjamas
Schlpfer (der) | same panty
Schuh (der) | +e shoe
Socke (der) | +n sock
Stiefel (der) | same boot
Strickjacke (die) | +n cardigan
T-Shirt (das) | +s t-shirt
tragen to wear
Uniform (die) | +en uniform
Unterwsche (die) | no underwear
passende Adjektive
((suitable adjectives)

Deutsch Englisch
altmodisch old-fashioned
bequem comfortable
bunt colourful
dreckig dirty
einfarbig plain / simple
elegant elegant
eng tight
gestreift striped
kariert checkered, plaid
lang long
langweilig boring
hsslich ugly
kurz short
sauber clean
schick dressy / chic
schn nice
sportlich sporty

Krper
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

Krperteile
(body parts)

Deutsch Englisch
Arm (der) | +e arm
Auge (das) | +n eye
Augenbraue (die) | +n eyebrow
Bart (der) | +e beard
Bauch (der) | (1st) +e stomach
Bein (das) | +e leg
Brust (die) | +e chest / breast
Finger (der) | same finger
Fu (der) | +e foot
Gesicht (das) | +er face
Haar (das) | +e hair
Hals (der) | +e neck
Hand (die) | +e hand
Haut (die) | (1st) +e skin
Kinn (das) | same chin
Knie (das) | +e knee
Kopf (der) | +e head
Krper (der) | same body
Lippe (die) | +n lip
Mund (der) | +er mouth
Nase (die) | +n nose
Ohr (das) | +en ear
Po (der) | +s bottom
Rcken (der) | same back
Schulter (die) | +n shoulder
Stirn (die) | +e forehead
Zahn (der) | +e tooth
Zeh (der) | +en toe
Zunge (die) | +n tongue
passende Verben
((suitable verbs)

Deutsch Englisch
essen eat
fhlen feel
hren hear
kssen kiss
laufen walk
riechen smell
schmecken taste
schreiben write
sehen see
sprechen speak


passende Adjektive
((suitable adjectives)

Deutsch Englisch
breit broad
dick thick / plump
dunkel dark
dnn slim
fett fat
gro big
hart hard
hell light
hbsch cute
klein little
schmal small / narrow
sexy sexy
weich soft





Konjugation der Verben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
Verben im Prsens
learning target

Aim of this section is to bring any verb in the correct form in the present tense:
Subject any verb object.

yo!
he"she"it
#e
yo!
they
rea$
rea$
rea$s
rea$
rea$
rea$
a boo%&
a boo%&
a boo%&
a boo%&
a boo%&
a boo%&
n 'nglish it(s )!ite easy& *o! +!st have to a$$ a ,s, for ,he"she"it, an$ for the rest yo! can ta%e the infinitive&
n -erman there is a $ifferent en$ing for almost every person&
rules

There are three gro!ps of verbs:
gro!p A: verbs #hich follo# a strict pattern
gro!p .: verbs #hich follo# a strict pattern #ith slightly e/ceptions
gro!p 0: verbs #hich $on(t follo# any pattern
group A: verbs which ollow a strict pattern
1ort!nately2 most verbs follo# a strict pattern #hich is easy to remember:
person ending e!ample
3gehen 4 go5
ich stem 6 e gehe
$! stem 6 st gehst
er " sie " es stem 6 t geht
#ir ,infinitive, gehen
ihr stem 6 t geht
sie ,infinitive, gehen
1or ,#ir, an$ ,sie, 3pl!ral5 +!st !se the infinitive #itho!t any mo$ification& 1or ,$!,2 ,er"sie"es, an$ ,ihr, !se
the 7ortstamm 3stem5 an$ a$$ the en$ing from the table& The 7ortstamm 3stem5 is the infinitive #itho!t the
en$ing ,en,&


Konjugation der Verben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
group ": verbs which ollow a strict pattern with slightly e!ceptions
8erbs of gro!p . follo# the same r!les as gro!p A b!t for some verbs slightly mo$ifications are necessary:
1&5 8erbs in #hich the stem en$s #ith ,t,2 ,$,2 ,chn,2 ,$n,2 ,fn,2 ,gn, or ,tm, re)!ire an a$$itional ,e, after the
stem in the ,$!,2 ,er"sie"es, an$ ,ihr, 9form&

person ending e!ample
3arbeiten 4 #or%5
ich stem 6 e arbeite
$! stem 6 e 6 st arbeitest
er " sie " es stem 6 e 6 t arbeitet
#ir ,infinitive, arbeiten
ihr stem 6 e 6 t arbeitet
sie ,infinitive, arbeiten

2&5 8erbs in #hich the stem en$s #ith ,s,2 ,ss,2 ,:,2 ,/, or ,;, re)!ire +!st a ,t, instea$ of ,st, in the the ,$!,9
form&

person ending e!ample
3tan;en 4 $ance5
ich stem 6 e tan;e
$! stem 6 t tan;t
er " sie " es stem 6 t tan;t
#ir ,infinitive, tan;en
ihr stem 6 t tan;t
sie ,infinitive, tan;en







Konjugation der Verben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
<
<&5 7hen the stem en$s #ith ,eln, the ,e, before ,l, is $roppe$ in the ,ich,9form&

person ending e!ample
3l=cheln 4 smile5
ich stem 9 e 6 e l=chle
$! stem 6 st l=chelst
er " sie " es stem 6 t l=chelt
#ir ,infinitive, l=cheln
ihr stem 6 t l=chelt
sie ,infinitive, l=cheln

>&5 ?ome verbs #ith an ,a, or ,e, in their stem change the stem vo#el to ,=, or ,ie " i, in the ,$!, an$
,er"sie"es,9form&

person e!ample a #$
3schlafen 4 sleep5
e!ample e #$ ie
3sehen 4 see5
e!ample e #$ i
3geben 4 give5
ich schlafe sehe gebe
$! schlfst siehst gibst
er " sie " es schlft sieht gibt
#ir ,infinitive, sehen ,infinitive,
ihr schlaft seht gebt
sie ,infinitive, sehen ,infinitive,

8erbs #ith stem vo#el change
verbs #ith a 9@ = change bac%en2 blasen2 braten2 empfangen2 fahren2 fallen2 fangen2 graben2 halten2 la$en2
lassen2 la!fen2 raten2 sa!fen2 schlafen2 schlagen2 tragen2 #achsen2 #aschen
verbs #ith e 9@ ie change befehlen2 empfehlen2 geschehen2 lesen2 sehen2 stehlen
verbs #ith e 9@ i change bergen2 brechen2 $reschen2 essen2 erschrec%en2 fechten2 flechten2 fressen2 geben2
gelten2 helfen2 mel%en2 messen2 nehmen2 )!ellen2 schmel;en2 sch#ellen2 sprechen2
stechen2 sterben2 treffen2 treten2 ver$erben2 vergessen2 #erben2 #er$en2 #erfen






Konjugation der Verben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
>
group %: verbs which don&t ollow any pattern
A gro!p of verbs $on(t follo# any r!le an$ their forms have to be learne$ by heart& To this gro!p belong:
Hilfsverben 3a!/iliary verbs5: sein' haben' werden
Ao$alverben 3mo$al verbs5: wollen' sollen' m(ssen' )*nnen' d(ren' m*gen
einige 8ollverben 3some main verbs5: wissen

e!amples

+ninitiv ich du er,sie,es wir ihr sie -nglisch
sein bin bist ist sin$ sei$ sin$ be
haben habe hast hat haben habt haben have
werden #er$e #irst #ir$ #er$en #er$et #er$en #ill

wollen #ill #illst #ill #ollen #ollt #ollen #ant
)*nnen %ann %annst %ann %nnen %nnt %nnen can
m(ssen m!ss m!sst m!ss mBssen mBsst mBssen m!st
sollen soll sollst soll sollen sollt sollen shall
d(ren $arf $arfst $arf $Brfen $Brft $Brfen may
m*gen mag magst mag mgen mgt mgen li%e

bringen bringe bringst bringt bringen bringt bringen bring
den)en $en%e $en%st $en%t $en%en $en%t $en%en thin%
)ennen %enne %ennst %ennt %ennen %ennt %ennen %no#
rennen renne rennst rennt rennen rennt rennen r!n

be)ommen be%ommme be%ommst be%ommt be%ommen be%ommt be%ommen get
bleiben bleibe bleibst bleibt bleiben bleibt bleiben stay
ahren fahre f=hrst f=hrt fahren fahrt fahren $rive
inden fin$e fin$est fin$et fin$en fin$et fin$en fin$
(hlen fBhle fBhlst fBhlt fBhlen fBhlt fBhlen feel
gehen gehe gehst geht gehen geht gehen go
hei.en hei:e hei:t hei:t hei:en hei:t hei:en be calle$
h*ren hre hrst hrt hren hrt hren hear

Konjugation der Verben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
+ninitiv ich du er,sie,es wir ihr sie -nglisch
)lingen %linge %lingst %lingt %lingen %lingt %lingen so!n$
)ommen %omme %ommst %ommt %ommen %ommt %ommen come
lcheln l=chle l=chelst l=chelt l=cheln l=chelt l=cheln smile
lassen lasse l=:t l=:t lassen lasst lassen let
lernen lerne lernst lernt lernen lernt lernen learn
lesen lese liest liest lesen lest lesen rea$
nehmen nehme nimmst nimmt nehmen nehmt nehmen ta%e
machen mache machst macht machen macht machen ma%e
ruen r!fe r!fst r!ft r!fen r!ft r!fen call
sagen sage sagst sagt sagen sagt sagen say
sammeln sammle sammelst sammelt sammeln sammelt sammeln collect
schmec)en schmec%e schmec%st schmec%t schmec%en schmec%t schmec%en taste
schreiben schreibe schreibst schreibt schreiben schreibt schreiben #rite
sehen sehe siehst sieht sehen seht sehen see
sprechen spreche sprichst spricht sprechen sprecht sprechen spea%
vergessen vergesse vergisst vergisst vergessen vergesst vergessen forget
vermissen vermisse vermisst vermisst vermissen vermisst vermissen miss
versuchen vers!che vers!chst vers!cht vers!chen vers!cht vers!chen try
wissen #ei: #ei:t #ei: #issen #isst #issen %no#















Konjugation der Verben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
C
Verbs with stem vowel change
verbs with a /$ change
+ninitiv ich du er,sie,es wir ihr sie -nglisch
0bac)en1 bac%e b=c%st b=c%t bac%en bac%t bac%en ba%e
0blasen1 blase bl=st bl=st blasen blast blasen blo#
0braten1 brate br=tst br=t braten bratet braten fry
empangen empfange empf=ngst empf=ngt empfangen empfangt empfangen receive
ahren fahre f=hrst f=hrt fahren fahrt fahren $rive
allen falle f=llst f=llt fallen fallt fallen fall
0angen1 fange f=ngst f=ngt fangen fangt fangen catch
0graben1 grabe gr=bst gr=bt graben grabt graben $ig
halten halte h=ltst h=lt halten haltet halten hol$
0laden1 la$e l=$st l=$t la$en la$et la$en loa$
lassen lasse l=sst l=sst lassen lasst lassen let
0lauen1 la!fe l=!fst l=!ft la!fen la!ft la!fen lope
raten rate r=tst r=t raten ratet raten g!ess
0sauen1 sa!fe s=!fst s=!ft sa!fen sa!ft sa!fen boo;e
schlaen schlafe schl=fst schl=ft schlafen schlaft schlafen sleep
0schlagen1 schlage schl=gst schl=gt schlagen schlagt schlagen hit
tragen trage tr=gst tr=gt tragen tragt tragen carry
wachsen #achse #=chst #=chst #achsen #achst #achsen gro#
waschen #asche #=scht #=scht #aschen #ascht #aschen #ash


verbs with e /$ ie change
+ninitiv ich du er,sie,es wir ihr sie -nglisch
0beehlen1
befehle befiehlst befiehlt befehlen befehlt befehlen comman$
empehlen
empfehle empfiehlst empfiehlt empfehlen empfehlt empfehlen recommen$
geschehen
9 9 geschieht geschehen 9 geschehen happen
lesen
lese liest liest lesen lest lesen rea$
sehen
sehe siehst sieht sehen seht sehen see
0stehlen1
stehle stiehlst stiehlt stehlen stehlt stehlen steal


Konjugation der Verben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
D
verbs with e /$ i change
+ninitiv ich du er,sie,es wir ihr sie -nglisch
0bergen1
berge birgst birgt bergen bergt bergen salvage
0brechen1
breche brichst bricht brechen brecht brechen brea%
0dreschen1
$resche $rischt $rischt $reschen $rescht $reschen flail
essen
esse isst isst essen esst essen eat
0erschrec)en1
erschrec%e erschric%st erschric%t erschrec%en erschrec%t erschrec%en affright
0ressen1
fresse frist frist fressen fresst fressen ran%le
geben
gebe gibst gibt geben gebt geben give
0gelten1
gelte giltst gilt gelten geltet gelten apply
helen
helfe hilfst hilft helfen helft helfen help
0messen1
messe mist mist messen messt messen meas!re
nehmen
nehme nimmst nimmt nehmen nehmt nehmen ta%e
02uellen1
)!elle )!illst )!illt )!ellen )!ellt )!ellen #ell
0schmel3en1
schmel;e schmil;t schmil;t schmel;en schmel;t schmel;en melt
0schwellen1
sch#elle sch#illst sch#illt sch#ellen sch#ellt sch#ellen s#ell
sprechen
spreche sprichst spricht sprechen sprecht sprechen spea%
0stechen1
steche stichst sticht stechen stecht stechen sting
sterben
sterbe stirbst stirbt sterben sterbt sterben $ie
treen
treffe triffst trifft treffen trefft treffen meet
0treten1
trete trittst tritt treten tretet treten step
0verderben1
ver$erbe ver$irbst ver$irbt ver$erben ver$erbt ver$erben spoil
vergessen
vergesse vergisst vergisst vergessen vergesst vergessen forget
0werben1
#erbe #irbst #irbt #erben #erbt #erben canvass
werden
#er$e #irst #ir$ #er$en #er$et #er$en become
0weren1
#erfe #irfst #irft #er$en #erft #erfen thro#


1
modificated vocabulary list (with plurals)

Deutsch Englisch
a..
Abend (der) | +e evening
Abschied (der) | +e farewell
Alltag (der) | no everyday life
Angst (die) | , +e fear
Anzug (der) | (2nd), +e suit
Anfang (der) | (2nd), +e begin
Antwort (die) | +en answer / response
Arbeit (die) | +en work
Arm (der) | +e arm
Arzt | , +e doctor
Aufenthalt (der) | +e stay
Auge (das) | +en eye
Ausstellung (die) | +en exhibition
Auto (das) | +s car
b..
Badezimmer (das) | same restroom
Bauch (der) | (1st), +e belly
Benzin (das) | no patrol
Bett (das) | +en bed
Beziehung (die) | +en relationship
Bier (das) | +e beer
Bierflasche (die) | +n bottle of beer
Bleistift (der) | +e pencil
Bluse (die) | +n blouse
Bonbon (der) | +s sweet
Brief (der) | +e letter
Brot (das) | +e bread
Bruder (der) | brother
Buch (das) | , +er book
Bus (der) | Busse bus
c..
Campingplatz (der) | (2nd), +e camping ground
Computer (der) | same computer


2
d..
Dame (die) | +en lady
Ding (das) | +e thing
Diskussion (die) | +en discussion
Dose (die) | +en can
Duell (das) | +e duel
e..
Eis (das) | % ice
Eltern (die) | no parents
Ende (das) | +en end
Entschuldigung! Excuse me!
Erkltung (die) | +en cold
f..
Fahrkarte (die) | +n ticket
Fahrrad (das) | (2nd), +er bike
Farbe (die) | +n color
Fenster (das) | no window
Film (der) | +e movie
Flasche (die) | +n bottle
Flug (der) | , +e flight
Flughafen (der) | (2nd) airport
Form (die) | +en form
Foto (das) | +s photo
Frau (die) | +en woman
Freizeit (die) | no spare time
Freund (der) | +e boyfriend
Freundin (die) | +nen girlfriend
Fuball (der) | (2nd), +e football / soccer
Fuballspiel (das) | +e football game
g..
Gebet (das) | +e pray
Gedanke (der) | +n thought
Gedchtnis (das) | +se memory
Gefhl (das) | +e feeling
Geld (das) | +er money
Gemse (das) | no vegetables
Geschichte (die) | +n history
Glas (das) | , +er glass
3
Glck (das) | no luck
h..
Haar (das) | +e hair
Hals (der) | +e neck
Handball (der) | (2nd), +e hand ball
Handy (das) | +s mobile phone
Hauptbahnhof (der) | (3rd), +e main station
Hausaufgaben (die) | no homework
Herz (das) | +en heart
Hinweis (der) | +e clue
Hut (der) | , +e hut
i..
j..
Jacke (die) | +n jacket
Jahr (das) | +e year
Junge (der) | +n boy
k..
Kaffee (der) | no coffee
Kapitel (das) | same chapter
Kasse (die) | +n cash desk
Kaugummi (der) | +s chewing gum
Kino (das) | +s cinema
Klasse (die) | +n class
Klassenzimmer (das) | same class room
Kontakt (der) | +e contact
Konzert (das) | +e concert
Kopf (der) | , +e head
Krimi (der) | +s crime story
Kuchen (der) | same cake
Kulturprogramm (das) | +e culture programe
l..
Lampe (die) | +n lamp
Land (das) | , +er country
Leben (das) | same life
Lebenslauf (der) | , +e resume
Lehrer (der) | same teacher (male)
Lehrerin (die) | +nen teacher (female)
Leinwand (die) | , +e screen
4
Lieblingssendung (die) | +en favourite series
Lied (das) | +er song
Liste (die) | +n list
Leute (die) | no people
m..
Mdchen (das) | same girl
Mahlzeit (die) | +en meal
Mann (der) | , +er man
Mark (die) | no "former German currency"
Menge (die) | +n amount
Mercedes (der) | +e (German car brand)
Mittagessen (das) | same lunch
Moment (der) | +e moment
Mund (der) | , +er mouth
Mutter (die) | mother
n..
Nachricht (die) | +en message, news
Name (der) name
Namensschild (das) | +er a sign with your name
o..
Ohrfeige (die) | +n slap in the face
ffentliche Verkehrsmittel | no public transport
Onkel (der) | +s uncle
Opfer (das) | same victim
Ordner (der) | same folder
p..
Packung (die) | +en pack
Person (die) | +en person
Pflicht (die) | +en duty
Pizza (die) | Pizzen pizza
Professor (der) | +en professor
Pullover (der) | same pullover
q..
Quatsch (der) | no nonsense
q..
Referat (das) | +e presentation
Regel (die) | +n rule
Regenschirm (der) | +e umbrella
Rockmusik (die) | no rock music
5
Roman (der) | +e novel
s..
Schach (das) | no chess
Schlssel (der) | same key
Schmerz (der) | +en pain
Schokolade (die) | no chocolate
Schwester (die) | +n sister
Schwimmbad (das) | , +er swimming pool
Seele (die) | +n soul
Seifenoper (die) | +n soap opera
Sohn (der) | , +e son
Stadt (die) | , +e town / city
Steckdose (die) | +n power socket
Stern (der) | +e star
Stift (der) | +e pen
Stille (die) | no silence
Strand (der) | , +e beach
Stck (das) | +e piece
Student (der) | +en student
Stuhl (der) | , +e chair
t..
Tag (der) | +e day
Tankstelle (die) | +n patrol station
Tasse (die) | +n cup
Telefonnummer (die) | +n telephone number
Thema (das) | Themen topic
Tisch (der) | +e table
Traurigkeit (die) | no sadness
Tr (die) | +en door
u..
U-Bahn (die) | +en underground / subway
bersetzung (die) | +en translation
Unterricht (der) | no lesson
Urlaub (der) | +e holiday
v..
Vase (die) | +n vase
Vater (der) | father
Versuch (der) | +e try / trial
6
w..
Wagen (der) | same car
Wand (die) | , +e wall
Wasser (das) | no water
Weg (der) | +e way
Wein (der) | +e wine
Woche (die) | +n week
Wochenende (das) | +n weekend
Wort (das) | +er word
x..
y..
z..
Zahn (der) | +e tooth
Zeile (die) | +n line
Zeit (die) | +en time
Zeitung (die) | +en newspaper
Zeug (das) | no stuff
Zimmer (das) | same room
Zug (der) | , +e train
Zukunft (die) | no future



Negation
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009

1
learning target

Aim of this section is to learn how to negate a statement.
Deutsch Englisch
Ich hre dich nicht.
Ich habe kein eld.
!r ist nicht hier.
"ie hat keine "chwester.
I don't hear #o$.
I ha%e no mone#.
He is not here.
"he has no sister.


rules

There are 2 words in erman to negate a statement&
kein
nicht
Negation with "kein"
'ith ()ein( #o$ negate&
no$ns with an indefinite article in front of *ein+ eine+ einen,
no$ns with no article in front of

t#- statement Negation
indefinite article .as ist ein Ha$s. .as ist kein Ha$s.
indefinite article Ich habe eine "chwester. Ich habe keine "chwester.
indefinite article "ie hat einen H$nd. "ie hat keinen H$nd.
no article 'ir %er)a$fen A$tos. 'ir %er)a$fen keine A$tos.
no article Ich habe /ieber. Ich habe kein /ieber.

The ending of ()ein( de-ends on the gender, numerus and case.
'e will disc$ss this in detail later.

Negation with "nicht"
'ith (nicht( #o$ negate&
%erbs
ad0ecti%es
ad%erbs
-ro-er no$ns *names of -eo-le+ cities etc.,
no$ns with a definite article in front of *der+ die+ das,
no$ns with a -ossessi%e -rono$n in front of *mein+ meine,
Negation
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009

2
t#- statement Negation
%erb Ich schlafe. Ich schlafe nicht.
ad0ecti%e .as Ha$s ist alt. .as Ha$s ist nicht alt.
ad%erb "ie fahren schnell. "ie fahren nicht schnell.
-ro-er no$n .as ist 1ernd. .as ist nicht 1ernd.
no$n with a definite article in front of .as ist der 2rofessor. .as ist nicht der 2rofessor.
no$n with a -ossessi%e -rono$n in front of .as ist meine /re$ndin. .as ist nicht meine /re$ndin.

The position of "nicht" in a sentence
The -osition of (nicht( in a sentence de-ends on what #o$ negate. I m$st admite that3s reall# a bit tric)# and
needs -ractice.
1., "nicht" follows always the verb "sein".
Ich bin Thomas. 45 Ich bin nicht Thomas.

2., "nicht" follows the verb of the sentence.
There is one e6ce-tion. If the %erb is a se-arable %erb+ then (nicht( goes in front of the -refi6.
Ich gehe. 45 Ich gehe nicht.
Ich sehe fern. 45 Ich sehe nicht fern.

If the %erb4constr$ct consists of se%eral -arts then (nicht( goes in front of the second -art.
modal %erbs& Ich m$ss 0et7t gehen. 45 Ich m$ss 0et7t nicht gehen.
f$t$re tense& Ich werde 0et7t gehen. 45 Ich werde 0et7t nicht gehen.
-ast tense& Ich habe dich gesehen. 45 Ich habe dich nicht gesehen.

8., "nicht" follows a pronoun or an object which can be substituted by a pronoun.
Ich sehe dich. 45 Ich sehe dich nicht.
"ie )ennt 9r 'olf. 45 "ie )ennt 9r 'olf nicht. *9r 'olf co$ld be s$bstit$ted b# (ihn(.,

:., "nicht" follows the noun in a question.
'ollen "ie gehen; 45 'ollen "ie nicht gehen;
"-richst d$ .e$tsch; 45 "-richst d$ nicht .e$tsch;

Negation
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009

8
5., "nicht" follows a specific time.
'ir )<m-fen he$te gegen e$ch. 45 'ir )<m-fen he$te nicht gegen e$ch.
Ich gehe morgen ins =ino. 45 Ich gehe morgen nicht ins =ino.

There is one e6ce-tion+ howe%er.
If #o$ $se a -re-osition li)e ($m+ am( *>at+on, for the s-ecific time+ then (nicht( goes in front
of the s-ecific time.
Ich )omme $m ?.00 @hr 7$ dir. 45 Ich )omme nicht $m ?.00 @hr 7$ dir.
"ie )ommen am 9ontag hier an. 45 "ie )ommen nicht am 9ontag hier an.

Special negation with "nicht"
Against all r$les (nicht( can be at a com-letl# different -osition of the sentence+ for e6am-le at the beginning.
This is the case when the s-ea)er wants to em-hasise a s-ecial as-ect.
Anna singt gerne. 45 Nicht Anna singt gerne.
1# setting (nicht( at the beginning of the sentence #o$ e6-ress that Anna doesn3t sing b$t somebod# else.
/orget this s-ecial negation for now. 'e won3t co%er it in the e6ercises.

A last hint
If #o$ ha%e to choose between (nicht( and ()ein( in a ga- te6t with negated statements+ transform the
sentence at first into a -ositi%e statement. Aften the article shows #o$ what3s the answer&
!r ist kein / nicht B$nge. 445 -ositi%e statement& !r ist ein B$nge. 445 indefinite article
"o it m$st be& !r ist kein B$nge.

ob und wenn (condition)
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn the correct use of ob and wenn.
German English
Weit du, ob er uns bald besucht?
Wenn du Lust hast, kannst du raus gehen.
Du wirst Arbeit finden, wenn du gut Deutsch sprichst.
Do you know if he is going to visit us soon?
If you feel like doing you can go outside.
You will find a job if you speak German well.



rules

There are 2 words in German to express the English word if.

wenn

Wenn is used in conditional sentences.
The translation which describes "wenn" best is: if / in case.

examples
Wenn er nicht bald kommt, gehen wir ohne ihn aus. (If he won't come soon will we go out without
him.)
Wenn es morgen regnet, bleiben wir zu Hause. (If it's raining tomorrow we will stay at home.)
Du kannst deine Freunde mitbringen, wenn du mchtest. (You can bring along your friends if you
want.)
Ich mache eine groe Reise, wenn ich im Lotto gewinne. (I'm going to do a long journey if I hit the
lottery jackpot.)

ob

Ob is also used in conditional sentences.
Ob is only used in questions / indirect "questions" with yes/no answer.
Ob usually occurs only in the 2nd sentence.
The translation which describes "ob" best is: whether.



ob und wenn (condition)
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
examples:
Weit du, ob Julia krank ist? (Do you know if / whether Julia is ill?)
Kannst du mir sagen, ob wir Hausaufgaben haben? (Can you tell me if / whether we have
homework?)
Er ist nicht sicher, ob er die Prfung bestehen wird. (He is not sure if / whether he will pass the
exam.)
Ich mchte wissen, ob Sie das Auto schon repariert haben. (I'd like to know if / whether you've
repaired the car already.)
Ich wei nicht, ob meine Eltern kommen. (I don't know if / whether my parents are coming.)

As you can see indirect "questions" are in fact statements!
Actually, they are the answer to a question with a yes/no answer.
question: Weit du, ob deine Eltern kommen? (Do you know if / whether your parents are coming?)
answer: Ich wei nicht, ob meine Eltern kommen. (I don't know if / whether my parents are
coming.)
Besides the meaning of "if" wenn has a second meaning (=when).
For further infomation ckeck the topic als, wann und wenn.




























Partizipien als Adjektive
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1


learning target

Aim of this section is to learn the correct use of Partizip I and Partizip II
German English
!r ist ein gestresster "ann
#ir sehen einen spannenden $ilm
Ich helfe dem weinenden "%dchen
He is a stressed man
#e are &atchin' an exciting mo(ie
I help the crying 'irl



rules

Partizip I
What is Partizip I )present participle*
Partizip I are modified (er+s &hich turn into adjectives
,nce the- 'ot modified the- .&or/. li/e normal ad0ecti(es and ta/e adjectives endings as &ell
Partizip I has a similar meanin' to the in'1form of !n'lish (er+s 1 the present participle
German English
verb Partizip I verb present participle
laufen laufend to run runnin'
/ommen /ommend to come comin'
&einen &einend to cr- cr-in'
schlafen schlafend to sleep sleepin'
spielen spielend to pla- pla-in'

2ince the- .&or/. li/e normal ad0ecti(es the- 'o in front of the noun
e3amples4
2ie stoppten den lau!enden "ann )The- stopped the runnin' man*
Ich /omme am kommenden #ochende zu dir )I5ll come to -ou comin' &ee/end*
2ie &ec/en die schla!enden 6inder auf )The- &a/e up the sleepin' children*

"ow do you !orm Partizip I
7ou form the Partizip I in e(er- tense &ith4
In!initive o! the ver# $ d $ %adjective ending&


Partizipien als Adjektive
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
e3ample4
Ich 'in' zu der wartenden $rau )I &ent to the &aitin' &oman*
1 warten 8 Infiniti( form of the (er+ warten
1 d 8 .endin'. to form the Partizip I
1 en 8 ad0ecti(e endin'
exceptions'
There are t&o e3ceptions4
sein () seiend
tun () tuend

When do you use Partizip I
Partizip I is used4
when you use descri#e a process * something what hasn+t !inished
when the action, you descri#e, has an active character )some+od- is doin' somethin'*
&here+- it doesn5t matter if the action ta/es place in the past9 presense or future

e3ample 14
#ir +rauchen !lie-endes #asser )#e need runnin' &ater*
7ou could transform the Partizip I into a relati( sentence &ith acti(e character4
Wir #rauchen Wasser, das !lie-t. The &ater is doin' somethin' It runs

e3ample 24
Ich +eo+achte sie mit wachsendem Interesse )I o+ser(e them &ith 'ro&in' interest*
7ou could transform the Partizip I into a relati( sentence &ith acti(e character4
Ich #eo#achte sie mit einem Interesse, das w/chst. The interest is doin' somethin' It 'ro&s

e3ample :4
2ie sucht ein passendes 6leid )2he is loo/in' for a fittin' dress*
7ou could transform the Partizip I into a relati( sentence &ith acti(e character4
0ie sucht nach einem 1leid, das passt. The dress is doin' somethin' It fits
Partizipien als Adjektive
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
:
Time neutrality o! Partizip I
As the &ord alread- implied is the Partizip I time neutral and is formed in e(er- tense in the same &a-
The action9 &hich the Partizip I desci+es9 ta/es place at the same time as the .main1action.
)8real (er+ of the sentence*
e3amples4
Ich sehe ein singendes "%dchen )I see a sin'in' 'irl* 1 Pr%sens
Ich sah ein singendes "%dchen )I sa& a sin'in' 'irl* 1 Pr%teritum
Ich ha+e ein singendes "%dchen 'esehen )I ha(e seen a sin'in' 'irl* 1 Perfe/t
Ich hatte ein singendes "%dchen 'esehen )I had seen a sin'in' 'irl* 1 Plus;uamperfe/t
Ich &erde ein singendes "%dchen sehen )I<ll see a sin'in' 'irl* $utur I

Partizip II
What is Partizip II )past participle* used !or
#e learned alread- one purpose of Partizip II &hen &e spo/e a+out the tense Perfekt
Partizip II has a second purpose9 thou'h It can used as an adjective similar to Partizip I

If Partizip II is used as an ad0ecti(e it ta/es adjectives endings li/e normal ad0ecti(es
Partizip II has a similar meanin' to the ed1form of )re'ular* !n'lish (er+s 1 the past participle
German English
verb Partizip II verb past participle
/ochen 'e/ocht to coo/ coo/ed
zerstren zerstrt to destro- destro-ed
machen 'emacht to ma/e made
schrei+en 'eschrie+en to &rite &ritten
stressen 'estresst to stress stressed

e3amples4
2ie essen die gekochten !ier )The- eat the coo/ed e''s*
#ir untersuchen die zerst2rten H%user )#e inspect the destro-ed houses*
Ich ma' sel+st gemachten 6uchen )I li/e self1made ca/e*



"ow do you !orm Partizip II
#e spo/e alread- detailed a+out Partizip II in the topic Perfekt
There are different &a-s ho& to form Partizip II dependin' &hether it5s a &ea/9 stron' or mi3ed (er+


Partizipien als Adjektive
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
=
I5ll 'i(e -ou a short summar- here $or a detailed summar- chec/ summary - Prterium and Partizip II
weak ver#s strong ver#s mixed ver#s
3ge3 $ stem $
3t3
3ge3 $ stem )&ith irre'ular chan'e* $
3en3
3ge3 $ stem )&ith irre'ular chan'e* $
3t3

When do you use Partizip II
Partizip II is used4
when you use descri#e a result * something what has !inished
when the action, you descri#e, has an passive character )somethin' is done +- some+od-*

To understand the meanin' of passi(e constructions chec/4 Passiv
e3ample 14
Ich /oche heute ge#ratenes H>hnchen )I coo/ fried chic/en toda-*
The Partizip II has passi(e character The chic/en itself is doin' nothin' It5s +ein' done It5s +ein' fried
7ou can transform the Partizip II into a relati(e sentence &ith passi(e character4

4as "5hnchen, das von mir ge#raten wird. )The chic/en &hat is +ein' fried +- me*

e3ample 24
#ir +efreien den ge!angenen Hasen )#e free the cau'ht ra++it*
The Partizip II sho&s the result of an action in the past 2ome+o+- put a trap and the ra++it 'ot cou'ht
7ou can transform the Partizip II into a relati(e sentence &ith passi(e character4

4er "ase, der ge!angen wurde. )The ra++it that &as cou'ht*

e3ample :4
2ie ist ein verw2hntes 6ind )2he is a spoiled child*
The Partizip II has passi(e character The child didn5t do an-thin' It &as +ein' done It 'ot spoiled
7ou can transform the Partizip II into a relati(e sentence &ith passi(e character4

4as 1ind, das verw2hnt wurde. )The child &ho &as spoiled*

Partizipien als Adjektive
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5

A final o(er(ie& should help -ou to understand the difference of Partizip I and Partizip II
Partizip I
process * active character
Partizip II
result * passive character
German English German English
das kochende #asser the cooking &ater das gekochte #asser the cooked &ater
der strebende 2oldat the dying soldier der gestorbene 2oldat the soldier who died
der fallende 2tein the falling stone der gefallene 2tein the fallen stone
das sinkende 2chiff the sinking ship das gesunkene 2chiff the ship which sunk

Passiv
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn how to form the passive voice.
German English
Das Haus wird gebaut.
Das Auto wurde omplett zerstrt.
Das Han!" ist verkauft worden.
The house is #ein$ #uilt.
The car was completel" !estro"e!.
The mo#ile phone has #een sol!.



rules

What's the purpose of the passive voice
%ou will fin! the passive voice mostl" in written or formal spoen &erman e.$. news' reports on scientific
e(periments' newspaper' literature.
The passive voice is use! to emphasise the action ) process an! not the a$ent *person or thin$ who is actin$+.
,t-s not important who !oes somethin$ #ut what is !one.
e(ample.
active voice passive voice
!err "chmidt #aut ein Haus.
*/r 0chmi!t is #uil!in$ a house.+
1in Haus wird gebaut.
*A house is #ein$ #uilt.+

,n the active voice the emphasis is place! on the a$ent *Herr 0chmi!t+. ,t-s important that he is the one who is
#uil!in$ a house.
,n the passive voice it !oesn-t matter who is #uil!in$ a house. The emphasis is place! on the action 2ein Haus
#auen2.








Passiv
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
!ow do #ou form the passive voice
Pr$sens *present tense+
,n the 3r4sens tense "ou form the passive voice with.
form of %werden% & Partizip ''

e(amples.
,ch werde gek(sst. *,-m #ein$ isse!.+
Du wirst verbannt. *%ou are #ein$ #anne!.+
1s wird verbrannt. *,t is #ein$ #urne!.+
5ir werden verfolgt. *5e are #ein$ followe!.+
,hr werdet entdeckt. *%ou are #ein$ !iscovere!.+
0ie werden hergestellt. *The" are #ein$ pro!uce!.+

6et-s !iscuss the first e(ample a #it more in !etail.
active voice passive voice
)ath# 7sst mich. *8ath" isses me.+
,ch werde gek(sst. *,-m #ein$
isse!.+
28ath"2 is the su#9ect in the active voice sentence. ,-m the !irect o#9ect an! 2iss2 is the ver#.
,n the passive voice the !irect o#9ect turns into the su#9ect an! has' therefor' to #e in the nominative case.
The ver# is replace! #" 2wer!en2 : 3arti;ip ,,. The su#9ect of the active voice sentence !isapears usuall"
completl".


!ow to state the agent
6ie in 1n$lish there is a possi#ili" to state the a$ent *<su#9ect of the active voice sentence+.
,n 1n$lish "ou use the preposition 2#"2.
,n &erman there are two prepositions to state the a$ent.
von *if the a$ent is a person+
durch *if the a$ent is an inanimate thin$+
...where#" "ou will mostl" nee! the von=a$ent.
Passiv
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
>
e(amples.
passive voice without agent

passive voice with agent

,ch werde gek(sst.
*,-m #ein$ isse!.+
Das Haus wird zerstrt.
*The house is #ein$ !estro"e!.+
,ch werde von 8ath" gek(sst.
*,-m #ein$ isse! #" 8ath".+
Das Haus wird !urch !en 0turm zerstrt.
*The house is #ein$ !estro"e! #" the storm.+

Passive voice in other tenses
?e aware that the passive voice is not a tense@
The passive voice is a ver# structure which allows "ou to emphasise the action)process
an! this in ever" tense.
Pr$teritum *simple past+
,n the 3r4teritum tense "ou form the passive voice with.
form of %wurden% & Partizip ''

e(amples.
,ch wurde verhaftet. *, was arreste!.+
Die 0ta!t wurde zerstrt. *The cit" was !estro"e!.+
5ir wurden gezwungen. *5e were force!.+

Perfekt *present perfect+
,n the 3erfet tense "ou form the passive voice with.
form of %sein% & Partizip '' & worden

e(amples.
,ch bin entlassen worden. *, have #een release!.+
Die 0chule ist geschlossen worden. *The school has #een close!.+
Die 3ro#leme sind gelst worden. *The pro#lems have #een solve!.+

Plus*uamperfekt *past perfect+
,n the 3erfet tense "ou form the passive voice with.
form of %war% & Partizip '' & worden
Passiv
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
A
e(amples.
Bach!em ich kontrolliert worden war' !urfte ich in !as Clu$;eu$.
*After , ha! #een chece! , was allowe! to enter the airplane.+
Als wir !ie &ren;e erreichten' war !iese #ereits geschlossen worden.
*5hen we arrive! the #or!er it ha! alrea!" #een close!.+
?evor !er Corscher !ie 6sun$ fan!' war !as 3ro#lem #ereits gelst worden.
*?efore the researcher foun! the solution the pro#lem alrea!" ha! #een solve!.+
Hint
5hat "ou learne! so far a#out the passive voice shoul! #e enou$h on "our current level. However' ,-! lie a!!
some more *complicate+ theor" for further stu!ies.
+ctive sentences without a direct ob,ect
%ou learne! that the !irect o#9ect #ecomes the $rammatical su#9ect in a passive voice sentence.
5hat if there is no !irect o#9ect inclu!e! as "ou fin! in man" !ative sentencesD
Eemem#er the in!irect o#9ect is the !ative case.
e(ample 1.
active voice
0ie antwortet mir. *0he answers me.+
20ie2 is the su#9ect of the sentence
2antworten2 is the ver# of the sentence = a !ative ver#
2mir2 is the in!irect o#9ect
0ince there is no !irect o#9ect we use the !umm" su#9ect Es.

passive voice
1s wird mir geantwortet. *,-m #ein$ answere!.+
21s2 is the !umm" su#9ect of the sentence
2wir!2 is the con9u$ate! form of 2wer!en2
2mir2 is the in!irect o#9ect
2$eanwortet2 is 3arti;ip ,, of 2antworten2

Bow it #ecomes a #it cra;". ,t-s lo$ical to use a !umm" su#9ect if there is no su#9ect
#ut it-s even possi#le to leave out this !umm" su#9ect 21s2 an! eep the rest of the sentence.
/ir wird geantwortet. *,-m #ein$ answere!.+
All we chan$e is the wor! or!er of the remainin$ wor!s
since the ver# *here. helpin$ ver# 2wer!en2+ has to #e in the secon! position.
Passiv
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
?e aware that 2mir2 is not the su#9ect of the sentence.
2/ir2 is o#viousl" !ative case an! the su#9ect is alwa"s in the nominative case.
The sentence !oesn-t contain a su#9ect #ut we eep the con9u$ate! form of 2wer!en2 as if
the !umm" su#9ect 21s2 were there.
e(ample 2.
active voice
,ch helfe !en Fin!ern. *, help the chil!ren.+
2,ch2 is the su#9ect of the sentence
2helfen2 is the ver# of the sentence = a !ative ver#
2!ie Fin!er2 is the in!irect o#9ect
passive voice (with dummy subject)
1s wird !en Fin!ern geholfen. *The chil!ren are #ein$ helpe!.+
passive voice (without dummy subject)
Den Fin!ern wird geholfen. *The chil!ren is #ein$ helpe!.+
The followin$ e(ample maes this ver" clear.
1ven if the !umm" su#9ect 21s2 is not e(plicitl" state!
the ver# 2wer!en2 has to #e in the thir! person sin$ular *wir!+.

Don-t put 2wer!en2 #ecause "ou thin 2!ie Fin!er2 is plural.
The" are plural #ut the" are not the su#9ect of the sentence
an! onl" the su#9ect !etermines the con9u$ate! form of 2wer!en2.
+ctive sentences without an# ob,ect
There is no wa" in 1n$lish to turn an active sentence without an" o#9ect into a passive voice.
,n &erman there is@
e(ample 1.
active voice
Die Fin!er schlafen nachts. *The chil!ren sleep at ni$ht.+
2Die Fin!er2 is the su#9ect of the sentence
2schlafen2 is the ver# of the sentence
2nachts2 is a simple time e(pression
passive voice
1s wird nachts geschlafen. *Bo !irect translation@ G people sleep at ni$ht+
21s2 is the !umm" su#9ect of the sentence
2wir!2 is the con9u$ate! form of 2wer!en2
Passiv
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
H
2nachts2 is a simple time e(pression
2$eschlafen2 is 3arti;ip ,, of 2schlafen2
e(ample 2.
active voice
/atthias raucht ;u viel. */atthias smoes too much.+
2/atthias2 is the su#9ect of the sentence
2rauchen2 is the ver# of the sentence
2;u viel2 is a simple a!ver#
passive voice
1s wird ;u viel geraucht. *Bo !irect translation@ G people smoe too much+

The two different passive voice t#pes
There is one last thin$ we have to spea a#out.
There are two !ifferent t"pes of a passive voice.
wer!en=passive *Ior$an$spassiv+
sein=passive *Justan!spassiv+

The sein=passive is also forme! with 3arti;ip ,,
#ut instea! of the helpin$ ver# 2wer!en2 "ou use the helpin$ ver# 2sein2.
e(ample 1.
werden-passive sein-passive
Die T7r wird verschlossen.
*The !oor is #ein$ loce!.+
Die T7r ist verschlossen.
*The !oor is loce!.+
The wer!en=passive focus on the process 2to loc the !oor2.
The sein=passive !escri#es the result of the process.

e(ample 2.
werden-passive sein-passive
Das Eauchen wurde verboten.
*0moin$ has #een for#i!!en.+
Das Eauchen ist verboten.
*0moin$ is for#i!!en.+
The wer!en=passive !escri#es the process. 0ome#o!" put a #an on smoin$.
The sein=passive shows the result of it. ,t-s for#i!!en to smoe nowa!a"s.
Passiv - Alternativformen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1


learning target

Aim of this section is to find out which passive voice substitutes exist.
German English
Man verkauft das Haus.
Das Haus verkauft sich leicht.
Das Haus lsst sich leicht verkaufen.
Das Haus ist leicht zu verkaufen.
The house is being sold.
The house can be sold easily.
The house can be sold easily.
The house can be sold easily.



rules

What do you need passive voice substitutes for?
The "real" passive voice sounds formal and is found, therefor, mostly in written German.
In German as well as in English, we prefer the active voice.

In German exist a number of verb constructions (=passive voice substitutes)
which are active voice but allow to omit the agent as you do it in "real" passive voice sentences.

The man construction
The man construction is very often used in German.
You can translate "man" with one/you/they (in general) or a passive voice sentence.
"Man" (third person singular) acts as the subject of the sentence.
example:
Man darf hier rauchen. (You are allowed to smoke here.)
Man darf hier rauchen. (One is allowed to smoke here.)
Man darf hier rauchen. (Smoking is allowed here.)

further examples:
Man sagt, er habe magische Krfte. (It is said he had magic power.)
Was isst man in deinem Land zum Frhstck? (What do you have for breakfast in your country?)
Wo findet man Staubsauger? (Where can one (I) find vacuum cleaner?)



Passiv - Alternativformen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2

The reflexive verb construction
A lot of verbs which are usually not reflexive are used reflexively as a passive voice substitute.
examples:
Die Tr ffnet sich langsam. (The door is being opened slowly.)
Die CD verkauft sich gut. (The CD can be sold easily.)
Es wird sich eine Lsung finden. (A solution will be found.)

The "sich lassen + Infinitiv" construction
The best translation for the "sich lassen + Invinitiv construction" is: can be (done, made, ... etc.).
examples:
Die Tr lsst sich leicht ffnen. (The door can be opened easily.)
Die Fleck lsst sich nicht verstecken. (The spot can't be hidden.)
Das Auto lsst sich reparieren. (The car can be repaired.)

The "sein + zu + Infinitiv" construction
The "sein + zu + Invinitiv construction" can mean: can be (done, made, ... etc.) or must be (done, made, ...
etc.)
examples:
Die Rechnung ist noch zu bezahlen. (The bill still has to be payed.)
Das Thema ist leicht zu verstehen. (The topic can be understood easily.)
Der Antrag ist bis Ende Januar einzureichen. (The application has to be passed by end of January.)

Hint
There are a few more constructions which work as a passive voice substitute
but I don't want to make it too complicate and stop here.



Personalpronomen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1


learning target

Aim of this section is to learn the personal pronouns and their use in the four cases.
personal pronoun
(as subject)
verb personal pronoun
(as object)
I
you
he/she/it
we
you
they
know
know
knows
know
know
know
her.
her.
her.
her.
her.
her.



rules

in general
The term personal comes from word person. We use the personal pronouns to talk about a person or thing.The
term pronoun consists of the words pro (fr) and noun (nomen) which means the pronouns stand for a person /
thing and with their help the name of the noun can be replaced.

example: Catherine Estose Pacana is my girlfriend. She lives in Cagayan (instead of repeating the name again:
Catherine Estose Pacana lives in Cagayan.)).
personal pronouns in nominative
These pronouns are used to speak about a person / thing who does something or is something. The pronoun is
the subject of the sentence.

ich: you use when you speak about yourself
du: you use when you speak to a single person (informal)
er: you use when you speak about a male person or a thing with a male gender
sie: you use when you speak about a female person or a thing with a female gender
es: you use when you speak about a thing with a neutral gender
wir: you use when you speak about several people yourself included
ihr: you use when you speak to several people
sie: you use when you speak about several people
Sie: you use when you speak to a single person (formal)
Personalpronomen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
There are two big differences between German and English:
- In German "er/sie" (he/she) is also used to descibe dead things. Most dead things in German have a male or
female gender.
- In German are two forms of "you". "Du" is used for family members, friends, children and other people who
are close to the speaker. "Sie" is formal way to say you and is used for business partner, colleagues and other
adults who are not close to the speaker.

personal pronouns in dative and accusative
Here you can use the same explanation like in nominative. We speak again about a person / thing but in the
dative and accusative the person / thing is not acting. It is the object of the sentence.
Surely you will ask where is the difference between dative and accusative because in English there is just one
case and not two. This is an own big topic and will be covered in the section "Die 4 Flle".
mir / mich: you use when somebody does something with you
dir / dich: you use when you do something with a single person (informal)
ihm / ihn: you use when somebody does something with a male person
ihr / sie: you use when somebody does something with a female person
ihm / es: you use when somebody does something with a dead thing
uns / uns: you use when somebody does someth. with several people yourself included
euch / euch: you use when somebody does something with several people
ihnen / sie : you use when somebody does something with several people
Ihnen / Sie: you use when you do something with a single person (formal)

personal pronouns in genitive
The personal pronouns in genitive are not used to talk about the person but about what belongs to the person /
about what possesses the person.
mein(e/er): you use to talk about things which belong to you
dein(e/er): you use to talk about things which belong to a single person (informal)
sein(e/er): you use to talk about things which belong to a male person
ihr(e/er): you use to talk about things which belong to a female person
sein(e/er): you use to talk about things which belong to a dead thing
unser(e): you use to talk about things which belong several people yourself included
euer(e) : you use to talk about things which belong to several people
ihr(e/er) : you use to talk about things which belong to several people
Ihr(e/er): you use to talk about things which belong to a single person (formal)
I put the endings in brackets because in the genitive case it depends on the gender which ending you have to
use. This problem will be covered in the section "Possessivpronomen".


Personalpronomen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
all personal pronouns


Person

Numerus

Geschlecht

1.Person Singular -
2.Person Singular -
3.Person Singular mnnlich
3.Person Singular weiblich
3.Person Singular schlich
1.Person Plural -
2.Person Plural -
3.Person Plural -
2.Person Singular/Plural -

Nominativ
Deutsch Englisch
ich I
du you
er he
sie she
es it
wir we
ihr you
sie they
Sie you

Genitiv
Deutsch Englisch
mein(e/er) my
dein(e/er) your
sein(e/er) his
ihr(e/er) her
sein(e/er) its
unser(e) our
euer(e) your
ihr(e/er) their
Ihr(e/er) your

Dativ
Deutsch Englisch
mir me
dir you
ihm him
ihr her
ihm it
uns us
euch you
ihnen them
Ihnen you

Akkusativ
Deutsch Englisch
mich me
dich you
ihn him
sie her
es it
uns us
euch you
sie them
Sie you


1. Person: pronouns of the 1st person refer to the speaker
2. Person: pronouns of the 2nd person refer to the person you talk to
3. Person: pronouns of the 3rd person refer to the person / thing you talk about
Redewendungen
Nr. 1 bis 50

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
no. German saying Example sentence meaning
1 Jemanden auf den Arm nemen. !c abe dic auf den Arm genommen" als ic sagte" ic
abe in der #otterie gewonnen.
$ell somebody te untrut" to tease or %id
somebody.
&to pull somebody's leg(
) Ein Auge *udr+c%en. !c dr+c%e noc mal ein Auge *u. Altoug somebody did someting bad,wrong
you don't punis im. $ypical expression for
parents" teacers or police men.
- .cwein aben. /u ast .cwein geabt. !t 0ust means tat you are luc%y &Gl+c% aben("
for example if you won someting or you could
escape a bad,dangerous situation witout
getting armed.
1 Auf 2essers .cneide steen. /ie .ace stet auf 2essers .cneide. 3e use it in situations were te result is still
unclear. !t can end in tis way or te oter
&50,50 cance(.
5 Am seidenen 4aden 5ngen. /ie .ace 5ngt am seidenen 4aden.
3e use it in situations were 0ust one little more
bad ting is enoug and te pro0ect will fail.
6 Auf ei7en 8olen sit*en. Er sit*t scon seit 3ocen auf ei7en 8olen. .omebody is waiting for an answer,result and
te person is losing teir patience already. 9e or
se is :ery ner:ous.
; Etwas genau unter die #upe nemen. Nimm das mal genau unter die #upe. !t means to analy*e,inspect someting :ery
carefully.
< /ie 4assung :erlieren. Als er erfur" dass seine 4rau gestorben ist" :erlor er die
4assung.
!f a :ery bad,sad ting appened you migt
lose your temper or composure &to lose one's
poise(.


Redewendungen
Nr. 1 bis 50

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
no. German saying Example sentence meaning
= 8opf und 8ragen ris%ieren. .ie ris%ieren 8opf und 8ragen mit dem 8auf
des 9auses.
!f you ris% >8opf und 8ragen> you ris% e:eryting. !t can
mean all your money or e:en your life.
10 Auf die sciefe ?an geraten. Nacdem er seinen Job :erloren at" ist er
auf die sciefe ?an geraten.
!t means tat your lea:e te >rigt> way of life. @ou start
drin%ing" you lose your 0ob" your flat and so on.
11 Eine beleidigte #eberwurst sein. .ei doc %eine beleidigte #eberwurstA @ou as% te oter person not to be uffed,offended. !t's time
to ma%e peace.
1) Jemanden inters #ict f+ren. !c lasse mic nict inters #ict f+ren. Jemanden t5uscen &to fool,ceat somebody(.
1- /er Bug ist abgefaren. Cergiss esA /er Bug ist abgefaren.
!f you want to ma%e it clear tat you made your decision and
you won't cange it anymore. !t's used if you ga:e somebody
a cance and e,se missed it.
11 Jemandem in die Duere %ommen. 8omm mir nict in die Duere. !t means you desturb,interfer somebody else &mess wit
somebody's business(.
15 .ic mit fremden 4edern scm+c%en. !c mEcte mic nict mit fremden 4edern
scm+c%en.
!t means you present someting &an idea" a 0ob" an
in:ention( as i fit were your own altoug somebody else did
it.
16 Gute 2iene *um bEsen .piel macen. !c musste gute 2iene *um bEsen .piel
macen.
@ou smile and act as if noting as appened altoug you
are :ery angry.
1; Ferlen :or die .5ue werfen. /u wirfst Ferlen :or die .5ue" wenn du
:ersuct" im die Grammati% *u er%l5ren.
@ou waste your time" money or lo:e for somebody wo will
ne:er understand,appreciate it.
1< Ein Auge darauf werfen. 8annst du mal ein Auge darauf werfenG 3it tis Huestion you as% somebody to read,cec%
someting" e.g. your omewor% or letter...
1= $ropfen auf dem ei7en .tein /as ist doc nur ein $ropfen auf dem
ei7en .tein.
A drop of water immediately e:aporates if it its a ot stone
and is gone. $e drop symboli*ed e.g. a :ery small amout of
money wic is ne:er enoug to sol:e a problem.
Redewendungen
Nr. 1 bis 50

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
no. German saying Example sentence meaning
)0 Am ?oden *erstErt sein. Er war am *erstErt" als er Erte" dass seine
4irma ban%rott ist.
!t means to be completely down or sad.
)1 Aus dem 95uscen sein. Er war total aus dem 95uscen" als er
erfur" dass er den Freis gewonnen atte.
!t means to be :ery appy.
)) /ie 8at*e im .ac% %aufen. !c will *uerst das Auto seen. !c %auf'
doc nict die 8at*e im .ac%A
!t means to buy,ta%e someting witout cec%ing it.
)- Eine #aus +ber die #eber laufen. 3elce #aus ist dir +ber die #eber
gelaufenG
$e Huestion meansI 3at's wrong wit youG &3y are you
in a bad moodG(
)1 8ein ?latt :or den 2und nemen. Er sagt immer was er den%t. Er nimmt %ein
?latt :or den 2und.
!t means to say wat you tin% witout mercy , witout
considering conseHuences.
)5 /en Nagel auf den 8opf treffen. /u ast den Nagel auf den 8opf getroffen.
Genau so ist esA
!t means you said , found out exactly te rigt answer. &to
it te nail(
)6 !ns .cwar*e treffen. /u ast ins .cwar*e getroffen. /as ist die
#Esung.
!t means you said , found out exactly te rigt answer.
); Einen /ic%sc5del aben. .ie wird nie ire 2einung 5ndern. .ie at
einen /ic%sc5del.
!f you a:e a >/ic%sc5del> you are stubborn and it's difficult
to cange your opinion.
)< /as f+nfte Rad am 3agen sein. .ie ist das f+nfte Rad am 3agen. 9e or se is one too muc. ?est exampleI A young couple
want to go to cinema and a tird person 0oins tem. $is
person is unnecessary is tis situation.
)= Jber den eigenen .catten springen. Als sie sic bei im entsculdigte" ist sie
+ber iren eignen .catten gesprungen.
!t means to o:ercome your own abits,stubbornness or fear.
-0 Jemanden einen 4lo ins Kr set*en. 2it der 9aus%auf" ast du im einen 4lo
ins Kr geset*t.
!t means to tell somebody a stupid,silly idea and so
influence tis person in a bad way.
Redewendungen
Nr. 1 bis 50

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
no. German saying Example sentence meaning
-1 Jemanden %ommt etwas spanisc :or. /as %ommt mir spanisc :or. 3at somebody told you is strange,suspicious to you. &it's
gree% to me(
-) Aus einer 2+c%e einen Elefanten macen. 2ac nict aus 0eder 2+c%e einen
ElefantenA
!t means to ma%e big trouble,drame because of a small
problem. &to ma%e a mountain out of a moleill(.
-- /en 8opf in den .and stec%en. Als er erfur" dass er wieder durcgefallen
ist" stec%te er den 8opf in den .and.
!t means to gi:e up and don't try it again.
-1 Ein 3in% mit dem Baunpfal. Gestern gab uns der #erer ein 3in% mit
dem Baunpfal" was in der Fr+fung
dran%ommen wird.
!t means to gi:e a clear int.
-5 /as passt wie die 4aust auf's Auge. Er at sie wieder betrogen. /as passt wie
die 4aust auf's Auge.
!t means it fits perferctly.
-6 Jemand muss in den sauren Apfel bei7en. 3enn du die Arbeit aben willst" musst du
in den sauren Apfel bei7en und nac
2+ncen *ieen.
!t means to do an unpleasant ting,wor%.
-; geupft wie gesprungen. Es ist geupft wie gesprungen. !t means it doesn't matter. !f you do it in tis way or tis
wayL te result will be te same.
-< .al* in die 3unde streuen. /u musst nict noc .al* in die 3unde
steuen. !c 5rgere mic scon genug.
!f someting bad,embarrassing appened to somebody and
you remind im or er again and again. $is ma%es it e:en
worse.
-= An die /ec%e geen. Er ging an die /ec%e" als er Erte" dass ic
das Auto ruiniert abe.
!t means to become :ery angry.
10 Noc gr+n inter den Kren sein. 9ey 8leiner" du bist doc noc gr+n inter
den Kren.
$is person is :ery unexperienced. 2ostly teenager say it too
younger cildreen if tey mean experience in sexual tings.
Redewendungen
Nr. 1 bis 50

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
no. German saying Example sentence meaning
11 /as 9er* scl5gt bis *um 9als. 35rend der Fr+fung sclug mir das 9er*
bis *um 9als.
!t means you are :ery :ery ner:ous.
1) .ic in 0emanden inein :erset*en. 8annst du dic nict in meine #age inein
:erset*enG
!t means to put oneself in somebodys position,situation.
1- /urc den 3ind sein. 3ir waren nac dieser .ace *iemlic
durc den 3ind.
After a bad e:ent you are confused" disarranged and you
can't concentrate.
11 !n die 4u7stapfen treten. Er tritt in die 4u7stapfen seines Caters. !t means to follow in te steps of someone.
15 /en ?ogen raus aben. !c abe den ?ogen raus. !t means to a:e te ang of it. @ou found out ow
someting wor%s.
16 /en $eufel an die 3and malen. 2al doc nict den $eufel an die 3and. /on't meet trouble alfwayA &/on't predict,expect te
worstA(
1; Jemanden auf die Falme bringen. /u bringst mic mit deinem .cnarcen auf
die Falme.
!t means to Englisce RedewendungI to dri:e someone up
te wall.
1< Jemanden einen ?5ren aufbinden. 3illst du mir einen ?5ren aufbindenG !t means to pull somebodys leg.
1= .ic auf's Kr auen. !c aue mic f+r eine .tunde auf's Kr. !t means to get one's ead down &to sleep a bit(.
50 Ein .tein :om 9er*en fallen. 2ir ist ein .tein :om 9er*en gefallen. !t too% a load off my mind. &!'m :ery relie:ed.(

Redewendungen
Nr. 51 bis 100

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
no. German saying Example sentence meaning
51 Jemanden die Suppe versalzen. Ich mchte dir nicht die Suppe versalzen, aber das war
heute kein guter Auftritt.
It means to spoil things for somebody.
52 Jemanden um den kleinen Finger wickeln. Nicole wird Papa spter leicht um den kleinen Finger
wickeln.
It means to twist somebody around one's little finger
(influence/control easily).
53 Sich in die Haare kriegen. Der Chef und ich kriegen uns oft in die Haare, da er
keine Ahnung von Statik hat.
It means to have a rumpus with somebody. (to
quarrel)
54 Die Nase voll haben. Ich habe die Nase voll davon, dass du jeden Abend
Shaiya spielst.
It means to be fed up with something.
55 Ins Auge gehen. Das kann leicht ins Auge gehen. It means something might easily go wrong.
56 Auf der Zunge liegen. Es liegt mir auf die Zunge, aber ich komme nicht drauf. It menas that something is on the tip of ones tongue
but you can't remember.
57 Der Schuh drckt. Wo drckt der Schuh? The question means: what's your problem? / What do
you worry about?
58 Sich am Riemen reien. Rei dich am Riemen! It means to pull yourself together.
59 Ins Fettnpfchen treten. Mit seiner blden Aktion ist er voll ins Fettnpfchen
getreten.
It means to put one's foot in it. (Bring yourself in a
embarrassing situation).
60 Die Ohren steif halten. Halt die Ohren steif! It means to keep a stiff upper lip.
61 Jemanden ber den Tisch ziehen. Der Verkufer hat versucht, mich ber den Tisch zu
ziehen.
It means to cheat somebody (money).
62 Im siebten Himmel sein. Oh, ich bin im siebten Himmel. It means to to be in seventh heaven. (very happy)
63 Ein Auge auf jemanden haben. Hab ein Auge auf ihn. Man wei nie, was er vor hat. It means to cast an eye at somebody.
Redewendungen
Nr. 51 bis 100

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
no. German saying Example sentence meaning
64 Dumchen drehen. Sie dreht immer nur Dumchen. It means to twiddle one's thumbs.
65 Von allen guten Geistern verlassen sein. Bist du von allen guten Geistern verlassen? It means to have taken leave of one's senses.
66 Unterbelichtet sein. Martins Freundin ist ziemlich unterbelichtet. It means to be a bit dim/stupid.
67 Den Hals nicht voll genug bekommen. Sie will immer mehr. Sie bekommt den Hals nicht voll
genug.
It means she just can't get enough.
68 Am Ball bleiben. Bleib am Ball, sonst schaffst du die Prfung nie! It means to keep on doing what you've started.
69 Nah am Wasser gebaut sein. Er ist nah am Wasser gebaut. Als er das Lied hrte, fing
er sofort an zu heulen.
It means that a person starts crying easily/quickly.
The person is very emotional.
70 Das Salz in der Suppe sein. Dieter Bohlen ist das Salz in der Suppe bei DSDS. It means that he is absolute necessary. Without him
it's boring.
71 Quitt sein. Wir sind quitt.
Du brauchst mir nichts mehr zu geben.
It means to be even with somebody. All "bills" are
paid.
72 Sich weit aus dem Fenster lehnen. Lehn dich nicht zu weit aus dem Fenster! It means to risk a lot.
73 Den Faden verlieren. Ich habe den Faden verloren. It means to forget what you wanted to say/write.
74 Etwas/Jemanden links liegen lassen. Lass ihn links liegen. Er hat es nicht besser verdient. It means to ignore something/somebody.
75 Auf die Nerven gehen. Du gehst mir auf die Nerven! It means you are a pain in somebody's neck.
76 In die Hose gehen. Das ging komplett in die Hose! It means somthing went completly wrong.
77 Eine Schraube locker haben. Hast du eine Schraube locker? It means to be crazy.
78 Nicht mehr alle Tassen im Schrank haben. Du hast nicht mehr alle Tassen im Schrank. It means to be crazy.
79 Einen Vogel haben. Du hast einen Vogel! It means to be crazy.
Redewendungen
Nr. 51 bis 100

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
no. German saying Example sentence meaning
80 Ein Rad ab haben. Du hast doch ein Rad ab! It means to be crazy.
81 Die sieben Sachen packen. Ich packe meine sieben Sachen. It means to gather and pack all you stuff
because you are going to leave a place.
82 Etwas auf dem Herzen haben. Was hast du auf dem Herzen? The question means: "what makes you worry?"
83 Jemanden durchschauen. Ich habe durchschaut, was du planst. It means to understand/see what somebody has
planed.
84 Die Flinte ins Korn werfen. Wirf die Flinte nicht gleich ins Korn, nur weil du einmal
durchgefallen bist.
It means to give up.
85 Sich (nicht) mit Ruhm bekleckern. Bei dem Spiel hast du dich nicht mit Ruhm bekleckert. It means you didn't show a good performance. You
wasn't good.
86 Eine lange Leitung haben. Ich habe heute eine lange Leitung. It means to understand slowly.
88 Das Ruder rumreien. Sie haben das Ruder noch mal herumgerissen. It means to change a situation
even though it seemed already lost.
89 Im Schilde fhren. Was fhrst du im Schilde? It means to plan something bad.
90 Mit dem falschen Bein aufstehen. Ich bin heute morgen mit dem falschen Bein
aufgestanden.
It means "to get up on the wrong side of the bed".
91 Ein Thema ist gegessen. Das Thema ist gegessen It means the decision is made. No need to discuss
anymore.
92 Ein Herz und eine Seele sein. Die beiden sind ein Herz und eine Seele. It means to people are very close.
They are very good friends or in love.
93 Etwas in Kauf nehmen. Als er die Firma verkaufte, hat er den Verlust der
Arbeitspltze in Kauf genommen.
It means to accept something bad/negative.
Redewendungen
Nr. 51 bis 100

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
no. German saying Example sentence meaning
94 In Butter sein. Es ist alles in Butter It means everything is ok.
95 Ein Stein im Brett haben. Seit ich ihm bei den Hausaufgaben helfe,
habe ich ein Stein bei ihm im Brett.
It means to be in so.'s good books.
You're somebody's favourite now.
96 Jemanden bers Ohr hauen. Der Verkufer hat mich mit dem Auto bers Ohr
gehauen.
It means to cheat somebody (money).
97 Etwas auf die leichte Schulter nehmen. Er nimmt die Prfung auf die leichte Schulter. It means to take something (too) easy.
98 Mit Kanonen auf Spatzen schieen. Jetzt schie doch nicht gleich mit Kanonen auf Spatzen! It means to break a butterfly on a wheel
(to overact / too react too hard).
99 Ewas/Jemanden auf Herz und Nieren
prfen.
Wir haben das Auto auf Herz und Nieren geprft. It means to check something/somebody very
carefully/exactly.
100 Vom Regen in die Traufe kommen. Mit seinem neuen Job ist er vom Regen in die Traufe
gekommen.
It means to get from one bad situation into the next.



Satzbestandteile erkennen
Theorie

satzbestandteile_erkennen.doc
1

I prepared this extra topic because I noticed that my gwapa has difficulties in the identification
of the single parts of a sentence. This is, however, important that you are able to handle the cases
and many other topics.
That's why let's speak at first which compoents we can have in a sentence:
example 1:
The woman kisses a man.

1: definite article
The definite article belongs to nouns and shows us in German which grammatical gender the noun has.
We use a definite article if we mean a certain noun (woman) and not any noun (woman).
2: subject
The is the acting person/thing in a sentence. The woman is doing something. She kisses.
3: verb
The verb is the action verb. It says what the subject does.
4: indefinite article
The indefinte article belongs to nouns and shows us in German which grammatical gender the noun has.
We use an indefinite article if we mean not a certain noun (man).
5: direct object
The direct object is the not-acting person/thing in a sentence. The man is kissed by the woman.

example 2:
The woman gives a book to the child.

1: definite article: see above (belongs to the subject)
2: subject: see above
3: verb: see above
4: definite article: see above (belongs to the indirect object)
5: indirect object
The indirect object is the beneficiary of the action in the sentence. Usually it's a person.
You can also say the indirect object is the receiver of the direct object
6: indefinite article: see above (belongs to the direct object)
7: direct object: see above

Satzbestandteile erkennen
Theorie

satzbestandteile_erkennen.doc
2
example 3:
I have a nice girlfriend.

1: subject: see above
2: verb: see above
3: indefinite article: see above (belongs to the direct object)
4: adjective
An adjective is a word which describes a noun.
How is my girlfriend? =>nice!
5: direct object: see above

example 4:
My girlfriend learns fast.

1: possessive pronoun
A possessive pronoun is a special pronoun which shows to whom or what the noun belongs.
Here the noun "Freundin" belongs to me.
2: subject: see above
3: verb: see above
4: adverb
An adverb is a word which describes a verb.
How does my girlfriend learn? => fast!

example 5:
I'll fly to Cagayan tomorrow.

1: subject: see above
2: verb: see above
3: time expression
As the name already discribes the time expression says when something happens.
Satzbestandteile erkennen
Theorie

satzbestandteile_erkennen.doc
3
4: preposition
Prepositions are "relationship words".
They express time, location, causal ... relationships between people and things.
"Nach" is a typical "local preposition".
5: location
The name of the loacation is here "Cagayan".

example 6:
Cathy is a girl.

1: subject: see above
2: verb: see above
3: indefinite article: see above
4: predicate complement
The verb is a form of "be". The "ist" acts like an equal sign. You could say: Cathy = a girl.
That's why "Cathy" and "girl" are the subject and both are in the nominative case.

example 7:
Joy and Kristine go to the cinema.

1: subject: see above
2: conjunction: A conjunction connects two or more parts of a sentence.
Here "und" connects the both subjects.
3: subject: This sentence has 2 subjects. Both girl do something so they are both subjects.
4: verb: see above
5: preposition
"Ins" is a special prepositions because actually it's a preposion and a definite article
"ins" is a short form of "in das".
6: location: see above

example 8:
Why do you learn German?

Satzbestandteile erkennen
Theorie

satzbestandteile_erkennen.doc
4
1: question word: question words ask for a reason, a time, a location, a person and so on.
2: verb: see above
3: subject: see above
4: direct object: see above

example 9:
When do you go?

1: question word: see above
2: verb: see above
3: subject: see above

example 10:
Give me a kiss!

1: verb: see above
2: indirect object: see above
3: indefinite article: see above
4: direct object: see above

example 11:
Ich vermisse Cathy und ihre Freunde.

1: subject: see above
2: verb: see above
3: direct object: see above
4: conjunction: see above
5: possessive pronoun: see above
6: direct object: see above





Satzbestandteile erkennen
Theorie

satzbestandteile_erkennen.doc
5
example 12:
Germany has 16 "Bundeslnder".

1: subject: see above
2: verb: see above
3: number: how many of something
4: direct object: see above

summary

1.) Every sentence contains a subject (statements and questions).
The only exception are imperative sentences (see example 10).

2.) It might be that one sentence has 2 or more subjects (see example 7).

3.) Not every sentence contains an object. Many sentences don't have any
object (see examples 4, 5, 6, 7, 9).

4.) Some sentences contain even more than one object (see example 11).

5.) The components of a sentence we learnt so far are:
subject
verb
direct object
indirect object
predicate complement
adjective
adverb
personal pronoun
possessive pronoun
demonstrative pronoun
definite article
indefinite article
preposition
conjunction
particle
question word
time expression
location
number
Steigerung der Adjektive
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this topic is to express that something is better / faster / more beautiful .... than something else and
to express that something is the best / fastest / most beautiful ...
German English
Tom ist schneller als Nelson.
Cathy ist hbscher als ihre Freundin.
Dieses Hotel ist am teuersten.
Tom is faster than Nelson.
Cathy is more beautiful than her friend.
This hotel is most expensiv.

rules

comparison of regular adjectives
positive comparative superlative
adjective adjective + er (am) + adjective + st

examples:
German English
positive comparative superlative positive comparative superlative
schnell schneller am schnellsten fast faster fastest
neu neuer am neusten new newer newest
langsam langsamer am langsamsten

slow slower slowest


1.) Adjectives which end with "t", "d", "s", "ss", "", "x" or "z" require an additional "e"
before the "st" in the superlative degree.

German English
positive comparative superlative positive comparative superlative
leicht leichter am leichtesten easy easier esiest
verrckt verrckter am verrcktesten crazy crazier craziest
nett netter am nettesten

nice nicer nicest

Steigerung der Adjektive
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2

2.) There is no "more or "most" for multi-syllable abjectives like in English.

German English
positive comparative superlative positive comparative superlative
bunt bunter am buntesten colourful more colourful most colourful
bequem bequemer am bequemsten comfortable more comfortable most comfortable
langweilig langweiliger am langweiligsten

boring more boring most boring


comparison of irregular adjectives
There are a few adjectives which don't follow any rule. They have to be learnt by heart.
German English
positive comparative superlative positive comparative superlative
bald eher am ehesten soon sooner soonest
gern lieber am liebsten gladly more gladly most gladly
gro grer am grten big bigger biggest
gut besser am besten good better best
hoch hher am hchsten high higher highest
nah nher am nchsten near nearer nearest
viel mehr am meisten

much more most

Besides the irregular adjectives there are adjectives which change not the whole word but a vowel.
Almost all one-syllable adjectives which contain an "a", "o" ur "u" change the "umlaut".
German English
positive comparative superlative positive comparative superlative
alt lter am ltesten old older oldest
arm rmer am rmsten poor poorer poorest
dumm dmmer am dmmsten stupid dumber dumbest
hart hrter am hrtesten hard harder hardest
jung jnger am jngsten young younger youngest
kalt klter am kltesten cold colder coldest
klug klger am klgsten celver more clever most clever
kurz krzer am krzesten short shorter shortest
lang lnger am lngsten longer longer longest
oft fter am ftesten often more often most often
stark strker am strksten strong stronger strongest
warm wrmer am wrmsten

warm warmer warmest
Steigerung der Adjektive
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
adjective endings
For the adjectives in the comparative degree and the superlative degree you have to use the
same rules which you learnt already for the simple adjectives. Just add the ending after the "er" or "st".
A hint
Such an ending you find already in all superlative examples above: am meisten, am schnellsten ...
That means if you want to use the superlative in a sentence where you don't use "am"
then cancel "en" and add the correct ending for this case.
examples:
Sie ist die klgste Studentin. (She is the most clever student.)
Sie ist am klgsten. (She is most clever.)

How do you compare?
Finally, I want you to give the little words you need to compare two things.
German English
equality ... so ... wie.. ... as... as...
inequality ... als... ... than...

examples for inequality:
Sie ist strker als er. (She is stronger than him.)
Sie ist lter als er. (She is older than him.)

examples for equality:
Sie ist so stark wie er. (She is as strong as him.)
Sie ist so alt wie er. (She is as old as him.)
Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
Prteritum- & Partizip II-form of weak, strong and mixed verbs (summary)


normal weak verbs


Prteritum:

stem + te

for example : machte, lernte, hrte


exception

- stem ends with "t", "d", "chn":

stem + e + te


for example : arbeitete, redete


Partizip II

ge + stem + t

for example : gemacht, gelernt, gehrt


exception

- stem ends with "ieren:

ge + stem + t


for example : studiert, informiert





separable weak verbs


Prteritum:

- split up the separable prefix and
put it at the end of the sentence

- treat the rest like in
normal weak verbs

for example : kaufte ein, machte an



Partizip II

prefix + ge + stem + t






for example : eingekauft, angemacht


inseparable weak verbs


Prteritum:

prefix stem + te


for example : besuchte, erzhlte



Partizip II

prefix + ge + stem + t


for example : besucht, erzhlt


normal strong verbs


Prteritum:

- irregular stem
- has to be learnt by heart




for example : kam, ging, fuhr


Partizip II

ge + stem + en


irregular change


for example : gekommen, gegangen,
gefahren




separable strong verbs


Prteritum:

- split up the separable prefix and
put it at the end of the sentence

- treat the rest like in
normal strong verbs


for example : kam zurck, ging weg,
rief an



Partizip II

prefix + ge + stem + en


irregular change




for example : zurckgekommen,
weggegangen,
angerufen





inseparable strong verbs


Prteritum:

prefix stem


irregular change



for example : erfand, bekam,
verstand



Partizip II

prefix + ge + stem + en


irregular change



for example : erfunden, bekommen,
verstanden


normal mixed verbs


Prteritum:

stem + te


irregular change



for example : dachte, brachte,
wusste



Partizip II

ge + stem + t


irregular change



for example : gedacht, gebracht,
gewusst






separable mixed verbs


Prteritum:

- split up the separable prefix and
put it at the end of the sentence

- treat the rest like in
normal mixed verbs


for example : dachte nach,
brachte bei,
rannte weg




Partizip II

prefix + ge + stem + t


irregular change





for example : nachgedacht,
beigebracht,
weggerannt



inseparable mixed verbs


Prteritum:

prefix stem + te


irregular change



for example : erkannte, verbrachte,
versandte



Partizip II

prefix + ge + stem + t


irregular change



for example : erkannt, verbracht,
versandt


Anweisungen und
Aufgabenstellungen
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

wichtige Verben
(important verbs)

Deutsch Englisch
ankreuzen tick / mark with a cross
antworten auf answer / respond to
aufschreiben write down
ausfllen fill in
beantworten answer
beschreiben describe
bilden form
buchstabieren spell
ergnzen add
erzhlen tell
finden find
fragen ask
hren hear
lesen read
machen make / do
markieren mark
ordnen arrange
raten guess
sagen say
schreiben write
sortieren sort / arrange
sprechen speak
vergleichen compare
ben practise
bersetzen translate
unterstreichen underline
versuchen try




wichtige Begriffe
(important terms)

Deutsch Englisch
Antwort (die) | +en answer
Anweisung (die) | +en instruction
Aufgabe (die) | +n task
Begriff (der) | +e term
Beispiel (das) | +e example
Buchstabe (der) | +n letter
Dialog (der) | +e dialogue
Frage (die) | +n question
Klammer (die) | +n bracket / parenthesis
Komma (das) | Kommata comma
Lektion (die) | +en lection
Lsung (die) | +en solution
Lcke (die) | +n gap
Regel (die) | +n rule
Satz (der) | +e sentence / clause
Tabelle (die) | +n table
Text (der) | +e text
Wort (das) | +er word






Anweisungen und
Aufgabenstellungen
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
Einige Anweisungen
(some instructions)

Deutsch Englisch
Lesen Sie den Text. Read the text.
bersetzen Sie den Text. Translate the text.
Hren Sie zu. Listen.
Fllen Sie die Lcken aus. Fill in the gaps.
Beantworten Sie die Frage. Answer the question.
Ordnen Sie die Begriffe. Arrange the terms.
Ergnzen Sie die Antworten. Add the answers.
Markieren Sie die Verben. Mark the verbs.
Sortieren Sie die Wrter. Arrange the words.
Raten Sie. Guess.
Erzhlen Sie etwas ber sich. Tell something about you.
Finden Sie die passenden Begriffe. Find the terms which fit.
ben Sie das Wort. Practise the word.
Beschreiben Sie das Bild. Describe the picture.
Kreuzen Sie die richtige Lsung an. Tick the correct answer.








Datum
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
learning target

Aim of this section is to learn how to say a certain date.
German English
Heute ist der vierzehnte Mrz zwei-tausend-sechs.
(Heute ist der 14. Mrz 2006.)
Today is the fourteenth of March two thousand six.
(Today is 14 March 2006.)


rules

Actually, there is not much to learn to say the date of today or when somebody was born.
You should, however, consider the following:
For data after 1 January 2000 we use: 2000 + year

examples:
Gestern war der zehnte Mrz zwei-tausend-sechs.
(Yesterday was 10 March 2006.)
Am ersten Januar zwei-tausend began das neue Jahrtausend.
(On 1 January 2000 began the new millennium.)

For data before 1 January 2000 we use: XX hundred + year

examples:
Sie wurde am vierzehnten Dezember neunzehn-hundert-achtzig geboren.
(She was born on 14 December 1980.)
Am zwanzigsten Juli neunzehn-hundert-neunundsechzig landete Armstrong auf dem Mond.
(On 20 July 1969 Armstrong landed on the moon.)

As you can see I used the for the days ordinal numbers which we covered already.
Therefore, just the way to say the years in German is new to you.
hint
In all examples above I separated the different parts of the written year by hyphens. That's no correct spelling.
Actually, you have to write all words in a row but I find that makes it hard to read the years.
So, please do it like me for now and separate the different parts.


Einheiten
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
Lnge (length)

If we want to express the length of something or if we want to say how tall somebody is we use the units:
Zentimeter [cm] and Meter [m].
How much is 1cm and how many cm are one m?

100cm make 1m.
Every length above 100cm we express in meter.
To give you a better feeling how many xx cm is I prepared some examples with things
which have about the same size around the world:


conversion
1 inch = 2.54cm
1 foot = 30.48cm

Let's convert our both size into the cm/m- unit system:
Cathy
You are 5 foot and 3 inches (5' 3'') tall.
That are: 5 x 30.48cm + 3 x 2.54cm =
160.0cm
So, you are 1.6m (=1m and 60cm) tall.
Tom
I'm 5 foot and 8 inches (5' 8'') tall.
I'm: 5 x 30.48cm + 8 x 2.54cm = 172.7cm
So, I'm 1.73m (=1m and 73cm) tall.



Einheiten
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
important expressions in connection with "Lnge"
When you use these units you have to form a whole sentence. I want to give you some expressions:
Deutsch Englisch
Ich bin 1.60m gro. I'm 1.60m tall.
Wie gro sind Sie? How tall are you?
Der Schrank ist 2m hoch. The wardrobe 2m high.
Wie lang ist der Tisch? How long is the table?
Das Auto ist 1.5m breit. The car is 1.5m wide.


Entfernung (distance)

If we want to express a distance between two places
we use the unit: Kilometer [km].
How much is 1km?
1000m make 1km.
Every distance above 1000m we express in Kilometer.

The picture shows the city centre of Cagayan de Oro City.
The distance between the Sports Centre and the Limkit Kay Complex is about 1km.
The distance between the city centre (neverland cafe) and your mom's house in Agusan is 12km.
The distance between CDO and Manila (Rizal Park) is 780km.


Einheiten
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3

conversion
1 mile = 1.61km

important expressions in connection with "Lnge"
When you use this unit you have to form a whole sentence. I want to give you some expressions:
Deutsch Englisch
Die Entfernung zwischen Dren und CDO sind
11000km.
The distance between Dren and CDO is
11000km.
Wie weit ist es bis nach Manila? How far is it to Manila?


Gewicht (weight)

If we want to express the weight of something or somebody we use the units:
Gramm [g] and Kilogramm [kg].
How many g are one kg?

1000g make 1kg.
Every weight above 1000g we express in Kilogramm.
conversion
1 pound = 454g
1 pound = 0.454kg

To make it easier you could say: Divide you weight in pounds by 2 and you get it in Kilogramm.








Einheiten
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
Let's convert our both weight into the g/kg- unit system:


Cathy
You've got 105 lb.
Converted into kg: 105 lb x 0.454 = 47.7kg
So, you've got about 48kg.
Tom
I've got 143 lb.
Converted into kg: 143 lb x 0.454 = 64.9kg
So, I've got about 65kg.

important expressions in connection with "Gewicht"
When you use these units you have to form a whole sentence. I want to give you some expressions:
Deutsch Englisch
Ich wiege 48kg. I weigh 48kg.
Wieviel wiegen Sie? What do you weigh?
Wie schwer sind Sie? How heavy are you?


Temperatur (temperature)

If we want to express the temperature we use the unit:
Grad Celsius [C].
How warm or cold are xx C?

1 2 3 4 5 6

Einheiten
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
no. comment
1 25C: Is the average temperature during the rainy season in the Philippines.
I consdider 25C as the perfect temperature to feel comfortable.
2 36C: Is the average temperature during the hot dry season in the Philippines.
36C is really too warm, especially if you try to sleep without aircon.
3 8C: Is the average temperature in a fridge.
That's the temperature in Germany in fall and during sunny winter days.
4 0C: Is the temperature when water frizes and becomes ice.
That's a normal temperature in Germany during the winter.
5 -25C: Is the lowest temperature I've ever experienced.
It's damn cold and you shouldn't stay too long outside.
6 100C: Is the tempereature when water starts boiling.

conversion
The conversion from Fahrenheit into C is a bit complicate. You have to use the following formula:
C = (Fahrenheit - 32) x 5/9
examples
80 Fahrenheit = (80-32) x 5/9 = 26.7C
20 Fahrenheit = (20-32) x 5/9 = -6.7C
0 Fahrenheit = (0-32) x 5/9 = -17.8C

important expressions in connection with "Temperatur"
When you use this unit you have to form a whole sentence. I want to give you some expressions:
Deutsch Englisch
Es ist 20 warm. It's 20 warm.
Wir haben heute 30. We've got 30 today.
Wie warm ist es? How warm is it?






Formeller Brief
Schreiben

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
preliminary note
Every letter is something special and uniue! "t#s difficult to give strict rules ho$ to $rite a letter!
%evertheless& there are guidelines ho$ to start and finish a letter! 'i(e in English $e have
typical standard e)perssions and there are clear features $hich distinguish a formal and informal letter!

"#d li(e to give some advice ho$ to $rite a formal letter *+usiness letter,!
" $rote this discri+tion to help people to achieve the -.ertifi(at /eutsch- *level0 11,!

A word about the use of "du" and "Sie"
2s you (no$& $e#ve got t$o different forms in 3erman to address people0
du *you,
4ie *you,
5e call the use of du -du6en- and the use of 4ie -sie6en-!

/u is used for children& friends& family mem+ers& colleagues and people at your age!
4ie is used for people $ho are older than you and people you are not familiar $ith!
The use of -4ie- is a sign of respect and if " used -du- for a 70 years old $oman "#ve
never met +efore it $ould +e rather offending! "f you are not sure a+out the age of your
counterpart use -4ie-!
The use of -4ie-& ho$ever& has +ecome less strict than years +efore! 5hen " met my colleagues
in our office for the first time and they $ere apparently at my age " used -du-
even though "#d never met them +efore! 2nother e)ample is my ta+le tennis clu+ $here every+ody is using
-du-! "t doesn#t matter if 8 or 80 years old! 5e all -du6en- each other!
The rule for formal letters is easy0 Use always "Sie"!
/o so in the 119e)am!

:onsider0
;ou have to capitalise +oth -4ie- and -"hr < "hre < "hres-!







Formeller Brief
Schreiben

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
example letter



Formeller Brief
Schreiben

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
=
10 2dresse des 2+senders *addresser,
"n a formal *+usiness, letters you have to put your address on the top of the letter!
The simplest $ay is to put it on the left& top corner as sho$n in the e)ample!
There are many other $ays to do it! >ost companies design a nice head in the middle *top,
and integrate their company logo and address!

"n the 119e)am you $ill get a clear order to leave out the address! ?ollo$ the order and safe time!


20 2dresse des Empf@ngers *addressee,
"n a formal *+usiness, letters you have to put the address of the receiver on the top of the letter as $ell!
" suggest the top& left corner as sho$n in the e)ample! There is a simple reason $hy!
>any people use envelopes $ith a transparent $indo$ so that they don#t have to put an address la+el
on the outide! This place is common in 3ermany!

"n the 119e)am you $ill get a clear order to leave out the address! ?ollo$ the order and safe time!


=0 Art und /atum *location and date,
;ou start $ith the place& follo$ed +y a comma and the date!
:onsider0
5e $rite in 3erman the date in the follo$ing order0 day | month | year


B0 1etreff6eile *su+Cect heading,
The su+Cect heading should summarise the content of your letter! 5rite in one line
$hat is the letter a+out so that the reader (no$s immediatly he is the right addressee
and that he (no$s $hat you $ant!
"t#s not usual anymore to start the su+Cect heading $ith0 -1etreff- *De0,!
Eust start your te)t $ith a capital letter and emphasi6e the su+Cect heading *+old letters,!
Here some typical su+Cect headings0
German use
"hre 2n6eige vom 19!01!2009 answer to an advertisement in a newspaper
1e$er+ung als 2u9Fair9>@dchen in "hrer ?amilie application as au pair


Formeller Brief
Schreiben

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
B
"n the 119e)am you have to $rite a semiformal letter! There is no need to $rite a su+Cect heading
in a semiformal letter! 4o leave it out and safe time!

50 1egrGHungI2nrede *salutation,

Typcial salutations for a formal letter are0
German English e)planation
4ehr geehrte ?rau >Gller& /ear >rs >Gller formal salution for woman (married or unmarried*)
4ehr geehrter Herr >Gller& /ear >r >Gller formal salution for man
4ehr geehrte /amen und Herren& /ear 4ir or >adam formal salution if the name is unknown
J The term -?r@ulein- *>s, for an unmarried $oman is old9fashioned and not used anymore!
:onsider0
The salutation ends $ith a comma!


K0 Einleitungssat6 *introduction,
Typcial introductions for a formal letter are0
German use
vielen /an( fGr "hren 1rief! "ch ha+e mich sehr
darG+er gefreut!
standard introducution to answer a letter
vielen /an( fGr "hre Einladung! 3erne (ommen meine
?rau und ich !!!
introducution to say thank you for an invitation
mit groHem "nteresse ha+e ich "hre .eitungsan6eige
gelesen!
standard introducution to answer an advertisement
in a newspaper
entschuldigen 4ie& dass ich erst Cet6t auf "hren 1rief
ant$orte!
standard introducution to answer a letter
(belated answer)




:onsider0
The introductions starts $ith a small letterL

Formeller Brief
Schreiben

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
70 Hauptteil *main part,

There are no strict rules for the main part!
"n the 119e)am you $ill get = or B points you have to cover!
>y suggestion0
ma(e at first some short (eynotes to every points to ma(e clear $hat you $ant to say
"t#s a+solutly o( if you do it in your language!
+ring the =9B points in a logical order
$rite 1 9 2 sentences a+out every point!
structure your te)t0 use e!g! for every point one paragraph
"t ma(es it much easier to read the te)t!

The tas( for the e)amle letter a+ove could have +een to cover the follo$ing points0



80 2+schlusssat6 *closing,
Typcial closings for a formal letter are0
German use
"ch $Grde mich freuen& +ald et$as von "hnen 6u hren!
standard closing (with request for an
answer)
"ch hoffe& +ald et$as von "hnen 6u hren!
standard closing (with request for an
answer)
Mielen /an( im Moraus! closing (say thank you in advance)
"m Moraus vielen /an( fGr "hre >Ghe! closing (say thank you in advance)
"ch freue mich sehr darauf& 4ie und "hre ?amilie (ennen 6u
lernen!
closing (with looking forward to meeting)



Formeller Brief
Schreiben

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
K
90 3rGHe *greetings,
Typcial greetings for a formal letter are0
German English e)planation
>it freundlich 3rGHen ;ours faithfully the standard greetings which always fit
>it freundlichem 3ruH ;ours faithfully also a standard greeting that always fits
Hochachtungsvoll ;ours respectfully very respectful greetings (a bit old-fashioned)



:onsider0
The greeting starts $ith a capital letter and ends $ithout comma!


100 Nnterschrift *sign,

/on#t forget to put your name at the end!
"n +usiness letters it#s even common to put at first the hand$ritten sign and underneath
again the full name $ith degree or title +ecause most signs can#t +e identified!

?or the 119e)am it#s enough Cust to $rite clearly your full name *hand$ritten,!

Informeller Brief
Schreiben

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

preliminary note
Every letter is something special and uniue! "t#s difficult to give strict rules ho$ to $rite a letter!
%evertheless& there are guidelines ho$ to start and finish a letter! 'i(e in English $e have
typical standard e)perssions and there are clear features $hich distinguish a formal and informal letter!

"#d li(e to give some advice ho$ to $rite an informal *private+ letter!
" $rote this discri,tion to help people to achieve the -.ertifi(at /eutsch- *level0 11+!


A word about the use of "du" and "Sie"
2s you (no$& $e#ve got t$o different forms in 3erman to address people0
du *you+
4ie *you+
5e call the use of du -du6en- and the use of 4ie -sie6en-!

Du is used for children& friends& family mem,ers& colleagues and people at your age!
Sie is used for people $ho are older than you and people you are not familiar $ith!
The use of -4ie- is a sign of respect and if " used -du- for a 70 years old $oman "#ve
never met ,efore it $ould ,e rather offending! "f you are not sure a,out the age of your
counterpart use -4ie-!
The use of -4ie-& ho$ever& has ,ecome less strict than years ,efore! 5hen " met my colleagues
in our office for the first time and they $ere apparently at my age " used -du-
even though "#d never met them ,efore! 2nother e)ample is my ta,le tennis clu, $here
every,ody is using -du-! "t doesn#t matter if 8 or 80 years old! 5e all -du6en- each other!
"n the 119e)am you $ill al$ays $rite the informal letter to a close friend! 4o use -du-!








Informeller Brief
Schreiben

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
example letter


Informeller Brief
Schreiben

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
:
10 2dresse des 2,senders und Empf;ngers *addresser of addressee+
<nli(e in formal *,usiness+ letters there is no need to put your o$n address or the address of the receiver
on the top of the letter! "t#s li(ely you and the receiver are uite close and you (no$ your addresses!
"n 3ermany it#s common to put your o$n address on the ,ac(side of the letter and the receiver#s address on
the front side!


20 =rt und /atum *location and date+
>ou start $ith the place& follo$ed ,y a comma and the date!

?onsider0
5e $rite in 3erman the date in the follo$ing order0 day | month | year


:0 1egr@AungB2nrede *salutation+
Typcial salutations for an informal letter are0
German English e)planation
'ie,e Coy& /ear Coy you are quite close to this person and you use "du"
'ie,e Coy& lie,er %elson& /ear Coy& dear %elson you are quite close to these 2 people and you use "du"
'ie,e Drau Discher& /ear Ers Discher you are quite close to this person but you use "Sie"
'ie,e Damilie Fuhlmann& /ear family Fuhlmann you are quite close to this whole family
Hallo /oreen G& Hello /oreen you write a friend or person at your age and you use "du"
Hi /oreen G& Hi /oreen you write a friend or person at your age and you use "du"
Hallo Drau Discher G& Hello Ers Discher you write a close person older than you and you use "Sie"




G "f " $rite an e9mail to a friend or person at my age " almost al$ays use -hallo- or -hi-!
" hardly use -lie,e H lie,er-! "t#s getting a ,it old9fashioned! "n the the e)am& ho$ever& you should
use -lie,e H lie,er- to satisfy the e)aminer!
?onsider0
The salutation ends $ith a comma!
Informeller Brief
Schreiben

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
I
I0 Einleitungssat6 *introduction+
Typcial introductions for an informal letter are0
German use
vielen /an( f@r deinen 1rief! "ch ha,e mich sehr dar@,er
gefreut!
standard introducution to answer a letter
$ie geht es dirJ Eir geht es *nicht so+ super& da !!! standard introducution to write a letter
es freut mich sehr 6u hren& dass !!!
introducution to speak immediately about an
important event
entschuldige& dass ich erst Ket6t auch deinen 1rief
ant$orte&
a,er ich $ar in let6ter .eit sehr ,esch;ftigt!
standard introducution to answer a letter
(belated answer)
ich $ollte dir schon lange schrei,en&
a,er leider ist mir immer et$as da6$ischen ge(ommen!
standard introducution to answer a letter
(belated answer)
vielen /an( f@r die 1ilder *das 1uch H die ?/ !!!+& die du
mir geschic(t hast!
introducution to say thank you for a present



?onsider0
The introductions starts $ith a small letterL


50 Hauptteil *main part+
There are no strict rules for the main part!
"n the 119e)am you $ill get : or I points you have to cover!
Ey suggestion0
ma(e at first some short (eynotes to every points to ma(e clear $hat you $ant to say
"t#s a,solutly o( if you do it in your language!
,ring the :9I points in a logical order
$rite 1 9 2 sentences a,out every point!
structure your te)t0 use e!g! for every point one paragraph
"t ma(es it much easier to read the te)t!

Informeller Brief
Schreiben

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
M0 2,schlusssat6 *closing+
Typcial closings for an informal letter are0
German use
"ch hoffe ,ald $ieder et$as von dir 6u hren! standard closing (with request for an answer)
"ch $@rde mich freuen& ,ald $ieder von dir 6u hren! standard closing (with request for an answer)
1itte ant$orte mir ,aldL standard closing (with request for an answer)
"ch $arte auf deine 2nt$ort! standard closing (with request for an answer)
Eelde dich doch malL standard closing (with request for an answer)
1itte gr@A Nristine gan6 lie, von mir! standard closing (with greetings)
1itte gr@A deine gan6e Damilie von mir! standard closing (with greetings)
"ch freue mich sehr darauf& dich $ieder 6u sehen! standard closing (with looking forward to meeting)




70 3r@Ae *greetings+
Typcial greetings for an informal letter are0
German English e)planation
'ie,e 3r@Ae 'ove you are quite close to this person and you use "du"
Oiele 3r@Ae Pegards B ?heers standard greetings which always fit
3ruA Pegards B ?heers standard greetings for a friend you are not so close
Her6liche 3r@Ae 1est regards standard greetings for a good friend
/eine ?athy >ours ?athy instead of greeting + sign you can summarise it in this form


?onsider0
The greeting starts $ith a capital letter and ends $ithout comma!

80 <nterschrift *sign+
/on#t forget to put your name at the end!

Konjunktionen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn how to connect two sentences.
German English
Sie ist nett und sie sieht gut aus.
Ich werde dich anrufen oder ich werde dir schreiben.
Ich wei, dass sie mich mag.
She is nice and she looks pretty.
I'll call you or I'll write to you.
I know that she likes me.



rules

We have to distinguish between two types of conjunctions:
coordinating conjunctions
subcoordinating conjunctions

coordinating conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions join two "independent" sentences.
That means both sentences could stand alone without the other sentence and they would make sence alone.

example:
Ich lernte fr die Prfung, aber er ging ins Kino. (I studied for the exam but he went to the cinema.)
Both sentences could stand alone and would make sense:
1. Ich lernte fr die Prfung (I studied for the exam.)
2. Er ging ins Kino. (He went to the cinema.)
The word order remains in both sentences as if they stood alone.







Konjunktionen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
all coordinating conjunctions
und=and
Ich bin hier und sie wartet auf mich im Cafe. (I'm here and she is waiting for me in the cafe.)
Sei vorsichtig und pass auf dich auf! (Be careful and take care!)

oder=or
Sie spielt gerne Badminton oder sie singt mit ihren Freunden. (She likes playing badminton or she
sings with her friends.)
Ich muss jetzt lernen oder ich werde die Prfung nicht bestehen. (I must study now or I won't pass
the exam.)

denn=because
Ich will nicht lernen, denn das Wetter ist so schn. (I don't want to study because the weather is so
nice.)
Cathy kommt bald nach Hause, denn es geht ihr schon besser. (Cathy is coming home soon because
she is doing better already.)

aber=but
Ich spreche mit dem Mann, aber ich kenne seinen Namen nicht. (I talk to the man but I don't know
his name.)
Ich habe keine Zeit, aber ich komme trotzdem ins Cafe. (I have no time but I'll come to the cafe,
however.)

sondern=but
Sie spricht kein Tagalog, sondern Cebuano. (She doesn't speak Tagalog but Cebuano.)
Die Kinder spielen nicht drauen, sondern sie sehen fern. (The children don't play outside but they
watch tv.)
As you can see we have two words in German to say "but" and it's a bit tricky to explain the difference.
Both words are used if the idea of second sentence is in contrast to the idea of the first sentence.
There is, however, a slight difference: "Sondern" is only used if the two ideas come for the same "category".
With "category" I mean eg. a profession (doctor / manager) or a game (tennis / badminton) or a temperatur
(cold / warm)...
Konjunktionen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
example:
Es ist nicht kalt, sondern sehr warm. (It's not cold but very warm.)
Es ist nicht kalt, aber ich ziehe mir eine dicke Jacke an. (It's not cold but I'll wear a big coat.)
In the first example "cold" and "warm" are both adjectives which describe temperature.
So, they come from one "category".
In the second example the two ideas of the two sentences are in contrast, too
but one sentence describes a temperatur and they other what somebody is going to wear.
last hint:
At last hint which might help you is, that there must be a negation form (nicht or kein) in the first sentence
to use "sondern." If there is no "nicht or kein" in the first sentence you have to use "aber".

subcoordinating conjunctions
Subcoordinating conjunctions join a dependent clause (subordinate clause) to an independent clause (main
clause).
The dependent clause (mostly the second sentence) doesn't make sense without the sentence in front.

example:
Ich wei, dass wir uns wiedersehen. (I know that we will meet again.)
The first sentence could stand alone. The second sentence, however, doesn't make sense alone. In the second
sentence you don't know what the "that" is refering to.
1. Ich wei. (I know.)
2. dass wir uns wiedersehen. (that we'll meet again.)
The word order in the independent clause (main clause) remains as usual.
The word order in the dependent clause (subordinate clause) changes.

I don't want to go into detail here but just this rule: "In dependent clauses the verb goes to the very end of the
sentence". Check the topic "Satzstellung" (word order) for more details.





Konjunktionen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
10 important subcoordinating conjunctions

dass=that
Er sagte, dass du sehr fleiig bist. (He said that you are very diligent.)
Ich mchte, dass du mich anrufst. (I want you to call me.)

weil=because
Ich muss jetzt schlafen, weil ich morgen frh aufstehe. (I have to sleep now because I'll get up
early tomorrow.)
Wir hatten einen Streit, weil er so stur war. (We had an argument because he was so stubborn.)

ob=if / whether
Ich wei nicht, ob sie heute zur Universitt kommt. (I don't know if she'll come to university today.)
Er fragte mich, ob du in Cagayan wohnst. (He asked me if you live in Cagayan.)

seit=since
Er ist ein neuer Mensch, seit er sie kennt. (He is a new man since he've known her.)
Er ist immer gestresst, seit er mit ihr zusammen ist . (He is always stressed since he's been
together with her.)

whrend=while
Bitte fttere den Hund, whrend ich weg bin. (Please, feet the dog while I'm away.)
Wir schauten fern, whrend die Kinder drauen spielten . (We've been watching tv while the kids
played outside.)

obwohl=although
Sie fuhr mit mir nach Bohol, obwohl ihre Freunde dagegen waren. (She went with me to Bohol
although her friends were against it.)
Sie lernt Deutsch, obwohl sie noch nie in Deutschland war. (She is studying German although she
hasn't been to Germany before.)

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bis=until
Warte, bis ich zurck bin! (Wait, until I'll be back!)
Wir spielten Volleyball, bis es dunkel wurde. (We've played volleyball until it became dark.)

bevor=before
Bitte hilf mir, bevor du gehst! (Please, help me before you go!)
Ich la viel ber die Philippinen, bevor ich sie besuchte. (I read a lot about the Philippines before I
visited her.)

als=when
Ich war berrascht, als ich sie das erste mal gesehen habe. (I was surprised when I saw her for the
first time.)
Sie lchelte, als sie ihn sah. (She smilled when she saw him.)

damit=so that
Cathy lernt Deutsch, damit sie das Visum bekommt. (Cathy is studying German so that she'll get
the visa.)
Er kauft sich einen Computer, damit er mit ihm spielen kann. (He buys a computer so that he can
play with it.)
further important subcoordinating conjunctions
German English
als ob as if
anstatt instead of
da because
daher therefore, thus
ehe before
nachdem after
German English
seitdem since
sobald as soon as
solange as long as
trotz despite
wenn when / if
wann when

last hint:
Dependent clauses are separated by a comma from the rest.
So, always put a comma in front of the subcoordinating conjunction.
It also makes it easier to read the two sentences which are joined together.
Konjunktionen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn how to connect two sentences.
German English
Sie ist nett und sie sieht gut aus.
Ich werde dich anrufen oder ich werde dir schreiben.
Ich wei, dass sie mich mag.
She is nice and she looks pretty.
I'll call you or I'll write to you.
I know that she likes me.



rules

We have to distinguish between two types of conjunctions:
coordinating conjunctions
subcoordinating conjunctions

coordinating conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions join two "independent" sentences.
That means both sentences could stand alone without the other sentence and they would make sence alone.

example:
Ich lernte fr die Prfung, aber er ging ins Kino. (I studied for the exam but he went to the cinema.)
Both sentences could stand alone and would make sense:
1. Ich lernte fr die Prfung (I studied for the exam.)
2. Er ging ins Kino. (He went to the cinema.)
The word order remains in both sentences as if they stood alone.







Konjunktionen
Theorie

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all coordinating conjunctions
und=and
Ich bin hier und sie wartet auf mich im Cafe. (I'm here and she is waiting for me in the cafe.)
Sei vorsichtig und pass auf dich auf! (Be careful and take care!)

oder=or
Sie spielt gerne Badminton oder sie singt mit ihren Freunden. (She likes playing badminton or she
sings with her friends.)
Ich muss jetzt lernen oder ich werde die Prfung nicht bestehen. (I must study now or I won't pass
the exam.)

denn=because
Ich will nicht lernen, denn das Wetter ist so schn. (I don't want to study because the weather is so
nice.)
Cathy kommt bald nach Hause, denn es geht ihr schon besser. (Cathy is coming home soon because
she is doing better already.)

aber=but
Ich spreche mit dem Mann, aber ich kenne seinen Namen nicht. (I talk to the man but I don't know
his name.)
Ich habe keine Zeit, aber ich komme trotzdem ins Cafe. (I have no time but I'll come to the cafe,
however.)

sondern=but
Sie spricht kein Tagalog, sondern Cebuano. (She doesn't speak Tagalog but Cebuano.)
Die Kinder spielen nicht drauen, sondern sie sehen fern. (The children don't play outside but they
watch tv.)
As you can see we have two words in German to say "but" and it's a bit tricky to explain the difference.
Both words are used if the idea of second sentence is in contrast to the idea of the first sentence.
There is, however, a slight difference: "Sondern" is only used if the two ideas come for the same "category".
With "category" I mean eg. a profession (doctor / manager) or a game (tennis / badminton) or a temperatur
(cold / warm)...
Konjunktionen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
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example:
Es ist nicht kalt, sondern sehr warm. (It's not cold but very warm.)
Es ist nicht kalt, aber ich ziehe mir eine dicke Jacke an. (It's not cold but I'll wear a big coat.)
In the first example "cold" and "warm" are both adjectives which describe temperature.
So, they come from one "category".
In the second example the two ideas of the two sentences are in contrast, too
but one sentence describes a temperatur and they other what somebody is going to wear.
last hint:
At last hint which might help you is, that there must be a negation form (nicht or kein) in the first sentence
to use "sondern." If there is no "nicht or kein" in the first sentence you have to use "aber".

subcoordinating conjunctions
Subcoordinating conjunctions join a dependent clause (subordinate clause) to an independent clause (main
clause).
The dependent clause (mostly the second sentence) doesn't make sense without the sentence in front.

example:
Ich wei, dass wir uns wiedersehen. (I know that we will meet again.)
The first sentence could stand alone. The second sentence, however, doesn't make sense alone. In the second
sentence you don't know what the "that" is refering to.
1. Ich wei. (I know.)
2. dass wir uns wiedersehen. (that we'll meet again.)
The word order in the independent clause (main clause) remains as usual.
The word order in the dependent clause (subordinate clause) changes.

I don't want to go into detail here but just this rule: "In dependent clauses the verb goes to the very end of the
sentence". Check the topic "Satzstellung" (word order) for more details.





Konjunktionen
Theorie

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10 important subcoordinating conjunctions

dass=that
Er sagte, dass du sehr fleiig bist. (He said that you are very diligent.)
Ich mchte, dass du mich anrufst. (I want you to call me.)

weil=because
Ich muss jetzt schlafen, weil ich morgen frh aufstehe. (I have to sleep now because I'll get up
early tomorrow.)
Wir hatten einen Streit, weil er so stur war. (We had an argument because he was so stubborn.)

ob=if / whether
Ich wei nicht, ob sie heute zur Universitt kommt. (I don't know if she'll come to university today.)
Er fragte mich, ob du in Cagayan wohnst. (He asked me if you live in Cagayan.)

seit=since
Er ist ein neuer Mensch, seit er sie kennt. (He is a new man since he've known her.)
Er ist immer gestresst, seit er mit ihr zusammen ist . (He is always stressed since he's been
together with her.)

whrend=while
Bitte fttere den Hund, whrend ich weg bin. (Please, feet the dog while I'm away.)
Wir schauten fern, whrend die Kinder drauen spielten . (We've been watching tv while the kids
played outside.)

obwohl=although
Sie fuhr mit mir nach Bohol, obwohl ihre Freunde dagegen waren. (She went with me to Bohol
although her friends were against it.)
Sie lernt Deutsch, obwohl sie noch nie in Deutschland war. (She is studying German although she
hasn't been to Germany before.)

Konjunktionen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
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bis=until
Warte, bis ich zurck bin! (Wait, until I'll be back!)
Wir spielten Volleyball, bis es dunkel wurde. (We've played volleyball until it became dark.)

bevor=before
Bitte hilf mir, bevor du gehst! (Please, help me before you go!)
Ich la viel ber die Philippinen, bevor ich sie besuchte. (I read a lot about the Philippines before I
visited her.)

als=when
Ich war berrascht, als ich sie das erste mal gesehen habe. (I was surprised when I saw her for the
first time.)
Sie lchelte, als sie ihn sah. (She smilled when she saw him.)

damit=so that
Cathy lernt Deutsch, damit sie das Visum bekommt. (Cathy is studying German so that she'll get
the visa.)
Er kauft sich einen Computer, damit er mit ihm spielen kann. (He buys a computer so that he can
play with it.)
further important subcoordinating conjunctions
German English
als ob as if
anstatt instead of
da because
daher therefore, thus
ehe before
nachdem after
German English
seitdem since
sobald as soon as
solange as long as
trotz despite
wenn when / if
wann when

last hint:
Dependent clauses are separated by a comma from the rest.
So, always put a comma in front of the subcoordinating conjunction.
It also makes it easier to read the two sentences which are joined together.
Konjunktiv
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
learning target

Aim of this section is to learn how to use the Konjunktiv.
German English
Knntest du mir helfen?
Ich wnschte, du wrst schon hier.
Er sagte, er habe keine Zeit.
Could you help me?
I wish you were here already.
He said he had no time.


rules

What is Konjunktiv?
Konjunktiv is NOT a tense like Prsens, Prteritum, Perfekt, Zukunft...
Konjunktiv is a mood!

There are three moods in German:
Indikativ (indicative)
Konjunktiv (subjunctive)
Imperativ (imperative)
The Indikativ is the real world. It's used to speak about all things which really happen.
We've always used this mood so far. You just wasn't conscious of it.
The Konjunktiv is exactly the opposite of the Indikativ.
The Konjunktiv is used to speak about fictional things, things which are not real, things we would like to
become reality.
The Imperativ you know already quite well. It's used to give a command or a request.
You address something directly to somebody.
An example will make it clear:
example:
Tom lebt in Deutschland. (Tom lives in Germany.)
The sentences is in the Indikativ mood. It just describes the fact that Tom lives in Germany.

Ich wnschte, Cathy wre in Deutschland. (I wish Cathy were in Germany.)
The sentences is in the Konjunktiv mood. My wish is that she is here but it's not the reality.

Bleib bei mir! (Stay with me!)
The sentences is in the Imperativ mood. I give you the "command" to stay with me.

Konjunktiv
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
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For what do you need the Konjunktiv?
There are two different forms of Konjunktiv:
Konjunktiv I
Konjunktiv II

Konjunktiv I
Konjunktiv I is used for:
reported speech
some fixed phrases
examples:
Pet Pet sagte, du seist zu Hause. (Pet Pet said you was at home.)
[reported speech]
Gott sei Dank! (Thank godness!)
[some fixed phrases]

Konjunktiv II
Konjunktiv II is used for:
make a polite request
wishes / wishful thinking
conditional sentences [mostly start with "wenn" (=if)]
contrary to reality [introduced by "als ob" or "als wenn" (=both means: as if)]
reported speech
examples:
Wrdest du mir bitte helfen? (Would you help me please?)
[make a polite request]

Ich wnschte, ich wre ein Millionr. (I wish I were a millionaire.)
[wishful thinking]

Ich wrde dir helfen, wenn ich mehr Geld htte. (I would help you if I had more money.)
[conditional sentence]

Er fhrt, als ob er Michael Schuhmacher wre. (He drives as if he were Michael Schuhmacher.)
[contrary to reality]

Sie sagte, sie htte heute keine Zeit. (She said she had no time today.)
[reported speech]

Konjunktiv
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
I want us to concentrate on Konjunktiv II for now and leave out Konjunktiv I completly
because in almost all cases you'll need Konjunktiv II and we can still speak about Konjunktiv I later.

How do you form Konjunktiv II?
To form the Konjunktiv II in the present tense:
take the Prteritum form of the verb
change the vowel (a, o, u) into an "umlaut" if possible
add an "e" if there is not already an ending "e" or "en"

example (verb: be in the "ich"-form)
Prsens Prteritum Konjunktiv II
ich bin ich war ich wre

This rule doesn't work for "sollen", "wollen" and "werden", however.
That's why I suggest you learn these 9 verbs by heart because then you have covered almost everything you
need for the Konjunktiv II.
The "real" Konjunktiv II of sein, haben, werden and the modal verbs
Infinitiv ich du er / sie / es wir ihr sie Englisch
sein wre wrest wre wren wret wren be
haben htte httest htte htten httet htten have

drfen drfte drftest drfte drften drftet drften may
knnen knnte knntest knnte knnten knntet knnten can
mgen mchte mchtest mchte mchten mchtet mchten would like
mssen msste msstest msste mssten msstet mssten must
sollen sollte solltest sollte sollten solltet sollten should
wollen wollte wolltest wollte wollten wolltet wollten want

werden wrde wrdest wrde wrden wrdet wrden become





Konjunktiv
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
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The wrde + infinitive construction
You might ask, what's about all the other verbs? You can apply the same rules for them, too and
it would be grammatically perfect German but it's quite sure that people won't understand you or look at you
rather sceptically.
The reason is that the "real" Konjunktiv II has disappeared more and more out of the German language.
Nowadays, people use for all verbs (except the 9 verbs above) the "wrde + infinitive construction" instead
of the "real" Konjunktiv II.
example
The "real" Konjunktiv II of the verb gehen (to go) is:
Infinitiv ich du er / sie / es wir ihr sie Englisch
gehen ginge gingest ginge gingen ginget gingen go

That's grammatically 100% correct but I've never said in my life "du gingest" or "ihr ginget".
Instead we use the "wrde + infinitive construction".
Infinitiv ich du er / sie / es wir ihr sie Englisch
gehen wrde
gehen
wrdest
gehen
wrde
gehen
wrden
gehen
wrdet
gehen
wrden
gehen
go

The general rule to form the "wrde + infinitive construction" is:
conjugate "wrden"
add the infinitive form of the verb

Konjunktiv II in the past tense
So far, we just spoke about using the Konjunktiv II in the present tense.
To make it complete I'd like to show how it's formed in the past tense.
All you have to do is to combine your knowledge of the "Perfekt" tense and what you learned so far about the
Konjunktiv II.
The Perfekt tense is formed with: helping verb (haben or sein) + Partizip II of the main verb.
You keep the Partizip II of the main verb and you just transform the helping verb in the Konjunktiv II.

Indikativ sentence - "Perfekt" tense Konjunktiv II sentence - past tense
Ich habe gelernt. (=I learned.) Ich htte gelernt. (=I would have learned.)
Ich war gewesen. (=I was.) Ich wre gewesen. (=I would have been.)

Konjunktiv
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
The Konjunktiv II - past tense can only be formed in this way. There is no Prteritum form.
The word order is the same as in "normal" Perfekt sentences.
further examples:
Ich wnschte, ich wre hier gewesen. (I wish I would have been here.) [wishful thinking]

Ich wnschte, ich htte meine Hausaufgaben gemacht. (I wish I would have done my homework.)
[wishful thinking]

Ich htte sie zum Krankenhaus gebracht, wenn ich dort gewesen wre. (I would have taken her
to hospital if I had been there.) [conditional sentence]

Wir htten keine gemeinsame Zukunft gehabt, wenn ich nach England gegangen wre. (We
wouldn't have had a common future if I had gone to England.) [conditional sentence]

An exception are sentences in the Konjunktiv II - past tense form which contain a modal verb.
Sentences like this are in my oppinion the most difficult grammatical constructions.
I just want to give you the rule here. I won't torture you with exercises of this special topic.
You form the Konkunktiv II - past tense which contain modals verbs with:
helping verb (haben or sein) in the Konjunktiv II form + main verb in the infinitive form + modal verb

examples:
Ich wnschte, ich htte dir helfen knnen. (I wish I could have helped you.) [wishful thinking]

Ich htte weniger zu Hause lernen mssen, wenn ich dem Lehrer zugehrt htte. (I would have
had to study less at home if I had listened to the teacher.) [conditional sentence]

Modalverben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
learning target

Aim of this section is to learn how to use modal verbs.
German English
Ich muss nach Hause gehen.
Er sollte das Buch lesen.
Wir knnen das Visum bekommen.
I must go home.
He should read the book.
We can get the visa.



rules

What are modal verbs?
Modal verbs are a special group of verbs.
They usually never occur alone in a sentence but with a main verb.
Without the main verb the sentence mostly doesn't make sense.

example:
Ich kann (I can)
You wonder "What can I?" The sentence is incomplete and doesn't make sense
but as soon as you add the main verb you know what the speaker wants to say.
Ich kann sprechen. (I can speak.)
"Kann" is the modal verb and "sprechen" is the main verb in this sentence.
Together they express what the speaker is able to do.
Which modal verbs do excist?
The 6 modal verbs are:
drfen (may / be allowed to)
knnen (can / be able to)
mgen (like)
mssen (must / have to)
sollen (should / be supposed to)
wollen (want)

How do you conjugate the verbs in a sentence with modal verb and main verb?
conjugate the modal verb
DON'T conjugate the main verb (keep it in the infinite form)

Modalverben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
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example:
Ich kann sprechen. (I can speak.)
Du kannst sprechen. (You can speak.)
Er/Sie/Es kann sprechen. (He/She/It can speak.)
Wir knnen sprechen. (We can speak.)
Ihr knnt sprechen. (You can speak.)
Sie knnen sprechen. (They can speak.)

We talked already about how to conjugate the modal verbs in the section "Konjugation der Verben".
They belong to group C and don't follow a regular pattern and thus have to learn by heart.
Infinitiv ich du er / sie /
es
wir ihr sie Englisch
drfen darf darfst darf drfen drft drfen may / be allow to
knnen kann kannst kann knnen knnt knnen can / be able to
mgen mag magst mag mgen mgt mgen like
mssen muss musst muss mssen msst mssen must / have to
sollen soll sollst soll sollen sollt sollen should / be supposed
to
wollen will willst will wollen wollt wollen want

What's the word order for sentences with modal verbs?
put the modal verb after the subject in statements
put the main verb at the very end of the sentence

examples:
Cathy kann ein wenig Deutsch sprechen. (Cathy speaks a bit German.)
Ich mchte dich am Samstag im Cafe treffen. (I'd like to meet you on Saturday in the cafe.)
Wir mssen noch eine Menge lernen. (We still must learn a lot.)

What happens when the sentence consists a modal verb and a separable main verb?
As you can remember separable verbs have to splitted up and the prefix goes at the end of the sentence:
Ich hole ihn ab. (I pick him up.)
Ich sehe oft fern. (I often watch tv.)
Ich bringe euch das Buch vorbei. (I bring along the book to you.)
In sentences with modal verbs, however, separable verbs AREN'T
splitted up and remain one unit and go at the very end of the sentence.

Modalverben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
examples:
Ich kann ihn abholen. (I can pick him up.)
Ich mchte oft fernsehen. (I'd like often to watch tv.)
Ich muss euch das Buch vorbeibringen. (I must bring along the book to you.)

Unterstand the meaning of the modal verbs
Finally, I'd like to explain every single modal verb and give some further hints.
That's not really grammar but should help to avoid some common mistakes.
modal verb: drfen
"Drfen" is used to give or ask for permission:
examples:
Darf ich das Fenster ffnen? (May I open the window?)
Sie darf das Land nicht verlassen. (She is not allowed to leave the country.)

modal verb: knnen
"Knnen" expresses that somebody is able to do something or not:
examples:
Sie knnen sehr gut schwimmen. (They can swim very well.)
Ich kann morgen nicht ins Cafe kommen. (I can't come to cafe tomorrow.)

modal verb: mgen
"Mgen" expresses if somebody likes something or not:
examples:
Ich mag sie. (I like her.)
Sie mag Raimond nicht. (She doesn't like Raimond.)

watch out
Don't mix "mgen" and "mchten"!
mgen means "to like" somebody or something
mchten means "would like" something
"Mchten" is also a kind of an modal verb and thus behaves like one.
That means you just conjugate "mchten" and the main verb remains in the infinitive form.
The only difference is that "mchten" is a regular verb and is thus easy to conjugate.
Modalverben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
Infinitiv ich du er / sie / es wir ihr sie Englisch
mchten mchte mchtest mchte mchten mchtet mchten would like

examples:
Ich mchte dich wiedersehen. (I would like to see you again.)
Wir mchten heute nicht lernen. (We dont want to study German today.)

modal verb: mssen
"Mssen" is used to express that somebody must do something:
examples:
Du musst Deutsch lernen! (You must learn German!)
Muss ich das machen? (Do I have to do this?)

The negation of "mssen", however, is very often source of confusion for many Germans.
"Mssen" means "must" but "nicht mssen" DOESN'T mean "must not"!
If you say "Du musst nicht" you mean "you need not". With "nicht mssen" you express that something is not
necessary.
If you say "Du darfst nicht" you mean "you must not". With "nicht drfen" you express that somebody is not
allowed to do something.
examples:
Du musst nicht zum Cafe kommen... . (You need not come to the cafe - we can meet tomorrow
too.)
Du darfst nicht zum Cafe kommen... ! (You must not come to the cafe - there are dangerous
guys!)

modal verb: sollen
"Sollen" is used to give an advice or to express the own oppinion
examples:
Du solltest mehr lernen. (You should learn more.)
Wir sollten das nicht machen. (We shouldn't do this.)





Modalverben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
modal verb: wollen
"Wollen" is used to express that somebody really wants something.
examples:
Ich will jetzt gehen! (I want to go now!)
Sie will ihn nicht mehr. (She doesn't want him anymore.)

watch out
You can translate "wollen" with "want" but be careful with using it.
"Wollen" sounds in German demanding and often impolite. You'd better use "mchten" if you want something.
examples:
Ich mchte etwas zu trinken. (I would like something to drink.)
Mchten Sie sich setzen? (Do you want to sit down?)




Nach dem Weg fragen
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
statement / questions you will need to ask for directions

Deutsch Englisch
Entschuldigen Sie / Entschuldigung! Excuse me!
Ich kenne mich hier nicht aus. I dont know my way around.
Ich habe mich verlaufen. I have lost my way.
Knnten Sie mir bitte helfen? Could you help me please?
Wie komme ich zur / zum ...? How do I get to the ...?
Wissen Sie, wo der / die / das... ist? Do you know where the ... is?
Wie weit ist es bis zur / zum ...? How far is it to the ...?
Vielen Dank! Thank you!


possible answers you could get

Deutsch Englisch
Es ist nicht weit weg. It's not far away.
Es ist gleich da drben. It's right over there.
Es sind etwa 500 Meter. It's about 500 meters.
Es sind ungefhr 5 Minuten zu Fu. It's about 5 minutes by foot.
Es ist gleich um die Ecke. It's just around the corner.
Gehen Sie die Tom-Strae entlang. Go along the Tom-street.
Biegen Sie links / rechts ab. Turn left / right.
berqueren Sie die Tom-Strae. Cross the Tom-street.
Gehen Sie gerade aus. Go straight ahead.
Gehen Sie gerade aus bis zur / zum .. Go straight ahead until the ...
Nehmen Sie die nchste Kreuzung rechts. Take the right at the next intersection.
Auf der linken / rechten Seite sehen Sie. On the left / right side you'll see.
Es ist gegenber von der / dem ... It's across from the ...
Es ist in der Nhe von der / dem ... It's nearby the ...
Es ist neben der / dem ... It's next to the ...
Es ist vor / hinter ... It's in front of / behind ...



Nach dem Weg fragen
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
important locations / buildings in a city

Deutsch Englisch
Apotheke (die) | +n pharmacy
Arzt (der) | +e doctor
Bcker (der) | same bakery
Bahnhof (der) | (2nd) +e train station
Bank (die) | +en bank
Bushaltestelle (die) | +n bus stop
Disko (die) | +s disco
Flughafen (der) | (2nd) airport
Hotel (das) | +s hotel
Kaufhaus (das) | (3rd) +er mall / shopping center
Kino (das) | +s cinema
Kiosk (das) | same kiosk
Kirche (die) | +n church
Kneipe (die) | +n pub / bar
Marktplatz (der) | (2nd) +e market place
Park (der) | +s park
Polizei (die) | no police station
Post (die) | no post office
Rathaus (das) | (2nd) +er city hall
Restaurant (das) | +s restaurant
Theater (das) | same theater










Ordnungszahlen
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn the ordinal numbers in German.
German English
Ich sehe sie heute das erste mal.
Meine Prfungen finden im zweiten Semester statt.
Tom hat am fnften Mai Geburtstag.
I'll see her today for the first time.
My exams take place in the second semester.
Tom's birthday is on the fifth of May.


rules

To form the ordinal number:
add te to the cardinal number (1 to 20 )
add ste to the cardinal number (20 and above)

Exceptions are:
erste (first)
dritte (third)
siebte (seventh)
achte (eighth)













Ordnungszahlen
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
Ordnungszahlen 1 - 31

Num. Kardinalzahl Ordnungszahl
1 eins erste
2 zwei zweite
3 drei dritte
4 vier vierte
5 fnf fnfte
6 sechs sechste
7 sieben siebte
8 acht achte
9 neun neunte
10 zehn zehnte
11 elf elfte
12 zwlf zwlfte
13 dreizehn dreizehnte
14 vierzehn vierzehnte
15 fnfzehn fnfzehnte
16 sechzehn sechzehnte
17 siebzehn siebzehnte
18 achtzehn achtzehnte
19 neunzehn neunzehnte
20 zwanzig zwanzigste
21 einundzwanzig einundzwanzigste
22 zweiundzwanzig zweiundzwanzigste
23 dreiundzwanzig dreiundzwanzigste
24 vierundzwanzig vierundzwanzigste
25 fnfundzwanzig fnfundzwanzigste
26 sechsundzwanzig sechsundzwanzigste
27 siebenundzwanzig siebenundzwanzigste
28 achtundzwanzig achtundzwanzigste
29 neunundzwanzig neunundzwanzigste
30 dreiig dreiigste
31 einunddreiig einunddreiigste

Ordnungszahlen
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
Problem adjective endings
Ordnial numbers behave like adjectives.
That's why you have to add the correct ending depending on the gender, case, numerus and kind of article.
Check the topic Adjektivendungen if you are unsure about this.
The "e" at the end of all ordnial numbers in the table above is already such an adjective ending for nouns in the
nominative case.
If you have another case you have to cancel the "e" and add the correct ending to the "naked" adjective.

examples:
Neil Armstrong war der erste Mann auf dem Mond. (definite article, singular, male, nominative)
(Neil Armstrong was the first man on the moon.)
Sie hat am (=an dem) vierzehnten Dezember Geburtstag. (definite article, singular, male, accusat.)
(Her birthday is on the fourteenth of December.)
Sie mchten ein drittes Kind haben. (indefinite article, singular, neutral, accusative)
(They'd like to have a third child.)

Writting ordinal numbers
Like in English we don't write out ordinal numbers in texts because they are much too long.
In German we shorten them by adding a "dot" to the cardinal number.
examples:
1. = 1
st

2. = 2
nd

3. = 3
rd

4. = 4
th

5. = 5
th

and so on












Vergangenheit Perfekt
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn how to speak about past events
German English
!ch habe heute viel gearbeitet
!ch bin bei meiner "reun#in gewesen
Hast #u sie gesehen$
! worke# a lot to#a%
! have been at m% &irlfrien#
'i# %ou see her$


rules

There are ( tenses to speak about the past)
#as *erfekt +*erfect,
#as *r-teritum +*reterite,
#as *lus.uamperfekt +*luperfect,

/e will concentrate at first on the 0*erfekt0 because it1s almost alwa%s use# an# so the most important wa% to
speak about the past
'on1t confuse the 0*erfekt0 in 2erman with the 0*resent *erfect0 in 3n&lish !t #oesn1t have the same purpose
How do you form the "Perfekt" tense ?

Hilfsverben (auiliary verbs ! "hel"ing verbs"#
There are two 0Hilfsverben0 in 2erman)
haben +have,
sein +be,

$hen do you have to use "haben" and when "sein"?
4ou use 0sein0 when the verb shows a chan&e of position or con#ition e& &ehen +&o,5 kommen
+come,5 wan#ern +hikin&,
4ou use 0sein0 when the verb shows a crossin& of a 0boun#ar%0 e& sterben +#ie,5 einschlafen +fall
asleep,
4ou use 0sein0 when the verb is an intransitive verb +6verb without #irect ob7ect,
Vergangenheit Perfekt
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
"or all other cases use 0haben0 as 0Hilfsverb0

Another useful rule is that almost all weak verbs +see below, take 0haben0 as their 0Hilfsverb0
The onl% e8ception are the verbs 0reisen0 +travel, an# 0passieren0 +happen,
e8amples)
!ch bin &estern &ekommen +! arrive# %ester#a%,
3r ist &era#e &e&an&en +He has 7ust &one,
%ist #u schon ein&eschlafen$ +'i# %ou fall asleep alrea#%$,
The 0Hilfsverb0 is con7u&ate# as usual The main verb is transforme# into the 0*arti9ip !!0

$hat is the "Parti&i" ''"?
:ike in 3n&lish there are three 0;tammformen0 +principal forms, for ever% verb
The 0*arti9ip !!0 is the same as the 0past participle0 in 3n&lish
(euts)h
1 ;tammform
+!nfinitiv,
2 ;tammform
+*r-teritum,
3. Stammform
(Partizip II)
machen machte gema)ht
haben hatte gehabt
&ehen &in& gegangen
Englis)h
1 principal form
+infinitiv,
2 princ form
+simple past,
3. princ. form
(past participle)
#o #i# done
have ha# had
&o went gone


How do you form the "Parti&i" ''"?
As %ou alrea#% hear# from <r /olf there are three &roups of verbs)
weak verbs +re&ular,
stron& verbs +irre&ular,
mi8e# verbs +irre&ular,

weak verbs
/eak verbs are eas% to han#le The% are re&ular an# follow a rule
To form the 0*arti9ip !!0 of weaks verbs)
take the stem +6verb without the en#in& 0en0,
a## 0&e0 in front of the stem
a## 0t0 after the stem





Vergangenheit Perfekt
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
(
e8amples)
machen +!nfinitiv, => gemacht +*arti9ip !!,
fra&en +!nfinitiv, => gefra&t +*arti9ip !!,
arbeiten +!nfinitiv, => gearbeitet +*arti9ip !!,

A few weeks a&o we #ealt with separable verbs The% consists of prefi8?stem?en Here %ou follow the same
rule
*ut the 0&e0 in front of the stem
e8amples)
einkaufen +!nfinitiv, => eingekauft +*arti9ip !!,
vorstellen +!nfinitiv, => vorgestellt +*arti9ip !!,
zuhren +!nfinitiv, => 9ugehrt +*arti9ip !!,

@f course there are some little e8ceptions to this eas% rule)
e8ception 1) weak verbs which en# with 0ieren0 #on1t &et the prefi8 0&e0 but onl% the suffi8 0t0

e8amples)
stu#ieren +!nfinitiv, => stu#iert +*arti9ip !!,
foto&rafieren +!nfinitiv, => foto&rafiert +*arti9ip !!,
#iskutieren +!nfinitiv, => #iskutiert +*arti9ip !!,

e8ception 2) inseparable weak verbs #on1t &et the prefi8 0&e0 but onl% the suffi8 0t0

e8amples)
besuchen +!nfinitiv, => besucht +*arti9ip !!,
zerstren +!nfinitiv, => 9erstrt +*arti9ip !!,
erholen +!nfinitiv, => erholt +*arti9ip !!,

strong verbs
The secon# &roup are the stron& verbs The% follow almost the same rules like the weak verbs
but unfortunatel%5 some of them chan&e the stem vowel an# some of them chan&e the whole stem
To form the 0*arti9ip !!0 of stron& verbs)
take the stem +6verb without the en#in& 0en0,
a## 0&e0 in front of the stem
a## 0en0 after the stem
chan&e the stem vowel or the whole stem for some stron& verbs

Vergangenheit Perfekt
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
A
e8amples)
verbs with stem vowel chan&e
schreiben +!nfinitiv, => geschrieben +*arti9ip !!,
sin&en +!nfinitiv, => gesun&en +*arti9ip !!,
flie&en +!nfinitiv, => geflo&en +*arti9ip !!,
verbs with chan&e of the whole stem
sein +!nfinitiv, => gewesen +*arti9ip !!,
&ehen +!nfinitiv, => ge&an&en +*arti9ip !!,
essen +!nfinitiv, => ge&essen +*arti9ip !!,

;eparable stron& verbs behave similar to separable weak verbs
The% also &et the 0&e0 between the separable prefi8 an# the stem
take the stem +6verb without the en#in& 0en0,
a## 0&e0 in front of the stem
a## 0en0 after the stem
chan&e the stem vowel for some stron& separable verbs

e8amples)
einschlafen +!nfinitiv, => eingeschlafen +*arti9ip !!,
mitnehmen +!nfinitiv, => mitgenommen +*arti9ip !!,
aus&ehen +!nfinitiv, => ausge&an&en +*arti9ip !!,
!nseparable stron& verbs behave similar to inseparable weak verbs
The% also #on1t &et the 0&e0 in front of the stem
take the stem +6verb without the en#in& 0en0,
'@B1T put the 0&e0 in front of the stem
a## 0en0 after the stem
chan&e the stem vowel for some stron& inseparable verbs

e8amples)
verstehen +!nfinitiv, => verstan#en +*arti9ip !!,
erfin#en +!nfinitiv, => erfun#en +*arti9ip !!,
bekommen +!nfinitiv, => bekommen +*arti9ip !!,

mied verbs
The thir# &roup are the mi8e# verbs The% behave like stron& an# weak verbs
The%1ve &ot the prefi8 0&e0 an# the suffi8 0t0 like weak verbs but also chan&e
the stem vowel like stron& verbs "ortunatel%5 there are 7ust C of them
Vergangenheit Perfekt
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
e8amples)
#enken +!nfinitiv, => &e#acht +*arti9ip !!,
kennen +!nfinitiv, => &ekannt +*arti9ip !!,
brin&en +!nfinitiv, => &ebracht +*arti9ip !!,

word order
There is an eas% rule where %ou have to put the 0Hilfsverb0 an# the 0*arti9ip !!0 in a statement
put the 0Hilfsverb0 after the sub7ect
put the 0*arti9ip !!0 at the en# of the sentence

e8amples)
!ch habe sie &esehen +! saw her,
!ch bin in Da&a%an &ewesen +!1ve been in Da&a%an,
3r hat ihr #as Euch &ebracht +He brou&ht the book to her,

There is an eas% rule where %ou have to put the 0Hilfsverb0 an# the 0*arti9ip !!0 in a .uestion
put the 0Hilfsverb0 at the be&innin& of the sentence
put the 0*arti9ip !!0 at the en# of the sentence

e8amples)
Hast #u sie &esehen$ +'i# %ou see her$,
Eist #u in Da&a%an &ewesen$ +Have %ou been in Da&a%an$,
Hat er ihr #as Euch &ebracht$ +'i# he brin& the book to her$,










Vergangenheit Perfekt
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
F
tables

To make it easier for %ou to know which Ghelpin& verbH %ou have to use with which verb
! a##e# (h# for GhabenI an# (s# for HseinI in the H*arti9ip !!I row

*normal" weak verbs

'nfinitiv Pr+teritum Parti&i" '' Englis)h
antworten antwortete &eantwortet +h, answer
arbeiten arbeitete &earbeitet +h, work
beten betete &ebetet +h, pra%
brau)hen brauchte &ebraucht +h, nee#
dauern #auerte &e#auert +h, last
diskutieren #iskutierte #iskutiert +h, #iscuss
dr,)ken #rJckte &e#rJckt +h, hu&
dus)hen #uschte &e#uscht +h, shower
f,hlen fJhlte &efJhlt +h, feel
fragen fra&te &efra&t +h, ask
freuen freute &efreut +h, be happ%
glauben &laubte &e&laubt +h, believe
hoffen hoffte &ehofft +h, hope
holen holte &eholt +h, fetch
h-ren hrte &ehrt +h, hear
kaufen kaufte &ekauft +h, bu%
ko)hen kochte &ekocht +h, cook
kosten kostete &ekostet +h, cost
k,ssen kJsste &ekJsst +h, kiss
la)hen lachte &elacht +h, lau&h
l+)heln l-chelte &el-chelt +h, smile
lernen lernte &elernt +h, learn
lieben liebte &eliebt +h, love

*normal" weak verbs

'nfinitiv Pr+teritum Parti&i" '' Englis)h
ma)hen machte &emacht +h, make
meinen meinte &emeint +h, mean
reisen reiste &ereist +s, travel
"assieren passierte passiert +s, happen
reden re#ete &ere#et +h, talk
sagen sa&te &esa&t +h, sa%
s)hme)ken schmeckte &eschmeckt +h, taste
s"ielen spielte &espielt +h, pla%
studieren stu#ierte stu#iert +h, stu#%
su)hen suchte &esucht +h, look for
tr+umen tr-umte &etr-umt +h, #ream
warten wartete &ewartet +h, wait
weinen weinte &eweint +h, cr%
wohnen wohnte &ewohnt +h, live
&eigen 9ei&te &e9ei&t +h, show









Vergangenheit Perfekt
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
K

se"arable weak verbs

'nfinitiv Pr+teritum Parti&i" '' Englis)h
abholen holte ab ab&eholt +h, pick up
aufh-ren hrte auf auf&ehrt +h, stop
aufwa)hen wachte auf auf&ewacht +s, wake up
einkaufen kaufte ein ein&ekauft +h, shop
vorbereiten bereitete vor vorbereitet +h, prepare
vorhaben hatte vor vor&ehabt +h, plan
vorstellen stellte vor vor&estellt +h, ima&ine
&uh-ren hrte 9u 9u&ehrt +h, listen to











inse"arable weak verbs

'nfinitiv Pr+teritum Parti&i" '' Englis)h
bestellen bestellte bestellt +h, or#er
besu)hen besuchte besucht +h, visit
be&ahlen be9ahlte be9ahlt +h, pa%
erholen erholte erholt +h, rela8
erinnern erinnerte erinnert +h, remember
erkl+ren erkl-rte erkl-rt +h, e8plain
erleben erlebte erlebt +h, e8perience
er&+hlen er9-hlte er9-hlt +h, tell
geh-rt &ehrte &ehrt +h, belon&
,berset&en Jberset9te Jberset9t +h, translate
verkaufen verkaufte verkauft +h, sell
vermissen vermisste vermisst +h, miss
versu)hen versuchte versucht +h, tr%
wiederholen wie#erholte wie#erholt +h, repeat
&erst-ren 9erstrte 9erstrt +h, #estro%


















Vergangenheit Perfekt
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
C

*normal" strong verbs

'nfinitiv Pr+teritum Parti&i" '' Englis)h
sein war &ewesen +s, be
haben hatte &ehabt +h, have
werden wur#e &ewor#en +s, become

bleiben blieb &eblieben +s, sta%
essen aL &e&essen +h, eat
fahren fuhr &efahren +s, #rive
fallen fiel &efallen +s, fall
finden fan# &efun#en +h, fin#
fliegen flo& &eflo&en +s, fl%
geben &ab &e&eben +h, &ive
gehen &in& &e&an&en +s, &o
gewinnen &ewann &ewonnen +h, win
halten hielt &ehalten +h, hol#
hei.en hieL &eheiLen +h, be calle#
helfen half &eholfen +h, help
klingen klan& &eklun&en +h, soun#
kommen kam &ekommen +s, come
lassen lieL &elassen +h, let
laufen lief &elaufen +s, walk
lesen las &elesen +h, rea#
nehmen nahm &enommen +h, take
raten riet &eraten +h, &uess
rufen rief &erufen +h, call
s)hlafen schlief &eschlafen +h, sleep
s)hreiben schrieb &eschrieben +h, write
sehen sah &esehen +h, see
*normal" weak verbs
rmal" weak verbs
'nfinitiv Pr+teritum Parti&i" '' Englis)h
singen san& &esun&en +h, sin&
s"re)hen sprach &esprochen +h, speak
stehen stan# &estan#en +h, stan#
sterben starb &estorben +s, #ie
tragen tru& &etra&en +h, carr%
treffen traf &etroffen +h, meet
trinken trank &etrunken +h, #rink
tun tat &etan +h, #o
vergessen ver&aL ver&essen +h, for&et
verlieren verlor verloren +h, loose
wa)hsen wuchs &ewachsen +s, &row
was)hen wusch &ewaschen +h, wash
















Vergangenheit Perfekt
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
9
se"arable strong verbs

'nfinitiv Pr+teritum Parti&i" '' Englis)h
anfangen fin& an an&efan&en +h, be&in
ankommen kam an an&ekommen +s, arrive
anrufen rief an an&erufen +h, call5 phone
ausgehen &in& aus aus&e&an&en +s, &o out
aussehen sah aus aus&esehen +h, look like
eins)hlafen schlief ein ein&eschlafen +s, fall asleep
fernsehen sah fern fern&esehen +h, watch tv
fortgehen &in& fort fort&e&an&en +s, &o awa%
herkommen kam her her&ekommen +s, come from
loswerden wur#e los los&ewor#en +s, &et ri# of
mitnehmen nahm mit mit&enommen +h, take alon&
stattfinden fan# statt statt&efun#en +h, take place
um&iehen 9o& um um&e9o&en +h, chan&e clothes
wiedersehen sah wie#er wie#er&esehen +h, see a&ain
vors)hlagen schlu& vor vor&eschla&en +h, su&&est
&ugeben &ab 9u 9u&e&eben +h, a#mit
&ur,)kkommen kam 9urJck 9urJck&ekommen +s, come back

inse"arable strong verbs

'nfinitiv Pr+teritum Parti&i" '' Englis)h
bekommen bekam bekommen +h, &et
betr,gen betro& betro&en +h, cheat
bewerben bewarb beworben +h, appl%
ents)heiden entschie# entschie#en +h, #eci#e
erfinden erfan# erfun#en +h, invent M make up
gefallen &efiel &efallen +h, like
unterbre)hen unterbrach unterbrochen +h, interrupt
verstehen verstan# verstan#en +h, un#erstan#
Vergangenheit Perfekt
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
10
"normal" mied verbs
'nfinitiv Pr+teritum Parti&i" '' Englis)h
d,rfen #urfte &e#urft +h, ma%
k-nnen konnte &ekonnt +h, can
m-gen mochte &emocht +h, like
m,ssen musste &emusst +h, must
sollen sollte &esollt +h, shoul#
wollen wollte &ewollt +h, want

brennen brannte &ebrannt +h, burn
bringen brachte &ebracht +h, brin&
denken #achte &e#acht +h, think
kennen kannte &ekannt +h, know
nennen nannte &enannt +h, call
rennen rannte &erannt +s, run
senden san#te &esan#t +h, sen#
wissen wusste &ewusst +h, know


se"arable mied verbs
'nfinitiv Pr+teritum Parti&i" '' Englis)h
beibringen brachte bei bei&ebracht +h, teach
kennenlernen lernte kennen kennen&elernt +h, meet
mitbringen brachte mit mit&ebracht +h, brin& alon&
na)hdenken #achte nach nach&e#acht +h, think about


inse"arable mied verbs
'nfinitiv Pr+teritum Parti&i" '' Englis)h
erkennen erkannte erkannt +h, reco&ni9e


Vergangenheit Prteritum
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn the second way to speak abot past e!ents"
German English
#ch war hete im $ino"
#ch hatte einen %ten Ta%"
&ir redeten die %an'e (acht"
# was at the cinema today"
# had a %ood day"
&e talked the whole ni%ht"


rules

There are ) tenses to speak abot the past*
das +erfekt ,+erfect-
das +r.teritm ,+reterite-
das +ls/amperfekt ,+lperfect-

0ome weeks a%o we spoke abot the 1+erfekt1 which is mostly sed to speak abot the past"
Today we want to learn the second way to speak abot the past* 2as +r.teritm"
The 1+r.teritm1 is primarily sed in written 3erman"
Apart from a few !erbs ,e"%" sein4 haben- yo hardly find it in spoken 3erman"

How do you form the "Prteritum" tense ?
take the 1+r.teritm1 form of the !erb ,5simple past form-
con6%ate the 1+r.teritm1 form accordin% to the person

What is the "Prteritum" form?
7ike in 8n%lish there are three 10tammformen1 ,principal forms- for e!ery !erb"
The 1+r.teritm1 is the same as the 1simple past1 in 8n%lish"
Deutsch
1" 0tammform
,#nfiniti!-
2. Stammform
(Prteritum)
)" 0tammform
,+arti'ip ##-
machen machte %emacht
haben hatte %ehabt
%ehen ging %e%an%en

Englisch
1" principal form
,infiniti!-
2. princ. form
(simple past)
)" princ" form
,past participle-
do did done
ha!e had had
%o went %one



Vergangenheit Prteritum
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
How do you conugate the "Prteritum" form?
&e learned already how to con6%ate !erbs in the present tense at the !ery be%innin% of or stdies"
The con6%ation of the 1+r.teritm1 form follows also strict rles*
&e ha!e to distin%ish between 2 %rops*
weak !erbs ,re%lar-
stron% 9 mi:ed !erbs ,irre%lar-

!onugation of wea" #er$s
#n 8n%lish yo 6st add the endin% 1ed1 to the stem for weak !erbs ,# learned4 yo learned4 he9she9it learned
"""-
#n 3erman4 nfortnately4 yo ha!e to remember different endin%s ; as sal"
%erson ending e&am%le
,lernen 5 learn-
ich stem < te lernte
d stem < test lerntest
er 9 sie 9 es stem < te lernte
wir stem < ten lernten
ihr stem < tet lerntet
sie stem < ten lernten


8:ception* =erbs in which the stem ends with 1t14 1d14 1chn14 1dn14 1fn14 1%n1 or 1tm1 re/ire an additional 1e1
after the stem"

%erson ending e&am%le
,arbeiten 5 work-
ich stem < e < te arbeitete
d stem < e < test arbeitetest
er 9 sie 9 es stem < e < te arbeitete
wir stem < e < ten arbeiteten
ihr stem < e < tet arbeitetet
sie stem < e < ten arbeiteten




Vergangenheit Prteritum
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
)
!onugation of strong ' mi&ed #er$s
#n 8n%lish yo 6st se the same word for stron% !erbs ,# %a!e4 yo %a!e4 he9she9it %a!e """-"
#n 3erman4 nfortnately4 yo ha!e to remember different endin%s ; as sal"
%erson ending e&am%le
,%eben 5 %i!e-
ich +r.teritm %ab
d +r.teritm < st %abst
er 9 sie 9 es +r.teritm %ab
wir +r.teritm < en %aben
ihr +r.teritm < t %abt
sie +r.teritm < en %aben


8:ception* &hen the +r.teritm ends with an 1e1 the 1e1 before 1n1 is dropped in the 1wir1 and 1sie1 ,plral- ;
form"

%erson ending e&am%le
,haben 5 ha!e-
ich +r.teritm hatte
d +r.teritm < st hattest
er 9 sie 9 es +r.teritm hatte
wir +r.teritm < n hatten
ihr +r.teritm < t hattet
sie +r.teritm < n hatten

+roblem* separable !erbs
&ith separable !erbs we do the same what we already did with the con6n%ation of !erb in the present tense*
split p the separable prefi: and pt it at the end of the sentence
con6%ate the !erb as described abo!e

e:amples*
einkafen ,5weak !erb- ;> ich kafte ein ? d kaftest ein ? er9sie9es kafte ein ? wir kaften ein ?
ihr kaftet ein ? sie kaften ein ,to shop-
nachdenken ,5stron% !erb- ;> ich dachte nach ? d dachtest nach ? er9sie9es dachte nach ? wir
dachten nach ? ihr dachtet nach ? sie dachten nach ,to think-

Vergangenheit Prteritum
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
@
e&am%les

wea" #er$s
#nfiniti! Prteritum ich du er ' sie ' es wir ihr sie
Englisch
simple past
fAhlen f(hlte fAhlte fAhltest fAhlte fAhlten fAhltet fAhlten felt
hren h)rte hrte hrtest hrte hrten hrtet hrten heard
l.cheln lchelte l.chelte l.cheltest l.chelte l.chelten l.cheltet l.chelten smiled
lernen lernte lernte lerntest lernte lernten lerntet lernten learned
machen machte machte machtest machte machten machtet machten made
sa%en sagte sa%te sa%test sa%te sa%ten sa%tet sa%ten said
sammeln sammelte sammelte sammeltest sammelte sammelten sammeltet sammelten collected
schmecke schmec"te schmeckte schmecktest schmeckte schmeckten schmecktet schmeckten tasted
!ermissen #ermisste !ermisste !ermisstest !ermisste !ermissten !ermisstet !ermissten missed
!erschen #ersuchte !erschte !erschtest !erschte !erschten !erschtet !erschten tried

strong ' mi&ed #er$s
#nfiniti! Prteritum ich du er ' sie ' es wir ihr sie
Englisch
simple past
sein war war warst war waren wart waren was
haben hatte hatte hattest hatte hatten hattet hatten had
werden wurde wrde wrdest wrde wrden wrdet wrden became

wollen wollte wollte wolltest wollte wollten wolltet wollten wanted
knnen "onnte konnte konntest konnte konnten konntet konnten could
mAssen musste msste msstest msste mssten msstet mssten had to
sollen sollte sollte solltest sollte sollten solltet sollten should
dArfen durfte drfte drftest drfte drften drftet drften was allowed to
m%en mochte mochte mochtest mochte mochten mochtet mochten liked

brin%en $rachte brachte brachtest brachte brachten brachtet brachten brought
denken dachte dachte dachtest dachte dachten dachtet dachten thought
Vergangenheit Prteritum
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
#nfiniti! Prteritum ich du er ' sie ' es wir ihr sie
Englisch
simple past
kennen "annte kannte kanntest kannte kannten kanntet kannten knew
rennen rannte rannte ranntest rannte rannten ranntet rannten ran
wissen wusste wsste wsstest wsste wssten wsstet wssten knew

bekommen $e"am bekam bekamst bekam bekamen bekamt bekamen got
bleiben $lie$ blieb bliebst blieb blieben bliebt blieben stayed
fahren fuhr fhr fhrst fhr fhren fhrt fhren drove
finden fand fand fandst fand fanden fandt fanden found
%ehen ging %in% %in%st %in% %in%en %in%t %in%en went
heiBen hie* hieB hieBt hieB hieBen hieBt hieBen were called
klin%en "lang klan% klan%st klan% klan%en klan%t klan%en sounded
kommen "am kam kamst kam kamen kamt kamen came
lassen lie* lieB lieBt lieB lieBen lieBt lieBen let
lesen las las last las lasen last lasen read
nehmen nahm nahm nahmst nahm nahmen nahmt nahmen took
rfen rief rief riefst rief riefen rieft riefen called
schreiben schrie$ schrieb schriebst schrieb schrieben schriebt schrieben wrote
sehen sah sah sahst sah sahen saht sahen saw
sprechen s%rach sprach sprachst sprach sprachen spracht sprachen spoke
!er%essen #erga* !er%aB !er%aBt !er%aB !er%aBen !er%aBt !er%aBen forgot

+ last hint
#n the e:amples abo!e # wrote down all con6%ated 1+r.teritm1 forms for ich | du | ersiees | wir | ihr | sie.
Co can for%et immediately the con6%ated form for 1du" and "ihr" for all !erbs apart from ,sein4 haben4
modal !erbs4 wissen-" There is need to learn them e!er becase they are ne!er sed e:cept from plays in
theaters which show the li!e in the middle a%es" #nstead yoDd better se the 1+erfekt1 tense here" #t sonds
mch better"
e:amples*
+r.teritm* 2 s%rachst %estern mit Herrn &olf" ,Co spoke to Er &olf yesterday"-
+erfekt* 2 hast %estern mit Herrn &olf ges%rochen" ,Co ha!e spoken to Er &olf yesterday"-
The +r.teritm e:ample sonds odd and old fashioned" The +erfekt e:ample sonds natral and mch better"
Reflexive Verben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1


learning target

Aim of this section is to learn how to use reflexive verbs.
German English
ch erinnere mich an !en "rlaub.
#ie interessiert sich f$r %eutsch.
&ir freuen uns auf 'ovember.
remember the holi!a(.
#he is intereste! in )erman.
&e are loo*in+ forwar! to 'ovember.



rules

What are "reflexive Verben"?
,-eflexive .erben, are s/ecial verbs which re0uire a /ronoun to com/lete the sentence.

The term ,reflexiv, is eas( to ex/lain1
n sentences with refexive verbs the sub2ect an! the ob2ect 34/ronoun5 are the same /erson.
The ob2ect 34/ronoun5 reflects bac* to the sub2ect.


exam/le 11
ch wasche mich 2e!en Ta+. 3 wash m(self ever( !a(.5
,ch, is the sub2ect of the sentence. 6m actin+. wash.
,waschen, is the reflexive verb of the sentence.
,mich, 347 ich5 is the ob2ect of the sentence. #omeone !oes somethin+ with me. #omebo!( washes me.

exam/le 21
ch konzentriere mich auf !as 8xamen. 3 concentrate on the exam.5
,ch, is the sub2ect of the sentence. 6m actin+. concentrate.
,*on9entrieren, is the reflexive verb of the sentence.
,mich, 347 ich5 is the ob2ect of the sentence althou+h must a!mit that6s 0uite !ifficult to un!erstan!
because how can somebo!( or somethin+ ,bein+ concentrate!,:
t6s lo+ical that somebo!( can wash me or move me or shave me but concentrate me:::

Reflexive Verben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
&ell this lea!s us to the insi+ht that1
&hereas in 8n+lish there are 2ust a few reflexive verbs 3e.+. wash oneself; en2o( oneself5
)erman has man( reflexive verbs even thou+h the( are not reall( lo+ical in man( situations.

Which are the reflexive pronouns?
'ominativ ativ !kkusativ
%eutsch 8n+lisch %eutsch 8n+lisch
ich mir 3m(self5 mich 3m(self5
!u "ir 3(ourself5 "ich 3(ourself5
er sich 3himself5 sich 3himself5
sie sich 3herself5 sich 3herself5
es sich 3itself5 sich 3itself5
wir uns 3ourselves5 uns 3ourselves5
ihr euch 3(ourselves5 euch 3(ourselves5
sie sich 3themselves5 sich 3themselves5

f (ou chec* the chart carefull( (ou see that the reflexive /ronouns are almost the same as the /ersonal /ronouns.
<ust the er=sie=es an! the sie 3/l.5 form is new to (ou.

ative or !ccusative?
The next 0uestion is how !o (ou *now
if the reflexive /ronoun ta*es the !ative case or the accusative case.
The answer is eas(1
f the ob2ect is a !irect ob2ect then (ou nee! the accusative case.
f the ob2ect is an in!irect ob2ect then (ou nee! the !ative case.
f (ou are unsure about this chec* a+ain the to/ic1 %ie > ?@lle.












Reflexive Verben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
A
There is even an easier wa( to fin! out the case.
f there is 2ust one ob2ect then reflexive /ronoun ta*es the accusative.
f there are two ob2ects then the reflexive /ronoun ta*es the !ative.

exam/les1
ch wasche mich. 3 wash m(self.5
ch wasche mir !ie Hnde. 3 wash m( han!s.5
n the first exam/le there is 2ust one ob2ect 3mich4!irect ob2ect5. #o; the reflexive /ronoun must ta*e the
accusative.
n the secon! exam/le there are two ob2ects1 ,mir, 34in!irect ob2ect5 an! ,H@n!e, 34!irect ob2ect5.
#o; the reflex /ronoun must ta*e the !ative.

Wor" or"er of reflexive pronouns
n statements the reflexive /ronoun follows the con2u+ate! verb 34main verb in t(/1Bsentences = 4hel/in+ verb
in t(/2Bsentences5.
exam/les1
ch !usche mich aben!s. 3 ta*e a shower in the evenin+s.5
8r bewe+t sich sehr lan+sam. 3He moves ver( slowl(.5
ch habe mir !ie Haare +ewaschen. 3 washe! m( hair.5
&ir haben uns +estern +etroffen. 3&e met (ester!a(.5

n #uestions the reflexive /ronoun follows the sub2ect.
exam/les1
-asierst !u "ich 2e!en Ta+: 3%o (ou shave ever( !a(:5
8rinnert ihr euch an <o(: 3%o (ou remember <o(:5
Hast !u "ir !ie C@hne +e/ut9t: 3Have (ou brushe! (our teeth:5
Habt ihr euch erholt: 3Have (ou recovere!:5





Reflexive Verben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
>
$ist of reflexive verbs

general verbs
German English
sich anh%ren 3%5 listen to
sich ansehen 3%5 watch
sich &rgern 3A5 be an+r(
sich be"anken 3A5 than*
sich beeilen 3A5 hurr(
sich benehmen 3A5 behave
sich befin"en 3A5 be locate!
sich beschweren 3A5 com/lain
sich bewegen 3A5 move
sich bewerben 3A5 a//l(
sich entschei"en 3A5 !eci!e
sich entschul"igen 3A5 excuse
sich entspannen 3A5 relaxe
sich erholen 3A5 recover
sich erinnern 3A5 remember
sich fragen 3A5 won!er
sich freuen 3A5 loo* forwar! to
sich 3*ran*=wohl5 f'hlen 3A5 fell 3sic*=well5
sich gew%hnen 3A5 +et use!
sich hinlegen 3A5 lie !own
sich interessieren 3A5 be intereste!
sich kaufen 3%5 bu( oneself
sich kochen 3%5 coo* oneself
sich konzentrieren 3A5 concentrate
sich langweilen 3A5 be bore!
sich leisten 3%5 affor!
sich merken 3%5 *ee/ in min!
sich setzen 3A5 sit !own
sich treffen 3A5 meet
sich 'berlegen 3A5 thin* about

sich unterhalten 3A5 tal*
sich verbessern 3A5 im/rove
sich verlassen 3A5 rel(
sich verlieben 3A5 fall in love
sich verloben 3A5 become en+a+e!
sich versp&ten 3A5 be late
sich verstehen 3A5 +et alon+
sich vorbereiten 3A5 /re/are = +et rea!(
sich vorstellen 3%5 ima+ine = intro!uce
sich wun"ern 3A5 be ama9e!
sich w'nschen 3%5 wish


special verbs to "escribe the "ail( routine

German English
sich abtrocknen 3A5 !r( off
sich anziehen 3A5 +et !resse!
sich ausziehen 3A5 +et un!resse!
sich ba"en 3A5 ta*e a bath
sich 3!ie Haare5 b'rsten 3%5 brush 3one6s hair5
sich "uschen 3A5 ta*e a shower
sich 3!ie Haare5 f%hnen 3%5 blow !r( 3one6s hair5
sich 3!ie Haare5 k&mmen 3%5 comb 3one6s hair5
sich rasieren 3A5 shave
sich 3!ie Deine5 rasieren 3%5 shave 3one6s le+s5
sich schminken 3A5 /ut on ma*eu/
sich umziehen 3A5 chan+e clothes
sich waschen 3A5 wash oneself
sich 3!ie Harre5 waschen 3%5 wash 3one6s hair5
sich 3!ie H@n!e5 waschen 3%5 wash 3one6s han!s5
sich 3!ie C@hne5 putzen 3%5 brush 3one6s teeth5
a!!e! in brac*ets the case 3A5 4 accusative = 3%5 4 !ative.
Reisen
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
general words
Deutsch Englisch
ankommen to arrive
Ausweis (der) | +e ID card
buchen to book
dauern to last / to take
Geldautomat (der) | +en cash machine / ATM
Gepck (das) | no luggage / baggage
Grenze (die) | +n border
Handgepck (das) | no hand luggage
Handtasche (die) | +n handbag / purse
Koffer (der) | same suitcase
Reise (die) | +n journey / trip
Reisepass (der) | +e passport
reisen to travel
Rucksack (der) | (2nd) +e backpack
Tasche (die) | +n bag
Telefon (das) | +e telephone
Toilette (die) | +n rest room
Urlaub (der) | +e holiday / vacation
Versptung (die) | +en delay
Visum (das) | Visen visa
warten to wait
WC (das) | +s rest room

at the train station
Deutsch Englisch
abfahren to depart (train)
Bahnhof (der) | (2nd) +e train station
Fahrschein (der) | +e ticket (for train)
Fahrplan (der) | (2nd) +e schedule / time table
Gleis (das) | +e platform / track
Schaffner (der) | same train conductor
Straenbahn (S-Bahn) (die) | +en tram
Zug (der) | +e train

Reisen
Vokabeln

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
at the airport / in the airplane
Deutsch Englisch
Abflug (der) | (2nd) +e departure
abfliegen to depart (airplane)
Ankunft (die) | (2nd) +e arrival
Ankunftszeit (die) | +en arrival time
auspacken to unpack
Decke (die) | +n blanket
einchecken to check in
Flugdauer (die) | +n duration of the flight
Flughafen (der) | (2nd) airport
Flugticket (das) | +s plane ticket
Flugzeug (das) | +e airplane
Gebhr (die) | +en fee
Gepckrckgabe (die) | +n luggage claim
landen to land
Sitzplatz (der) | +e seat
Stewardess (die) | +en stewardess
Warteraum (der) | (2nd) +e waiting room
Zoll (der) | +e customs















Verb + Prposition
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn which verbs require which preposition.
German English
Ich warte auf dich.
Ich denke an sie.
Wir sprechen ber den Lehrer.
I'm waiting for you.
I'm thinking of her.
We speak about the teacher.


rules

Like in English some verbs always occur with a certain preposition:
Ich warte auf dich. (I'm waiting for you.)
As you can see the prepositions in German and English are not the same.
If you said: "Ich warte fr dich" it would sound completly wrong and the listener wouldn't understand you.
That's why: NEVER, translate the English prepositions one-to-one into German.

How do know which verb requires which preposition?
The rule is: There is no rule. You have to get familiar by the time which verb goes with
which preposition.

Nevertheless, I want to give you some examples for every preposition.
AN
Ich denke an dich. (I'm thinking of you.)
Ich glaube an Gott. (I believe in God.)
Ich erinnere mich an Nelson. (I remember Nelson.)

AUF
Ich freue mich auf dich. (I'm looking forward to you.)
Ich warte auf dich. (I'm waiting for you.)
Ich konzentriere mich auf mein Examen. (I concentrate on my exam.)

FR
Ich entscheide mich fr den Toyota. (I decide on the Toyota.)
Ich bete fr sie. (I'm praying for her.)
Ich danke dir fr das Geschenk. (I thank you for the present.)

Verb + Prposition
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
IN
Ich bersetze den Text in meine Sprache. (I translate the text into my language.)
Ich komme in Cagagyan an. (I arrive in Cagayan.)
Ich verliebe mich in dich. (I fall in love with you.)

MIT
Ich spreche mit Pet Pet. (I'm talking to Pet Pet.)
Ich kmpfe mit dir. (I fight with you.)
Ich fange mit den Hausaufgaben an. (I start the homework.)

NACH
Ich suche nach dem Schlssel. (I'm looking for the key.)
Ich frage ihn nach der Zeit. (I ask him about the time.)
Ich reise nach Hong Kong. (I travel to Hong Kong.)

BER
Ich spreche ber ein neues Thema. (I speak about a new topic.)
Ich denke ber uns nach. (I'm thinking about us.)
Ich wei nichts ber Deutschland. (I don't know anything about Germany.)

UM
Ich bitte um ein Glas Wasser. (I ask for a glass water.)
Ich kmmere mich um meinen Vater. (I take care of my father.)
Ich beneide dich um dein Auto. (I envy you of your car.)

VON
Ich trume von dir. (I dream about you.)
Ich trenne mich von meiner Freundin. (I break up with my friend.)
Es hngt von dir ab. (It depends on you.)

VOR
Ich beschtze dich vor ihm. (I protect you from him.)
Ich habe Angst vor dem bsen Mann. (I'm afraid of the bad man.)
Ich rette den Hund vor dem Feuer. (I save the dog from the fire.)

ZU
Ich lade dich zu meiner Party ein . (I invite you to my party.)
Ich gehre zu dir. (I belong to you.)
Ich gratuliere dir zu deinem Geburtstag. (I congratulate you on your birthday.)

Verb + Prposition
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
tables

AN
denken an think of
erinnern an remember
glauben an believe in
gewhnen an get used to
leiden an suffer from
teilnehmen an take part in
zweifeln an doubt
AUF
achten auf look out for
antworten auf answer
aufpassen auf take care of
bestehen auf insist on
bse sein auf be angry at
eiferschtig sein auf be jealous of
freuen auf look forward to
hoffen auf hope for
hren auf listen to
konzentrieren auf concentrate on
sagen auf say in
verlassen auf rely on
verzichten auf pass on
vorbereiten auf prepare for
warten auf wait for

FR
ausgeben fr spend on
bezahlen fr pay for
beten fr pray for
danken fr thank for
entscheiden fr decide on
entschuldigen fr apologise for
interessieren fr be interested in
sorgen fr arrange for

IN
ankommen in arrive in
bersetzen in translate into
verlieben in fall in love with
MIT
anfangen mit start with
aufhren mit stop
beginnen mit begin with
handeln mit deal with
kmpfen mit fight with
rechnen mit count on
spielen mit play with
sprechen mit talk to
telefonieren mit phone
verbinden mit connect to
verstehen mit get on with
vergleichen mit compare with
verwechseln mit mistake for

NACH
fragen nach ask about
reisen nach travel to
richten nach adapt to
rufen nach call for
schmecken nach taste of
suchen nach look for

Verb + Prposition
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
BER
rgern ber be annoyed at
denken ber think about
diskutieren ber discuss
freuen ber be happy about
hren ber hear about
lachen ber laugh about
nachdenken ber think about
reden ber talk about
sprechen ber speak about
streiten ber argue about
unterhalten ber talk about
wissen ber know about
wundern ber wonder about

UM
beneiden um envy of
bewerben um apply for
bitten um ask for
kmmern um take care of
sorgen um worry about
VON
abhngen von depend on
abholen von pick up
borgen von borrow from
erholen von recover from
halten von think about
trumen von dream about
trennen von break up with

VOR
Angst haben vor be afraid of
beschtzen vor protect from
retten vor save from
schtzen vor protect against
verstecken vor hide from
warnen vor warn of

ZU
einladen zu invite to
gehren zu belong to
gratulieren zu congratulate on
fhren zu lead to
passen zu go with















Wo- / Da-Wrter
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn the meaning and use of wo- / da compounds.
German English
Ich freue mich darauf.
Er trumt davon.
Worber denkst du nach?
I'm looking forward to it.
He dreams about it.
What are you thinking about?


rules
Wo- / da compounds require some explanation because they don't exist in English.
In German, however, they play quite an important role and are often used.
Da compounds
Several months ago we spoke about pronouns (ich, du, er, sie, es...).
Pronouns can be used to avoid repetitions and make sentences shorter:
example:
1. Cathy, Joy and Kristine sind Freunde. Cathy, Joy and Kristine gehen oft zusammen ins Kino.
(Cathy, Joy and Kristine are friends. Cathy, Joy and Kristine often go together to the cinema.)
2. Cathy, Joy and Kristine sind Freunde. Sie gehen oft zusammen ins Kino.
(Cathy, Joy and Kristine are friends. They often go together to the cinema.)
In the first example I used twice "Cathy, Joy and Kristine".
It sounds strange and makes the sentence unnecessary long.
In the second example I replaced the name of the three girls by "sie" (they).
You know who I mean with "sie" because I used the names in the sentence before already.

Da compounds have exactly the same purpose but they don't replace a person.
They replace an inanimate objec". To be exact: da compounds replace the object which follows a preposition.

example 1:
1. Ich kann den Schlssel nicht finden. Ich suche nach dem Schlssel.
(I can't find the key. I'm looking for the key.)
2. Ich kann den Schlssel nicht finden. Ich suche danach.
(I can't find the key. I'm looking for it.)
Because I don't want to write again "Schlssel" I replace it by "danach".
"Danach" consists of the word "da" and the preposition "nach" which belongs
to the verb "suchen" (to look for = suchen nach).

Wo- / Da-Wrter
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
example 2:
1. Ich vermisse unsere gemeinsame Zeit. Ich trume oft von unserer gemeinsamen Zeit.
(I miss our common time. I often dream about our common time.)
2. Ich vermisse unsere gemeinsame Zeit. Ich trume oft davon.
(I miss our common time. I often dream about it.)
Because I don't want to write again "unsere gemeinsame Zeit" I replace it by "davon".
"Davon" consists of the word "da" and the preposition "vor" which belongs to the verb "trumen" (to dream
about = trumen von).
We can summarize so far:
"Da compounds" have the same function as pronouns but they just replace inanimate objects if
the inanimate object follows a preposition.
They always consists of "da" and preposition which belongs to the verb.
If you want to translate a "da compound" into English split up the preposition and translate the
"da" into "it". It's not completely correct but helps to understand the meaning for now.

example 3:
1. Liebe ist ein schnes Thema. Wir sprechen oft ber Liebe.
(Love is a nice topic. We often speak about love.)
2. Liebe ist ein schnes Thema. Wir sprechen oft darber.
(Love is a nice topic. We often speak about it.)
In this example the "da compound" consists of "da" + "r" + "preposition".
There is one additional rule we have to consider:
If the preposition starts with a vowel (a,e,u,o,) or an umlaut (,,) you have to put a "r" between "da"
and the preposition: da + r + preposition








Wo- / Da-Wrter
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
Wo compounds
"Wo compounds" have the same function as "da compounds". They also replace the inanimate object following
the preposition.
The difference is: "da compounds" are used in statements and "wo compounds" are used in questions.

example 1:
question: Wonach suchst du? answer: Ich suche nach dem Schlssel.
(What are you looking for? -> I'm looking for the key.)
As you can see the example the "wo compound" is a kind of question word
which consists of "wo" and "preposition" which belongs to the verb (to look for = suchen nach).

If you try to translate a "wo compound" don't translate the "wo" into "where"
because here it has actually the meaning of "what".
example 2:
question: Wovon trumst du? answer: Ich trume von unserer gemeinsamen Zeit.
(What are you dreaming about? -> I'm dreaming about our common time.)
If the preposition starts with a vowel or an umlaut put a "r" between the "wo" and the "preposition".
example 3:
question: Worber sprechen sie? answer: Sie sprechen ber Liebe.
(What are they talking about? -> They are talking about love.)

Wo - Da compounds vs. personal pronouns
I noticed that you still struggle to decide whether you have to use a wo - da compound or a personal pronoun.
The following overview might help you:
inanimate objects animate objects (people)
statements
da compound
da + (r) + preposition
preposition + pronoun
questions
wo compound
wo + (r) + preposition
preposition + question word




Wo- / Da-Wrter
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
statements
example 1:
Ich freue mich auf das Wochenende (=inanimate object).
(I'm looking forward to the weekend.)
Ich freue mich darauf.
Ich freue mich auf meine Frau (=animate objects).
(I'm looking forward to my wife.)
Ich freue mich auf sie.

example 2:
Ich denke an den Urlaub (=inanimate object).
(I'm thinking about the holiday.)
Ich denke daran.
Ich denke an meinen Vater (=animate objects).
(I'm thinking about my father.)
Ich denke an ihn.

questions
example 1:
Ich rgere mich ber die Arbeit (=inanimate object).
(I'm angry about the work.)
Worber rgerst du dich?
Ich rgere mich ber meinen Chef (=animate objects).
(I'm angry about my boss.)
ber wen rgerst du dich?
example 2:
Ich trume oft von einem eigenen Haus (=inanimate object).
(I often dream about an own house.)
Wovon trumst du?
Ich trume von meinem Bruder (=animate objects).
(I often dream about my brother.)
Von wem trumst du?
Demonstrativpronomen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1


learning target

Aim of this section is to learn the demonstrative pronous and their use in the four cases.
German English
Ich mchte dieses Auto haben.
Kennst du diese Frau?
Siehst du jenen Mann?
I'd like to have this car.
Do you know this woman?
Do you see that man?


rules

The purpose of demonstrative pronouns
The purpose of demonstrative pronouns is easy to understand and no big deal.
They precede a noun (like an article) with the special feature that you point out verbally
somebody or something by using them.

Difference between "dieser" and "jener"
In English we distinguish between "this" and "that" (singular) and "these" and "those" (plural).
"This" and "these" is used for people/things which are close to the speaker.
"That" and "those" is used for people/things which aren't close to the speaker.
In German we don't make a difference like this. Hardly anybody uses the word "jener".
That's why I suggest we leave out "jener" for now and you keep in mind that, basically,
it means the same as "dieser".

The problem - endings
The real problem are the endings of demonstrative pronouns.
They depend on the gender, numerus and case of the noun.
To choose the correct ending you need exactly the same rules which we used already in Adjektivendungen.
example:
Ich liebe dieses Spiel. (I love this game.)
gender of "Spiel": neuter
numerus of "Spiel": singular
case of "Spiel" here: accusative ("Ich" is the subject of the sentence. "Spiel" is the direct object.)
If you look for singular, neuter, accusative you'll find the ending "es". So it must be "dieses Spiel".


Demonstrativpronomen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2

tables

"declension" of the demonstrative pronoun: dies-
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative dieser Mann diese Frau dieses Kind diese Kinder
genitive dieses Mannes dieser Frau dieses Kindes dieser Kinder
dative diesem Mann dieser Frau diesem Kind diesen Kindern
accusative diesen Mann diese Frau dieses Kind diese Kinder


"declension" of the demonstrative pronoun: jen-
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative jener Mann jene Frau jenes Kind jene Kinder
genitive jenes Mannes jener Frau jenes Kindes jener Kinder
dative jenem Mann jener Frau jenem Kind jenen Kindern
accusative jenen Mann jene Frau jenes Kind jene Kinder


If you carefully check the tables you can see that in a few situations (singular, genitive, male + neuter
and plural, dative) not just the ending of "dies-" change but the noun gets an additional ending, too.
For the endings in the genitive case please check the theory part 4 Flle on page 11.
The rule for the ending in the dative case is:
If the noun ends with a "n" don't add an additional "n". Otherwise add a "n".

examples:
diese Kinder (ends with "r") => diesen Kindern
diese Menschen (ends already with "n") => diesen Menschen


Vergangenheit
Das Plusquamperfekt
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn the third way to speak abot past e!ents"
German English
#r kafte sich ein teres Ato$ nachdem er im %otto
gewonnen hatte"

&er '( war schon abgefahren$ als wir in den
)ahnhof kamen"

)e!or *athy + mir kam$ hatte sie schon ein ,ahr
lan( &etsch gelernt"
He bo(ht an e-pensi!e car after he had won in
the lottery"

The train had already departed when we came to
the train station"

)efore *athy came to me she had been learning
.erman already for one year"



rules

When do you use the tense "Plusquamperfekt"
The /0ls1amperfekt/ is always sed when yo speak abot a e!ent in the past
that had happened before another e!ent in the past"
Another e-presson for the /0ls1amperfekt/ is /2or!er(an(enheit/ 34/pre past/5
which describes its prpose best" The /0ls1amperfekt/ is rarely sed"

e-ample 16
Als die #ltern das Has !erlassen hatten$ schaten die 7inder die (an+e 8acht fern"
39hen the parents had left the hose the children watched t! all ni(ht"5
e!ent 16 the parents left the hose
e!ent 26 the children watched t!
both e!ents happened in the past
for e!ent 1 yo always se /0ls1amperfekt/ and for e!ent 2 /0r:teritm/ or /0erfekt/



Vergangenheit
Das Plusquamperfekt
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
e-ample 26
8achdem sie das 2ism bekommen hatte$ ist sie sofort nach &etschland (eflo(en"
3After she had (ot the !isa she flew immediately to .ermany"5
e!ent 16 she (ot the !isa
e!ent 26 she flew to .ermany
both e!ents happened in the past
for e!ent 1 yo always se /0ls1amperfekt/ and for e!ent 2 /0r:teritm/ or /0erfekt/

"ndi#ators for "Plusquamperfekt"
There is a row of con;nctions which are clear indicators for /0ls1amperfekt/ 6
na#hdem 34after5
als 34when5
be!or 34before5

e-amples6
$a#hdem ich die 0r<fn( bestanden hatte$ habe ich eine (ro=e 0arty (emacht"
3After > had passed the e-am > made a bi( party"5
%ls wir +r 0arty kamen$ waren die meisten %ete schon gegangen"
39hen we arri!ed at the party most people had (one already"5
&e!or ich *athy kennen lernte$ hatte ich mich noch nie intensi! mit der detschen .rammatik
bes#h'ftigt"
3)e!ore > met *athy > hadn?t ne!er dealt intensi!ely with the .erman (rammar"5

(ow do you form the tense "Plusquamperfekt"


(ilfs!erben )au*iliary !erbs + "helping !erbs",
There are two /Hilfs!erben/ in .erman6
haben 3ha!e5 @@A 0r:teritm form6 hatte 3had5
sein 3be5 @@A 0r:teritm form6 war 3was5


Vergangenheit
Das Plusquamperfekt
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
B
When do you ha!e to use "haben" and when "sein"
Co se /sein/ when the !erb shows a chan(e of position or condition e"(" (ehen 3(o5$ kommen
3come5$ wandern 3hikin(5
Co se /sein/ when the !erb shows a crossin( of a /bondary/ e"(" sterben 3die5$ einschlafen 3fall
asleep5
Co se /sein/ when the !erb is an intransiti!e !erb 34!erb withot direct ob;ect5
Dor all other cases se /haben/ as /Hilfs!erb/"

Another sefl rle is that almost all weak !erbs 3see below5 take /haben/ as their /Hilfs!erb/"
The only e-ception are the !erbs /reisen/ 3tra!el5 and /passieren/ 3happen5"
e-amples6
>ch bin (estern (ekommen" 3> arri!ed yesterday"5
#r ist (erade (e(an(en" 3He has ;st (one"5
&ist d schon ein(eschlafenE 3&id yo fall asleep alreadyE5
The /Hilfs!erb/ is con;(ated as sal" The main !erb is transformed into the /0arti+ip >>/"

What is the "Parti-ip """ and how do you form it
9e spoke in detail abot /Partizip II/ when we learned the /0erfekt/ tense"
0lease check this topic for more information"

Possessivpronomen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn the possessive pronous and their use in the four cases.
German English
Meine Freundin heit Catherine Pacana.
Kennst du seinen Namen?
Ich schicke deiner Schwester eine Nachricht.
My girlfriend is called Catherine Pacana.
Do you know his name?
I send a message to your sister.


rules

The meaning of the possessive pronouns
The meaning of the possessive pronouns can be explained with one little table:
person numerus gender
1
st
person singular -
2
nd
person singular -
3
rd
person singular male
3
rd
person singular female
3
rd
person singular neuter
1
st
person plural -
2
nd
person plural -
3
rd
person plural -
2
nd
person (formal) singular / plural -
German English
mein my
dein your
sein his
ihr her
sein its
unser our
euer your
ihr their
Ihr your

The problem - endings
The real problem are once again the endings.
They depend on the gender, numerus and case of the noun.
To choose the correct ending you need exactly the same rules which we already used in Adjektivendungen.

example 1:
Mein Freund heit Tom. (My boyfriend is called Tom.)
gender of "Freund": male
numerus of "Freund": singular
case of "Freund" here: nominative ("Freund" is the subject of the sentence => nominative)
If you look for singular, male, nominative you'll find no ending. So it must be "Mein Freund".


Possessivpronomen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
example 2:
Ich besuche meinen Freund. (I visit my boyfriend.)
gender of "Freund": male
numerus of "Freund": singular
case of "Freund" here: accusative ("Ich" is the subject. "Freund" is the direct object of the sentence
=> accusative)
If you look for singular, male, accusative you'll find the ending "en". So it must be "meinen Freund".

example 3:
Ich schicke meinem Freund einen Brief. (I send a letter to my boyfriend.)
gender of "Freund": male
numerus of "Freund": singular
case of "Freund" here: dative ("Ich" is the subject. Brief is the direct subject of the sentence.
"Freund" is the indirect object of the sentence => dative)
If you look for singular, male, dative you'll find the ending "em". So it must be "meinem Freund".





























Possessivpronomen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
tables

declension" of the possessive pronoun: mein (=my)
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative mein Mann meine Frau mein Kind meine Kinder
genitive meines Mannes meiner Frau meines Kindes meiner Kinder
dative meinem Mann meiner Frau meinem Kind meinen Kindern
accusative meinen Mann meine Frau mein Kind meine Kinder

"declension" of the possessive pronoun: dein (=your, singular)
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative dein Mann deine Frau dein Kind deine Kinder
genitive deines Mannes deiner Frau deines Kindes deiner Kinder
dative deinem Mann deiner Frau deinem Kind deinen Kindern
accusative deinen Mann deine Frau dein Kind deine Kinder

"declension" of the possessive pronoun: sein (=his, its)
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative sein Mann seine Frau sein Kind seine Kinder
genitive seines Mannes seiner Frau seines Kindes seiner Kinder
dative seinem Mann seiner Frau seinem Kind seinen Kindern
accusative seinen Mann seine Frau sein Kind seine Kinder

"declension" of the possessive pronoun: ihr (=her, their)
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative ihr Mann ihre Frau ihr Kind ihre Kinder
genitive ihres Mannes ihrer Frau ihres Kindes ihrer Kinder
dative ihrem Mann ihrer Frau ihrem Kind ihren Kindern
accusative ihren Mann ihre Frau ihr Kind ihre Kinder


Possessivpronomen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
"declension" of the possessive pronoun: unser (=our)
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative unser Vater unsere Mutter unser Kind unsere Kinder
genitive unseres Vaters unserer Mutter unseres Kindes unserer Kinder
dative unserem Vater unserer Mutter unserem Kind unseren Kindern
accusative unseren Vater unsere Mutter unser Kind unsere Kinder

"declension" of the possessive pronoun: euer (=your, plural)
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative euer Vater eure Mutter* euer Kind eure Kinder*
genitive eures Vaters* eurer Mutter* eures Kindes* eurer Kinder*
dative eurem Vater* eurer Mutter* eurem Kind* euren Kindern*
accusative euren Vater* eure Mutter* euer Kind eure Kinder*

As you can see all possessive pronouns have got the same endings. So, you just have to learn one and you
know all. If you compare it with the "declension" of indifinite articles you will see they also have the same
endings. That makes it much easier. Of course there is an exception. The possessive pronoun "euer" (=your,
plural) drops the "e" in the middle (marked with a *) if it has got an ending.



Possessivpronomen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn the possessive pronous and their use in the four cases.
German English
Meine Freundin heit Catherine Pacana.
Kennst du seinen Namen?
Ich schicke deiner Schwester eine Nachricht.
My girlfriend is called Catherine Pacana.
Do you know his name?
I send a message to your sister.


rules

The meaning of the possessive pronouns
The meaning of the possessive pronouns can be explained with one little table:
person numerus gender
1
st
person singular -
2
nd
person singular -
3
rd
person singular male
3
rd
person singular female
3
rd
person singular neuter
1
st
person plural -
2
nd
person plural -
3
rd
person plural -
2
nd
person (formal) singular / plural -
German English
mein my
dein your
sein his
ihr her
sein its
unser our
euer your
ihr their
Ihr your

The problem - endings
The real problem are once again the endings.
They depend on the gender, numerus and case of the noun.
To choose the correct ending you need exactly the same rules which we already used in Adjektivendungen.

example 1:
Mein Freund heit Tom. (My boyfriend is called Tom.)
gender of "Freund": male
numerus of "Freund": singular
case of "Freund" here: nominative ("Freund" is the subject of the sentence => nominative)
If you look for singular, male, nominative you'll find no ending. So it must be "Mein Freund".


Possessivpronomen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
example 2:
Ich besuche meinen Freund. (I visit my boyfriend.)
gender of "Freund": male
numerus of "Freund": singular
case of "Freund" here: accusative ("Ich" is the subject. "Freund" is the direct object of the sentence
=> accusative)
If you look for singular, male, accusative you'll find the ending "en". So it must be "meinen Freund".

example 3:
Ich schicke meinem Freund einen Brief. (I send a letter to my boyfriend.)
gender of "Freund": male
numerus of "Freund": singular
case of "Freund" here: dative ("Ich" is the subject. Brief is the direct subject of the sentence.
"Freund" is the indirect object of the sentence => dative)
If you look for singular, male, dative you'll find the ending "em". So it must be "meinem Freund".





























Possessivpronomen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
tables

declension" of the possessive pronoun: mein (=my)
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative mein Mann meine Frau mein Kind meine Kinder
genitive meines Mannes meiner Frau meines Kindes meiner Kinder
dative meinem Mann meiner Frau meinem Kind meinen Kindern
accusative meinen Mann meine Frau mein Kind meine Kinder

"declension" of the possessive pronoun: dein (=your, singular)
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative dein Mann deine Frau dein Kind deine Kinder
genitive deines Mannes deiner Frau deines Kindes deiner Kinder
dative deinem Mann deiner Frau deinem Kind deinen Kindern
accusative deinen Mann deine Frau dein Kind deine Kinder

"declension" of the possessive pronoun: sein (=his, its)
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative sein Mann seine Frau sein Kind seine Kinder
genitive seines Mannes seiner Frau seines Kindes seiner Kinder
dative seinem Mann seiner Frau seinem Kind seinen Kindern
accusative seinen Mann seine Frau sein Kind seine Kinder

"declension" of the possessive pronoun: ihr (=her, their)
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative ihr Mann ihre Frau ihr Kind ihre Kinder
genitive ihres Mannes ihrer Frau ihres Kindes ihrer Kinder
dative ihrem Mann ihrer Frau ihrem Kind ihren Kindern
accusative ihren Mann ihre Frau ihr Kind ihre Kinder


Possessivpronomen
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
"declension" of the possessive pronoun: unser (=our)
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative unser Vater unsere Mutter unser Kind unsere Kinder
genitive unseres Vaters unserer Mutter unseres Kindes unserer Kinder
dative unserem Vater unserer Mutter unserem Kind unseren Kindern
accusative unseren Vater unsere Mutter unser Kind unsere Kinder

"declension" of the possessive pronoun: euer (=your, plural)
singular plural case
male female neuter -
nominative euer Vater eure Mutter* euer Kind eure Kinder*
genitive eures Vaters* eurer Mutter* eures Kindes* eurer Kinder*
dative eurem Vater* eurer Mutter* eurem Kind* euren Kindern*
accusative euren Vater* eure Mutter* euer Kind eure Kinder*

As you can see all possessive pronouns have got the same endings. So, you just have to learn one and you
know all. If you compare it with the "declension" of indifinite articles you will see they also have the same
endings. That makes it much easier. Of course there is an exception. The possessive pronoun "euer" (=your,
plural) drops the "e" in the middle (marked with a *) if it has got an ending.




Relativpronomen
Theorie


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn the relative pronous and their use in the four cases.
German English
Das ist die Frau, die ich gestern getroffen habe.
Er ist der Mann, den wir suchen.
Die Arbeit, welche ich jetzt mache, ist schn.
That's the woman who I met yesterday.
He is the man who we are looking for.
The job, which I'm doing now, is nice.



rules

What is a relative pronoun?

A relative pronoun is word which introduces a relative clause.
The relative pronoun refers back to a noun (subject or object) in the main clause.
I want us to call this noun in the main clause: Bezugswort (=antecedent).



examples:
Die Frau hat ein groes Auto, das aus Europa kommt. (The woman has a big car which comes from Europe.)
Auto is the object of the main sentence
das is the relative pronoun of the relative clause
das refers back to the car (car is the "Bezugswort")

Die Frau, die in New York wohnt, hat ein groes Auto. (The woman, who lives in New York, has a big car.)
Frau is the subject of the main sentence
die is the relative pronoun of the relative clause
die refers back to the woman (woman is the "Bezugswort")





Relativpronomen
Theorie


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
Which relative pronouns do exist in German?

The relative pronouns in German are:
der: refers back to male nouns
die: refers back to female nouns
das: refers back to neuter nouns
welcher: refers back to male, female or neuter nouns
You can use either der/die/das or welcher.
Both ways are possible although welcher is mostly used in written German.

examples:
Ich kenne den Mann, der gestern hier war. (I know the man who was here yesterday.)
Ich kenne den Mann, welcher gestern hier war. (I know the man who was here yesterday.)

If I say der/die/das and welcher are the relative pronouns than it's just half of the truth.
Like many other words you have to modify the pronouns depending on numerus, gender and case (see tables
at the end) and now it becomes a bit complicate.
The gender and numerus of the relative pronoun is the same as the gender and numerus of the
"Bezugswort".
The case of the relative pronoun, however, is determined by the "function" of the pronoun in the
relative clause - not by the "function" of the "Bezugswort"!

examples:
Ich kenne den Mann, der in Cagayan wohnt. (I know the man who lives in Cagayan.)
Mann is the "Bezugswort". It's singular and male the relative pronoun must be singular and male,
too
He (->der) playes the roll of the subject in the relative clause. He does something (he lives)
nominative

Ich kenne den Mann, den die Leute hassen. (I know the man who the people hate.)
Mann is the "Bezugswort". It's singular and male the relative pronoun must be singular and male,
too
The people is the subject of the relative clause (they hate). He (->den) is the direct object of the
relative clause. He is being hated. accusative




Relativpronomen
Theorie


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
Ich kenne den Mann, dem die Leute ein Buch schenkten. (I know the man to whom the people gave a book.)
Mann is the "Bezugswort". It's singular and male the relative pronoun must be singular and male,
too
The people is the subject of the relative clause (they gave). The book is the direct object.
He (->dem) is the indirect object of the relative clause. He is the beneficiary. dative

Ich kenne den Mann, dessen Hund Angie heit. (I know the man whose dog is called Angie.)
Mann is the "Bezugswort". It's singular and male the relative pronoun must be singular and male,
too
He has a dog which is called Angie. The dog belongs to him (possesion / ownership) genitive
I think the understanding of the cases in relatives clauses is quite tricky and needs praticse.
Don't worry we will practise this step by step in the exercises.

Last remarks
In German we don't distinguish between relative pronouns
which refer back to alive or dead things like in English.
who: refers back to alive things
which / that: refers back to dead things
In this point German is easier than English.

examples:
Ich kenne das Mdchen, das in Cagayan lebt. (I know the girl who lives in Cagayan.)
Ich kenne das Haus, das abgebrannt ist. (I know the house which burned down.)

In German it's not possible to leave out the relative pronoun like in English.

examples:
Das ist der Computer, den ich gestern gekauft habe. (That's the computer which I bought
yesterday.)
Das ist der Computer, ich gestern gekauft habe. (That's the computer I bought yesterday.)
In English both sentences are possible. The second one without the relative pronoun sounds even better.
In German, however, only the first one is correct. The second sentence without "den" is wrong and not
understandable.

In German the relative clause is always separated by a comma from the main clause.
I think that's an advantange compared to English because it makes it easier to understand the two sentences.


Relativpronomen
Theorie


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
example:
Das ist der Junge, (comma) der bei der Post arbeitet. (Thats the boy (no comma) who works at the
post office.)

If there is a preposition which belongs to a verb
then the preposition goes at the beginning of the relative clause.

examples:
Das ist die Frau, auf die gewartet habe. (That the woman who I was waiting for.)
Sie ist das Mdchen, von dem ich trume. (She is the girl who I dream of.)
In the first sentence the verb is: warten auf (wait for).
In the second sentence the verb is: trumen von (dream of).

tables

declension" of the relative pronouns: der/die/das
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative der die das die
genitive dessen deren dessen deren
dative dem der dem denen
accusative den die das die

The declination scheme of the der/die/das - relative pronouns is almost the same as the as the declination of
the definite article. I underlined the five pronouns which differ.

"declension" of the relative pronoun: welcher
case singular plural
male female neuter -
nominative welcher welche welches welche
genitive welches welcher welches welcher
dative welchem welcher welchem welchen
accusative welchen welche welches welche

Trennbare Verben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this section is to learn how to use a special group of German verbs: separable verbs
separable verb
(infinitive)
use of the verb in present tense

aufstehen
fernsehen
zuhren
ausgehen
nachdenken
zurckgeben
Ich stehe um 6 Uhr auf.
Wir sehen gerne fern.
Er hrt ihr zu.
Ich gehe morgen aus.
Sie denkt viel nach.
Ich gebe ihnen das Buch zurck.



rules

Conjugation of separable verbs in present tense
In section "Konjugation der Verben im Prsens" we learned already how to conjugate "normal" verbs. With this
knowledge it's just an easy step to conjugate separable verbs. Just do these three steps:
before you conjugate separate the prefix (Vorsilbe) from the verb
put the prefix (Vorsilbe) at the end of the sentence
conjugate the verb in the same way you did in section "Konjugation der Verben im Prsens"
example:
ausgehen
prefix / verb
Ich gehe heute mit meiner Freundin aus.
Subject / conjugated verb / rest of the sentence / prefix.

Situations where separable verbs are not separated
There are four situations where separable verbs stay together. Don't worry about these rules now. We will
cover them later when we speak about the single topics.
situation example translation
in connection with modal verbs Du kannst nicht ausgehen. You can't go out.
in the "will-future tense" Ich werde ausgehen. I will go out.
in dependent clauses Tom sagt, dass er ausgeht. Tom says that he goes out.
in the perfect tense Ich bin gestern ausgegangen. I went out yesterday.

Which verbs are separable and which not?
The problem is, not all verbs which consist of prefix + verb are separable. There are three groups: separable
verbs, inseparable verbs and dual verbs which are both - depending on the meaning.
Trennbare Verben
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
separable verbs
prefix examples translation
ab abholen
abheben
pick up
take off
an anfangen
anrufen
begin
call, phone
auf aufhren
aufstehen
stop
get up
aus ausgehen
aussehen
go out
look, appear
bei beibringen
beitreten
teach
join
ein einkaufen
einschlafen
shop
fall asleep
fern fernsehen watch tv
fort fortgehen
fortsetzen
go away
continue
her herkommen
herstellen
come from
manufacture
hin hinfahren
hinstellen
drive there
place
los losfahren
loswerden
drive off
get rid off
mit mitbringen
mitnehmen
bring along
take along
nach nachdenken
nachfragen
think
ask after
statt stattfinden
stattgeben
take place
grant
vor vorhaben
vorstellen
have planned
imagine
vorbei vorbeikommen come by
weg weggehen
wegnehmen
go away
take away
zu zuhren
zugeben
listen
admite
zurck zurckgeben
zurckkommen
give back
come back
zusammen zusammenfassen
zusammenkommen
summarize
come together
Further prefixes (seldom used):
da, dabei, daran, empor, entgegen,
entlang, fehl, fest, gegenber, gleich,
herauf, heraus, hinweg, hinzu, zurecht, zwischen
inseparable verbs
prefix examples translation
ant antworten answer
be bekommen
besuchen
get
visit
emp empfangen
empfehlen
receive
recommend
ent entdecken
entfernen
discover
remove
er erkennen
erholen
recognize
recover
ge gehren
gewinnen
belong
win
miss missbrauchen
missverstehen
abuse
missunderstand
ver vergessen
versprechen
forget
promise
zer zerbrechen
zerstren
break
destroy
The underlined prefixes cover 95%
of all inseparable verbs and
you should keep them in mind.

dual verbs
prefix examples translation
durch durchdringen (sep.)
durchfressen (insep.)
penetrate
eat through
hinter hinterlassen (sep.)
hinterlassen (insep.)
allow to s.o. to go behing
leave
ber bersetzen (sep.)
bersetzen (insep.)
ferry across
translate
um umziehen (sep.)
umarmen (insep.)
change clothes
hug
unter untergehen (sep.)
unterbrechen (insep.)
sink
interrupt
wider widertnen (sep.)
widersprechen (insep.)
echo
contradict
wieder wiedersehen (sep.)
wiedergeben (insep.)
see again
represent








Vokabelliste


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
Deutsch Englisch

a..
Abend (der) evening
aber but
abholen pick up
abreisen depart
Abschied (der) farewell
alle everybody
alles everything
Alltag (der) everyday life
an on, by, to ...
andeuten denote
anfangen begin
Angst (die) fear
Anzug (der) suit
Anfang (der) begin
Antwort (die) answer / response
antworten answer
also so
alt old
Arbeit (die) work
Arm (der) arm
Arzt (der) doctor
auch also
Aufenthalt (der) stay
aufgeregt excited
aufmachen open
aufrumen tidy
aufrichtig honest
aufschreiben write down
Auge (das) eye
ausgeben spend
ausgehen go out
auerdem furthermore
Ausstellung (die) exhibition
aussuchen choose
Auto (das) car
Deutsch Englisch

b..
Badezimmer (das) restroom
bald soon
Bauch (der) belly
Bein (das) leg
beien bite
bekommen get
beeindruckt impressed
behalten keep
beide both
Benzin (das) patrol
beschftigen deal
bereits already
berufsttig sein be in a job
beruhigen calm down
beschreiben describe
besonders special
besser better
bestens at best
besuchen visit
beten pray
Bett (das) bed
bewundern admire
bezahlen pay
Beziehung (die) relationship
Bier (das) beer
Bierflasche (die) bottle of beer
billig cheap
bis till
bitte please
blau blue
Bleistift (der) pencil
Bluse (die) blouse
Bonbon (der) sweet
bse angry
brauchen need
brav good
Brief (der) letter
Brot (das) bread
Bruder (der) brother
Buch (das) book
Bus (der) bus

Vokabelliste


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
Deutsch Englisch

c..
Campingplatz (der) camping ground
charmant charming
Computer (der) computer

d..
Dame (die) lady
danke thank you
dann then
dass that
deinetwegen because of you
deshalb that's why
dies this
Ding (das) thing
Diskussion (die) discussion
dort there
Dose (die) can
drcken hug
Duell (das) duel
dumm stupid
durch through
drfen may
Deutsch Englisch

e..
echt really
eiferschtig jealous
eigentlich actually
eilig hurry
einander each other
ein anders another
einkaufen shop / go shopping
Eis (das) ice
einschlafen fall asleep
Eltern (die) parents
Ende (das) end
endlich eventually
Entschuldigung! Excuse me!
ergnzen add
Erkltung (die) cold
erkennen recognize
erleiden suffer
erinnern remember
erklren explain
ernst serious
erste first
erzhlen tell
essen eat
etwas something





















Vokabelliste


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
3
Deutsch Englisch

f..
Fahrkarte (die) ticket
Fahrrad (das) bike
fahren drive
falsch wrong
fantastisch fantastic
Farbe (die) color
fast almost
Fenster (das) window
fertig ready, finished
fest tight
Film (der) movie
finden find
Flasche (die) bottle
Flug (der) flight
Flughafen (der) airport
Form (die) form
Foto (das) photo
Frau (die) woman
frei free
Freizeit (die) spare time
Freund (der) boyfriend
Freundin (die) girlfriend
freundlich friendly
freuen auf looking forward to
froh glad
frher earlier
fhlen feel
funktionieren work
fr for
fr immer for ever
Fussball (der) football / soccer
Fuballspiel (das) football game
Deutsch Englisch

g..
ganz completely / whole
geben give
geboren born
Gebet (das) pray
Gedanke (der) thought
Gedchtnis (das) memory
Gefhl (das) feeling
gehen go
geistig spiritual
Geld (das) money
gemeinsam common
Gemse (das) vegetables
gemtlich comfortable
geniessen enjoy
genau exactly
genehmigen approve
genug enough
gerne "like something"
gering little
geschehen happen
Geschichte (die) history
gestern yesterday
Glas (das) glass
gleich shortly
Glck (das) luck
glcklich happy
grau grey
gro big
gut good / well












Vokabelliste


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
4
Deutsch Englisch

h..
Haar (das) hair
Hals (der) neck
Halt! stop!
hallo hello
Handball (der) hand ball
Handy (das) mobile phone
Hauptbahnhof (der) main station
Hausaufgaben (die) homework
heilig holly
Herz (das) heart
heute today
hier here
Hinweis (der) clue
hinzufgen add
historisch historic
hoffen hope
hungern hunger
Hut (der) hut

i..
immer noch still
inspirieren inspire
irgend etwas anything

j..
ja yes
Jacke (die) jacket
Jahr (das) year
jeden every
jemand somebody
jetzt now
jung young
Junge (der) boy
Deutsch Englisch

k..
Kaffee (der) coffee
Kapitel (das) chapter
Kasse (die) cash desk
kaufen buy
Kaugummi (der) chewing gum
kein no
kennen know
Kino (das) cinema
Klasse (die) class
Klassenzimmer (das) class room
klein little
kommen come
knnen can
Kontakt (der) contact
Konzert (das) concert
Kopf (der) head
krank ill
Krimi (der) crime story
Kuchen (der) cake
Kulturprogramm (das) culture programe
kndigen resign
kaputt damaged
kurz short
kssen kiss










Vokabelliste


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
5
Deutsch Englisch

l..
lcheln smile
lachen laugh
Lampe (die) lamp
Land (das) country
lang long
langsam slowly
langweilig boring
laut loud
Leben (das) life
Lebenslauf (der) resume
Lehrer (der) teacher (male)
Lehrerin (die) teacher (female)
Leinwand (die) screen
lernen learn
lesen read
letzte last
lieben love
lieber better / like more
Lieblingssendung (die) favourite series
Lied (das) song
liegen lie (down)
Liste (die) list
Leute (die) people
lgen lie
Deutsch Englisch

m..
machen make
Mdchen (das) girl
Mahlzeit (die) meal
manchmal sometimes
Mann (der) man
Mark (die) "former German currency"
mehr more
meinen mean
meistens mostly
Menge (die) amount
Mercedes (der) "German car brand
misstrauisch suspicious
Mittagessen (das) lunch
mgen like
Moment (der) moment
morgen tomorrow
mde tired
Mund (der) mouth
mssen must
Mutter (die) mother





















Vokabelliste


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
6
Deutsch Englisch

n..
nach after
Nachricht (die) message
Nachrichten (die) news
Name (der) name
Namensschild (das) a sign with your name
natrlich of course
nchste next
neben beside
nehmen take
nein no
nett nice
nervs nervous
neu new
neugierig curious
nichts nothing
nie never
noch mal again
noch nicht not yet
normalerweise usually
nur only
Deutsch Englisch

o..

obwohl although
oder or
oft often
ohne without
Ohrfeige (die) slap in the face
ffentliche Verkehsmittel public transport
Onkel (der) uncle
Opfer (das) victim
Ordner (der) folder

p..

Packung (die) pack
passen fit
Person (die) person
Pflicht (die) duty
Pizza (die) pizza
planen plan
positiv positive
prima! great!
Professor (der) professor
prfen check
Pullover (der) pullover

q..

Quatsch (der) nonsense

r..

rasen rush
recht right
Referat (das) presentation
Regel (die) rule
Regenschirm (der) umbrella
rein into / pure
rennen run
retten rescue
richtig correct
Rockmusik (die) rock music
Roman (der) novel
rufen call




Vokabelliste


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
7
Deutsch Englisch

s..
sagen say
Schach (das) chess
Schade! it's a pity
schicken send
schlafen sleep
schlecht bad
schlechter worse
schlielich finally
Schlssel (der) key
schmelzen melt
Schmerz (der) pain
schnell fast
Schokolade (die) chocolate
schreiben write
schwach weak
schwarz black
Schwester (die) sister
Schwimmbad (das) swimming pool
schwimmen swim
Seele (die) soul
sehen see
sehr very
segnen bless
Seifenoper (die) soap opera
seitdem since then
seltsam strange
setzen sit down
sicher sure
sofort immediately
Sohn (der) son
solche such
sollen should
sorgen worry
spt late
spter later
spielen play
Stadt (die) town / city
stark strong
Deutsch Englisch


Steckdose (die) power socket
stehen stand
Stern (der) star
Stift (der) pen
still calm, silent
Stille (die) silence
Strand (der) beach
streng strict
Stck (das) piece
Student (der) student
Stuhl (der) chair





Vokabelliste


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
8
Deutsch Englisch

t..
Tag (der) day
tglich daily
Tankstelle (die) patrol station
Tasse (die) cup
Telefonnummmer (die) telephone number
Thema (das) topic
tief deep
Tisch (der) table
teilnehmen take part
teuer expensive
tragen wear / carry
trainieren train
traurig sad
Traurigkeit (die) sadness
trumen dream
treffen meet
trennbar separable
trinken drink
Tschs bye
tchtig busy
Tr (die) door
Deutsch Englisch

u..
U-Bahn (die) underground / subway
ber over
berall everywhere
bersetzung (die) translation
berleben survive
brigens by the way
um to
und and
unordentlich messy
unterhalten talk
unterrichten teach
Unterricht (der) lesson
untrennbar inseparable
Urlaub (der) holiday

v..
Vase (die) vase
Vater (der) father
vielleicht maybe
vergessen forget
verkaufen sell
verlassen leave
verliebt sein fall in love
vermissen miss
vermuten presume
verreisen make a journey
verrckt crazy
verstehen understand
verstecken hide
Versuch (der) try / trial
versuchen try
voll full
von from / of
vor before
vorschlagen suggest
vorsichtig carefully
vorstellen imagine / introduce






Vokabelliste


Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
9
Deutsch Englisch

w..
Wagen (der) car
wahr true
Wand (die) wall
warten wait
Wasser (das) water
Weg (der) way
weg away
wehtun hurt
wenig little
wenn if
weil because
Wein (der) wine
weinen cry
wei white
weit far
werden will
wie like / how
willkommen welcome
winzig tiny
wirklich really
wissen know
witzig funny
Woche (die) week
Wochenende (das) weekend
wohnen live
wollen want
Wort (das) word
wrden would
Deutsch Englisch

x..

y..

z..
zhlen count
Zahn (der) tooth
Zeile (die) line
Zeit (die) time
Zeitung (die) newspaper
zerreien tear
Zeug (das) stuff
Zimmer (das) room
zurck back
zurckrufen call back
zusammen together
zu to / too
zubereiten prepare (a meal)
zuerst at first
Zug (der) train
Zukunft (die) future
zumachen close
zu viel too much


Zahlen und Uhrzeit
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

Zahlen 1 - 10
(numbers 1 - 10)

Zahl Deutsch
1 eins
2 zwei / zwo
3 drei
4 vier
5 fnf
6 sechs
7 sieben
8 acht
9 neun
10 zehn
Zahlen 11 - 20
(numbers 11 - 20)

Zahl Deutsch
11 elf
12 zwlf
13 dreizehn
14 vierzehn
15 fnfzehn
16 sechzehn
17 siebzehn
18 achtzehn
19 neunzehn
20 zwanzig
Zahlen 10, 20, 30 ...
(numbers 10, 20, 30 ...)

Zahl Deutsch
10 zehn
20 zwanzig
30 dreiig
40 vierzig
50 fnfzig
60 sechzig
70 siebzig
80 achtzig
90 neunzig
100 einhundert


How to say numbers from 20 to 99?
second number + und + first number
There is one little exception. When 1 is the first number you leave out the "s". You say ein... instand of eins...
24: vierundzwanzig
33: dreiunddreiig
61: einundsechzig

How to say numbers above 100?
Start with einhundert, zweihundert, ... and add the remaining number.
101: einhunderteins
324: dreihundertvierundzwanzig
999: neunhundertneunundneuzig

Weitere Zahlen
(further numbers)

Zahl 0 1000 10000 100000 1000000 1000000000
Deutsch null tausend zehntausend einhunderttausend eine Million eine Milliarde


Zahlen und Uhrzeit
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2
How to say full hours?
In German we don't have the expression "am" and "pm".
We use the 24-hour system (military time).

To say "o'clock" we use "Uhr".
2am: zwei Uhr (2 Uhr)
6pm: achtzehn Uhr (18 Uhr)
12pm: zwlf Uhr (12 Uhr)
0am: null Uhr (0 Uhr) [That's the only exception. We don't say 24 Uhr when it's midnight.]
How to say hours and minutes? - (the official way)
Just add the minutes to the full hours.
3.20am: drei Uhr zwanzig (3.20 Uhr)
6.10pm: achtzehn Uhr zehn (18.10 Uhr)
0.45am: null Uhr fnfundvierzig (0.45 Uhr)
The second way to say the time (the informal way in daily life)
Like in English you can also express the time with the words nach (past) and vor (to):
nach: all minutes from 1 - 30
vor: all minutes from 31 - 59
3.20am: zwanzig nach drei (3.20 Uhr)
6.10pm: zehn nach sechs (18.10 Uhr) [if we use this way to say the time we usually don't use the
military time]
1.45am: fnfundvierzig nach eins (0.45 Uhr)
The quarters
To mark the special time points 15min, 30min and 45min past a full hour we use these expressions:
15min: viertel nach (quarter past)
30min: halb (half to)
45min: viertel vor (quarter to)
3.15am: viertel nach drei (3.15 Uhr)
6.30am: halb sieben (6.30 Uhr)
8.45am: viertel vor neun (8.45 Uhr)
Zeitbegriffe
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

Wochentage
(days of the week)

Deutsch Englisch
Montag (der) Monday
Dienstag (der) Tuesday
Mittwoch (der) Wednesday
Donnerstag (der) Thursday
Freitag (der) Friday
Samstag (der) Saturday
Sonntag (der) Sunday
Monate
(months)

Deutsch Englisch
Januar (der) January
Februar (der) February
Mrz (der) March
April (der) April
Mai (der) May
Juni (der) June
Juli (der) July
August (der) August
September (der) September
Oktober (der) October
November (der) November
Dezember (der) December
Jahreszeiten
(seasons)

Deutsch Englisch
Frhling (der) spring
Sommer (der) summer
Herbst (der) autumn / fall
Winter (der) winter

Zeiteinheiten
(time units)

Deutsch Englisch
Sekunde (die) second
Minute (die) minute
Stunde (die) hour
Tag (der) day
Woche (die) week
Monat (der) month
Jahr (das) year

Tageszeiten
(times of the day)

Deutsch Englisch
Morgen (der) morning
Nachmittag (der) afternoon
Abend (der) evening
morgens in the morning
nachmittags in the afternoon
abends in the evening
weitere Zeitbegriffe
(further time terms)

Deutsch Englisch
Zeit (die) time
Tag (der) day
Nacht (die) night
Vergangenheit (die) past
letzte Woche last week
vorgestern the day before yesterday
gestern yesterday
heute today
morgen tomorrow
bermorgen the day after tomorrow
nchste Woche next week
Zukunft (die) future

Vokabeln
Zeitbegriffe

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1
Wochentage
(days of the week)

Deutsch Englisch
Montag (der)| +en Monday
Dienstag (der) | +en Tuesday
Mittwoch (der) | +en Wednesday
Donnerstag (der) | +en Thursday
Freitag (der) | +en Friday
Samstag (der) | +en Saturday
Sonntag (der) | +en Sunday
Monate
(months)

Deutsch Englisch
Januar (der) | no January
Februar (der) | no February
Mrz (der) | no March
April (der) | no April
Mai (der) | no May
Juni (der) | no June
Juli (der) | no July
August (der) | no August
September (der) | no September
Oktober (der) | no October
November (der) | no November
Dezember (der) | no December
Jahreszeiten
(seasons)

Deutsch Englisch
Frhling (der) | +e spring
Sommer (der) | same summer
Herbst (der) | +e autumn / fall
Winter (der) | same winter

Zeiteinheiten
(time units)

Deutsch Englisch
Sekunde (die) | +n second
Minute (die) | +n minute
Stunde (die) | +n hour
Tag (der) | +e day
Woche (die) | +n week
Monat (der) | +e month
Jahr (das) | +e year
Tageszeiten
(times of the day)

Deutsch Englisch
Morgen (der) | same morning
Nachmittag (der) | +e afternoon
Abend (der) | +e evening
morgens in the morning
nachmittags in the afternoon
abends in the evening
weitere Zeitbegriffe
(further time terms)

Deutsch Englisch
Zeit (die) | no time
Tag (der) | +e day
Nacht (die) | , +e night
Vergangenheit (die) | +en past
letzte Woche last week
vorgestern the day before yesterday
gestern yesterday
heute today
morgen tomorrow
bermorgen the day after tomorrow
nchste Woche next week
Zukunft (die) | no future



Zukunft Futur 1
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
1

learning target

Aim of this topic is to speak about future events.
German English
Ich werde nchste Woche meine Eltern treffen.
Sie wird morgen nicht ins Cafe kommen.
Wirst du sie wiedersehen?
I will meet my parents next week.
She won't come to the cafe tomorrow.
Will you see her again?

rules

I've got good news. This is definitely the easiest grammar topic.
You form the Future I with a form of "werden" and the infinitive of the main verb.
"werden" + "infinitive"

All you have to remember is the conjugation of the verb "werden":
Infinitiv ich du er / sie / es wir ihr sie / Sie
werden werde wirst wird werden werdet werden

examples:
Ich werde ein Buch lesen. (I will read a book.)
Du wirst das Examen bestehen. (You will pass the exam.)
Er wird mich bald besuchen. (He will visit me soon.)
Wir werden dich im Kino treffen. (We will meet you in the cinema.)
Ihr werdet mich nicht fangen. (You won't catch me.)
Sie werden das Visum bekommen. (You will get the visa.)

Are there different future forms like in English (will-future, going-to future ...)?
No! Fortunatelly, there is just one form to express the future and so German is here surely easier.
In German we are not really strict when we speak about the future.
Mostly we are careless and use the present tense.

Zukunft Futur 1
Theorie

Thomas Hfler 2005 2009
2

examples:
Ich werde morgen ins Kino gehen. (I will go to the cinema tomorrow.)
Ich gehe morgen ins Kino. (I will go to the cinema tomorrow.)
The first sentence is proper German and grammatically correct. I, however, would use the second one to sound
natural.
For now I want us to use the correct form. Later you can use the future or present tense to speak about the
future.

word order
In statments:
put the form of "werden" after the subject
put the main verb at the very end of the sentence

In questions:
put the form of "werden" after the question word
put the main verb at the very end of the sentence
If no question word excists the form of "werden" goes at the first position.

examples:
Wann wirst du mich besuchen? (When are you going to visit me?)
Wirst du mich besuchen? (Are you going to visit me?)