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0-07-154230-2
The "ateria! i# thi$ e0oo1 a!$o appear$ i# the pri#t (er$io# o+ thi$ tit!e2 0-07-154205-1&
'!! tra)e"ar1$ are tra)e"ar1$ o+ their re$pecti(e ow#er$& 3ather tha# p*t a tra)e"ar1 $y"bo! a+ter e(ery occ*rre#ce o+ a tra)e"ar1e) #a"e, we *$e
#a"e$ i# a# e)itoria! +a$hio# o#!y, a#) to the be#e+it o+ the tra)e"ar1 ow#er, with #o i#te#tio# o+ i#+ri#ge"e#t o+ the tra)e"ar1& 4here $*ch
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T.3M- ;6 ,-.
Thi$ i$ a copyrighte) wor1 a#) The McGraw-i!! Co"pa#ie$, %#c& 9<McGraw-i!!=: a#) it$ !ice#$or$ re$er(e a!! right$ i# a#) to the wor1& ,$e o+
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p*b!i$h or $*b!ice#$e the wor1 or a#y part o+ it witho*t McGraw-i!!?$ prior co#$e#t& @o* "ay *$e the wor1 +or yo*r ow# #o#co""ercia! a#)
per$o#a! *$eA a#y other *$e o+ the wor1 i$ $trict!y prohibite)& @o*r right to *$e the wor1 "ay be ter"i#ate) i+ yo* +ai! to co"p!y with the$e ter"$&
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;3 6%TG.-- 6;3 ' C'3T%C,F'3 C,3C;-.& McGraw-i!! a#) it$ !ice#$or$ )o #ot warra#t or g*ara#tee that the +*#ctio#$ co#tai#e) i# the
wor1 wi!! "eet yo*r re5*ire"e#t$ or that it$ operatio# wi!! be *#i#terr*pte) or error +ree& Geither McGraw-i!! #or it$ !ice#$or$ $ha!! be !iab!e
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ha$ #o re$po#$ibi!ity +or the co#te#t o+ a#y i#+or"atio# acce$$e) thro*gh the wor1& ,#)er #o circ*"$ta#ce$ $ha!! McGraw-i!! a#)Jor it$ !ice#$or$
be !iab!e +or a#y i#)irect, i#ci)e#ta!, $pecia!, p*#iti(e, co#$e5*e#tia! or $i"i!ar )a"age$ that re$*!t +ro" the *$e o+ or i#abi!ity to *$e the wor1, e(e#
i+ a#y o+ the" ha$ bee# a)(i$e) o+ the po$$ibi!ity o+ $*ch )a"age$& Thi$ !i"itatio# o+ !iabi!ity $ha!! app!y to a#y c!ai" or ca*$e what$oe(er whether
$*ch c!ai" or ca*$e ari$e$ i# co#tract, tort or otherwi$e&
E;%2 10&1036J0071542051
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Section 23
Process Safety
Daniel A. Crowl, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological Uni-
versity; Fellow, merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers #$ection E%itor, Process $afety !ntro-
%"ction, Comb"stion an% Flammability &a'ar%s, (as E)plosions, *apor Clo"% E)plosions,
+oiling-,i-"i% E)pan%ing-*apor E)plosions.
Laurence G. Britton, Ph.D. Process $afety Cons"ltant; Cons"lting $cientist, /eolytica,
!nc0; Fellow, merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers; Fellow, Energy !nstit"te; Member,
!nstit"te of Physics #U010. #Flame rresters.
Walter L. Frank, P.., B.S.Ch.. $enior Cons"ltant, +$ Cons"lting; Fellow, merican
!nstit"te of Chemical Engineers #&a'ar%s of *ac""m, &a'ar%s of !nerts.
Stanley Grossel, !.S.Ch.. Presi%ent, Process $afety 2 3esign; Fellow, merican !nsti-
t"te of Chemical Engineers #Emergency 4elief 3evice Effl"ent Collection an% &an%ling, Flame
rresters.
Dennis "en#ershot, !.S.Ch.. Principal Process $afety $pecialist, Chilworth
Technology, !nc0; Fellow, merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers #&a'ar% nalysis.
W. G. "i$h, C.n$., B.Sc., F.%.!ech.. Cons"ltant, +"rgoyne Cons"ltants #Estimation
of 3amage Effects.
&o'ert W. (ohnson, !.S.Ch.. Presi%ent, Unwin Company; Member, merican !nsti-
t"te of Chemical Engineers #4eactivity, $torage an% &an%ling of &a'ar%o"s Materials.
)re*or A. +let,, D.Sc. *isiting Professor, 3epartment of Chemical Engineering, ,o"gh-
boro"gh University #U010.; %5"nct Professor, 3epartment of Chemical Engineering, Te)as
2M University; Fellow, merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers; Fellow, 4oyal ca%emy of
Engineering #U010.; Fellow, !nstit"tion of Chemical Engineers #U010.; Fellow, 4oyal $ociety of
Chemistry #U010. #!nherently $afer an% More User-Frien%ly 3esign, !nci%ent !nvestigation an%
&"man Error, !nstit"tional Memory, 1ey Proce%"res.
(ose-h C. Leun$, Ph.D. Presi%ent, ,e"ng !nc0; Member, merican !nstit"te of Chemical
Engineers #Press"re 4elief $ystems.
Da*i# A. !oore, !BA, B.Sc. Presi%ent, c"Tech Cons"lting (ro"p; 4egistere% Profes-
sional Engineer #FPE, P.; Certifie% $afety Professional #C$P.; $$E, $!$, /FP #$ec"rity.
&o'ert .r/s'y, !.S.Ch.. Process $afety Cons"ltant; Fellow, merican !nstit"te of
Chemical Engineers #4isk nalysis.
(ack . .wens, B... Electrostatics Cons"ltant, E0 !0 3"pont %e /emo"rs an% Co0;
Member, !nstit"te of Electrical an% Electronics Engineers; Member, Electrostatics $ociety of
merica #$tatic Electricity.
&ichar# W. Pru$h, !.S.P.., C.S.P. $enior Process $afety $pecialist, Chilworth Tech-
nology, !nc0; Fellow, merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers; Member, /ational Fire Protec-
tion ssociation #To)icity.
2301
Copyright 2008, 1997, 1984, 1973, 1963, 1950, 1941, 1934 by The McGraw-i!! Co"pa#ie$, %#c& C!ic' here (or ter"$ o( )$e&
2302 P&.CSS SAF)2
Carl A. Schia--a, B.S.Ch.. 4etire%, The 3ow Chemical Company #Pro5ect 4eview an%
"%it Processes.
&ichar# Siwek, !.S. Managing 3irector, Presi%ent, FireE) Cons"ltant ,t%0; Member,
E"ropean Committee for $tan%ar%i'ation #CE/TC678.; Member, ssociation of (erman Engi-
neers #*3! 99:6,6:;6.; Member, !nternational $ection for Machine $afety #!$$. #3"st E)plo-
sions, Preventive E)plosion Protection, E)plosion Protection thro"gh 3esign Meas"res.
)ho/as .. S-icer %%%, Ph.D., P.. Professor an% &ea%, 4alph E0 Martin 3epartment of
Chemical Engineering, University of rkansas; Member, merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engi-
neers #tmospheric 3ispersion.
An$ela Su//ers, Ph.D., P.. Presi%ent, $!$-TEC&; %5"nct Professor, 3epartment of
Environmental Management, University of &o"ston<Clear ,ake; $enior Member, !nstr"men-
tation, $ystems an% "tomation $ociety; Member, merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers
#$afety !nstr"mente% $ystems.
&onal# Willey, Ph.D., P.. Professor, 3epartment of Chemical Engineering, /ortheast-
ern University; Fellow, merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers #Case &istories.
(ohn L. Woo#war#, Ph.D. $enior Principal Cons"ltant, +aker Engineering an% 4isk
Cons"ltants, !nc0; Fellow, merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers #3ischarge 4ates from
P"nct"re% ,ines an% *essels.
P&.CSS SAF)2 %3)&.D4C)%.3
CAS "%S).&%S
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-5
y)rocarbo# 6ire$ a#) ./p!o$io#$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-5
E*$t ./p!o$io#$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-5
3eacti(e Che"ica!$& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-5
Materia!$ o+ Co#$tr*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-6
To/ico!ogy & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-6
Gitroge# '$phy/iatio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-6
"A5A&D.4S !A)&%ALS A3D C.3D%)%.3S
6!a""abi!ity & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-6
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-6
The 6ire Tria#g!e & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-7
Ee+i#itio# o+ Ter"$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-7
Co"b*$tio# a#) 6!a""abi!ity aKar)$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-8
./p!o$io#$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-11
Dapor C!o*) ./p!o$io#$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-13
0oi!i#g-Fi5*i) ./pa#)i#g-Dapor ./p!o$io#$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-13
E*$t ./p!o$io#$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-15
-tatic .!ectricity & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-22
Che"ica! 3eacti(ity & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-24
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-25
Fi+e-Cyc!e Co#$i)eratio#$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-25
Ee$ig#i#g Croce$$e$ +or Co#tro! o+ %#te#)e) Che"ica! 3eactio#$ & & 23-26
Ee$ig#i#g 6aci!itie$ +or '(oi)a#ce o+ ,#i#te#)e) 3eactio#$ & & & & & & 23-27
Ee$ig#i#g Mitigatio# -y$te"$ to a#)!e ,#co#tro!!e) 3eactio#$ & & 23-29
3eacti(e aKar) 3e(iew$ a#) Croce$$ aKar) '#a!y$e$ & & & & & & & & & & 23-30
3eacti(ity Te$ti#g & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-30
-o*rce$ o+ 3eacti(ity Eata & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-30
To/icity & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-30
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-30
%#ha!atio# To/icity2 The aber .5*atio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-31
Eo$age .5*atio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-31
Crobit .5*atio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-31
%#ge$tio# To/icity & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-32
-1i#-Co#tact To/icity & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-32
Co"pi!atio# o+ Eata & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-32
-a+eg*ar)$ agai#$t To/icity aKar)$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-34
Co#c!*$io# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-34
;ther aKar)$& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-34
aKar)$ o+ Dac**" & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-34
aKar)$ o+ %#ert$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-36
%3"&3)L2 SAF& DS%G3 A3D .)"& P&%3C%PLS
%#here#t!y -a+er a#) More ,$er-6rie#)!y Ee$ig# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-38
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-38
%#te#$i+icatio# or Mi#i"iKatio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-38
-*b$tit*tio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-38
'tte#*atio# or Mo)eratio#& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-38
Fi"itatio# o+ .++ect$ o+ 6ai!*re$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-38
-i"p!i+icatio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-38
B#oc1-o# .++ect$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-38
Ma1i#g %#correct '$$e"b!y %"po$$ib!e & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-39
Ma1i#g -tat*$ C!ear & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-39
To!era#ce & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-39
Fow Fea1 3ate & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-39
.a$e o+ Co#tro! & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-39
-o+tware & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-39
'ctio#$ Gee)e) +or the Ee$ig# o+ %#here#t!y -a+er
a#) ,$er-6rie#)!y C!a#t$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-39
%#ci)e#t %#(e$tigatio# a#) *"a# .rror & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-39
%#$tit*tio#a! Me"ory & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-40
P&.CSS SAF)2 A3AL2S%S
aKar) '#a!y$i$& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-41
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-41
Ee+i#itio#$ o+ Ter"$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-41
Croce$$ aKar) '#a!y$i$ 3eg*!atio#$& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-42
aKar) %)e#ti+icatio# a#) '#a!y$i$ Too!$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-42
aKar) 3a#1i#g Metho)$& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-45
Fogic Mo)e! Metho)$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-47
3i$1 '#a!y$i$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-47
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-48
6re5*e#cy .$ti"atio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-49
Co#$e5*e#ce .$ti"atio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-51
3i$1 .$ti"atio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-52
3i$1 Criteria & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-53
3i$1 Eeci$io# Ma1i#g& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-53
Ei$charge 3ate$ +ro" C*#ct*re) Fi#e$ a#) De$$e!$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-54
;(er(iew & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-55
Type$ o+ Ei$charge & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-55
.#ergy 0a!a#ce Metho) +or ;ri+ice Ei$charge& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-55
Mo"e#t*" 0a!a#ce i# Ei"e#$io#!e$$ Dariab!e$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-56
'#a!ytica! -o!*tio#$ +or ;ri+ice a#) Cipe 6!ow & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-57
;ri+ice Ei$charge +or Ga$ 6!ow & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-57
0!ow)ow# o+ Ga$ Ei$charge thro*gh ;ri+ice & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-57
Cipe a#) ;ri+ice 6!ow +or -*bcoo!e) Fi5*i)$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-57
G*"erica! -o!*tio# +or ;ri+ice 6!ow & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-57
P&.CSS SAF)2 2303
;"ega Metho) Mo)e! +or Co"pre$$ib!e 6!ow$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-58
o"oge#eo*$ .5*i!ibri*" ;"ega Metho) +or ;ri+ice
a#) oriKo#ta! Cipe 6!ow & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-58
.M +or %#c!i#e) Cipe Ei$charge& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-59
Go#e5*i!ibri*" ./te#$io# o+ ;"ega Metho) & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-61
Ei++ere#ce$ betwee# -*bcoo!e) a#) -at*rate)
Ei$charge +or oriKo#ta! Cipe$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-61
'cc*racy o+ Ei$charge 3ate Cre)ictio#$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-61
't"o$pheric Ei$per$io# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-61
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-62
Cara"eter$ '++ecti#g 't"o$pheric Ei$per$io# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-62
't"o$pheric Ei$per$io# Mo)e!$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-64
.$ti"atio# o+ Ea"age .++ect$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-66
%#ert, %)ea! Ga$-6i!!e) De$$e!$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-67
0!a$t Characteri$tic$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-67
6rag"e#t 6or"atio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-67
%#itia! 6rag"e#t De!ocity & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-68
De$$e! 6i!!e) with 3eacti(e Ga$ Mi/t*re$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-68
De$$e!$ Co"p!ete!y 6i!!e) with a# %#ert
igh-Cre$$*re Fi5*i) & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-68
Ei$ta#ce Tra(e!e) by 6rag"e#t$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-68
6rag"e#t -tri1i#g De!ocity& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-69
Ea"age Cote#tia! o+ 6rag"e#t$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-69
Foca! 6ai!*re & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-69
;(era!! 3e$po#$e & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-69
3e$po#$e to 0!a$t 4a(e$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-69
Cro>ect 3e(iew a#) '*)it Croce$$e$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-71
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-71
Cro>ect 3e(iew Croce$$& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-71
'*)it Croce$$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-73
SAF)2 64%P!3), P&.CSS DS%G3, A3D .P&A)%.3
Cre$$*re 3e!ie+ -y$te"$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-74
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-74
3e!ie+ -y$te" Ter"i#o!ogy& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-74
Co)e$, -ta#)ar)$, a#) G*i)e!i#e$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-75
3e!ie+ Ee$ig# -ce#ario$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-75
Cre$$*re 3e!ie+ Ee(ice$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-76
-iKi#g o+ Cre$$*re 3e!ie+ -y$te"$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-77
."erge#cy 3e!ie+ Ee(ice .++!*e#t Co!!ectio# a#) a#)!i#g & & & & & & & & 23-80
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-80
Type$ o+ .5*ip"e#t & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-80
.5*ip"e#t -e!ectio# Criteria a#) G*i)e!i#e$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-86
-iKi#g a#) Ee$ig# o+ .5*ip"e#t & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-88
6!a"e 'rre$ter$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-92
Ge#era! Co#$i)eratio#$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-92
Ee+!agratio# 'rre$ter$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-94
Eeto#atio# a#) ;ther %#-Fi#e 'rre$ter$& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-95
'rre$ter Te$ti#g a#) -ta#)ar)$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-96
-pecia! 'rre$ter Type$ a#) '!ter#ati(e$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-96
-torage a#) a#)!i#g o+ aKar)o*$ Materia!$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-97
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-98
.$tab!i$he) Cractice$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-98
0a$ic Ee$ig# -trategie$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-98
-ite -e!ectio#, Fayo*t, a#) -paci#g & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-99
-torage& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-99
Ee$ig# o+ Ta#1$, Cipi#g, a#) C*"p$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-100
Fo$$-o+-Co#tai#"e#t Ca*$e$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-102
Mai#tai#i#g the Mecha#ica! %#tegrity o+ the Cri"ary
Co#tai#"e#t -y$te" & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-102
3e!ea$e Eetectio# a#) Mitigatio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-102
-a+ety %#$tr*"e#te) -y$te"$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-102
G!o$$ary & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-102
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-103
aKar) a#) 3i$1 '#a!y$i$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-103
Ee$ig# 0a$i$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-103
.#gi#eeri#g, %#$ta!!atio#, Co""i$$io#i#g,
a#) Da!i)atio# 9.%CD: & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-104
;perati#g 0a$i$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-104
-ec*rity & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-104
Ee+i#itio# o+ Ter"$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-104
%#tro)*ctio# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-105
Threat$ o+ Co#cer# & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-106
-ec*rity D*!#erabi!ity '$$e$$"e#t & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-106
-D' Metho)o!ogie$& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-106
Ee+i#i#g the 3i$1 to 0e Ma#age) & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-107
-ec*rity -trategie$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-108
Co*#ter"ea$*re$ a#) -ec*rity 3i$1 Ma#age"e#t
Co#cept$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-108
-ec*rity Ma#age"e#t -y$te" & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-109
Bey Croce)*re$ & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-109
Creparatio# o+ .5*ip"e#t +or Mai#te#a#ce & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-109
%#$pectio# a#) Te$ti#g o+ Crotecti(e .5*ip"e#t & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-110
Bey Cer+or"a#ce %#)icator$& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 23-110
P&.CSS SAF)2 %3)&.D4C)%.3
G3&AL &F&3CS7 '%C.JCCC-, ("i%elines for Chemical Process
="antitative 4isk nalysis, 2) e)&, '"erica# %#$tit*te o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$,
Gew @or1, 2000& '%C.JCCC-, ("i%elines for &a'ar%s Eval"ation Proce-
%"res, 2) e)&, '"erica# %#$tit*te o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, Gew @or1, 1992&
Crow! a#) Fo*(er, Chemical Process $afety> F"n%amentals with pplications,
2) e)&, Cre#tice-a!!, .#g!ewoo) C!i++$, G&L&, 2002& Ma##a#, ,ees? ,oss Pre-
vention in the Process !n%"stries, 3) e)&, .!$e(ier, '"$ter)a"&
Croce$$ $a+ety )i++er$ +ro" the tra)itio#a! approach to acci)e#t pre-
(e#tio# i# $e(era! way$ 9Ma##a#, ,ees? ,oss Prevention in the Process
!n%"stries, 3) e)&, .!$e(ier, 2005, p& 1J9:2
M There i$ greater co#cer# with acci)e#t$ that ari$e o*t o+ the
tech#o!ogy&
M There i$ greater e"pha$i$ o# +ore$eei#g haKar)$ a#) ta1i#g actio#
be+ore acci)e#t$ occ*r&
M There i$ greater e"pha$i$ o# a $y$te"atic rather tha# a tria!-a#)-
error approach, partic*!ar!y o# $y$te"atic "etho)$ o+ i)e#ti+yi#g
haKar)$ a#) o+ e$ti"ati#g the probabi!ity that they wi!! occ*r a#)
their co#$e5*e#ce$&
M There i$ co#cer# with acci)e#t$ that ca*$e )a"age to p!a#t a#) !o$$
o+
pro+it b*t )o #ot i#>*re a#yo#e, a$ we!! a$ tho$e that )o ca*$e i#>*ry&
M Tra)itio#a! practice$ a#) $ta#)ar)$ are !oo1e) at "ore critica!!y&
The ter" loss prevention ca# be app!ie) i# a#y i#)*$try b*t i$
wi)e!y *$e) i# the proce$$ i#)*$trie$ where it *$*a!!y "ea#$ the $a"e
a$ process safety0
Che"ica! p!a#t$, a#) other i#)*$tria! +aci!itie$, "ay co#tai# !arge
5*a#titie$ o+ haKar)o*$ "ateria!$& The "ateria!$ "ay be haKar)o*$
)*e to to/icity, reacti(ity, +!a""abi!ity, or e/p!o$i(ity& ' che"ica!
p!a#t
"ay a!$o co#tai# !arge a"o*#t$ o+ e#ergyNthe e#ergy either i$
re5*ire) to proce$$ the "ateria!$ or i$ co#tai#e) i# the "ateria!$
the"$e!(e$& '# acci%ent occ*r$ whe# co#tro! o+ thi$ "ateria! or
e#ergy i$ !o$t& '# acci%ent i$ )e+i#e) a$ a# *#p!a##e) e(e#t !ea)i#g to
*#)e$ire) co#$e5*e#ce$& The co#$e5*e#ce$ "ight i#c!*)e i#>*ry to
peop!e, )a"age to the e#(iro#"e#t, or !o$$ o+ i#(e#tory a#) pro)*c-
tio#, or )a"age to e5*ip"e#t&
' ha'ar% i$ )e+i#e) a$ a che"ica! or phy$ica! co#)itio# that ha$ the
pote#tia! +or ca*$i#g )a"age to peop!e, property, or the e#(iro#"e#t
9'%C.JCCC-, ("i%elines for Chemical Process ="antitative 4isk
nalysis, 2) e)&, '"erica# %#$tit*te o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, Gew
@or1, 2000, p& 6:& aKar)$ e/i$t i# a che"ica! p!a#t )*e to the #at*re
o+ the "ateria!$ proce$$e) or )*e to the phy$ica! co#)itio#$ *#)er
which the "ateria!$ are proce$$e), i&e&, high pre$$*re or te"perat*re&
The$e haKar)$ are pre$e#t "o$t o+ the ti"e& '# i#itiati#g e(e#t i$
re5*ire) to begi# the acci)e#t proce$$& ;#ce i#itiate), the acci)e#t
+o!!ow$ a $e5*e#ce o+ $tep$, ca!!e) the e(e#t $e5*e#ce, that re$*!t$ i#
a# i#ci)e#t o*tco"e& The co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ the acci)e#t are the re$*!t-
i#g e++ect$ o+ the i#ci)e#t& 6or i#$ta#ce, a r*pt*re i# a pipe!i#e )*e to
corro$io# 9i#itiati#g e(e#t: re$*!t$ i# !ea1age o+ a +!a""ab!e !i5*i)
+ir$t p!ace& '# o*t$ta#)i#g $a+ety progra" i$ achie(e) by co"pa#y
co"- "it"e#t, (i$ibi!ity, a#) "a#age"e#t $*pport& Thi$ i$ *$*a!!y
achie(e) by a corporatewi)e $a+ety po!icy& Thi$ $a+ety po!icy *$*a!!y
i#c!*)e$ the +o!!owi#g ite"$2 91: the co"pa#y i$ (ery $erio*$ abo*t
$a+ety, 92: $a+ety ca##ot be prioritiKe) a#) i$ a part o+ e(eryo#e?$ >ob
+*#ctio#, 93: e(eryo#e i$ re$po#$ib!e +or $a+ety, i#c!*)i#g "a#age"e#t&
To e#$*re that the $a+ety progra" i$ wor1i#g, "o$t co"pa#ie$ ha(e
a $a+ety po!icy +o!!ow-thro*gh& Thi$ i#c!*)e$ "o#th!y $a+ety "eeti#g$,
per+or"a#ce re(iew$, a#) $a+ety a*)it$& The "o#th!y $a+ety "eeti#g$
i#c!*)e a )i$c*$$io# o+ a#y acci)e#t$ 9a#) re$o!*tio# o+ pre(e#tio#
"ea#$:, trai#i#g o# $peci+ic i$$*e$, i#$pectio# o+ +aci!itie$, a#) )e!ega-
tio# o+ wor1& Cer+or"a#ce re(iew$ withi# the co"pa#y +or a!! e"p!oy-
ee$ "*$t ha(e a (i$ib!e $a+ety per+or"a#ce co"po#e#t&
-a+ety a*)it$ are a (ery i"porta#t "ea#$ o+ e#$*ri#g that the $a+ety
progra" i$ operati#g a$ i#te#)e)& '*)it$ are *$*a!!y )o#e year!y by a#
a*)it tea"& The a*)it tea" i$ co"pri$e) o+ corporate a#) $ite $a+ety
peop!e a#) other e/pert$, a$ #ee)e), i#c!*)i#g i#)*$tria! hygie#e, to/-
ico!ogy, a#)J or proce$$ $a+ety e/pert$& The a*)it tea" acti(itie$
i#c!*)e 91: re(iewi#g recor)$ 9i#c!*)i#g acci)e#t report$, trai#i#g,
"o#th!y "eeti#g$:, 92: i#$pecti#g ra#)o" +aci!itie$ to $ee i+ they are
i# co"p!ia#ce, 93: i#ter(iewi#g the e"p!oyee$ to )eter"i#e how they
participate i# the $a+ety progra", 94: "a1i#g reco""e#)atio#$ o#
System Description
Hazard Identification
Scenario Identification
Accident Probability Accident Consequence
Risk Determination
Modify:
+ro" the proce$$& The !i5*i) e(aporate$ a#) "i/e$ with air to +or" a
+!a""ab!e c!o*), which +i#)$ a# ig#itio# $o*rce 9e(e#t $e5*e#ce:,
re$*!ti#g i# a +ire 9i#ci)e#t o*tco"e:& The co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ the acci-
)e#t are co#$i)erab!e +ire )a"age a#) !o$$ o+ pro)*ctio#&
4isk i$ )e+i#e) a$ a "ea$*re o+ h*"a# i#>*ry, e#(iro#"e#ta! )a"age,
or eco#o"ic !o$$ i# ter"$ o+ both the i#ci)e#t !i1e!ihoo) 9probabi!ity:
a#) the "ag#it*)e o+ the !o$$ or i#>*ry 9co#$e5*e#ce: 9'%C.JCCC-,
("i%elines for Chemical Process ="antitative 4isk nalysis, 2) e)&,
'"erica# %#$tit*te o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, Gew @or1, 2000, pp& 5O6:& %t
i$ i"porta#t that both !i1e!ihoo) a#) co#$e5*e#ce be i#c!*)e) i# ri$1&
6or i#$ta#ce, $eat be!t *$e i$ ba$e) o# a re)*ctio# i# the co#$e5*e#ce$
Risk andor
!o
Hazard
Acceptance
"es
#uild andor
$perate
System
% Process or Plant
% Process $peration
% &mer'ency Response
% $t(er
o+ a# acci)e#t& owe(er, "a#y peop!e arg*e agai#$t $eat be!t$ ba$e) o#
probabi!itie$, which i$ a# i#correct app!icatio# o+ the ri$1 co#cept&
' goo) $a+ety progra" i)e#ti+ie$ a#) re"o(e$ e/i$ti#g haKar)$& '# o*t-
$ta#)i#g $a+ety progra" pre(e#t$ the e/i$te#ce o+ $a+ety haKar)$ i# the
F%G. 2301 The haKar) i)e#ti+icatio# a#) ri$1 a$$e$$"e#t proce)*re& PG*i)e-
!i#e$ +or aKar)$ .(a!*atio# Croce)*re$, Center for Chemical Process $afety
#CCP$. of the merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers #!ChE.; copyright
@AB8 !C&E an% repro%"ce% with permission0Q
2308
32
CAS "%S).&%S 2309
how the progra" ca# be i"pro(e), a#) 95: rati#g the per+or"a#ce o+
the *#it& The a*)it re$*!t$ are reporte) to *pper "a#age"e#t with
the e/pectatio# that the )e$ig#ate) *#it wi!! i"p!e"e#t i"pro(e-
"e#t$ i# $hort or)er& Ma#y co"pa#ie$ per+or" a co"bi#e) a*)it,
which "ay i#c!*)e e#(iro#"e#ta! a#) 5*a!ity i$$*e$&
6ig*re 23-1 $how$ the haKar)$ i)e#ti+icatio# a#) ri$1 a$$e$$"e#t
pro- ce)*re& The proce)*re begi#$ with a co"p!ete )e$criptio# o+
the proce$$& Thi$ i#c!*)e$ )etai!e) C6E a#) CR% )iagra"$, co"p!ete
$peci- +icatio#$ o# a!! e5*ip"e#t, "ai#te#a#ce recor)$, operati#g
proce)*re$, a#) $o +orth& ' haKar) i)e#ti+icatio# proce)*re i$ the#
$e!ecte) 9$ee aK- ar) '#a!y$i$ $*b$ectio#: to i)e#ti+y the haKar)$ a#)
their #at*re& Thi$ i$ +o!!owe) by i)e#ti+icatio# o+ a!! pote#tia! e(e#t
$e5*e#ce$ a#) pote#tia! i#ci)e#t$ 9$ce#ario$: that ca# re$*!t i# !o$$ o+
co#tro! o+ e#ergy or "ate- ria!& Ge/t i$ a# e(a!*atio# o+ both the
co#$e5*e#ce$ a#) the probabi!ity& The co#$e5*e#ce$ are e$ti"ate) by
*$i#g $o*rce "o)e!$ 9to )e$cribe the
re!ea$e o+ "ateria! a#) e#ergy: co*p!e) with a co#$e5*e#ce "o)e! to
)e$cribe the i#ci)e#t o*tco"e& The co#$e5*e#ce "o)e!$ i#c!*)e )i$-
per$io#, +ire, a#) e/p!o$io# "o)e!i#g& The re$*!t$ o+ the co#$e5*e#ce
"o)e!$ are *$e) to e$ti"ate the i"pact$ o# peop!e, e#(iro#"e#t, a#)
property& The acci)e#t probabi!ity i$ e$ti"ate) by *$i#g +a*!t tree$ or
ge#eric )ataba$e$ +or the i#itia! e(e#t $e5*e#ce$& .(e#t tree$ "ay be
*$e) to acco*#t +or "itigatio# a#) po$tre!ea$e i#ci)e#t$& 6i#a!!y, the
ri$1 i$ e$ti"ate) by co"bi#i#g the pote#tia! co#$e5*e#ce +or each e(e#t
with the e(e#t +re5*e#cy a#) $*""i#g o(er a!! e(e#t$&
;#ce the ri$1 i$ )eter"i#e), a )eci$io# "*$t be "a)e o# ri$1 accep-
ta#ce& Thi$ ca# be )o#e by co"pari$o# to a re!ati(e or ab$o!*te $ta#-
)ar)& %+ the ri$1 i$ acceptab!e, the# the )eci$io# i$ "a)e to b*i!) a#)Jor
operate the proce$$& %+ the ri$1 i$ #ot acceptab!e, the# $o"ethi#g "*$t
be cha#ge)& Thi$ co*!) i#c!*)e the proce$$ )e$ig#, the operatio#, or
"ai#te#a#ce, or a))itio#a! !ayer$ o+ protectio# "ight be a))e)&
CAS "%S).&%S
G3&AL &F&3CS7 Cne &"n%re% ,argest ,osses> Thirty Dear 4eview
of Property 3amage ,osses in the &y%rocarbon Chemical !n%"stry, 20th e)&
9MRM Crotectio#, Co#$*!ta#t$, Chicago:A Ma##a#, -&, e)&, ,ees? ,oss Preven-
tion in the Process !n%"stries, .!$e(ier, 2005A B!etK, T& '&, ,earning from cci-
%ents, G*!+ Cro+e$$io#a! C*b!i$hi#g, 2001A B!etK, T& '&, Ehat Eent ErongF
Case &istories of Process Plant 3isasters, .)itio#$ Tech#ip, 1998A a#) -a#)er$,
3& .&, Chemical Process $afety> ,earning from Case &istories, .)itio#$ Tech#ip,
1999&
%3)&.D4C)%.3
.#gi#eer$ "*$t gi(e $ig#i+ica#t tho*ght to the co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ their
)eci$io#$ a#) i#)eci$io#$& ' wi$e $tep )*ri#g co#cept*a! a#) )e$ig#
pha$e$ i$ to re(iew pre(io*$ #egati(e e/perie#ce$ o+ other$ a#) withi#
yo*r ow# orga#iKatio#& Cerio)ica!!y re(iew the $tat*$ o+ rece#t che"-
ica! acci)e#t$& The ,&-& Che"ica! -a+ety a#) aKar)$ %#(e$tigatio#
0oar) web $ite, ww w 0csb0go v , o++er$ )etai!$ o# "a#y i#(e$tigatio#$
re!ate) to che"ica! i#)*$try acci)e#t$ withi# the ,#ite) -tate$& Foo1
+or $i"i!aritie$ a#) )i$$i"i!aritie$ to yo*r c*rre#t practice, a#) care-
+*!!y "a1e appropriate cha#ge$ a#) i"pro(e"e#t$ to a(oi) repeati#g
$i"i!ar acci)e#t$&
"2D&.CA&B.3 F%&S A3D :PL.S%.3S
The e/p!o$io# a#) +ire$ at the Te/aco 3e+i#ery, Mi!+or) a(e#, 4a!e$, 24
L*!y
1994& 3e+ere#ce2 ea!th a#) -a+ety ./ec*ti(e 9-.:A -. 0oo1$, er
Ma>e$ty?$
-tatio#ary ;++ice, Gorwich, .#g!a#), 1997&
;# L*!y 24, 1994, a# e/p!o$io# +o!!owe) by a #*"ber o+ +ire$
occ*rre) at 13223 at the Te/aco re+i#ery i# Mi!+or) a(e#, 4a!e$,
.#g!a#)& Crior to thi$ e/p!o$io#, aro*#) 9 a&"&, a $e(ere coa$ta!
e!ectrica! $tor" ca*$e) p!a#t )i$t*rba#ce$ that a++ecte) the (ac**"
)i$ti!!atio#, a!1y!a- tio#, b*ta"er, a#) 6CC *#it$& The e/p!o$io#
occ*rre) )*e to a co"- bi#atio# o+ +ai!*re$ i# "a#age"e#t,
e5*ip"e#t, a#) co#tro! $y$te"$& Gi(e# it$ ca!c*!ate) TGT e5*i(a!e#t
o+ at !ea$t 4 to#$, $ig#i+ica#t por- tio#$ o+ the re+i#ery were
)a"age)& That #o +ata!itie$ occ*rre) i$ attrib*te) partia!!y to the
acci)e#t occ*rri#g o# a -*#)ay, a$ we!! a$ the +ort*ito*$ !ocatio# o+
tho$e who were #ear the e/p!o$io#&
'$ the p!a#t atte"pte) a)>*$t"e#t$ to the *p$et$ ca*$e) by the e!ec-
trica! $tor", !i5*i) wa$ co#ti#*o*$!y p*"pe) i#to a proce$$ (e$$e! with
a c!o$e) o*t!et (a!(e& The co#tro! $y$te" i#)icate) that thi$ (a!(e wa$
ope#& '$ the *#it o(er+i!!e), the o#!y "ea#$ o+ e/it wa$ a re!ie+ $y$te"
)e$ig#e) +or (apor& 4he# the !i5*i) reache) the re!ie+ $y$te", it$
"o"e#t*" wa$ high e#o*gh to rip apart the )*ctwor1 a#) ca*$e a
"a$$i(e re!ea$e o+ hy)rocarbo#$ i#to the e#(iro#"e#t& Mi#*te$ prior
to the e/p!o$io#, operati#g per$o##e! were re$po#)i#g to 275 a!ar"$ o+
which 80 perce#t ha) high priority& '# ig#itio# $o*rce wa$ +o*#) 110
" away& 3eco""e#)atio#$ +ro" the acci)e#t i#(e$tigatio# i#c!*)e)
the #ece$$ity o+ operati#g per$o##e! ha(i#g 1#ow!e)ge abo*t $i"p!e
(o!*"etric a#) "a$$ ba!a#ce$A that co#tro! $y$te"$ be co#+ig*re) to
pro(i)e a# o(er(iew o+ the co#)itio# o+ the proce$$A that $a+ety critica!
a!ar"$ be )i$ti#g*i$hab!e +ro" other a!ar"$A a#) that !i5*i) 1#oc1o*t
)r*"$ e/i$t +or re!ie+ $y$te"$ )e$ig#e) +or (apor&
D4S) :PL.S%.3S
4e$t Char"ace*tica! -er(ice$ C!a#t i# Bi#$to#, Gorth Caro!i#a, 29 La#*ary 2003,
a#) CT' 'co*$tic$ Ma#*+act*ri#g C!a#t i# Corbi#, Be#t*c1y, 20 6ebr*ary 2003&
3e+ere#ce2 ,&-& Che"ica! -a+ety 0oar) 9C-0:A ww w 0csb0govGin%e)0cfmFfol%e r S
complete%Hinvestigations2pag e S info2!/*H!3 S 6 I a#) !3 S 68
;# La#*ary 29, 2003, the 4e$t Char"ace*tica! e/p!o$io# 1i!!e) $i/
wor1er$ a#) i#>*re) )oKe#$ "ore& The C-0 )eter"i#e) that +i#e
po!yethy!e#e )*$t partic!e$, re!ea$e) )*ri#g the pro)*ctio# o+ r*bber
pro)*ct$, ha) acc*"*!ate) abo(e the ti!e$ o+ a +a!$e cei!i#g, creati#g
a# e/p!o$io# haKar) at the p!a#t& ' $i"i!ar i#ci)e#t occ*rre) a +ew
wee1$ !ater, at the CT' 'co*$tic$ "a#*+act*ri#g p!a#t i# Corbi#,
Be#t*c1y, +ata!!y i#>*ri#g $e(e# wor1er$ a#) i#>*ri#g "ore tha# 30
other$& Thi$ +aci!ity pro)*ce) +iberg!a$$ i#$*!atio# +or the a*to"oti(e
i#)*$try& C-0 i#(e$tigator$ +o*#) that the e/p!o$io# wa$ +*e!e) by
re$i# )*$t acc*"*!ate) i# a pro)*ctio# area, !i1e!y ig#ite) by +!a"e$
+ro" a "a!+*#ctio#i#g o(e#& The re$i# i#(o!(e) wa$ a phe#o!ic bi#)er
*$e) i# pro)*ci#g +iberg!a$$ "at$&
C-0 i#(e$tigator$ )eter"i#e) that both )i$a$ter$ re$*!te) +ro"
acc*"*!atio#$ o+ co"b*$tib!e )*$t& 4or1er$ a#) wor1p!ace$ #ee) to
be protecte) +ro" thi$ i#$i)io*$ haKar)& The !e$$o# !ear#e) here i$ the
i"porta#ce o+ ho*$e1eepi#g& -o"e co"pa#ie$ wi!! a!!ow o#!y
1
i#
o+ )*$t to acc*"*!ate be+ore c!ea#i#g& -*$pe#)e) cei!i#g$ "*$t be
$*$- pecte) a$ area$ that ca# acc*"*!ate )*$t& ;+te# the +ir$t
e/p!o$io# "ay be "i#or, b*t the )*$t )i$!o)ge) ca# be e/p!o$i(e
e#o*gh to !e(e! the b*i!)i#g o# the $eco#) ig#itio#&
&AC)%; C"!%CALS
./p!o$io#, Morto# %#ter#atio#a!, %#c&, Cater$o#, Gew Ler$ey, 8 'pri! 1998&
3e+ere#ce2 C-0A
ww w 0csb0govGcomplete%HinvestigationsG%ocsGMorton!nvestigation4eport0p%f
;# 'pri! 8, 1998, at 20218, a# e/p!o$io# a#) +ire occ*rre) )*ri#g the
pro- )*ctio# o+ '*to"ate @e!!ow 96 Eye at Morto# %#ter#atio#a!, %#c&
@e!!ow
96 )ye wa$ pro)*ce) by "i/i#g a#) reacti#g two che"ica!$, ortho-
#itroch!orobe#Ke#e 9o-GC0: a#) 2-ethy!he/y!a"i#e 92-.':& The
e/p!o$io# a#) +ire were the co#$e5*e#ce o+ a r*#away reactio#, which
o(erpre$$*riKe) a 2000-ga! capacity che"ica! reactor (e$$e! a#) re!ea$e)
+!a""ab!e "ateria! that ig#ite)& Gi#e e"p!oyee$ were i#>*re), i#c!*)-
i#g two $erio*$!y, a#) pote#tia!!y haKar)o*$ "ateria!$ were re!ea$e)
i#to
230< P&.CSS SAF)2
the co""*#ity& The C-0 i#(e$tigatio# tea" )eter"i#e) that the reac-
tio# acce!erate) beyo#) the heat re"o(a! capabi!ity o+ the 1ett!e& The
re$*!ti#g high te"perat*re !e) to a $eco#)ary r*#away reactio#
9)eco"- po$itio# o+ o-GC0:& The i#itia! r*#away reactio# wa$ "o$t
!i1e!y ca*$e) by a co"bi#atio# o+ the +o!!owi#g +actor$2 91: The reactio#
wa$ $tarte) at a te"perat*re higher tha# #or"a!, 92: the $tea" *$e) to
i#itiate the reac- tio# wa$ !e+t o# +or too !o#g, a#) 93: the *$e o+
coo!i#g water to co#tro! the reactio# rate wa$ #ot i#itiate) $oo# e#o*gh&
The Cater$o# +aci!ity wa$ #ot aware o+ the )eco"po$itio# reactio#& '
$i"i!ar i#ci)e#t occ*rre) with a proce$$ *$i#g o-GC0 i# -a*get,
%!!i#oi$, i# 1974 9Di#ce#t, G& C&, ,oss Prev& 1971, 97 46O52:&
!A)&%ALS .F C.3S)&4C)%.3
3*pt*re) ch!ori#e ho$e& 3e+ere#ce2 C-0A ww w 0csb0govGsafetyHp"blicationsG%ocsG
Chlorine&ose$afety%visor y 0p%f
;# '*g*$t 14, 2002, a 1-i# ch!ori#e tra#$+er ho$e 9CT: *$e) i# a rai!-
car o++!oa)i#g operatio# at ECC .#terpri$e$ i# 6e$t*$, Mi$$o*ri, cata-
$trophica!!y r*pt*re) a#) i#itiate) a $e5*e#ce o+ e(e#t$ that !e) to the
re!ea$e o+ 48,000 !b o+ ch!ori#e i#to #eighbori#g area$& The "ateria! o+
co#$tr*ctio# o+ the r*pt*re) ho$e wa$ i#correct& The )i$trib*tor +abri-
cate) b*!1 CT with -che)*!e 80 Mo#e! 400 e#) +itti#g$ a#) a high-
)e#$ity po!yethy!e#e $pira! g*ar)& Three ho$e$ were $hippe) )irect!y to
the 6e$t*$ +aci!ity +ro" the )i$trib*torA two were p*t i#to $er(ice o#
L*#e
15, 2002& The ho$e i#(o!(e) i# the i#ci)e#t +ai!e) a+ter 59 )ay$ i#
$er(ice& Mo$t p!a$tic$ react che"ica!!y with ch!ori#e beca*$e o+ their
hy)ro- carbo# $tr*ct*ra! "a1e*p& Thi$ reacti(ity i$ a(oi)e) with $o"e
p!a$tic$ i# which +!*ori#e ato"$ ha(e bee# $*b$tit*te) i#to the
hy)rocarbo# "o!ec*!e& The Ch!ori#e %#$tit*te reco""e#)$ that ho$e$
co#$tr*cte) with $*ch a# i##er !i#i#g <ha(e a $tr*ct*ra! !ayer brai)
o+ po!y(i#y!i- )e#e +!*ori)e 9CDE6: "o#o+i!a"e#t "ateria! or a
$tr*ct*ra! brai) o+ a$te!!oy C-276&= '# *#)er!yi#g !e$$o# here i$
"ateria! co"patibi!ity& Materia! co"patibi!ity tab!e$ e/i$t that
e#gi#eer$ ca# co#$*!t, i#c!*)-
i#g i# other $ectio#$ withi# thi$ (o!*"e&
).:%C.L.G2
De$$e! e/p!o$io#, E& E& 4i!!ia"$o# R Co&, %#c&, Fo*i$(i!!e, Be#t*c1y, 11 'pri!
2003& 3e+ere#ce2 C-0A
ww w 0csb0govGcomplete%HinvestigationsG%ocsGC$+H33 E illiamson 4eport0p%f
;# 'pri! 11, 2003, at appro/i"ate!y 2210 a&"&, a 2200-ga! $tai#!e$$
$tee! $pray )ryer +ee) ta#1 at the E& E& 4i!!ia"$o# R Co&, %#c&
9EE4:, p!a#t i# Fo*i$(i!!e, Be#t*c1y, e/p!o)e)& ;#e operator wa$
1i!!e)& The other +o*r "e# wor1i#g at the p!a#t at the ti"e o+ the i#ci-
)e#t were #ot i#>*re)& The i#ci)e#t wa$ "o$t !i1e!y i#itiate) by o(er-
heati#g by a 130-p$i $tea" $*pp!y& The +ee) ta#1 wa$ "a#*a!!y
co#tro!!e) +or te"perat*re a#) pre$$*re& The ta#1 ha) a "a/i"*"
wor1i#g pre$$*re o+ 40 p$i& ' co#crete b!oc1 wa!! to the ea$t $eparate)
the +ee) ta#1 +ro" a 12,000-ga! a5*a a""o#ia $torage ta#1 929&4T
a""o#ia:& '+ter the e/p!o$io#, the +ee) ta#1?$ $he!! $p!it ope# i# a (er-
tica! !i#e& %t wa$ prope!!e) thro*gh the wa!! a#) $tr*c1 the a""o#ia
$torage ta#1, !ocate) 15 +t to the we$t& The a""o#ia $torage ta#1 wa$
1#oc1e) o++ it$ +o*#)atio# appro/i"ate!y 10 +t, a#) pipi#g wa$ rippe)
!oo$e& Thi$ re$*!te) i# a 26,000-!b a5*a a""o#ia !ea1& Metro
Fo*i$(i!!e ea!th Eepart"e#t obtai#e) "a/i"*" a""o#ia rea)i#g$
o+ 50 part$ per "i!!io# 9pp": at the +e#ce !i#e a#) 35 pp" o# a #earby
$treet& Go i#>*rie$ were reporte) i# the area o+ the a""o#ia re!ea$e&
' #*"ber o+ "a#age"e#t )eci$io#$ +actor i#to thi$ ca$e& There wa$
#o progra" to e(a!*ate #ece$$ary !ayer$ o+ protectio# o# the $pray )ryer
+ee) ta#1$& Fi1ewi$e, there wa$ #o recog#itio# o+ the #ee) to pro(i)e
proce$$ co#tro! a#) a!ar" i#$tr*"e#tatio# o# the two +ee) ta#1$&
3e!ia#ce o# a $i#g!e !oca! te"perat*re i#)icator that "*$t be rea) by
operator$ i$ i#$*++icie#t& ;# the "or#i#g o+ the i#ci)e#t, the operator$
were *#aware that the $y$te" ha) e/cee)e) #or"a! operati#g co#)i-
tio#$& The +ee) ta#1$ were i#$ta!!e) +or *$e i# the $pray )ryer proce$$
witho*t a re(iew o+ their )e$ig# (er$*$ $y$te" re5*ire"e#t$& -a+ety
(a!(e$ o# the $pray )ryer +ee) ta#1$ ha) bee# re"o(e) to tra#$port the
ta#1$ to Fo*i$(i!!e a#) were #e(er rei#$ta!!e)& %#a)e5*ate haKar) a#a!y-
$i$ $y$te"$ )i)#?t i)e#ti+y +ee) ta#1 haKar)$& The '-M. Co)e, -ectio#
D%%% 92001 '-M. 0oi!er a#) Cre$$*re De$$e! Co)e2 Ee$ig# a#) 6abri-
catio# o+ Cre$$*re De$$e!$, '"erica# -ociety o+ Mecha#ica! .#gi#eer$,
2001:, re5*ire$ that a!! (e$$e!$ ha(i#g a# i#ter#a! operati#g pre$$*re
e/cee)i#g 15 p$i be pro(i)e) with pre$$*re re!ie+ )e(ice$& 6i#a!!y,
e5*ip"e#t !ayo*t $ho*!) a!way$ be co#$i)ere) i# the )e$ig# $tage&
Metho)$ $*ch a$ the Eow 6ire a#) ./p!o$io# %#)e/ 9'%Ch., 1994: ca#
a$$i$t i# )eter"i#i#g the opti"*" $paci#g betwee# critica! *#it$&
3%)&.G3 ASP"2:%A)%.3
,#io# Carbi)e Corporatio#, ah#(i!!e, Fo*i$ia#a, 27 March 1998& 3e+ere#ce2
C-0A ww w 0csb0govGcomplete%HinvestigationsG%ocsGFina l Unio n Carbi% e 4eport0p%f
a#) G$+-/itrogen-:-@@-760p%f0
;# March 27, 1998, at appro/i"ate!y 12215 p&"&, two wor1er$ at
,#io# Carbi)e Corporatio#?$ Ta+tJ-tar Ma#*+act*ri#g C!a#t i# ah#-
(i!!e, Fo*i$ia#a, were o(erco"e by #itroge# ga$ whi!e per+or"i#g a
b!ac1 !ight i#$pectio# at a# ope# e#) o+ a 48-i#-wi)e horiKo#ta! pipe&
;#e ,#io# Carbi)e e"p!oyee wa$ 1i!!e), a#) a# i#)epe#)e#t co#-
tractor wa$ $erio*$!y i#>*re) )*e to #itroge# a$phy/iatio#& Gitroge#
wa$ bei#g i#>ecte) i#to a #earby reactor to pre(e#t co#ta"i#atio# o+ a
cata!y$t by o/yge# a#) re!ate) "ateria!$& The #itroge# a!$o +!owe)
thro*gh $o"e o+ the pipi#g $y$te"$ co##ecte) to the reactor$& Go
war#i#g $ig# wa$ po$te) o# the pipe ope#i#g i)e#ti+yi#g it a$ a co#-
+i#e) $pace& Gor wa$ there a war#i#g that the pipe co#tai#e) pote#-
tia!!y haKar)o*$ #itroge#&
"A5A&D.4S !A)&%ALS A3D C.3D%)%.3S
FLA!!AB%L%)2
3o/enclature
1
(
)e+!agratio# i#)e/ +or ga$e$ 9bar"J$:
1
-t
)e+!agratio# i#)e/ +or )*$t$ 9bar"J$:
F6F !ower +!a""abi!ity !i"it 9(o! T +*e! i# air:
F;C !i"iti#g o/yge# co#ce#tratio#
n #*"ber o+ co"b*$tib!e $pecie$
P pre$$*re
T te"perat*re 9UC:
t ti"e 9$:
,6F *pper +!a""abi!ity !i"it 9(o!& T +*e! i# air:
* (e$$e! (o!*"e 9"
3
:
y
i
"o!e +ractio# o+ co"po#e#t i o# a co"b*$tib!e ba$i$
' $toichio"etric coe++icie#t +or o/yge#
V

&
c
#et heat o+ co"b*$tio# 91ca!J"o!:
G3&AL &F&3CS7 Crow! a#) Fo*(ar, Chemical Process $afety>
F"n%a- mentals with pplications, 2) e)&, Cre#tice-a!!, ,pper -a))!e 3i(er,
G&L&, 2002, Chap$& 6 a#) 7& Crow!, Un%erstan%ing E)plosions, '"erica# %#$tit*te
o+ Che"i- ca! .#gi#eer$, Gew @or1, 2003& .c1o++, 3"st E)plosions in the Process
!n%"stries,
2) e)&, 0*tterworth-ei#e"a##, #ow .!$e(ier, '"$ter)a", 1997& Bi##ey a#)
Graha", E)plosive $hocks in ir, 2) e)&, -pri#ger-Der!ag, Gew @or1, 1985&
Fewi$ a#) (o# .!be, Comb"stion, Flames an% E)plosions of (ases, 3) e)&,
'ca)e"ic Cre$$, Gew @or1, 1987& Ma##a#, ,ees? ,oss Prevention in the Process
!n%"stries,
3) e)&, .!$e(ier, '"$ter)a", 2005, Chap& 162 6ire, Chap& 172
./p!o$io#&
%ntro#uction 6ire a#) e/p!o$io#$ i# che"ica! p!a#t$ a#) re+i#er-
ie$ are rare, b*t whe# they )o occ*r, they are (ery )ra"atic&
'cci)e#t $tati$tic$ ha(e $how# that +ire$ a#) e/p!o$io#$ repre$e#t 97
perce#t o+ the !arge$t acci)e#t$ i# the che"ica! i#)*$try 9L& Coco, e)&,
,arge Property 3amage ,osses in the &y%rocarbon-Chemical !n%"stry>
Thirty Dear 4eview, L& & Mar$h a#) McFe##a#, Gew @or1, 1997:&
Cre(e#tio# o+ +ire$ a#) e/p!o$io#$ re5*ire$
1& '# *#)er$ta#)i#g o+ the +*#)a"e#ta!$ o+ +ire$ a#) e/p!o$io#$
2& Croper e/peri"e#ta! characteriKatio# o+ +!a""ab!e a#) e/p!o-
$i(e "ateria!$
3& Croper app!icatio# o+ the$e co#cept$ i# the p!a#t e#(iro#"e#t
The tech#o!ogy )oe$ e/i$t to ha#)!e a#) proce$$ +!a""ab!e a#) e/p!o-
$i(e "ateria!$ $a+e!y, a#) to "itigate the e++ect$ o+ a# e/p!o$io#& The
cha!!e#ge$ to thi$ prob!e" are a$ +o!!ow$2
1& Co"b*$tio# beha(ior (arie$ wi)e!y a#) i$ )epe#)e#t o# a wi)e
ra#ge o+ para"eter$&
2& There i$ a# i#co"p!ete +*#)a"e#ta! *#)er$ta#)i#g o+ +ire$ a#)
e/p!o$io#$& Cre)icti(e "etho)$ are $ti!! *#)er )e(e!op"e#t&
3& 6ire a#) e/p!o$io# propertie$ are #ot +*#)a"e#ta!!y ba$e) a#)
are a# arti+act o+ a partic*!ar e/peri"e#ta! apparat*$ a#) proce)*re&
4& igh-5*a!ity )ata +ro" a $ta#)ar)iKe) apparat*$ that pro)*ce$
co#$i$te#t re$*!t$ are !ac1i#g&
5& The app!icatio# o+ the$e co#cept$ i# a p!a#t e#(iro#"e#t i$ )i++ic*!t&
)he Fire )rian$le The +ire tria#g!e i$ $how# i# 6ig& 23-2& %t $how$
that a +ire wi!! re$*!t i+ +*e!, o/i)a#t, a#) a# ig#itio# $o*rce are pre$e#t&
%# rea!ity, the +*e! a#) o/i)a#t "*$t be withi# certai# co#ce#tratio#
ra#ge$, a#) the ig#itio# $o*rce "*$t be rob*$t e#o*gh to i#itiate the
+ire& The +ire tria#g!e app!ie$ to ga$e$, !i5*i)$, a#) $o!i)$& Fi5*i)$ are
(o!atiKe) a#) $o!i)$ )eco"po$e prior to co"b*$tio# i# the (apor pha$e&
6or )*$t$ ari$i#g +ro" $o!i) "ateria!$, the partic!e $iKe, )i$trib*tio#, a#)
$*$pe#$io# i# the ga$ are a!$o i"porta#t para"eter$ i# the co"b*$-
tio#Nthe$e are $o"eti"e$ i#c!*)e) i# the +ire tria#g!e&
The *$*a! o/i)iKer i# the +ire tria#g!e i$ o/yge# i# the air& owe(er,
ga$e$ $*ch a$ +!*ori#e a#) ch!ori#eA !i5*i)$ $*ch a$ pero/i)e$ a#) ch!o-
rate$A a#) $o!i)$ $*ch a$ a""o#i*" #itrate a#) $o"e "eta!$ ca# $er(e
the ro!e o+ a# o/i)iKer& ./other"ic )eco"po$itio#, witho*t o/yge#, i$
a!$o po$$ib!e, e&g&, with ethy!e#e o/i)e or acety!e#e&
%g#itio# ari$e$ +ro" a wi)e (ariety o+ $o*rce$, i#c!*)i#g $tatic e!ec-
tricity, hot $*r+ace$, $par1$, ope# +!a"e$, a#) e!ectric circ*it$& %g#itio#
$o*rce$ are e!*$i(e a#) )i++ic*!t to e!i"i#ate e#tire!y, a!tho*gh e++ort$
$ho*!) a!way$ be "a)e to re)*ce the"&
%+ a#y o#e $i)e o+ the +ire tria#g!e i$ re"o(e), a +ire wi!! #ot re$*!t&
%# the pa$t, the "o$t co""o# "etho) +or +ire co#tro! wa$ e!i"i#atio#
o+ ig#itio# $o*rce$& owe(er, e/perie#ce ha$ $how# that thi$ i$ #ot
rob*$t e#o*gh& C*rre#t +ire co#tro! pre(e#tio# "etho)$ co#ti#*e
with e!i"i#atio# o+ ig#itio# $o*rce$, whi!e +oc*$i#g e++ort$ "ore
$tro#g!y o# pre(e#ti#g +!a""ab!e "i/t*re$&
Definition of )er/s The +o!!owi#g are ter"$ #ece$$ary to char-
acteriKe +ire$ a#) e/p!o$io#$ 9Crow! a#) Fo*(ar, Chemical Process
$afety> F"n%amentals with pplications, 2) e)& Cre#tice-a!!, ,pper
-a))!e 3i(er, G&L&, 2002, pp& 227O229:&
Autoignition temperature (AIT) Thi$ i$ a +i/e) te"perat*re
abo(e which a)e5*ate e#ergy i$ a(ai!ab!e i# the e#(iro#"e#t to pro(i)e
a# ig#itio# $o*rce&
%g#itio# -o*rce
F%G. 2302 The +ire tria#g!e $howi#g the re5*ire"e#t +or co"b*$tio# o+ ga$e$
a#) (apor$& P30 0 Crowl, ,#)er$ta#)i#g ./p!o$io#$, Center for Chemical
Process $afety #CCP$. of the merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers
#!ChE.; copyright 9776 !ChE an% repro%"ce% with permission0Q
Boiling-liquid expanding-vapor explosion (BLEVE) ' 0F.D.
occ*r$ i+ a (e$$e! that co#tai#$ a !i5*i) at a te"perat*re abo(e it$
at"o$- pheric pre$$*re boi!i#g poi#t r*pt*re$& The $*b$e5*e#t 0F.D.
i$ the e/p!o$i(e (aporiKatio# o+ a !arge +ractio# o+ the (e$$e! co#te#t$,
po$$ib!y +o!!owe) by co"b*$tio# or e/p!o$io# o+ the (aporiKe) c!o*) i+
it i$ co"- b*$tib!e& Thi$ type o+ e/p!o$io# occ*r$ whe# a# e/ter#a! +ire
heat$ the co#te#t$ o+ a ta#1 o+ (o!ati!e "ateria!& '$ the ta#1 co#te#t$
heat, the (apor pre$$*re o+ the !i5*i) withi# the ta#1 i#crea$e$, a#)
the ta#1?$ $tr*ct*ra! i#tegrity i$ re)*ce) beca*$e o+ the heati#g& %+ the
ta#1 r*p- t*re$, the hot !i5*i) (o!ati!iKe$ e/p!o$i(e!y&
Combustion or fire Co"b*$tio# or +ire i$ a che"ica! reactio# i#
which a $*b$ta#ce co"bi#e$ with a# o/i)a#t a#) re!ea$e$ e#ergy& Cart
o+ the e#ergy re!ea$e) i$ *$e) to $*$tai# the reactio#&
Confined explosion Thi$ e/p!o$io# occ*r$ withi# a (e$$e! or a
b*i!)i#g&
eflagration %# thi$ e/p!o$io# the reactio# +ro#t "o(e$ at a
$pee) !e$$ tha# the $pee) o+ $o*#) i# the *#reacte) "e)i*"&
etonation %# thi$ e/p!o$io# the reactio# +ro#t "o(e$ at a $pee)
greater tha# the $pee) o+ $o*#) i# the *#reacte) "e)i*"&
ust explosion Thi$ e/p!o$io# re$*!t$ +ro" the rapi) co"b*$tio#
o+ +i#e $o!i) partic!e$& Ma#y $o!i) "ateria!$ 9i#c!*)i#g co""o# "eta!$
$*ch a$ iro# a#) a!*"i#*": beco"e +!a""ab!e whe# re)*ce) to a
+i#e pow)er a#) $*$pe#)e) i# air&
Explosion '# e/p!o$io# i$ a rapi) e/pa#$io# o+ ga$e$ re$*!ti#g i#
a rapi)!y "o(i#g pre$$*re or $hoc1 wa(e& The e/pa#$io# ca# be
"echa#ica! 9by "ea#$ o+ a $*))e# r*pt*re o+ a pre$$*riKe) (e$$e!:, or
it ca# be the re$*!t o+ a rapi) che"ica! reactio#& ./p!o$io# )a"age i$
ca*$e) by the pre$$*re or $hoc1 wa(e&
!ire point The +ire poi#t i$ the !owe$t te"perat*re at which a
(apor abo(e a !i5*i) wi!! co#ti#*e to b*r# o#ce ig#ite)A the +ire poi#t
te"perat*re i$ higher tha# the +!a$h poi#t&
!lammabilit" limits Dapor-air "i/t*re$ wi!! ig#ite a#) b*r# o#!y
o(er a we!!-$peci+ie) ra#ge o+ co"po$itio#$& The "i/t*re wi!! #ot b*r#
whe# the co"po$itio# i$ !ower tha# the !ower +!a""ab!e !i"it 9F6F:A
the "i/t*re i$ too !ea# +or co"b*$tio#& The "i/t*re i$ a!$o #ot co"-
b*$tib!e whe# the co"po$itio# i$ too rich, i&e&, that i$, whe# it i$ abo(e
the *pper +!a""ab!e !i"it 9,6F:& ' "i/t*re i$ +!a""ab!e o#!y whe#
the co"po$itio# i$ betwee# the F6F a#) the ,6F& Co""o#!y *$e)
*#it$ are (o!*"e perce#t o+ +*e! 9perce#tage o+ +*e! p!*$ air:&
Fower e/p!o$io# !i"it 9F.F: a#) *pper e/p!o$io# !i"it 9,.F: are
*$e) i#tercha#geab!y with F6F a#) ,6F&
!las# point (!$) The +!a$h poi#t o+ a !i5*i) i$ the !owe$t te"-
perat*re at which it gi(e$ o++ e#o*gh (apor to +or" a# ig#itab!e "i/-
t*re with air& 't the +!a$h poi#t, the (apor wi!! b*r# b*t o#!y brie+!yA
i#a)e5*ate (apor i$ pro)*ce) to "ai#tai# co"b*$tio#& The +!a$h poi#t
ge#era!!y i#crea$e$ with i#crea$i#g pre$$*re&
There are $e(era! )i++ere#t e/peri"e#ta! "etho)$ *$e) to )eter-
"i#e +!a$h poi#t$& .ach "etho) pro)*ce$ a $o"ewhat )i++ere#t (a!*e&
The two "o$t co""o#!y *$e) "etho)$ are ope# c*p a#) c!o$e) c*p,
)epe#)i#g o# the phy$ica! co#+ig*ratio# o+ the e/peri"e#ta! e5*ip-
"e#t& The ope#-c*p +!a$h poi#t i$ a +ew )egree$ higher tha# the
c!o$e)-c*p +!a$h poi#t&
Ignition %g#itio# o+ a +!a""ab!e "i/t*re "ay be ca*$e) by a
+!a""ab!e "i/t*re co"i#g i# co#tact with a $o*rce o+ ig#itio# with
$*++icie#t e#ergy or by the ga$ reachi#g a te"perat*re high e#o*gh to
ca*$e the ga$ to a*toig#ite&
%e&#ani&al explosion ' "echa#ica! e/p!o$io# re$*!t$ +ro" the
$*))e# +ai!*re o+ a (e$$e! co#tai#i#g high-pre$$*re, #o#reacti(e ga$&
%inimum ignition energ" Thi$ i$ the "i#i"*" e#ergy i#p*t
re5*ire) to i#itiate co"b*$tio#&
'verpressure The pre$$*re o(er a"bie#t that re$*!t$ +ro" a#
e/p!o$io#&
(#o&) *ave Thi$ i$ a# abr*pt pre$$*re wa(e "o(i#g thro*gh a ga$&
' $hoc1 wa(e i# ope# air i$ +o!!owe) by a $tro#g wi#)A the co"bi#e)
$hoc1 wa(e a#) wi#) i$ ca!!e) a b!a$t wa(e& The pre$$*re i#crea$e i# the
$hoc1 wa(e i$ $o rapi) that the proce$$ i$ "o$t!y a)iabatic&
+n&onfined explosion ,#co#+i#e) e/p!o$io#$ occ*r i# the ope#&
Thi$ type o+ e/p!o$io# i$ *$*a!!y the re$*!t o+ a +!a""ab!e ga$ $pi!!&
The ga$ i$ )i$per$e) a#) "i/e) with air *#ti! it co"e$ i# co#tact with
a# ig#i- tio# $o*rce& ,#co#+i#e) e/p!o$io#$ are rarer tha# co#+i#e)
e/p!o$io#$ beca*$e the e/p!o$i(e "ateria! i$ +re5*e#t!y )i!*te) be!ow
the F6F by
T 25

T 25

C
o
#
c
e
#
t
r
a
t
i
o
#

o
+
6
!
a
"
"
a
b
!
e

D
a
p
o
r
-at*ratio# (apor
pre$$*re c*r(e
Mi$t$
Got 6!a""ab!e
3& The co"b*$tio# 1i#etic$ o+ the p*re $pecie$ i$ i#)epe#)e#t o+
a#) *#cha#ge) by the pre$e#ce o+ other co"b*$tib!e $pecie$&
4& The a)iabatic te"perat*re ri$e at the +!a""abi!ity !i"it i$ the
$a"e +or a!! $pecie$&
The$e a$$*"ptio#$ were +o*#) to be rea$o#ab!y (a!i) at the F6F
a#) !e$$ $o at the ,6F&
Liquid %ixtures 6!a$h poi#t te"perat*re$ +or "i/t*re$ o+ !i5*i)$
6!a$h poi#t
6!a""ab!e
Got 6!a""ab!e
'*toig#itio#
'*toig#itio#
regio#
ca# be e$ti"ate) i+ o#!y o#e co"po#e#t i$ +!a""ab!e a#) the +!a$h
poi#t te"perat*re o+ the +!a""ab!e co"po#e#t i$ 1#ow#& %# thi$ ca$e
the +!a$h poi#t te"perat*re i$ e$ti"ate) by )eter"i#i#g the te"pera-
t*re at which the (apor pre$$*re o+ the +!a""ab!e co"po#e#t i# the
"i/t*re i$ e5*a! to the p*re co"po#e#t (apor pre$$*re at it$ +!a$h
poi#t& .$ti"atio# o+ +!a$h poi#t te"perat*re$ +or "i/t*re$ o+ $e(era!
+!a""a- b!e co"po#e#t$ ca# be )o#e by a $i"i!ar proce)*re, b*t it
i$ reco"- "e#)e) that the +!a$h poi#t te"perat*re be "ea$*re)
e/peri"e#ta!!y& !lammabilit" Limit ependen&e on Temperature
%# ge#era!, a$ the te"perat*re i#crea$e$, the +!a""abi!ity ra#ge
wi)e#$, i&e&, the F6F )ecrea$e$ a#) the ,6F i#crea$e$& Wabeta1i$ et a!&
9Wabeta1i$, Fa"biri$, a#) -cott, <6!a"e Te"perat*re$ o+ Fi"it
Mi/t*re$,= ;th $ymposi"m on
te"perat*re te"perat*re 9'%T:
Te"perat*re
Comb"stion, 0*tterworth$, Fo#)o#, 1959: )eri(e) the +o!!owi#g e"pir-
ica! e5*atio#$, which are appro/i"ate +or "a#y hy)rocarbo#$2
F%G. 2303 The re!atio#$hip betwee# the (ario*$ +!a""abi!ity propertie$& 930
0 Crowl an% J0 F0 ,o"var, Che"ica! Croce$$ -a+ety2 6*#)a"e#ta!$ with
'pp!ica- tio#$, 9% e%0, K 97790 %apte% by permission of Pearson E%"cation,
!nc0, Upper $a%%le 4iver, /0J0:
wi#) )i$per$io#& The$e e/p!o$io#$ are )e$tr*cti(e beca*$e !arge 5*a#-
F6T S F6F X
0&75
9T X 25:
V&
c
,6F S ,6F Y
0&75
9T X 25:
V&
c
923-2:
titie$ o+ ga$ a#) !arge area$ are +re5*e#t!y i#(o!(e)&
6ig*re 23-3 i$ a p!ot o+ co#ce#tratio# (er$*$ te"perat*re a#) $how$
how $e(era! o+ the$e )e+i#itio#$ are re!ate)& The e/po#e#tia! c*r(e i#
6ig& 23-3 repre$e#t$ the $at*ratio# (apor pre$$*re c*r(e +or the !i5*i)
"ateria!& Typica!!y, the ,6F i#crea$e$ a#) the F6F )ecrea$e$ with
te"-
perat*re& The F6F theoretica!!y i#ter$ect$ the $at*ratio# (apor pre$$*re
c*r(e at the +!a$h poi#t, a!tho*gh e/peri"e#ta! )ata are #ot a!way$ co#-
$i$te#t& The a*toig#itio# te"perat*re i$ act*a!!y the !owe$t te"perat*re
o+ a# a*toig#itio# regio#& The beha(ior o+ the a*toig#itio# regio# a#)
the +!a""abi!ity !i"it$ at higher te"perat*re$ are #ot we!! *#)er$too)&
The +!a$h poi#t a#) +!a""abi!ity !i"it$ are #ot +*#)a"e#ta! prop-
ertie$ b*t are )e+i#e) o#!y by the $peci+ic e/peri"e#ta! apparat*$ a#)
proce)*re *$e)&
-ectio# 2 pro(i)e$ +!a""abi!ity )ata +or a #*"ber o+ co"po*#)$&
Co/'ustion an# Fla//a'ility "a,ar#s
Vapor %ixtures 6re5*e#t!y, +!a""abi!ity )ata are re5*ire) +or
(apor "i/t*re$& The +!a""abi!ity !i"it$ +or the "i/t*re are e$ti"ate)
by *$i#g FeChate!ier?$ r*!e PFeChate!ier, <.$ti"atio# o+ 6ire)a"p by
6!a""abi!ity Fi"it$,= nn0 Mines 91891:, $er& 8, 192 388O395, with
tra#$!atio# i# Process $afety Progress, 2393:2 172Q&
1
where V&
c
i$ the #et heat o+ co"b*$tio# 91ca!J"o!: a#) T i$ the te"-
perat*re 9UC:&
!lammabilit" Limit ependen&e on $ressure Cre$$*re ha$ !it-
t!e e++ect o# the F6F e/cept at (ery !ow pre$$*re$ 9Z 50 ""g
ab$o!*te: where +!a"e$ )o #ot propagate&
The ,6F i#crea$e$ a$ the pre$$*re i$ i#crea$e)& ' (ery appro/i"ate
e5*atio# +or the cha#ge i# ,6F with pre$$*re i$ a(ai!ab!e +or $o"e
hy)rocarbo# ga$e$ 9Wabeta1i$, <6ire a#) ./p!o$io# aKar)$ at Te"-
perat*re a#) Cre$$*re ./tre"e$,= !C&E !nst0 Chem0 Engr0 $ymp0,
$er& 2, pp& 99-104, 1965:2
,6F
P
S ,6F Y 20&6 9!og P Y 1: 923-3:
where P i$ the pre$$*re 9"egapa$ca!$ ab$o!*te: a#) ,6F i$ the *pper
+!a""abi!ity !i"it 9(o! T +*e! i# air at 1 at":&
Estimating !lammabilit" Limits There are a #*"ber o+ (ery
appro/i"ate "etho)$ a(ai!ab!e to e$ti"ate +!a""abi!ity !i"it$& ow-
e(er, +or critica! $a+ety (a!*e$, e/peri"e#ta! )eter"i#atio# a$ c!o$e a$
po$$ib!e to act*a! proce$$ co#)itio#$ i$ a!way$ reco""e#)e)&
Lo#e$ PLo#e$, <%#+!a""atio# Fi"it$ a#) Their Cractica! 'pp!icatio#
i# aKar)o*$ %#)*$tria! ;peratio#$,= Chem0 4ev0, 2291:2 1O26 91938:Q
+o*#) that +or "a#y hy)rocarbo# (apor$ the F6F a#) ,6F ca# be
e$ti"ate) +ro" the $toichio"etric co#ce#tratio# o+ +*e!2
F6F
"i/
S
n
923-1: F6F S 0&55C
$t

y
i
GF6F
i
i S 1
,6F S 3&50C
$t
923-4:
where F6F
i
S !ower +!a""abi!ity !i"it +or co"po#e#t i 9i# (o!*"e T:
y
i
S "o!e +ractio# o+ co"po#e#t i o# a co"b*$tib!e ba$i$
n S #*"ber o+ co"b*$tib!e $pecie$
'# i)e#tica! e5*atio# ca# be writte# +or the ,6F&
Gote that .5& 923-1: i$ o#!y app!ie) to the co"b*$tib!e $pecie$, a#)
where C
$t
i$ the $toichio"etric +*e! co#ce#tratio# 9(o! T +*e! i# air:&
6or a $toichio"etric co"b*$tio# e5*atio# o+ the +or"
91: C
m

)
;
y
Y ' ;
2
[m C;
2
Y 9)J2:
2
; 923-5:
it +o!!ow$ that
the "o!e +ractio# i$ co"p*te) *$i#g o#!y the co"b*$tib!e $pecie$&
) y
FeChate!ier?$ r*!e i$ e"pirica!!y )eri(e) a#) i$ #ot *#i(er$a!!y
app!icab!e& Ma$h*ga a#) Crow! PMa$h*ga a#) Crow!, <Eeri(atio# o+
FeChate!ier?$ Mi/i#g 3*!e +or 6!a""ab!e Fi"it$,= Process $afety
Progress, 1992:2 112O118 92000:Q )eter"i#e) that the +o!!owi#g
a$$*"ptio#$ are pre$e#t i# FeChate!ier?$ r*!e2
1& The pro)*ct heat capacitie$ are co#$ta#t&
2& The #*"ber o+ "o!e$ o+ ga$ i$ co#$ta#t&
' S m Y X
4 2
a#) +*rther"ore that
C S
100
$t
1 Y 'G0&21
923-6:
923-7:
100

923-9:
)ABL 2301 Li/itin$ .=y$en Concentrations >;olu/e Percent
.=y$en Concentrations a'o*e Which Co/'ustion Can .ccur?
Ga$ or (apor G J 'ir C; J 'ir
the )iagra" the co#ce#tratio#$ "*$t a)) *p to 100 perce#t& 't poi#t '
we ha(e 60T +*e!, 20T o/yge#, a#) 20T #itroge#& The air !i#e repre-
$e#t$ a!! po$$ib!e co"bi#atio#$ o+ +*e! a#) airNit i#ter$ect$ the #itroge#
2 2
a/i$ at 79T #itroge# which i$ the co"po$itio# o+ air& The $toichio"etric
Metha#e 12 14&5
.tha#e 11 13&5
Cropa#e 11&5 14&5
n-0*ta#e 12 14&5
%$ob*ta#e 12 15
n-Ce#ta#e 12 14&5
%$ope#ta#e 12 14&5
n-e/a#e 12 14&5
n-epta#e 11&5 14&5
.thy!e#e 10 11&5
Cropy!e#e 11&5 14
1-0*te#e 11&5 14
%$ob*ty!e#e 12 15
0*ta)ie#e 10&5 13
3

-Methy!-1-b*te#e 11&5 14
0e#Ke#e 11&4 14
To!*e#e 9&5 N
-tyre#e 9&0 N
Cyc!opropa#e 11&5 14
Ga$o!i#e
973J100: 12 15
9100J130: 12 15
9115J145: 12 14&5
Bero$e#e 10 9150UC: 13 9150UC:
LC-1 +*e! 10&5 9150UC: 14 9150UC:
Gat*ra! ga$ 12 14&5
'ceto#e 11&5 14
t-0*ta#o! G' 16&5 9150UC:
Carbo# )i$*!+i)e 5 7&5
Carbo# "o#o/i)e 5&5 5&5
.tha#o! 10&5 13
.thy! ether 10&5 13
y)roge# 5 5&2
y)roge# $*!+i)e 7&5 11&5
%$ob*ty! +or"ate 12&5 15
Metha#o! 10 12
Methy! acetate 11 13&5
Eata +ro" G6C' 68, *enting of 3eflagrations 9H*i#cy, Ma$$&2 Gatio#a! 6ire
Crotectio# '$$ociatio#, 1994:&
.5*atio# 923-7: ca# be *$e) with 923-4: to e$ti"ate the F6F a#)
,6F&
-*K*1i P-*K*1i, <."pirica! 3e!atio#$hip betwee# Fower 6!a""a-
bi!ity Fi"it$ a#) -ta#)ar) .#tha!pie$ o+ Co"b*$tio# o+ ;rga#ic
Co"po*#)$,= Fire an% Materials, 182 333O336 91994:A -*K*1i a#)
Boi)e, <Corre!atio# betwee# ,pper 6!a""abi!ity Fi"it$ a#) Ther-
"oche"ica! Cropertie$ o+ ;rga#ic Co"po*#)$,= Fire an% Materials,
182 pp& 393O397 91994:Q pro(i)e$ "ore )etai!e) corre!atio#$ +or the
,6F a#) F6F i# ter"$ o+ the heat o+ co"b*$tio#&
6!a""abi!ity !i"it$ ca# a!$o be e$ti"ate) by *$i#g ca!c*!ate) a)iabatic
+!a"e te"perat*re$ a#) a che"ica! e5*i!ibri*" progra" PMa$h*ga a#)
Crow!, <6!a""abi!ity Wo#e Cre)ictio# ,$i#g Ca!c*!ate) ')iabatic
6!a"e
Te"perat*re$,= Process $afety Progress, 18 93: 91999:Q&
Limiting 'x"gen Con&entration (L'C) 0e!ow the !i"iti#g
o/yge# co#ce#tratio# it i$ #ot po$$ib!e to $*pport co"b*$tio#, i#)e-
pe#)e#t o+ the +*e! co#ce#tratio#& The F;C i$ e/pre$$e) i# *#it$ o+
(o!*"e perce#t o+ o/yge#& The F;C i$ )epe#)e#t o# the pre$$*re
a#) te"perat*re, a#) o# the i#ert ga$& Tab!e 23-1 !i$t$ a #*"ber o+
F;C$, a#) it $how$ that the F;C cha#ge$ i+ carbo# )io/i)e i$ the
i#ert ga$ i#$tea) o+ #itroge#&
The F;C ca# be e$ti"ate) +or "a#y hy)rocarbo#$ +ro"
F;C S ' F6F 923-8:
where ' i$ the $toichio"etric coe++icie#t +or o/yge# P$ee .5& 923-5:Q
a#) F6F i$ the !ower +!a""abi!ity !i"it&
!lammabilit" iagram 6ig*re 23-4 $how$ a typica! +!a""abi!ity
)iagra"& Coi#t ' $how$ how the $ca!e$ are orie#te)Nat a#y poi#t o#
!i#e repre$e#t$ a!! $toichio"etric co"bi#atio#$ o+ +*e! a#) o/yge#& %+
the co"b*$tio# reactio# i$ writte# accor)i#g to .5& 923-5:, the# the
i#ter$ectio# o+ the $toichio"etric !i#e with the o/yge# a/i$ i$ gi(e# by
'

1 Y '
The F6F a#) ,6F are )raw# o# the air !i#e +ro" the +*e! a/i$ (a!*e$&
The +!a""abi!ity Ko#e +or "o$t hy)rocarbo# (apor$ i$ $how# a$
)raw# i# 6ig& 23-4& '#y co#ce#tratio# withi# the +!a""abi!ity Ko#e i$
)e+i#e) a$ +!a""ab!e&
The F;C i$ the o/yge# co#ce#tratio# at the (ery #o$e o+ the +!a"-
"abi!ity Ko#e& %t i$ +o*#) +ro" a !i#e )raw# +ro" the #o$e o+ the +!a"-
"abi!ity Ko#e to the o/yge# a/i$&
Crow! 9Un%erstan%ing E)plosions, '"erica# %#$tit*te o+ Che"ica!
.#gi#eer$, Gew @or1, 2003, 'pp& ': )eri(e) a #*"ber o+ r*!e$ +or
*$i#g +!a""abi!ity )iagra"$2
1& %+ two ga$ "i/t*re$ 4 a#) $ are co"bi#e), the re$*!ti#g "i/t*re
co"po$itio# !ie$ o# a !i#e co##ecti#g poi#t$ 4 a#) $ o# the +!a""a-
bi!ity )iagra"& The !ocatio# o+ the +i#a! "i/t*re o# the $traight !i#e
)epe#)$ o# the re!ati(e "o!e$ i# the "i/t*re$ co"bi#e)2 %+ "i/t*re $
ha$ "ore "o!e$, the +i#a! "i/t*re poi#t wi!! !ie c!o$er to poi#t $0 Thi$
i$ i)e#tica! to the !e(er r*!e *$e) +or pha$e )iagra"$&
2& %+ a "i/t*re 4 i$ co#ti#*o*$!y )i!*te) with "i/t*re $, the "i/-
t*re co"po$itio# +o!!ow$ a!o#g the $traight !i#e betwee# poi#t$ 4 a#)
$ o# the +!a""abi!ity )iagra"& '$ the )i!*tio# co#ti#*e$, the "i/t*re
co"po$itio# "o(e$ c!o$er a#) c!o$er to poi#t $0 .(e#t*a!!y, at i#+i#ite
)i!*tio# the "i/t*re co"po$itio# i$ at poi#t $0
3& 6or $y$te"$ ha(i#g co"po$itio# poi#t$ that +a!! o# a $traight !i#e
pa$$i#g thro*gh a# ape/ corre$po#)i#g to o#e p*re co"po#e#t, the
other two co"po#e#t$ are pre$e#t i# a +i/e) ratio a!o#g the e#tire !i#e
!e#gth&
6ig*re 23-5 $how$ how #itroge# ca# be *$e) to a(oi) the +!a""a-
b!e Ko#e )*ri#g the (e$$e! preparatio# +or "ai#te#a#ce& %# thi$ ca$e
#itroge# i$ p*"pe) i#to the (e$$e! *#ti! a co#ce#tratio# i$ reache) at
poi#t -& The# air ca# be p*"pe) i#, arri(i#g at poi#t 3& 6ig*re 23-6
$how$ the re(er$e proce)*re& Gow #itroge# i$ a))e) *#ti! poi#t - i$
reache), the# +*e! i$ p*"pe) i# *#ti! poi#t 3 i$ reache)& %# both ca$e$
the +!a""ab!e Ko#e i$ a(oi)e)&
' co"p!ete +!a""abi!ity )iagra" re5*ire$ h*#)re)$ o+ te$t$ i# a
co"b*$tio# $phere PMa$h*ga a#) Crow!, <'pp!icatio# o+ the 6!a"-
"abi!ity Eiagra" +or the .(a!*atio# o+ 6ire a#) ./p!o$io# aKar)$ o+
6!a""ab!e Dapor$,= Proc0 $afety Prog0, 17 93:2 176O183 91998:Q& ow-
e(er, a# appro/i"ate )iagra" ca# be )raw# by *$i#g the F6F, ,6F,
F;C, a#) +!a""abi!ity !i"it$ i# p*re o/yge#& The +o!!owi#g proce-
)*re i$ *$e)2
1& Eraw the +!a""abi!ity !i"it$ i# air a$ poi#t$ o# the air !i#e, *$i#g
the +*e! a/i$ (a!*e$&
2& Eraw the +!a""abi!ity !i"it$ i# p*re o/yge# a$ poi#t$ o# the o/y-
ge# $ca!e, *$i#g the +*e! a/i$ (a!*e$& Tab!e 23-2 pro(i)e$ a #*"ber o+
(a!*e$ +or the +!a""abi!ity !i"it$ i# p*re o/yge#& The$e are )raw# o#
the o/yge# a/i$ *$i#g the +*e! a/i$ co#ce#tratio#$&
3& ,$e .5& 923-9: to )raw a poi#t o# the o/yge# a/i$, a#) the# )raw
the $toichio"etric !i#e +ro" thi$ poi#t to the 100 perce#t #itroge# ape/&
4& Focate the F;C o# the o/yge# a/i$& Eraw a !i#e para!!e! to the
+*e! a/i$ *#ti! it i#ter$ect$ the $toichio"etric !i#e& Eraw a poi#t at the
i#ter$ectio#&
5& Co##ect the poi#t$ to e$ti"ate the +!a""abi!ity Ko#e&
%# rea!ity, #ot a!! the )ata are a(ai!ab!e, $o a re)*ce) +or" o+ the abo(e
proce)*re i$ *$e) to )raw a partia! )iagra" 9Crow!, Un%erstan%ing
E)plosions, '"erica# %#$tit*te o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, Gew @or1,
2003, p& 27:&
Ignition (our&es and Energ" Tab!e 23-3 pro(i)e$ a !i$t o+ the
ig#itio# $o*rce$ +or "a>or +ire$& '$ $ee# i# Tab!e 23-3, ig#itio# $o*rce$
are (ery co""o# a#) ca##ot be *$e) a$ the o#!y "etho) o+ +ire pre-
(e#tio#&
0 100
F;C
,pper !i"it i#
20 80
p*re o/yge#
'
40 60
60
6!a""abi!ity
Ko#e
Fower !i"it i#
80
p*re o/yge#
40
,6F
20
100
0
20 40 60
0
80 100
Gitroge# F6F
F%G. 2308 6!a""abi!ity )iagra" +or "etha#e at a# i#itia! te"perat*re a#) pre$$*re o+ 25UC a#) 1 at"&
PC0 *0 Mash"ga an% 30 0 Crowl, Lpplication of the Flammability 3iagram for Eval"ation of Fire an%
E)plosion &a'ar%s of Flammable *apors,M Croce$$ -a+ety Crogre$$, vol0 @;, no0 6; copyright @AAB
merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers #!ChE. an% repro%"ce% with permission0Q
The "i#i"*" ig#itio# e#ergy 9M%.: i$ the "i#i"*" e#ergy i#p*t
re5*ire) to i#itiate co"b*$tio#& '!! +!a""ab!e "ateria!$ 9i#c!*)i#g
)*$t$: ha(e a# M%.& The M%. )epe#)$ o# the $pecie$, co#ce#tratio#,
pre$$*re, a#) te"perat*re& ' +ew M%.$ are pro(i)e) i# Tab!e 23-4& %#
ge#era!, e/peri"e#ta! )ata i#)icate that
1& The M%. i#crea$e$ with i#crea$i#g pre$$*re&
2& The M%. +or )*$t$ i$, i# ge#era!, at e#ergy !e(e!$ $o"ewhat
higher tha# that o+ co"b*$tib!e ga$e$&
3& '# i#crea$e i# #itroge# co#ce#tratio# i#crea$e$ the M%.&
Mo$t hy)rocarbo# (apor$ ha(e a# M%. o+ abo*t 0&25 "L& Thi$ i$ (ery
!owNa $tatic $par1 that yo* ca# +ee! i$ greater tha# abo*t 20 "L& E*$t$
typica!!y ha(e M%.$ o+ abo*t 10 "L& %# both the (apor a#) )*$t ca$e$,
wi)e (ariabi!ity i# the (a!*e$ i$ e/pecte)&
Aerosols and %ists The +!a""abi!ity beha(ior o+ (apor$ i$
a++ecte) by the pre$e#ce o+ !i5*i) )rop!et$ i# the +or" o+ aero$o!$ or
"i$t$& 'ero$o!$ are !i5*i) )rop!et$ or $o!i) partic!e$ o+ $iKe $"a!!
'
0 100
3
0 100
Gitroge#
p*"pe) i#
100
6!a""abi!ity
Wo#e
'ir
p*"pe) i#
-
0
100
6*e! p*"pe)
i#
0
0
Gitroge#
3
C*re air
100
0
Gitroge#
'
G
2
p*"pe) i#
-
100
F%G. 2309 ' proce)*re +or a(oi)i#g the +!a""abi!ity Ko#e +or ta1i#g a (e$$e!
o*t o+ $er(ice& P30 0 Crowl, ,#)er$ta#)i#g, ./p!o$io#$, Center for Chemical
Process $afety #CCP$. of the merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers
#!ChE.; copyright 9776 !ChE an% repro%"ce% with permission0Q
F%G. 230< ' proce)*re +or a(oi)i#g the +!a""abi!ity Ko#e +or p!aci#g a (e$$e!
i#to $er(ice& P30 0 Crowl, ,#)er$ta#)i#g ./p!o$io#$, Center for Chemical
Process $afety #CCP$. of the merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers
#!ChE.; copyright 9776 !ChE an% repro%"ce% with permission0Q
2
)ABL 2302 Fla//a'ility Li/its in Pure .=y$en
Co"po*#) 6or"*!a
Fi"it$ o+ +!a""abi!ity i#
p*re o/yge#
Fower ,pper
y)roge#
Carbo# "o#o/i)e\

2
C;
4&0
15&5
94
94
'""o#ia
Metha#e
.tha#e
G
3
C
4
C
2

6
15&0
5&1
3&0
79
61
66
.thy!e#e
Cropy!e#e
Cyc!opropa#e
C
2

4
C
3

6
C
3

6
3&0
2&1
2&5
80
53
60
Eiethy! ether
Ei(i#y! ether
C
4

10
;
C
4

6
;
2&0
1&8
82
85
\The !i"it$ are i#$e#$iti(e to p
;
abo(e a +ew "i!!i"eter$ o+ "erc*ry&
Eata +ro" 0& Fewi$ a#) G& (o# .!be, Comb"stion, Flames an% E)plosions of
(ases 9Gew @or12 arco*rt 0race Lo(a#o(ich, 1987:&
e#o*gh to re"ai# $*$pe#)e) i# air +or pro!o#ge) perio)$& Mi$t$ are
$*$pe#)e) !i5*i) )rop!et$ pro)*ce) by co#)e#$atio# o+ (apor i#to !i5-
*i) or by the brea1i#g *p o+ !i5*i) i#to a )i$per$e) $tate by $p!a$hi#g,
$prayi#g, or ato"iKi#g&
6or !i5*i) )rop!et$ with )ia"eter$ !e$$ tha# 0&01 "", the F6F
i$ (irt*a!!y the $a"e a$ the $*b$ta#ce i# (apor +or"& 6or "echa#i-
ca!!y +or"e) "i$t$ with )rop )ia"eter$ betwee# 0&001 a#) 0&2 "",
the F6F )ecrea$e$ a$ the )rop )ia"eter i#crea$e$& %# e/peri"e#t$
with !arger )rop )ia"eter$ the F6F wa$ !e$$ tha# o#e-te#th o+ the
(apor F6F& Th*$, $*$pe#)e) )rop!et$ ha(e a pro+o*#) e++ect o#
+!a""abi!ity&
=-losions
Introdu&tion Ga$ e/p!o$io#$ )epe#) o# a !arge #*"ber o+ para-
"eter$, i#c!*)i#g te"perat*re, pre$$*re, ga$ co"po$itio#, ig#itio#
$o*rce, geo"etry o+ $*rro*#)i#g$, t*rb*!e#ce i# the ga$, "i/i#g, ti"e
be+ore ig#itio#, a#) $o +orth& Th*$, ga$ e/p!o$io#$ are )i++ic*!t to char-
acteriKe a#) pre)ict&
'# e/p!o$io# occ*r$ whe# e#ergy i$ re!ea$e) i#to the ga$ pha$e
i# a (ery $hort ti"e, typica!!y "i!!i$eco#)$ or !e$$& %+ the e#ergy i$
re!ea$e) i#to the ga$ pha$e, the e#ergy ca*$e$ the ga$e$ to e/pa#)
(ery rapi)!y, +orci#g bac1 the $*rro*#)i#g ga$ a#) i#itiati#g a
pre$$*re wa(e that "o(e$ rapi)!y o*twar) +ro" the b!a$t origi#&
The pre$$*re wa(e co#tai#$ e#ergy which ca*$e$ )a"age to the
$*rro*#)i#g$& ' pre)ictio# o+ the )a"age e++ect$ +ro" a# e/p!o-
$io# re5*ire$ a c!ear *#)er$ta#)i#g o+ how thi$ pre$$*re wa(e
beha(e$&
)ABL 2303 %$nition Sources of !a@or FiresA
.!ectrica! 9wiri#g o+ "otor$: 23T
-"o1i#g 18
6rictio# 9beari#g$ or bro1e# part$: 10
;(erheate) "ateria!$ 9ab#or"a!!y high te"perat*re$: 8
ot $*r+ace$ 9heat +ro" boi!er$, !a"p$, etc&: 7
0*r#er +!a"e$ 9i"proper *$e o+ torche$, etc&: 7
Co"b*$tio# $par1$ 9$par1$ a#) e"ber$: 5
-po#ta#eo*$ ig#itio# 9r*bbi$h, etc&: 4
C*tti#g a#) we!)i#g 9$par1$, arc$, heat, etc&: 4
./po$*re 9+ire$ >*"pi#g i#to #ew area$: 3
%#ce#)iari$" 9+ire$ "a!icio*$!y $et: 3
Mecha#ica! $par1$ 9gri#)er$, cr*$her$, etc&: 2
Mo!te# $*b$ta#ce$ 9hot $pi!!$: 2
Che"ica! actio# 9proce$$e$ #ot i# co#tro!: 1
-tatic $par1$ 9re!ea$e o+ acc*"*!ate) e#ergy: 1
Fight#i#g 9where !ight#i#g ro)$ are #ot *$e): 1
M

i$ce!!a#eo*$
1
\cci%ent Prevention Man"al for !n%"strial Cperations 9Chicago2 Gatio#a!
)ABL 2308 !ini/u/ %$nition ner$y >!%? for Selecte# Gases
Che"ica! Mi#i"*" ig#itio# e#ergy, "L
'cety!e#e 0&020
0e#Ke#e 0&225
1,3-0*ta)ie#e 0&125
n-0*ta#e 0&260
Cyc!ohe/a#e 0&223
Cyc!opropa#e 0&180
.tha#e 0&240
.the#e 0&124
.thy!acetate 0&480
.thy!e#e o/i)e 0&062
n-epta#e 0&240
e/a#e 0&248
y)roge# 0&018
Metha#e 0&280
Metha#o! 0&140
Methy! acety!e#e 0&120
Methy! ethy! 1eto#e 0&280
n-Ce#ta#e 0&220
2-Ce#ta#e 0&180
Cropa#e 0&250
Eata +ro" %& G!a$$"a#, Comb"stion, 3) e)& 9Gew @or12 'ca)e"ic Cre$$, 1996:&
etonation and eflagration The )i++ere#ce betwee# a )eto-
#atio# a#) )e+!agratio# )epe#)$ o# how +a$t the pre$$*re wa(e "o(e$
o*t +ro" the b!a$t origi#& %+ the pre$$*re wa(e "o(e$ at a $pee) !e$$
tha# the $pee) o+ $o*#) i# the a"bie#t ga$, the# a )e+!agratio#
re$*!t$& %+ the pre$$*re wa(e "o(e$ at a $pee) greater tha# the $pee)
o+ $o*#) i# the a"bie#t ga$, the# a )eto#atio# re$*!t$&
6or i)ea! ga$e$, the $pee) o+ $o*#) i$ a +*#ctio# o+ te"perat*re a#)
"o!ec*!ar weight o#!y& 6or air at 20UC the $pee) o+ $o*#) i$ 344 "J$
91129 +tJ$:&
6or a )eto#atio#, the reactio# +ro#t "o(e$ +a$ter tha# the $pee) o+
$o*#), p*$hi#g the pre$$*re wa(e or $hoc1 +ro#t i""e)iate!y ahea) o+
it& 6or a )e+!agratio#, the reactio# +ro#t "o(e$ at a $pee) !e$$ tha# the
$pee) o+ $o*#), re$*!ti#g i# a pre$$*re wa(e that "o(e$ at the $pee)
o+ $o*#), "o(i#g away +ro" the reactio# +ro#t& ' #oticeab!e )i++er-
e#ce i$ +o*#) i# the re$*!ti#g pre$$*re-ti"e or pre$$*re-)i$ta#ce
p!ot$&
The )i++ere#ce i# beha(ior betwee# a )eto#atio# a#) )e+!agratio#
re$*!t$ i# a $ig#i+ica#t )i++ere#ce i# the )a"age& 6or a )eto#atio#, the
)a"age i$ *$*a!!y !oca!iKe)& owe(er, +or a )e+!agratio#, the )a"age
i$ "ore wi)e$prea)&
6or high e/p!o$i(e$, $*ch a$ TGT, )eto#atio#$ are the #or"a! re$*!t&
owe(er, +or +!a""ab!e (apor$, )e+!agratio#$ are "ore co""o#&
Confined Explosions ' co#+i#e) e/p!o$io# occ*r$ i# a b*i!)i#g
or proce$$& ."pirica! $t*)ie$ o# )e+!agratio#$ 9Ta#g a#) 0a1er, <'
Gew -et o+ 0!a$t C*r(e$ +ro" Dapor C!o*) ./p!o$io#$,= 33) Fo$$
Cre(e#tio# -y"p$oi*", '%C., 1999A Merc/, (a# 4ee$, a#)
;p$choor, <C*rre#t 3e$earch at TG; o# Dapo*r C!o*) ./p!o$io#
Mo)e!i#g,= PlantGCperations Progress, ;ctober 1993: ha(e $how#
that the beha(ior o+ the e/p!o$io# i$ high!y )epe#)e#t o# the )egree
o+ co#+i#e"e#t& Co#+i#e"e#t "ay be )*e to proce$$ e5*ip"e#t,
b*i!)i#g$, $torage (e$$e!$, a#) a#ythi#g e!$e that i"pe)e$ the e/pa#-
$io# o+ the reactio# +ro#t&
The$e $t*)ie$ ha(e +o*#) that i#crea$e) co#+i#e"e#t !ea)$ to
+!a"e acce!eratio# a#) i#crea$e) )a"age& The +!a"e acce!eratio#
i$ ca*$e) by i#crea$e) t*rb*!e#ce which $tretche$ a#) tear$ the
+!a"e +ro#t, re$*!ti#g i# a !arger +!a"e +ro#t $*r+ace a#) a#
i#crea$e) co"b*$tio# rate& The t*rb*!e#ce i$ ca*$e) by two phe-
#o"e#a& 6ir$t, the *#b*r#e) ga$e$ are p*$he) a#) acce!erate) by
the co"b*$tio# pro)*ct$ behi#) the reactio# +ro#t& -eco#), t*rb*-
!e#ce i$ ca*$e) by the i#teractio# o+ the ga$e$ with ob$tac!e$& The
i#crea$e) co"b*$tio# rate re$*!t$ i# a))itio#a! t*rb*!e#ce a#) a))i-
tio#a! acce!eratio#, pro(i)i#g a +ee)bac1 "echa#i$" +or e(e# "ore
-a+ety Co*#ci!, 1974:& t*rb*!e#ce&
LFL
4FL
P
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e
s
s
u
r
e

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'
a
r

a
'
s
?
P
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e
s
s
u
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e

>
-
s
i
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a
=

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P
/
a
=

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-
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i
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40
Ga$
Mi/i#g
-y$te"
20-Fiter
-phere
%g#iter
9
8
7
Eata
'c5*i$itio#
6
-y$te"
5
120
100
80
Ga$
Mi/i#g
Ee(ice
Dac**"
igh--pee)
4
60
Cre$$*re Tra#$)*cer
3
40
2
20
1
F%G. 230B '# apparat*$ +or co!!ecti#g e/p!o$io# )ata +or ga$e$ a#) (apor$& P30
0 Crowl, ,#)er$ta#)i#g ./p!o$io#$, Center for Chemical Process $afety #CCP$.
of the merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers #!ChE.; copyright 9776
!ChE an% repro%"ce% with permission0Q
0 0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
!ethane Concentration in Air
C#ara&teri,ing Explosive Be#avior for Vapors and usts
6ig*re 23-7 i$ a $che"atic o+ a )e(ice *$e) to characteriKe e/p!o$i(e
(apor$& Thi$ (e$$e! i$ typica!!y 3 to 20 F& %t i#c!*)e$ a ga$ ha#)!i#g a#)
"i/i#g $y$te" 9#ot $how#:, a# ig#iter to i#itiate the co"b*$tio#, a#)
a high-$pee) pre$$*re tra#$)*cer capab!e o+ "ea$*ri#g the pre$$*re
cha#ge$ at the "i!!i$eco#) !e(e!&
The ig#iter ca# be o+ $e(era! type$, i#c!*)i#g a +*$e wire, $par1, or
che"ica! ig#itio# $y$te"& ' typica! e#ergy +or ig#itio# i$ 10 L, a!tho*gh
ga$e$ ca# be ig#ite) at "*ch !ower !e(e!$&
The ga$ i$ "etere) i#to the cha"ber to pro(i)e a "i/t*re o+ a
1#ow# co"po$itio#& 't a $peci+ie) ti"e the ig#iter i$ acti(ate), a#)
)ata are co!!ecte) +ro" the pre$$*re tra#$)*cer&
' typica! pre$$*re ti"e p!ot i$ $how# i# 6ig& 23-8& '+ter ig#itio#, the
pre$$*re i#crea$e$ rapi)!y, reache$ a pea1, a#) the# )i"i#i$he$ a$ the
reactio# pro)*ct$ are co#$*"e) a#) the ga$e$ are 5*e#che) a#)
coo!e) by the (e$$e! wa!!&
The e/peri"e#t i$ repeate) o(er a ra#ge o+ co#ce#tratio#$& ' p!ot
o+ the "a/i"*" pre$$*re (er$*$ +*e! co#ce#tratio# i$ *$e) to )eter-
"i#e the +!a""abi!ity !i"it$, a$ $how# i# 6ig& 23-9& ' pre$$*re
i#crea$e o+ 7 perce#t o(er i#itia! a"bie#t pre$$*re i$ *$e) to )e+i#e
F%G. 2<0C Ma/i"*" pre$$*re a$ a +*#ctio# o+ (o!*"e perce#t co#ce#tratio#
+or "etha#e i# air i# a 20-F te$t $phere& The i#itia! te"perat*re a#) pre$$*re
are 25UC a#) 1 at"& The $toichio"etric co#ce#tratio# i$ 9&51T "etha#e& PC0 *0
Mash"ga an% 30 0 Crowl, Lpplication of the Flammability 3iagram for Eval-
"ation of Fire an% E)plosion &a'ar%s of Flammable *apors,= Croce$$ -a+ety
Crogre$$, vol0 @;, no0 6; copyright @AAB merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engi-
neers #!ChE. an% repro%"ce% with permission0Q
the +!a""abi!ity !i"it$ 9'-TM .918, $tan%ar% Proce%"re for
3etermining Flammability ,imits at Elevate% Temperat"re an%
Press"re, '"erica# -ociety +or Te$ti#g a#) Materia!$, Chi!a)e!phia,
1992:&
6ig*re 23-10 $how$ a )e(ice *$e) to characteriKe the co"b*$tio# o+
)*$t$& %# thi$ ca$e, the )*$t$ are i#itia!!y co#tai#e) i# a $"a!! carrier
e/ter#a! to the (e$$e!, a#) the )*$t i$ b!ow# i# >*$t prior to ig#itio#& '
typica! pre$$*re-ti"e c*r(e +or the )*$t apparat*$ i$ $how# i#
6ig& 23-11& The (e$$e! i$ i#itia!!y at a pre$$*re !e$$ tha# at"o$pheric,
b*t the pre$$*re i#crea$e$ to at"o$pheric a+ter the )*$t $a"p!e i$
b!ow# i#& '+ter the )*$t i$ b!ow# i#, a )e!ay ti"e occ*r$ i# or)er +or
the )*$t to beco"e 5*ie$ce#t b*t $ti!! $*$pe#)e) i# the ga$& The
re$*!t$ are high!y )epe#)e#t o# the )e!ay ti"e&
Two para"eter$ are *$e) to characteriKe the co"b*$tio# +or both
the (apor a#) )*$t ca$e$& The +ir$t i$ the "a/i"*" pre$$*re )*ri#g
the co"b*$tio# proce$$, a#) the $eco#) i$ the "a/i"*" rate o+
12
10
C"a/
8
6
4
S 8&5 bar
VC S 7&6 bar
160
140
120
100
80
60
E*$t
%#>ectio#
GoKK!e
E*$t
-a"p!e
Co#tai#er
%g#iter
20-Fiter
-phere
igh--pee)
Cre$$*re Tra#$)*cer
Eata
'c5*i$itio#
-y$te"
%P 7&6 bar
S S 316 barJ$
%t 0&024 $
2
Vt S 24 "$
20
0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
)i/e >/s?
'ir
Dac**"
F%G. 230D Typica! pre$$*re (er$*$ ti"e )ata obtai#e) +ro" ga$ e/p!o$io#
apparat*$ $how# i# 6ig& 23-9& 93aniel 0 Crowl an% Joseph F0 ,o"var, Che"ica!
Croce$$ -a+ety2 6*#)a"e#ta!$ with 'pp!icatio#$, 9% e%0, K 97790 %apte% by
permission of Pearson E%"cation, !nc0, Upper $a%%le 4iver, /0J0:
F%G. 2301E '# apparat*$ +or co!!ecti#g e/p!o$io# )ata +or )*$t$& P30 0 Crowl,
,#)er$ta#)i#g ./p!o$io#$, Center for Chemical Process $afety #CCP$. of the
merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers #!ChE.; copyright 9776 !ChE an%
repro%"ce% with permission0Q
%t
C
r
e
$
$
*
r
e

9
b
a
r

a
b
$
:
12
10
8
6 E*$t
%#>ecte)
4
%g#itio#
Ti"e
Ee!ay
Cea1 Cre$$*re
)CJ)t
;a-or Clou# =-losions ' (apor c!o*) e/p!o$io# 9DC.: occ*r$
whe# a !arge 5*a#tity o+ +!a""ab!e "ateria! i$ re!ea$e), i$ "i/e) with
e#o*gh air to +or" a +!a""ab!e "i/t*re, a#) i$ ig#ite)& Ea"age +ro"
a DC. i$ )*e "o$t!y to the o(erpre$$*re, b*t $ig#i+ica#t )a"age to
e5*ip"e#t a#) per$o##e! "ay occ*r )*e to ther"a! ra)iatio# +ro"
the re$*!ti#g +ireba!!&
' DC. re5*ire$ $e(era! co#)itio#$ to occ*r 9Estimating the Flam-
mable Mass of a *apor Clo"%, '"erica# %#$tit*te o+ Che"ica! .#gi-
#eer$, Gew @or1, 1999:2
1& The re!ea$e) "ateria! "*$t be +!a""ab!e&
2& ' c!o*) o+ $*++icie#t $iKe "*$t +or" prior to ig#itio#&
2
1 at"
0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Ti"e 9"$:
F%G. 23011 Cre$$*re )ata +ro" )*$t e/p!o$io# )e(ice& 93aniel 0 Crowl an%
Joseph F0 ,o"var, Che"ica! Croce$$ -a+ety2 6*#)a"e#ta!$ with 'pp!icatio#$,
9% e%0, K 97790 %apte% by permission of Pearson E%"cation, !nc0, Upper
$a%%le 4iver, /0J0:
pre$$*re i#crea$e& ."pirica! $t*)ie$ ha(e $how# that a )e+!agratio#
i#)e/ ca# be co"p*te) +ro" the "a/i"*" rate o+ pre$$*re i#crea$e2
%P
*
1J3
3& The re!ea$e) "ateria! "*$t "i/ with a# a)e5*ate 5*a#tity o+ air
to pro)*ce a $*++icie#t "a$$ i# the +!a""ab!e ra#ge&
4& The $pee) o+ the +!a"e propagatio# "*$t acce!erate a$ the (apor
c!o*) b*r#$& Thi$ acce!eratio# ca# be )*e to t*rb*!e#ce, a$ )i$c*$$e)
i# the $ectio# o# co#+i#e) e/p!o$io#$& 4itho*t thi$ acce!eratio#, o#!y
a +!a$h +ire wi!! re$*!t&
Mo$t DC.$ i#(o!(i#g +!a""ab!e !i5*i)$ or ga$e$ re$*!t o#!y i# a
)e+!agratio#N)eto#atio#$ are *#!i1e!y& '$ the co#+i#e"e#t o+ the
(apor c!o*) i#crea$e$, )*e to co#ge$tio# +ro" proce$$ e5*ip"e#t, the
+!a"e acce!erate$ a#) higher o(erpre$$*re$ are achie(e)& The higher
o(erpre$$*re$ "ay approach the $e(erity o+ a )eto#atio#&
6o*r "etho)$ are a(ai!ab!e to e$ti"ate the )a"age +ro" a DC.2
TGT e5*i(a!e#cy, TG; M*!ti-.#ergy "etho), 0a1er--treh!ow-
Ta#g "etho), a#) co"p*tatio#a! +!*i) )y#a"ic$& The TGT e5*i(-
a!e#cy "etho) i$ )i$c*$$e) i# the .$ti"atio# o+ Ea"age .++ect$
$ectio#& The other "etho)$ are )i$c*$$e) e!$ewhere 9("i%elines
for Eval"ating the Characteristics of *apor Clo"% E)plosions,
1
(
or 1
-t
S



"a/
where 1
(
S )e+!agratio# i#)e/ +or ga$e$ 9bar"J$:
1
-t
S )e+!agratio# i#)e/ +or )*$t$ 9bar"J$:
P S pre$$*re 9bar:
t S ti"e 9$:
* S i$ the (e$$e! (o!*"e 9"
3
:
923-10:
Flash Fires an% +,E*E$, '"erica# %#$tit*te o+ Che"ica! .#gi-
#eer$, Gew @or1, 1994A ("i%elines for Chemical Process ="antita-
tive 4isk nalysis, 2) e)&, '"erica# %#$tit*te o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$,
2000:&
Boilin$0LiFui# =-an#in$0;a-or =-losions ' boi!i#g-!i5*i)
e/pa#)i#g-(apor e/p!o$io#, co""o#!y ca!!e) a 0F.D. 9pro#o*#ce)
b!e-(ee:, occ*r$ whe# a (e$$e! co#tai#i#g a !i5*i) $tore) at a te"per-
at*re abo(e it$ #or"a! boi!i#g poi#t +ai!$ cata$trophica!!y& '+ter +ai!*re,
The higher the (a!*e o+ the )e+!agratio# i#)e/, the "ore rob*$t the
co"b*$tio#& Tab!e 23-5 co#tai#$ co"b*$tio# )ata +or ga$e$ whi!e
Tab!e 23-6 co#tai#$ co"b*$tio# )ata +or )*$t$&
a +ractio# o+ the !i5*i) +!a$he$ a!"o$t i#$ta#ta#eo*$!y i#to (apor& Ea"-
age "ay be ca*$e), i# part, by the rapi) e/pa#$io# o+ the (apor a#)
+rag"e#t$ +ro" the +ai!i#g (e$$e!& The !i5*i) "ay be water&
)ABL 2309 !a=i/u/ Pressures an# Defla$ration %n#ices for a 3u/'er of Gases an# ;a-ors
Che"ica!
Ma/i"*" pre$$*re P
"a/
, barg Ee+!agratio# i#)e/ 1
(
, bar
.
"J$
G6C' 68 0art1#echt -e#eca!
1997 1993 1998
G6C' 68 0art1#echt -e#eca!
1997 1993 1998
'cety!e#e
'""o#ia
0*ta#e
10&6
5&4
8&0 8&0
109
10
92 92
Carbo# )i$*!+i)e
Eiethy! ether
.tha#e
6&4
8&1
7&8 7&8 7&4
105
115
106 106 78
.thy! a!coho!
.thy! be#Ke#e
.thy!e#e
7&0
6&6 7&4
8&0
78
94 96
171
y)roge#
y)roge# $*!+i)e
%$ob*ta#e
6&9 6&8 6&5
7&4
7&4
659 550 638
45
67
Metha#e Methy!
a!coho! Methy!e#e
ch!ori)e
7&05 7&1 6&7
7&5 7&2
5&0
64 55 46
75 94
5
Ce#ta#e
Cropa#e
To!*e#e
7&65 7&8
7&9 7&9 7&2
7&8
104 104
96 100 76
94
Eata $e!ecte) +ro"2
/FP :B> *enting of 3eflagrations 9H*i#cy, Ma$$&2 Gatio#a! 6ire Crotectio# '$$ociatio#, 1997:&
4& 0art1#echt, E)plosionssch"t'> (r"n%lagen "n% nwen%"ng 9Gew @or12 -pri#ger-Der!ag, 1993:&
L& '& -e#eca! a#) C& '& 0ea*!ie*, <1
(
2 Eata a#) '#a!y$i$,= 6@st ,oss Prevention $ymposi"m 9Gew @or12 '"erica# %#$tit*te o+
Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, 1997:&
)ABL 230< Co/'ustion Data for Dust Clou#sA
E*$t
Me)ia#
partic!e
$iKe, "
Mi#i"*"
e/p!o$i(e )*$t
co#c&, gJ"
3
P
"a/
,
barg
1
-t,
bar
&
"J$
Mi#i"*"
ig#itio#
e#ergy, "L
Cotton, Eoo%, Peat
Cotto#
Ce!!*!o$e
4oo) )*$t
4oo) )*$t
Caper )*$t
44
51
33
80
Z10
100
60
N
N
N
7&2
9&3
N
N
5&7
24
66
N
N
18
N
250
100
7
N
Fee%, Foo%
Ee/tro$e
6r*cto$e
6r*cto$e
4heat grai# )*$t
Mi!1 pow)er
3ice +!o*r
4heat +!o*r
Mi!1 $*gar
80
200
400
80
165
N
50
10
60
125
N
60
60
60
N
60
4&3
6&4
N
9&3
8&1
7&4
N
8&3
18
27
N
112
90
57
N
75
N
180
]4000
N
75
]100
540
14
Coal, Coal Pro%"cts
'cti(ate) carbo#
0it*"i#o*$ coa!
18
Z10
60
N
8&8
9&0
44
55
N
N
Plastics, 4esins, 4"bber
Co!yacry!a"i)e
Co!ye$ter
Co!yethy!e#e
Co!yethy!e#e
Co!ypropy!e#e
Co!ypropy!e#e
Co!y$tyre#e 9copo!y"er:
Co!y$tyre#e 9har) +oa":
Co!y*retha#e
10
Z10
72
280
25
162
155
760
3
250
N
N
N
30
200
30
N
Z30
5&9
10&1
7&5
6&2
8&4
7&7
8&4
8&4
7&8
12
194
67
20
101
38
110
23
156
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
!nterme%iate Pro%"cts, ")iliary Materials
')ipi#ic aci)
Gaphtha!e#e
-a!icy!ic aci)
Z10
95
N
60
15
30
8&0
8&5
N
97
178
N
N
Z1
N
Cther Technical, Chemical Pro%"cts
;rga#ic )ye$t*++ 9b!*e:
;rga#ic )ye$t*++ 9re):
;rga#ic )ye$t*++ 9re):
Z10
Z10
52
N
50
60
9&0
11&2
9&8
73
249
237
N
N
N
Metals, lloys
'!*"i#*" pow)er
'!*"i#*" pow)er
0ro#Ke pow)er
%ro# 9+ro" )ry +i!ter:
Mag#e$i*"
Mag#e$i*"
-i!ico#
Wi#c 9)*$t +ro" co!!ector:
Z10
22
18
12
28
240
Z10
Z10
60
30
750
500
30
500
125
250
11&2
11&5
4&1
5&2
17&5
7&0
10&2
6&7
515
110
31
50
508
12
126
125
N
N
N
N
N
N
54
N
Cther !norganic Pro%"cts
Graphite 999&5T C:
-*!+*r
To#er
7
20
Z10
Z30
30
60
5&9
6&8
8&9
71
151
196
N
N
4
-t C!a$$e$ +or E*$t$
Ee+!agratio# i#)e/ 1
-t
, bar "J$ -t c!a$$
0 -t-0
1O200 -t-1
200O300 -t-2
]300 -t-3
\Eata $e!ecte) +ro" 3& B& .c1o++, 3"st E)plosions in the Process !n%"stries 9;/+or), .#g!a#)2 0*tterworth-ei#e"a##,
1997:&
The "o$t )a"agi#g 0F.D. occ*r$ whe# a (e$$e! co#tai#$ a +!a"-
"ab!e !i5*i) $tore) at a te"perat*re abo(e it$ #or"a! boi!i#g poi#t&
The (e$$e! wa!!$ be!ow the !i5*i) !e(e! are "ai#tai#e) at a !ow te"per-
at*re )*e to the rapi) heat tra#$+er to the !i5*i)& owe(er, the (e$$e!
wa!!$ e/po$e) to the +ire abo(e the !i5*i) !e(e! wi!! heat rapi)!y )*e to
the "*ch !ower heat tra#$+er to the (apor& The (e$$e! wa!! te"perat*re
wi!! i#crea$e to a poi#t where the $tre#gth o+ the (e$$e! wa!! i$ $ig#i+i-
ca#t!y re)*ce)& The (e$$e! wa!! wi!! +ai! cata$trophica!!y, re$*!ti#g i# the
+!a$hi#g o+ a !arge 5*a#tity o+ +!a""ab!e !i5*i) i#to (apor& -i#ce a +ire
i$ a!rea)y pre$e#t, the re$*!ti#g (apor c!o*) wi!! ig#ite a!"o$t i""e)i-
ate!y& ;(erpre$$*re$ +ro" the (e$$e! +ai!*re "ay re$*!t, b*t "o$t o+ the
)a"age i$ ca*$e) by ra)iatio# +ro" the re$*!ti#g !arge +ireba!!&
Dust =-losions
3o/enclature
Explosion pressure-s#o&) resistant (E$(-) Ee$ig# o+ a co#-
$tr*ctio# a!!owi#g greater *ti!iKatio# o+ the "ateria! $tre#gth tha# the
.C3 )e$ig#&
'rea o+ a (e#t ope#i#g, "
2
%aximum redu&ed explosion overpressure $
re#,/a=
The "a/i-

E
.++ecti(e (e#t area, "
2

1
Geo"etric (e#t area, "
2
9%PJ%t:
"a/
Ma/i"*" rate o+ pre$$*re ri$e, bar$
X1
1
"a/
Ma/i"*" e/p!o$io# co#$ta#t, "bar$
X1
1
"i#
Mi#i"*" e/p!o$io# co#$ta#t, "bar$
X1
Fe#gth o+ a pipe, "
,
3
Fe#gth o+ (e#t )*ct, "
,
3$
Ma/i"*" !e#gth o+ (e#t )*ct, "
,
F
6!a"e !e#gth, "
P
a
'cti(atio# o(erpre$$*re, bar
P
e/t
Ma/i"*" e/ter#a! pea1 o+ o(erpre$$*re, bar
P
"a/
Ma/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re, bar
P
re)
3e)*ce) e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re, bar
P
re),"a/
Ma/i"*" re)*ce) e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re, bar
P
$tat
-tatic acti(atio# o(erpre$$*re, bar
4 Ei$ta#ce to (e#t area, "
T
"a/
Ma/i"*" per"i$$ib!e $*r+ace te"perat*re, UC
"*" pre$$*re ge#erate) by a# e/p!o$io# o+ a )*$t-air "i/t*re i# a
(e#te) or $*ppre$$e) (e$$e! *#)er $y$te"atica!!y (arie) )*$t
co#ce#tratio#$&
%inimum ignition energ" (%IE) Fowe$t e!ectrica! e#ergy $tore)
i# a capacitor which, *po# )i$charge, i$ >*$t $*++icie#t to e++ect ig#itio#
o+ the "o$t ig#itab!e at"o$phere *#)er $peci+ie) te$t co#)itio#$&
%inimum ignition temperature of a dust &loud (%IT
C
: The
!owe$t te"perat*re o+ a hot $*r+ace o# which the "o$t ig#itab!e "i/-
t*re o+ the )*$t with air i$ ig#ite) *#)er $peci+ie) te$t co#)itio#$&
%inimum ignition temperature of a dust la"er (%IT
L
: The
!owe$t te"perat*re o+ a hot $*r+ace o# which a )*$t !ayer i$ ig#ite)
*#)er $peci+ie) te$t co#)itio#$&
(tati& a&tivation overpressure $
stat
Cre$$*re at which the
retai#i#g e!e"e#t brea1$ or re!ea$e$ $*ch that the (e#ti#g e!e"e#t i$
ab!e to ope# whe# the rate o+ pre$$*re ri$e i$ 0&1 barJ"i#&
Vent area A 'rea o+ a# ope#i#g +or e/p!o$io# (e#ti#g&
* De$$e! (o!*"e, "
3
Venting effi&ien&" E! 3atio o+ the e++ecti(e (e#t area
w
to the
*
c
3e!ati(e circ*"+ere#tia! $pee), "$
X1
E
F
4i)th o+ +!a"e, "
^ '#g!e betwee# the horiKo#ta! a#) (ertica! a/e$ o+ (e#t area,
)eg
G3&AL &F&3CS7 0art1#echt, 3"st E)plosions, -pri#ger, Gew @or1,
1989& 0art1#echt, E)plosionssch"t' 9./p!o$io# Crotectio#:, -pri#ger, 0er!i#,
1993& Crow! a#) Fo*(ar, Chemical Process $afety, Cre#tice-a!!, Gew Ler$ey,
1990& <E*$t ./p!o$io#$,= 28th '##*a! Fo$$ Cre(e#tio# -y"po$i*", 't!a#ta,
1994& .c1ho++, 3"st E)plosions in the Process !n%"stries, 2) e)&, 0*tterworth-
ei#e"a##, Fo#)o#, 1997& &ealth, $afety an% ,oss Prevention in the Cil,
Chemical an% Process !n%"stries, 0*tterworthJei#e"a##, -i#gapore, 1993&
G6C' 69, $tan%ar% on E)plosion Prevention $ystems, H*i#cy, Ma$$&, 1997&
attwig a#) -tee#, e)$&, &an%book of E)plosion Prevention an% Protection,
4i!ey-Dch Der!ag G"b R Co& BGa', 4ei#hei", 2004& DE%-3eport 1601,
$afe &an%ling of Comb"stible 3"st, DE%-Der!ag G"b, E_$$e!)or+, 2001&
DE%-G*i)e!i#e 2263, 3"st Fires an% 3"st E)plosions, 0e*th Der!ag, 0er!i#,
1992& .*ropea# -ta#)ar) .G 1127-1, E)plosives atmospheres> E)plosion pre-
vention an% protection, Ct& 12 +asic Concepts an% Metho%ology, 1997&
efinition of ust Explosion ' )*$t e/p!o$io# i$ the rapi) co"-
b*$tio# o+ a )*$t c!o*)& %# a co#+i#e) or #ear!y co#+i#e) $pace, the
e/p!o$io# i$ characteriKe) by re!ati(e!y rapi) )e(e!op"e#t o+ pre$$*re
with +!a"e propagatio# a#) the e(o!*tio# o+ !arge 5*a#titie$ o+ heat a#)
reactio# pro)*ct$& The re5*ire) o/yge# +or thi$ co"b*$tio# i$ "o$t!y
$*pp!ie) by the co"b*$tio# air& The co#)itio# #ece$$ary +or a )*$t
e/p!o$io# i$ a $i"*!ta#eo*$ pre$e#ce o+ a )*$t c!o*) o+ proper co#ce#-
tratio# i# air that wi!! $*pport co"b*$tio# a#) a $*itab!e ig#itio# $o*rce&
./p!o$io#$ are either )e+!agratio#$ or )eto#atio#$& The )i++ere#ce
)epe#)$ o# the $pee) o+ the $hoc1 wa(e e"a#ati#g +ro" the e/p!o-
$io#& %+ the pre$$*re wa(e "o(e$ at a $pee) !e$$ tha# or e5*a! to the
$pee) o+ $o*#) i# the *#reacte) "e)i*", it i$ a )e+!agratio#A i+ it
"o(e$ +a$ter tha# the $pee) o+ $o*#), the e/p!o$io# i$ a )eto#atio#&
The ter" %"st i$ *$e) i+ the "a/i"*" partic!e $iKe o+ the $o!i)$
"i/-
t*re i$ be!ow 500 "&
%# the +o!!owi#g, )*$t$ are ca!!e) co"b*$tib!e i# the airbor#e $tate
o#!y i+ they re5*ire o/yge# +ro" the air +or e/other"ic reactio#&
.lossar"
A&tivation overpressure $
a
That pre$$*re thre$ho!), abo(e the
pre$$*re at ig#itio# o+ the reacta#t$, at which a +iri#g $ig#a! i$ app!ie)
to the $*ppre$$or9$:&
Cubi& lo* The corre!atio# o+ the (e$$e! (o!*"e with the "a/i-
"*" rate o+ pre$$*re ri$e& *
1J3
9%PJ%t:
"a/
S co#$ta#t S 1
"a/
&
ust explosions &lass/ (t E*$t$ are c!a$$i+ie) i# accor)a#ce with
the 1
"a/
(a!*e$&
Explosion Cropagatio# o+ a +!a"e i# a pre"i/t*re o+ co"b*$tib!e
ga$e$, $*$pe#)e) )*$t9$:, co"b*$tib!e (apor9$:, "i$t9$:, or "i/t*re$
thereo+, i# a ga$eo*$ o/i)a#t $*ch a$ air, i# a c!o$e) or $*b$ta#tia!!y
c!o$e) (e$$e!&
Explosion pressure resistant (E$-) Ee$ig# o+ a co#$tr*ctio#
+o!!owi#g the ca!c*!atio# a#) co#$tr*ctio# )irectio#$ +or pre$$*re
(e$$e!$&
geo"etric (e#t area
k
&
Venting element That part o+ (e#t area )e(ice that co(er$ the
(e#t area a#) ope#$ *#)er e/p!o$io# co#)itio#$&
Vessel lengt#-to-diameter ratio (L0) The ratio o+ the !o#ge$t
!i#ear )i"e#$io# , 9!e#gth, height: o+ a ro*#) (e$$e! to it$ geo"etric
or e5*i(a!e#t )ia"eter 3&
$revention and $rote&tion Con&ept against ust Explosions
./p!o$io# protectio# e#co"pa$$e$ the "ea$*re$ i"p!e"e#te) agai#$t
e/p!o$io# haKar)$ i# the ha#)!i#g o+ co"b*$tib!e $*b$ta#ce$ a#) the
a$$e$$"e#t o+ the e++ecti(e#e$$ o+ protecti(e "ea$*re$ +or the a(oi)-
a#ce or )epe#)ab!e re)*ctio# o+ the$e haKar)$& The e/p!o$io#$ pro-
tectio# co#cept i$ (a!i) +or a!! "i/t*re$ o+ co"b*$tib!e $*b$ta#ce$ a#)
)i$ti#g*i$he$ betwee#
1& Mea$*re$ that pre(e#t or re$trict +or"atio# o+ a haKar)o*$
e/p!o$i(e at"o$phere
2& Mea$*re$ that pre(e#t the ig#itio# o+ a haKar)o*$, e/p!o$i(e
at"o$phere
3& Co#$tr*ctio#a! "ea$*re$ that !i"it the e++ect$ o+ a# e/p!o$io# to
a har"!e$$ !e(e!
6ro" a $a+ety $ta#)poi#t, priority "*$t be gi(e# to the "ea$*re$ i#
ite" 1& %te" 2 ca##ot be *$e) a$ a $o!e protecti(e "ea$*re +or +!a""a-
b!e ga$ or $o!(e#t (apor$ i# i#)*$tria! practice with $*++icie#t re!iabi!ity,
b*t ca# be app!ie) a$ the $o!e protecti(e "ea$*re whe# o#!y co"b*$tib!e
)*$t$ are pre$e#t i+ the "i#i"*" ig#itio# e#ergy o+ the )*$t$ i$ high
910 "L: a#) the operati#g area co#cer#e) ca# ea$i!y be "o#itore)&
%+ the "ea$*re$ *#)er ite"$ 1 a#) 2, which are a!$o 1#ow# a$ pre-
(e#ti(e "ea$*re$, ca##ot be *$e) with $*++icie#t re!iabi!ity, the co#-
$tr*ctio#a! "ea$*re$ "*$t be app!ie)&
%# practice, i# "o$t ca$e$ it i$ $*++icie#t to )eter"i#e a#) >*)ge $y$-
te"atica!!y the e/p!o$io# ri$1 with a $e5*e#ce o+ $peci+ic 5*e$tio#$,
$how# i# 6ig& 23-12&
E*ri#g the e(a!*atio# it i$ a$$*"e) that ig#itio# o+ a# e/i$ti#g co"-
b*$tib!e at"o$phere i$ a!way$ po$$ib!e& The a$$e$$"e#t i$ th*$ i#)e-
pe#)e#t o+ the 5*e$tio# o+ whether ig#itio# $o*rce$ are pre$e#t&
$reventive Explosion $rote&tion The pri#cip!e o+ pre(e#ti(e
e/p!o$io# protectio# co"pri$e$ the re!iab!e e/c!*$io# o+ o#e o+ the
re5*ire"e#t$ #ece$$ary +or the )e(e!op"e#t o+ a# e/p!o$io#& '#
e/p!o$io# ca# th*$ be e/c!*)e) with certai#ty by
M '(oi)i#g the )e(e!op"e#t o+ e/p!o$i(e "i/t*re$
M 3ep!aci#g the at"o$pheric o/yge# by inert gas, wor1i#g i# a (ac-
**", or *$i#g inert %"st
M Cre(e#ti#g the occ*rre#ce o+ e++ecti(e ig#itio# $o*rce$
Avoidan&e or -edu&tion of Explosive Combustible !uel-Air
%ixtures
Flammable gas or vapor-air mi)t"res Thi$ ca# be achie(e) i+ the
+!a""ab!e $*b$ta#ce ca# be rep!ace) by a #o#+!a""ab!e $*b$ta#ce or
the co#ce#tratio# o+ +!a""ab!e $*b$ta#ce ca# be 1ept $o !ow that the
ga$ or (apor-air "i/t*re i$ too !ea# +or a# e/p!o$io#&
The )e(e!op"e#t o+ a haKar)o*$ at"o$phere ca# a!$o be pre(e#te)
by (e#ti!atio# "ea$*re$& ' )i$ti#ctio# i$ "a)e here betwee# nat"ral
(e#ti!atio#, which i$ *$*a!!y $*++icie#t o#!y i# the ope# air, a#) artificial
Ca# a# e/p!o$i(e
at"o$phere be
create) thro*gh
$*++icie#t
)i$trib*tio# i# air`
@e$
%$ the +or"atio#
o+ haKar)o*$ e/p!o$i(e
at"o$phere po$$ib!e`
@e$
%$ the +or"atio# o+
haKar)o*$ e/p!o$i(e
at"o$phere tota!!y
a(oi)e)`
Go
Eo +!a""ab!e
Go
+*e!$ e/i$t`
@e$
protectio#
't"o$phere$& Cart 102 C!a$$i+icatio# o+ aKar)o*$ 'rea$=:& rtificial
(e#ti!atio# per"it$ the *$e o+ greater a"o*#t$ o+ air a#) the $e!ecti(e
ca!c*!atio# o+ the "i#i"*" (o!*"e +!ow rate +or the $*pp!y a#)
e/ha*$t air are $*b>ect to certai# re5*ire"e#t$&
The *$e o+ gas alarm %evices i# co##ectio# with, e&g&, (e#ti!atio#
.$ti"atio# #ece$$ary
o+ $o*rce$ a#)
a"o*#t$ o+
e/p!o$i(e at"o$phere
./p!o$io# protectio#
"ea$*re$ #ece$$arya
3e$trict the +or"atio#
o+ e/p!o$i(e
at"o$phere$ a$
"*ch a$ po$$ib!ea
Go
Go e/p!o$io#
protectio#
"ea$*re$ #ece$$arya
Go
Go e/p!o$io#
protectio#
"ea$*re$ #ece$$arya
Go +*rther e/p!o$io#
"ea$*re$ i$ a!$o po$$ib!e& The +actor$ i#+!*e#ci#g the )eci$io# regar)-
i#g $etti#g o+ the re5*ire) ga$ )etector$ i#c!*)e the re!ati(e )e#$ity o+
the +!a""ab!e ga$e$ a#) (apor$& 4ith ga$e$ a#) (apor$ that are hea(-
ier tha# air, the $e#$or$ a#) the wa$te air ope#i#g$ $ho*!) be i#$ta!!e)
#ear the +!oor, with tho$e that are !ighter tha# air #ear the cei!i#g&
Comb"stible %"st-air mi)t"res The$e "i/t*re$ ca# be a(oi)e) or
re$tricte) i+ the co"b*$tib!e )*$t ca# be rep!ace) by a #o#co"-
b*$tib!e )*$t or the )*$t co#ce#tratio# ca# be 1ept $o !ow that a#
e/p!o$i(e )*$t-air "i/t*re i$ #e(er act*a!!y +or"e)&
The e/p!o$ibi!ity !i"it$ )o #ot ha(e the $a"e "ea#i#g a$ with +!a"-
"ab!e ga$e$ a#) +!a""ab!e (apor$, owi#g to the i#teractio# betwee#
)*$t !ayer$ a#) $*$pe#)e) )*$t& Thi$ protecti(e "ea$*re ca#, e&g&, be
*$e) whe# )*$t )epo$it$ are a(oi)e) i# operati#g area$ or i# the
air$trea" o+ c!ea# air !i#e$ a+ter +i!ter i#$ta!!atio#, where i# #or"a!
operatio# the !ower e/p!o$io# !i"it 9F.F: i$ #ot reache)& owe(er,
)*$t )epo$it$ "*$t be a#ticipate) with ti"e& 4he# the$e )*$t )epo$it$
are whir!e) *p i# the air, a# e/p!o$io# haKar) ca# ari$e& -*ch a haKar)
ca# be a(oi)e) by reg*!ar c!ea#i#g& The )*$t ca# be e/tracte) )irect!y
at it$ poi#t o+ origi# by $*itab!e (e#ti!atio# "ea$*re$&
Avoidan&e of Explosions t#roug# Inerting The i#tro)*ctio# o+
i#ert ga$ i# the area to be protecte) agai#$t e/p!o$io#$ !ower$ the
o/y- ge# (o!*"e co#te#t be!ow the !i"iti#g o/yge# co#ce#tratio#
9F;C: $o that ig#itio# o+ the "i/t*re ca# #o !o#ger ta1e p!ace& Thi$
proce$$ i$ ca!!e) inerting 9C.GJT3 15281, <G*i)a#ce o# %#erti#g +or
the Cre- (e#tio# o+ ./p!o$io#$=:&
;#e ha$ to be aware o+ the )a#ger o+ a$phy/iatio# +ro" ga$e$ i#
i#erte) e5*ip"e#t& Thi$ i$ a!$o i"porta#t +or $*rro*#)i#g area$ i#
ca$e o+ "a>or !ea1$&
%#erti#g i$ #ot a protecti(e "ea$*re to a(oi) e/other"ic )eco"po-
$itio#& 6or the a(oi)a#ce o+ 9$"o!)eri#g: +ire$, o/yge# co#ce#tratio#$
!ower tha# the F;C "*$t *$*a!!y be a)here) to a#) "*$t be )eter-
"i#e) +ro" ca$e to ca$e& %# a))itio# to the #itroge# #or"a!!y *$e), a!!
6*rther e/p!o$io#
protectio# "ea$*re$
#ece$$arya
'(oi) e++ecti(e ig#tio#
$o*rce$ i# area$ o+
e/p!o$i(e at"o$phere$
9Ko#e$J)i(i$io#$:a
%$ the ig#itio#
@e$
protectio# "ea$*re$
#ece$$arya
#o#+!a""ab!e ga$e$ which )o #ot $*pport co"b*$tio# or react with
the co"b*$tib!e )*$t ca# be co#$i)ere) +or *$e a$ the i#ert ga$& The
i#erti#g e++ect ge#era!!y )ecrea$e$ i# the +o!!owi#g or)er2 carbo# )io/-
i)e [ water (apor [ +!*e ga$ [ #itroge# [ #ob!e ga$e$& %#
$pecia! ga$e$, !i5*i) #itroge# or )ry ice i$ *$e)&
The F;C )epe#)$ *po# the co"b*$tib!e "ateria! a#) the type o+
i#ert ga$ *$e)& %t )ecrea$e$ with i#crea$e) te"perat*re a#) pre$$*re&
' )i$ti#ctio# ha$ to be "a)e betwee# the )eter"i#e) F;C (a!*e a#)
the co#ce#tratio# which re$*!t$ by $*btracti#g a $a+ety "argi#&
The "a/i"*" a!!owab!e o/yge# co#ce#tratio# 9M';C:, which i$,
i# ge#era!, 2 (o! T be!ow the F;C, ha$ to i#c!*)e the +o!!owi#g co#-
$i)eratio#$2 6!*ct*atio# i# o/yge# co#ce#tratio#$ )*e to proce$$ a#)
brea1)ow# co#)itio#$ per ti"e a#) !ocatio#, a$ we!! a$ the re5*ire-
"e#t +or protecti(e "ea$*re$ or e"erge#cy "ea$*re$ to beco"e
e++ecti(e& %# a))itio#, a co#ce#tratio# !e(e! +or a# a!ar" ha$ to be $et
be!ow the M';C&
./p!o$i(e )*$t$ ca# a!$o be cha#ge) i#to "i/t*re$ which are #o
!o#ger e/p!o$i(e by the a))itio# o+ i#ert )*$t$ 9e&g&, roc1 $a!t, $o)i*"
$*!+ate:& %# ge#era!, i#ert )*$t a))itio#$ o+ "ore tha# 50 wt T are #ec-
o+ haKar)o*$
e/p!o$i(e at"o$phere
tota!!y a(oi)e)`
Go
6*rther e/p!o$io#
protectio# "ea$*re$
#ece$$arya
@e$
Go +*rther e/p!o$io#
protectio#
3e$trict the e++ect o+ a#
e/p!o$io# to a# acceptab!e
!e(e! *$i#g co#tai#"e#t
with i$o!atio#, (e#ti#g with
i$o!atio#, or $*ppre$$io#
with i$o!atio#a
e$$ary here& %t i$ a!$o po$$ib!e to rep!ace +!a""ab!e $o!(e#t$ a#)
c!ea#i#g age#t$ by #o#+!a""ab!e ha!oge#ate) hy)rocarbo#$ or water,
Avoidan&e of Effe&tive Ignition (our&es ./p!o$io#$ ca# be pre-
(e#te) i+ ig#itio# $o*rce$ capab!e o+ ig#iti#g co"b*$tib!e "ateria!-air
"i/t*re$ ca# $*cce$$+*!!y be a(oi)e)& ' )i$ti#ctio# i$ "a)e betwee#
tri(ia! ig#itio# $o*rce$ 9e&g&, we!)i#g, $"o1i#g, c*tti#g: a#) "echa#i-
ca!!y ge#erate) $par1, "echa#ica!!y ge#erate) hot $*r+ace$, !*"p$ o+
$"o!)eri#g "ateria!, a#) $tatic e!ectricity& Tri(ia! ig#itio# $o*rce$ ca#
a!$o re!iab!y be e/c!*)e) by orga#iKatio#a! "ea$*re$ $*ch a$ the $y$-
te"atic e"p!oy"e#t o+ per"it$& Thi$ "ea$*re $ho*!) a!way$ be
e"p!oye), e(e# whe# co#$tr*ctio#a! "ea$*re$ are app!ie), *#!e$$ the
F%G. 23012 .(a!*atio# +!owchart +or pre(e#ti#g a#)Jor !i"iti#g e/p!o$io#$& e/p!o$i(e at"o$phere i$ a(oi)e) with certai#ty&
%g#itio# $e#$iti(ity o+ )*$t$ Crotecti(e "ea$*re$
Gor"a!!y $e#$iti(e 9M%. 10 "L: '(oi)a#ce o+ e++ecti(e ig#itio# $o*rce$&
.a$i!y $e#$iti(e 93 "L M%.
Z 10 "L:
./pert )eci$io# or
'(oi)a#ce o+ e++ecti(e ig#itio# $o*rce$
an# a))itio#a! protecti(e "ea$*re$&
./tre"e!y $e#$iti(e 9M%. Z 3 "L: '(oi)a#ce o+ e++ecti(e ig#itio# $o*rce$
an# a))itio#a! protecti(e "ea$*re$&
)ABL 230B 5one Classification *ersus !ini/u/ =tent of
Pre*enti*e !easures a$ainst Dan$er of %$nition
./p!o$io# haKar) Ko#e '(oi) ig#itio# $o*rce$ which ca# occ*r2
20J0 E*ri#g #or"a! operatio#,
)*ri#g +re5*e#t "a!+*#ctio#,
a#) )*ri#g rare "a!+*#ctio#
21J1 E*ri#g #or"a! operatio#
a#) )*ri#g +re5*e#t "a!+*#ctio#
22J2 E*ri#g #or"a! operatio#
)ABL 230C %$nition Sensiti*ity of Dusts as a Function of
Protecti*e !easures
aKar)o*$ p!ace$ are c!a$$i+ie) i# ter"$ o+ Ko#e$ 9)i(i$io#$: o# the
ba$i$ o+ the +re5*e#cy a#) )*ratio# o+ the occ*rre#ce o+ a# e/p!o$i(e
at"o$phere 9%.C 60079-102200I, <C!a$$i+icatio# o+ aKar)o*$
'rea$=A .*ropea# -ta#)ar) .G 50281-32200I, <C!a$$i+icatio# o+
'rea$ 4here Co"b*$tib!e E*$t$ 're or May 0e Cre$e#t=:&
6*#)a"e#ta!!y a!! 13 1i#)$ o+ ig#itio# $o*rce$ "e#tio#e) a#) a!$o
)e$cribe) i# )etai! i# .G 1127-1 "*$t be co#$i)ere)& %# .G 1127-1,
the )e$criptio#$ re+er to both the ig#itio# "echa#i$"$ o+ the )i++er-
e#t 1i#)$ o+ ig#itio# $o*rce a#) the #ece$$ary $cope o+ protectio#
9"ateria!- a#) Ko#e-)epe#)e#t:& The ig#itio# $o*rce$ $ho*!) be c!a$-
$i+ie) accor)i#g to the !i1e!ihoo) o+ their occ*rre#ce i# the +o!!owi#g
"a##er2
1& -o*rce$ o+ ig#itio# which ca# occ*r contin"o"sly or fre-"ently
2& -o*rce$ o+ ig#itio# which ca# occ*r i# rare $it*atio#$
3& -o*rce$ o+ ig#itio# which ca# occ*r i# very rare $it*atio#$
%# ter"$ o+ the e5*ip"e#t, protecti(e $y$te"$, a#) co"po#e#t$ *$e),
thi$ c!a$$i+icatio# "*$t be co#$i)ere) e5*i(a!e#t to
1& -o*rce$ o+ ig#itio# which ca# occ*r )*ri#g normal operation
2& -o*rce$ o+ ig#itio# which ca# occ*r $o!e!y a$ a re$*!t o+ mal-
f"nctions
3& -o*rce$ o+ ig#itio# which ca# occ*r $o!e!y a$ a re$*!t o+ rare mal-
f"nctions
%g#itio# $o*rce$ at )e(ice$, protecti(e $y$te"$, a#) co"po#e#t$
"*$t be a(oi)e), )epe#)i#g o# Ko#e$ 9Tab!e 23-7:A i&e&, the Ko#e
)eter"i#e$ the "i#i"*" e/te#t o+ pre(e#ti(e "ea$*re$ agai#$t )a#-
ger o+ ig#itio#&
Flammable gas or vapor-air mi)t"res E*e to their !ow "i#i"*"
ig#itio# e#ergie$ 9Z Z1 "L:, a(oi)a#ce o+ e++ecti(e ig#itio# $o*rce$ i#
+!a""ab!e ga$ or (apor-air "i/t*re$ i$ i# pri#cip!e po$$ib!e o#!y i#
e/ceptio#a! ca$e$& 6or hot s"rfaces a "a/i"*" per"i$$ib!e $*r+ace
te"perat*re T
"a/
"*$t be $peci+ie), with the he!p o+ the "i#i"*"
ig#itio# te"perat*re 9M%T: o+ +!a""ab!e ga$e$, (apor$, or !i5*i)$, $o
that the te"perat*re o+ a!! $*r+ace$ i$ #ot e/cee)e) 9Tab!e 23-8:&
Comb"stible %"st-air mi)t"res 6or e(ery i#$ta!!atio# a chec1 ha$
to be "a)e to )eter"i#e which ig#itio# $o*rce "ay beco"e e++ecti(e
a#) whether it ca# be pre(e#te) with a $*++icie#t )egree o+ $a+ety&
4ith "ore $e#$iti(e pro)*ct$ a#) co"p!e/ i#$ta!!atio#$, it beco"e$
"ore a#) "ore )i++ic*!t to e/c!*)e ig#itio# $o*rce$ with a"p!e $a+ety&
4ith )*$t$ the a(oi)a#ce o+ e++ecti(e ig#itio# $o*rce$ )epe#)$ o#
the ig#itio# $e#$iti(ity, i&e&, o# the te"perat*re-re!ate) "i#i"*" ig#i-
tio# e#ergy 9M%.:& 0eca*$e a !ow M%. "ea#$ that both the #*"ber
o+ e++ecti(e ig#itio# $o*rce$ ri$e$ a#) the probabi!ity o+ the re!ea$e o+
a# ig#itio# o+ a )*$t-air "i/t*re ri$e$& -a+e ha#)!i#g o+ partic*!ar!y or
e/tre"e!y ig#itio#-$e#$iti(e )*$t$ re5*ire$ i# ge#era! i#crea$e) *$e o+
pre(e#ti(e "ea$*re$ i# co"pari$o# to #or"a!!y ig#itab!e $e#$iti(e
)*$t$&
%t i$ there+ore *$*a! to co"bi#e the e(a!*atio# o+ the ig#itio# $e#$i-
ti(ity 9M%.: o+ the )*$t$ with the type a#) e/te#t o+ protecti(e "ea-
$*re$ i# accor)a#ce with Tab!e 23-9&
Crotecti(e "ea$*re$2 %#erti#g or co#$tr*ctio#a! e/p!o$io# protectio# 9e&g&,
co#tai#"e#t:&
6or hot $*r+ace$ a "a/i"*" per"i$$ib!e $*r+ace te"perat*re T
"a/
"*$t be $peci+ie), with the he!p o+ the "i#i"*" ig#itio# te"perat*re
o+ a )*$t c!o*) M%T
C
a#) the "i#i"*" ig#itio# te"perat*re o+ a )*$t
!ayer M%T
,
9*$*a!!y 5-"" )*$t !ayer S g!ow te"perat*re:, $o that the
te"perat*re o+ a!! $*r+ace$ i$ #ot e/cee)e)& %#)epe#)e#t o+ the Ko#e
the T
"a/
+or )*$t c!o*)$ i$
2
b3 M%T
C
a#) +or )*$t !ayer$ M%T
,
X 75 B&
Mechanically generate% sparks a#) re$*!ta#t hot s"rfaces together
are regar)e) a$ o#e o+ the "ore i"porta#t ca*$e$ o+ ig#itio# i#
i#)*$tria! practice& The hot $*r+ace$ $how co#$i)erab!y better i#ce#-
)i(ity i# co"pari$o# with the $hort-!i(e), "echa#ica!!y ge#erate)
$par1$& Geither ig#itio# $o*rce appear$ i# i#)*$tria! practice +ro"
the #or"a! "eta!!ic "ateria!$ o+ co#$tr*ctio# r*bbi#g agai#$t each
other or agai#$t $to#e i+ the re!ati(e circ*"+ere#tia! $pee)$ v
c
are
!e$$ tha# or e5*a! to 1 "J$ a#) the power re5*ire"e#t i$ #o "ore
tha# 4 14 9Tab!e 23-10:& Thi$ i$ #ot (a!i) +or ceri*"-iro#, tita#i*",
a#) Kirco#i*"&
3egar)i#g electrostatic ignition so"rces, $ee the $*b$ectio# <-tatic
.!ectricity,= !ater& %# a))itio#, $ee C.G.F.C CFCJT3 50404,
<.!ectro$tatic$NCo)e o+ Cractice +or the '(oi)a#ce o+ aKar)$ )*e to
-tatic .!ectricity,= L*#e 2003&
Explosion $rote&tion t#roug# esign %easures Ee$ig# "ea-
$*re$ which re$trict the e++ect$ o+ a# e/p!o$io# to a $a+e !e(e! are
a!way$ #ece$$ary whe# the goa! o+ a(oi)i#g e/p!o$io#$ ca##ot be
achie(e)Nor at !ea$t #ot with $*++icie#t re!iabi!ityNthro*gh the *$e
o+ pre(e#ti(e e/p!o$io# protectio#& Thi$ e#$*re$ that peop!e are #ot
i#>*re) a#) +*rther that the protecte) e5*ip"e#t i$ *$*a!!y rea)y +or
operatio# a $hort ti"e a+ter a# e/p!o$io#& %# app!yi#g )e$ig# "ea-
$*re$, the po$$ibi!ity o+ a# e/p!o$io# i$ #ot pre(e#te)& There+ore, a!!
e/po$e) e5*ip"e#t ha$ to be b*i!t to be e/p!o$io#-pre$$*re-re$i$ta#t
i# or)er to with$ta#) the a#ticipate) e/p!o$io# pre$$*re& The a#tici-
pate) e/p!o$io# pre$$*re "ay be the "a/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$-
$*re or the "a/i"*" re)*ce) e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re& %# a))itio#,
any propagation of an e)plosion to other parts or process areas has to
be prevente%& Eepe#)i#g o# the a#ticipate) e/p!o$io# pre$$*re, a )i$-
ti#ctio# i$ "a)e betwee# the +o!!owi#g e/p!o$io#-pre$$*re-re$i$ta#t
)e$ig#$2
M Tho$e capab!e o+ with$ta#)i#g the "a/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$-
$*re
M Tho$e capab!e o+ with$ta#)i#g a# e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re re)*ce)
by e/p!o$io# $*ppre$$io# or e/p!o$io# (e#ti#g
The $tre#gth o+ the protecte) (e$$e!$ or apparat*$ "ay be either
e/p!o$io#-pre$$*re-re$i$ta#t or e/p!o$io# pre$$*re $hoc1-re$i$ta#t&
Containment Co#tai#"e#t i$ *#)er$too) to "ea# the po$$ibi!ity o+
)e$ig#i#g (e$$e!$ a#) e5*ip"e#t +or the +*!! ma)im"m e)plosion over-
press"re, which i$ ge#era!!y +ro" P
"a/
S 7 to 10 bar& The e/p!o$io#-
re$i$- ta#t (e$$e! ca# the# be )e$ig#e) a$ e/p!o$io#-pre$$*re-
re$i$ta#t or
)ABL 230D !easures a$ainst %$nition of Fla//a'le Gas,
;a-ors, an# LiFui#s 'y "ot Surfaces
Wo#e Crotectio# by !i"iti#g the hot $*r+ace te"perat*re 9.G 1127-1:
0 T
"a/
0&8 M%T
1 T
"a/
0&8 M%T
2 T
"a/
M%T
)ABL 2301E %nfluence of &elati*e Circu/ferential S-ee# v
c
on
Dan$er of %$nition for Co/'usti'le Dusts
v
c
1 "J$ There i$ #o )a#ger o+ ig#itio#&
v
c
] 1O10 "J$ .(ery ca$e ha$ to be >*)ge) $eparate!y, co#$i)eri#g the
pro)*ct a#) "ateria!-$peci+ic characteri$tic$&
v
c
] 10 "J$ %# e(ery ca$e there i$ )a#ger o+ ig#itio#&
\ %# a))itio#, !ow power re5*ire"e#t$ 4 4 14&
)ABL 23011 =-losion ;entin$ Syste/ Desi$n Para/eters
./p!o$io# haKar) )e+i#itio# De#ti#g $y$te" )e+i#itio#
Do!*"e o+ (e$$e! 9+ree (o!*"e: Type o+ (e#ti#g )e(ice
-hape o+ (e$$e! 9c*bic or e!o#gate) (e$$e!: Eetectio# "etho) +or triggeri#g a $h*t)ow#
Fe#gth-to-)ia"eter ratio o+ (e$$e! -tatic acti(atio# o(erpre$$*re P
$tat
o+ (e#ti#g )e(ice
-tre#gth o+ (e$$e! De#ti#g capabi!ity o+ (e#ti#g )e(ice
Type o+ )*$t c!o*) )i$trib*tio# 9%-; "etho)J Focatio# o+ (e#ti#g )e(ice o# the (e$$e!
p#e*"atic-!oa)i#g "etho): Co$itio# o+ e5*ip"e#t to be protecte) i# the b*i!)i#g
E*$t e/p!o$ibi!ity characteri$tic$2 Fe#gth a#) $hape o+ re!ie+ pipe i+ e/i$te#t
"a/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re P
"a/
3ecoi! +orce )*ri#g (e#ti#g
"a/i"*" e/p!o$io# co#$ta#t 1
"a/
E*ratio# o+ recoi! +orce
to/icity o+ the pro)*ct Tota! tra#$+erre) i"p*!$e
Ma/i"*" +!a"e !e#gth
Cre$$*re o*t$i)e the (e#t area$
e/p!o$io# pre$$*re $hoc1-re$i$ta#t& Thi$ protecti(e "ea$*re i$ ge#era!!y
e"p!oye) whe# $"a!! (e$$e! (o!*"e$ #ee) to be protecte), $*ch a$
$"a!! +i!ter *#it$, +!*i)iKe)-be) )ryer$, cyc!o#e$, rotary (a!e$, or "i!!
ho*$i#g$& ;#e ha$ to co#$i)er that a!! co##ecte) )e(ice$ "*$t a!$o
with$ta#) the "a/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re& The G6C' 69
-ta#)ar), E)plo- sion Prevention $ystem, 1997A .*ropea#
-ta#)ar) pr.G 14460, E)plosion 4esistant E-"ipment, 2005A a#)
Birby a#) -iwe1, <Cre(e#t- i#g 6ai!*re$ o+ .5*ip"e#t -*b>ect to
./p!o$io#$,= Chemical Engi- neering, L*#e 23, 1986, pro(i)e
e/ce!!e#t g*i)a#ce o# the practice o+
co#tai#"e#t&
E)plosion venting The co#cept o+ e/p!o$io# (e#ti#g e#co"pa$$e$
a!! "ea$*re$ *$e) to ope# the origi#a!!y c!o$e) (e$$e!$ a#) e5*ip"e#t
either brie+!y or per"a#e#t!y i# a #o#haKar)o*$ )irectio# +o!!owi#g a#
e/p!o$io#& E)plosion venting is ina%missible when the escape of to)ic
or
corrosive, irritating, carcinogenic, harmf"l-to-fr"it, or genetically %am-
aging s"bstance$ i$ a#ticipate)& %# co#tra$t to co#tai#"e#t, e/p!o$io#$
i# a (e#te) (e$$e! are characteriKe) by the "a/i"*" re)*ce) e/p!o$io#
o(erpre$$*re P
re),"a/
i#$tea) o+ the "a/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re
P
"a/
a#) by the "a/i"*" re)*ce) rate o+ pre$$*re ri$e 9%PJ%t:
re),"a/
i#$tea) o+ the "a/i"*" rate o+ pre$$*re ri$e 9%PJ%t:
"a/
&
0y thi$ "etho) i# ge#era!, the e/pecte) i#here#t "a/i"*" e/p!o-
$io# o(erpre$$*re o# the or)er o+ P
"a/
S 7 to 10 bar wi!! be re)*ce) to
a (a!*e o+ P
re),"a/
Z 2 bar& %# thi$ ca$e, the $tatic acti(atio# o(erpre$$*re
o+ the (e#ti#g )e(ice i$ P
$tat
c 0&1 bar& The re$*!ti#g P
re),"a/
"ay #ot
e/cee) the )e$ig# pre$$*re o+ the e5*ip"e#t& The e/p!o$io# a$ $*ch i$
#ot pre(e#te)A o#!y the )a#gero*$ co#$e5*e#ce$ are !i"ite)& ow-
e(er, $*b$e5*e#t +ire$ "*$t be e/pecte)&
'"o#g other thi#g$, o#e prere5*i$ite to ca!c*!ate the pre$$*re
re!ie+ ope#i#g$ #ee)e) o# the apparat*$ i$ 1#ow!e)ge abo*t the
e/p!o$io# threat )e+i#itio# a#) (e#ti#g $y$te" har)ware )e+i#itio#&
The (ario*$ +actor$ are $*""ariKe) i# Tab!e 23-11&
The i#ertia, the ope#i#g beha(ior o+ a b*r$ti#g )i$1 or o+ the "o(-
ab!e co(er o+ a# e/p!o$io# )e(ice, a#) it$ arra#ge"e#t 9horiKo#ta!,
(ertica!: ca# a++ect the (e#ti#g e++icie#cy a#) "ay re$*!t i# a higher
"a/i"*" re)*ce) e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re i#$i)e the protecte) (e$$e!
96ig& 23-13:& Thi$ (e#ti#g e++icie#cy i$ "ai#!y )epe#)e#t *po# the
$peci+ic "a$$ o+ the (e#ti#g )e(ice&
%+ the $peci+ic "a$$ o+ a (e#ti#g )e(ice i$ Z 0&5 1gJ"
2
, the# it ha$ a
(e#ti#g e++icie#cy o+ .6 S 1 a#) i$ ca!!e) i#ertia-+ree a#) )oe$ #ot
i"pe)e the (e#ti#g proce$$ 9.*ropea# -ta#)ar) pr.G 14797-2006,
<./p!o$io# De#ti#g Ee(ice$=:& 6or $*ch e/p!o$io# (e#ti#g )e(ice$ .6
te$ti#g i$ there+ore #ot re5*ire)& ./p!o$io# (e#ti#g )e(ice$ with (e#t-
i#g e!e"e#t$ with a $peci+ic "a$$ ] 0&5 1gJ"
2
ca# i#+!*e#ce the (e#t-
F%G. 23013 Ee+i#itio# o+ the (e#ti#g capabi!ity .6 o+ a# e/p!o$io# )oor i#
co"pari$o# with a p!a$tic +oi! r*pt*re )i$1&
M De$$e! $tre#gth 9S P
re),"a/
: o+ 0&1 bar Z P c 2 bar
M P
re),"a/
] P
$tat
6or a!! other co#)itio#$ .6 ha$ to be )eter"i#e) by te$t$ 96ig& 23-
13:&
.6 a#) there+ore the e++ecti(e (e#t area
E
o+ a #o#-i#ertia-+ree e/p!o-
$io# )e(ice are $"a!!er tha# the (e#ti#g e++icie#cy o+ a# i#ertia-+ree
(e#t
)e(ice 9$peci+ic "a$$ Z 0&5 1gJ"
2
: with the $a"e (e#t area&
There+ore, $*ch )e(ice$ #ee) te$ti#g to )eter"i#e the "echa#ica!
$tre#gth be+ore act*a! *$e, a#) the .6 or the pre$$*re ri$e, re$pecti(e!y,
ha$ to be cho$e# re!ati(e to the P
re),"a/
o+ the r*pt*re )i$1 o+ the $a"e
area&
4he# e/p!o$io# )oor$ that c!o$e the (e#t area a+ter the e/p!o$io#
are i# *$e, the coo!i#g o+ the hot ga$e$ o+ co"b*$tio# "ay create a
(ac**" i# the (e$$e!, re$*!ti#g i# it$ )e+or"atio#& To pre(e#t thi$
+ro" happe#i#g, (ac**" brea1er$ ha(e to be pro(i)e)&
$i'ing of vent areas The e"pirica! e5*atio# 923-12: ca# be *$e)
to ca!c*!ate the re5*ire) (e#t area +or +!a""ab!e ga$ or $o!(e#t (apor
e/p!o$io#$& The e5*atio# i$ (a!i) +or +!a""ab!e ga$-air "i/t*re$ which
ha(e bee# ig#ite) i# a 5*ie$ce#t $tate 9#o#t*rb*!e#t: with a# ig#itio#
$o*rce o+ E S 10 L&
X0&5817
i#g proce$$ by their ope#i#g a#) re!ea$e beha(ior& ./peri"e#t$ ha(e
$how# that e/p!o$io# (e#ti#g )e(ice$ with a $peci+ic "a$$ ] 0&5 1gJ"
2
S P90&1265 !og 1
"a/
X 0&0567:P
re),"a/
923-12:
2
a#) c 10 1gJ"
2
ca# be co#$i)ere) a$ i#ertia-+ree, which "ea#$ ha(i#g
Y 0&1754P
X0&5722
9P X 0&1:Q d *
2J3
Y
P1
"a/
9,J3 X 2: Q
a (e#ti#g e++icie#cy .6 S 1 pro(i)e) that

Z 0&07 923-11:
re),"a/
The e5*atio# i$ (a!i) +or
3
$tat
3

750
*
The e5*atio#$ are o#!y (a!i) +or
M De$$e! (o!*"e$ o+ 0&1 "
3
c * c 10,000 "
3
M -tatic acti(atio# o(erpre$$*re o+ (e#ti#g )e(ice P
$tat
c 0&1 bar
M De$$e! (o!*"e$ 0&1 " c * c 1000 "
M De$$e! !e#gth-to-)ia"eter ratio 1 c ,J3 c 5
M -tatic acti(atio# o(erpre$$*re o+ r*pt*re )i$1 0&1 bar c P
$tat
c 0&5 bar
M Ma/i"*" re)*ce) e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re 0&1 bar c P
re),"a/
c 2 bar
M P
re),"a/
] P
$tat
Y 0&05 bar
re),"a/
re),"a/
S +

1 Y C !og

"
2
923-15:
re),"a/
re),"a/
re),"a/
M Ma/i"*" e/p!o$io# co#$ta#t 50 bar"J$ 1
"a/
550 bar"J$
M Ga$-air "i/t*re$ ig#ite) at Kero t*rb*!e#ce
M De#ti#g e++icie#cy .6 S 1
%+ it i$ #ece$$ary to !ocate e5*ip"e#t with e/p!o$io# (e#t$ i#$i)e
b*i!)i#g$, (e#t )*ct$ $ho*!) be *$e) to )irect (e#te) "ateria! +ro"
the e5*ip"e#t to the o*t)oor$& De#t )*ct$ wi!! $ig#i+ica#t!y i#crea$e
the pre$$*re )e(e!op"e#t i# the e5*ip"e#t )*ri#g (e#ti#g& They
re5*ire at !ea$t the $a"e cro$$ $ectio# a$ the (e#t area a#) the $a"e
)e$ig# pre$$*re a$ the protecte) e5*ip"e#t&
The *$e o+ (e#t )*ct$ re$*!t$ i# a# i#crea$e i# P
re),"a/
& The "a/i"*"
re)*ce) e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re Pe
re),"a/
ca*$e) by the )ow#$trea"
(e#t )*ct ca# be ca!c*!ate) with .5$& 923-13: a#) 923-14:&
Fe#gth o+ (e#t )*ct S 0 " Z ,
3
3 "2
Pe
re),"a/
S 1&24P
0&8614
923-13:
Fe#gth o+ (e#t )*ct S 3 " Z ,
3
6 "2
%#)epe#)e#t o+ the !ocatio# o+ the (e#t )*ct, the "a/i"*"
re)*ce) e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re Pe
re),"a/
ca*$e) by the )ow#$trea"
(e#t )*ct ca# be ca!c*!ate) +or (e$$e!$ ha(i#g a# ,J3 ratio o+ 1 with
.5& 923-19:&
De$$e! ratio ,J3 S 1 9!o#git*)i#a! *#) tra#$(er$a!:2
Pe
re),"a/
S P
re),"a/
P1 Y 17&3,
3
9*
X0&753
:
1&6
Q 923-19:
where Pe
re),"a/
S "a/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re with (e#t )*ct, bar
P
re),"a/
S "a/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re witho*t (e#t )*ct,
bar
S (e#t area, "
2
, witho*t (e#t )*ct
* S (o!*"e o+ protecte) (e$$e!, "
3
,
3
S !e#gth o+ (e#t )*ct, "
The e5*atio# i$ (a!i) +or
M De$$e! (o!*"e$ 0&1 "
3
* 10,000 "
3
M -tatic acti(atio# o(erpre$$*re o+ the (e#ti#g )e(ice 0&1 bar P
$tat
1 bar
Pe
re),"a/
S 2&48P
0&5165
923-14: M Ma/i"*" re)*ce) e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re 0&1 bar Z P
re%,"a/
2 bar,
with P
re),"a/
] P
$tat
where P
r
e
e),"a/
S "a/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re with (e#t )*ct, bar,
a#) P
re),"a/
S "a/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re witho*t (e#t )*ct, bar&
The +o!!owi#g e"pirica! e5*atio#$, .5$& 923-15: to 923-17:, a!!ow
the ca!c*!atio# o+ the $iKe o+ a (e#t area +or co"b*$tib!e )*$t-air-
"i/t*re e/p!o$io#$&
M Ma/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re 5 bar P
"a/
12 bar a#) a "a/i-
"*" e/p!o$io# co#$ta#t 10 "barJ$ 1
"a/
800 "barJ$
M De$$e! ,J3 S 1
M De#t )*ct !e#gth ,
3
,
3$
./peri"e#ta! $t*)ie$ ha(e pro(e) that the i#+!*e#ce o+ (e#t )*ct
with !o#git*)i#a! arra#ge"e#tNlocate% on the roofN)ecrea$e$
6or P
re),"a/
Z 1&5 bar
6or P
re),"a/
1&5 bar
with
,

3
S + "
2
"ar1e)!y with i#crea$e) (e$$e! !e#gth-to-)ia"eter ratio& The i#crea$e
o+ the "a/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re i$ at it$ "a/i"*" i+ (e$$e!
ratio ,J3 S 1&
&a'ar% %"e to flame an% press"re in the s"rro"n%ings The "a/i-
"*" o*t$i)e ra#ge o+ a +!a"e ,
F
origi#ati#g +ro" a (e$$e! increases
with i#crea$e) (o!*"e o+ the (e#te) (e$$e!&
Cre$$*re a#) b!a$t e++ect$ e/ter#a! to a (e#t ari$e +ro" pre$$*re$
ge#erate) by the (e#te) e/p!o$io# i#$i)e the p!a#t a#) the e/p!o$io#
+ S P3&26410
X5
P
"a/
1
"a/
P
X0&569
area o*t$i)e the (e#t&
E)plosion s"ppression E*ri#g a $*ppre$$io# o+ a# e/p!o$io#,
Y 0&279P
$tat
X 0&1:P
X0&5
Q *
0&753
923-16:
#ot pro)*ct$, re$i)*e$ +ro" co"b*$tio#, re$i)*e$ +ro" ga$e$, or
+!a"e$ ca# e$cape +ro" the protecte) (e$$e!, beca*$e a# e/p!o$io#
C S X4&305 !og P
re),"a/
Y 0&758 923-17:
The e5*atio#$ are (a!i) +or
M De$$e! (o!*"e$ 0&1 "
3
* 10,000 "
3
M -tatic acti(atio# o(erpre$$*re o+ (e#ti#g )e(ice 0&1 bar P
$tat
1 bar
M Ma/i"*" re)*ce) e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re 0&1 bar Z P
re),"a/
2 bar
M P
re),"a/
] P
$tat
,
M Ma/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re 5 bar P
"a/
10 bar +or a "a/i-
"*" e/p!o$io# co#$ta#t 10 bar"J$ 1
"a/
300 bar"J$
M Ma/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re 5 bar P
"a/
12 bar +or a "a/i-
"*" e/p!o$io# co#$ta#t 300 bar"J$ 1
"a/
800 bar"J$
M Fe#gth-to-)ia"eter ratio o+ the (e$$e! ,J3 20
M ,J3 !i"ite) i# that the "a/i"*" (e#t area $ha!! #ot be greater tha#
the cro$$-$ectio#a! area o+ the e5*ip"e#t
M De#ti#g e++icie#cy .6 S 1
The re5*ire) area +or pre$$*re (e#ti#g i#crea$e$ with i#crea$e) !e#gth
9height: to )ia"eter ratio o+ the (e$$e!, i# co"pari$o# with the area
re5*ire"e#t +or ,J3 S 1 (e$$e!& 6or !ow P
re),"a/
, the re5*ire) e++ecti(e
(e#t area wi!! be "ar1e)!y i#+!*e#ce) by the ratio ,J3& -*ch
i#+!*e#ce
)i"i#i$he$ with i#crea$i#g re)*ce) e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re a#) cea$e$ at
P
re),"a/
S 1&5 bar a$ per e/peri"e#ta! re$*!t$& owe(er, with P
re),"a/
1&5
bar, #o i#+!*e#ce o+ the ,J3 ratio o+ the (e$$e! ca# be #otice)&
The i#+!*e#ce o+ the (e#t )*ct *po# the pre$$*re i#crea$e i$ "o$t
pro#o*#ce) whe# the +!a"e propagatio# +ro" the $eco#)ary e/p!o-
$io# i# the (e#t )*ct reache$ the (e!ocity o+ $o*#)& Thi$ i$ (a!i) +or
(e#t )*ct$ o+
,
3
S ,
3$
S 4&564P
X0&37
" 923-18:
De#t )*ct$ with a !e#gth o+ ,
3
] ,
3$
ha(e #o a))itio#a! e++ect *po# the
pre$$*re i#crea$e& There+ore, ,
(
wi!! be the "a/i"*" (e#t )*ct
!e#gth that ha$ to be co#$i)ere)& The above-mentione% e-"ation #96-@B.
is not vali% for metal %"sts0
$*ppre$$io# $y$te" re)*ce$ the e++ect$ o+ the$e e/p!o$io#$ to a
har"!e$$ !e(e!, by re$tricti#g the actio# o+ the +!a"e$ )*ri#g the i#i-
tia! pha$e o+ the e/p!o$io#& Thi$ pre(e#t$ the i#$ta!!atio# i# 5*e$tio#
+ro" bei#g )e$troye) a#) peop!e $ta#)i#g i# the area o+ the i#$ta!-
!atio# +ro" bei#g i#>*re)& ' +*rther be#e+it o+ e/p!o$io# $*ppre$-
$io# $y$te"$ i$ that they ca# be )ep!oye) +or co"b*$tib!e pro)*ct$
with to/ic propertie$ a#) ca# be *$e) irre$pecti(e o+ the e5*ip"e#t
!ocatio#&
'# e/p!o$io# ca# ge#era!!y be co#$i)ere) $*ppre$$e) i+ the
e/pecte) "a/i"*" e/p!o$io# pre$$*re P
"a/
at the opti"*" co#ce#-
tratio# o+ the co"b*$tib!e pro)*ct 97 to 10 bar:Na$$*"i#g the e/p!o-
$io# $*ppre$$io# $y$te" ha$ a# acti(atio# o(erpre$$*re P
a
o+ 0&1
barNi$ re)*ce) to a "a/i"*" re)*ce) e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re P
re),"a/
1 bar& Thi$ "ea#$ that a (e$$e! $a+eg*ar)e) i# thi$ way #ee)$ to be
)e$ig#e) $o that it i$ $ec*re) agai#$t e/p!o$io#$ o+ *p to 1 bar 9e5*i(-
a!e#t to P
re),"a/
:& The acti(atio# o(erpre$$*re P
a
i$ that pre$$*re at
which a# e/p!o$io# $*ppre$$io# $y$te" wi!! be acti(ate)&
To i#itiate a# e/p!o$io# $*ppre$$io# $y$te", a )etector i$ *$e) to
$e#$e either a# o(erpre$$*re ge#erate) by, or a +!a"e o+, a# i#cipie#t
e/p!o$io#& %t i$ i"porta#t to !ocate the )etector i# a po$itio# that
e#$*re$ $*++icie#t ti"e +or the $*ppre$$io# $y$te" to $e#$e a#) acti-
(ate the )e(ice$ to e/ti#g*i$h the e/p!o$io#&
;ptica! )etector$ $ha!! be *$e) i# "ore ope# co#+ig*ratio#$ where
pre$$*re b*i!)*p )*e to the i#cipie#t e/p!o$io# i$ !i"ite)& ;ptica!
)etector$ $ha!! #ot be *$e) where high )*$t co#ce#tratio#$ !i"it the
re!iabi!ity o+ the $*ppre$$io# $y$te"& 0oth *( a#) ir )etector$ are
a(ai!ab!e +or optica! )etectio#& The *$e o+ )ay!ight-$e#$iti(e $e#$or$
$ha!! be a(oi)e) to a(oi) $p*rio*$ acti(atio#& The $e#$or $ha!! be
"o*#te) $*ch that the a#g!e o+ (i$io# a!!ow$ it to co(er a!! the pro-
tecte) haKar) area& The per+or"a#ce o+ a# optica! )etector wi!! a!$o
be a++ecte) by a#y ob$tac!e$ withi# it$ (i$io#, a#) thi$ $ha!! be o(er-
co"e by the i#tro)*ctio# o+ "ore )etector$& ;ptica! )etector$ $ha!! be
+itte) with air $hie!)$ to 1eep the optica! !e#$ c!ea#&
)ABL 23012 Su--ression Syste/ Desi$n Para/eters
./p!o$io# haKar) )e+i#itio# -*ppre$$io# $y$te" har)ware )e+i#itio#
Do!*"e o+ (e$$e! 9+ree (o!*"e *: Type o+ e/p!o$io# $*ppre$$a#t a#) it$ $*ppre$$io# e++icie#cy
-hape o+ (e$$e! 9area a#) a$pect ratio: Type o+ 3E $*ppre$$or$2 #*"ber a#) +ree (o!*"e o+ 3E $*ppre$$or$ a#) the o*t!et )ia"eter a#) (a!(e
Type o+ )*$t c!o*) )i$trib*tio# ope#i#g ti"e
9%-; "etho)Jp#e*"atic-!oa)i#g "etho): -*ppre$$a#t charge a#) prope!!i#g age#t pre$$*re
E*$t e/p!o$ibi!ity characteri$tic$2 6itti#g$2 e!bow a#)Jor $t*b pipe a#) type o+ #oKK!e
Ma/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re P
"a/
Type o+ e/p!o$io# )etector9$:2 )y#a"ic or thre$ho!) pre$$*re, ,D or %3 ra)iatio#, e++ecti(e $y$te"
Ma/i"*" e/p!o$io# co#$ta#t 1
"a/
acti(atio# o(erpre$$*re P
a
Mi#i"*" ig#itio# te"perat*re M%T ar)ware )ep!oy"e#t2 !ocatio# o+ 3E $*ppre$$or9$: o# (e$$e!
Cre$$*re )etectio# $ha!! be *$e) +or c!o$e) e#c!o$*re app!icatio#$&
Thre$ho!) )etector$ pro(i)e a# e!ectric $ig#a! whe# a pre$et o(erpre$-
$*re i$ e/cee)e)& Ey#a"ic )etector$ pro(i)e a# e!ectric $ig#a! to the
co#tro! a#) i#)icati#g e5*ip"e#t 9C%.:& Typica!!y they ha(e both rate-
o+-ri$e a#) pre$$*re thre$ho!) triggeri#g poi#t$ that ca# be co#+ig*re)
$peci+ica!!y to the app!icatio# co#)itio#$& '!tho*gh thi$ type o+ )etector
"i#i"iKe$ $p*rio*$ acti(atio# o+ the i$o!atio# $y$te" 9)*e to pre$$*re
+!*ct*atio#$ other tha# e/p!o$io# pre$$*re ri$e:, care $ha!! be ta1e# to
$et *p $*ch )etector$ to "eet appropriate )etectio# re$po#$e criteria
+or the partic*!ar app!icatio# a#) protecte) e#c!o$*re geo"etry&
The $*ppre$$a#t$ )ep!oye) i# $*ppre$$io# $y$te"$ are water a#)
)ry a#) !i5*i) che"ica!$& 'part +ro" the e++ecti(e#e$$ o+ the $*ppre$-
$a#t *$e), the co"patibi!ity o+ the $*ppre$$a#t with the proce$$ $ha!!
be co#$i)ere)& ' $*ppre$$a#t i$ regar)e) a$ bei#g (ery e++ecti(e whe#
a# i#crea$e o+ the acti(atio# pre$$*re P
a
o+ the e/p!o$io# $*ppre$$io#
$y$te" !ea)$ to a $"a!! i#crea$e i# the "a/i"*" re)*ce) e/p!o$io#
o(erpre$$*re P
re),"a/
& The app!icatio# o+ a $*ppre$$a#t i$ )epe#)e#t
*po# how e++ecti(e it i$ at $*ppre$$i#g a# e/p!o$io#& Te$ti#g $ha!! be
*$e) to )eter"i#e the e++ecti(e#e$$ a#) per+or"a#ce o+ the $*ppre$-
$a#t, th*$ 5*a#ti+yi#g the app!icabi!ity o+ the $*ppre$$a#t& The +o!!ow-
i#g para"eter$ $ha!! be co#$i)ere) whe# $e!ecti#g a $*ppre$$a#t2
M '#y a)(er$e reactio# with the proce$$ pro)*ct$
M The to/icity !e(e!$ o+ the $*ppre$$a#t re!ati#g to occ*patio#a! e/po-
$*re !i"it$
M The te"perat*re $tabi!ity o+ the $*ppre$$a#t
%# a))itio#, the +o!!owi#g propertie$ $ha!! be ta1e# i#to acco*#t where
#ece$$ary2
M 4i!! the $*ppre$$a#t ha(e to be +oo)-co"patib!e`
M 4i!! the $*ppre$$a#t ca*$e the o#$et o+ corro$io#`
M %$ the $*ppre$$a#t e#(iro#"e#ta!!y +rie#)!y`
M Ca# the $*ppre$$a#t be ea$i!y re"o(e) +ro" the proce$$`
-*ppre$$io# $y$te" )e$ig# para"eter$ +a!! i#to the two categorie$
o+ e/p!o$io# haKar) )e+i#itio# a#) $*ppre$$io# $y$te" har)ware )e+i-
#itio#& The (ario*$ i#+!*e#ce$ are $*""ariKe) i# Tab!e 23-12&
Comparison of e)plosion protection %esign meas"res %# Tab!e 23-
13, co"pari$o# i$ "a)e o+ the e/p!o$io# protectio# )e$ig# "ea$*re$
o+ co#tai#"e#t, e/p!o$io# (e#ti#g a#) e/p!o$io# $*ppre$$io#& %#
a))i- tio# a!! three )e$ig# "ea$*re$ are i# co"bi#atio# with e/p!o$io#
i$o!a- tio#& 3egar)i#g the e++ecti(e#e$$ o+ the )i++ere#t e/p!o$io#
)e$ig# "ea$*re$, a!! three tech#i5*e$ are e5*a! i+ the )e$ig# o+
the$e "ea- $*re$ i$ per+or"e) proper!y a#) the )e$ig# "ea$*re$ are
i#$pecte) by a co"po#e#t per$o# at !ea$t o#ce a year or "ore o+te#
)epe#)i#g o# the proce$$ a#)Jor e#(iro#"e#ta! co#)itio#$&
E)plosion !solation 6or a!! e5*ip"e#t $y$te"$ protecte) by
)e$ig# $a+ety "ea$*re$ it i$ a!$o #ece$$ary to pre(e#t the propagatio#
o+ a# e/p!o$io# +ro" the$e protecte) (e$$e!$ i#to operati#g area$ or
e5*ip"e#t co##ecte) (ia i#terco##ecti#g pipe!i#e& -*ch a# approach
i$ re+erre) to a$ e)plosion isolation&
To pre(e#t a# e/p!o$io# occ*rri#g i#, e&g&, a co#$tr*ctio#a! protecte)
i#$ta!!atio# +ro" $prea)i#g thro*gh a pipe!i#e 9 ] 6 ": to part o+ the
i#$ta!!atio# +itte) with pre(e#ti(e e/p!o$io# protectio#, e/p!o$io# i$o!a-
tio# "ea$*re$ 9$ee 6ig& 23-14: "*$t be i"p!e"e#te)& '$ e/p!o$io#$ are
ge#era!!y propagate) by flames a#) #ot by pre$$*re wa(e$, it i$ e$pe-
cia!!y i"porta#t to )etect, e/ti#g*i$h, or b!oc1 thi$ +!a"e +ro#t at a#
ear!y $tage, i&e&, to i$o!ate or )i$e#gage the e/p!o$io#& %+ there i$ #o
e/p!o$io# i$o!atio#, the# the +!a"e i$$*i#g +ro" the e5*ip"e#t, e&g&,
+ro" the e5*ip"e#t protecte) thro*gh )e$ig# 9e5*ip"e#t part 1:,
thro*gh the co##ecti#g pipe!i#e co"e$ i#to co#tact with a high!y t*r-
b*!e#t reco"pre$$e) "i/t*re i# the e5*ip"e#t with pre(e#ti(e pro-
tectio# 9e5*ip"e#t part 2:& The "i/t*re wi!! ig#ite i# a# i#$ta#t a#)
e/p!o)eA a !arge i#crea$e i# the rate o+ co"b*$tio# reactio# a#), #at*-
ra!!y, i# the re)*ce) e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re i$ the re$*!t& The e5*ip-
"e#t i# 5*e$tio# "ay be )e$troye)&
The i$o!atio# ca# be )o#e with (ery )i++ere#t $y$te"$, which ha(e
i# co""o# that they beco"e e++ecti(e o#!y by a# e/p!o$io#&
-i#ce the actio# o+ the i$o!atio# $y$te"$ re5*ire$ the phy$ica!
e++ect$ o+ a# e/p!o$io#, i# the $e!ectio# o+ a $*itab!e $y$te" co#$i)era-
tio# "*$t be gi(e# to proce$$ e#gi#eeri#g a#) "achi#e bo*#)ary
)ABL 23013 Co/-arison of =-losion Protection Desi$n !easures
Co#tai#"e#t with i$o!atio# ./p!o$io# (e#ti#g with i$o!atio# ./p!o$io# $*ppre$$io# with i$o!atio#
Cre$$*re re$i$ta#ce P 7O10 bar 4itho*t re!ie+ pipe, *p to 2 bar
4ith re!ie+ pipe, *p to 4 bar
-t 1 *p to 0&5 bar
-t 2Y3 *p to 1&0 bar
Focatio# %#)epe#)e#t Eepe#)e#t %#)epe#)e#t
Fi"it$ o+ app!icatio# Cro)*ct$ which )eco"po$e
$po#ta#eo*$!y
To/ic pro)*ct$ a#) pro)*ct$ which
)eco"po$e $po#ta#eo*$!y
Cro)*ct$ which )eco"po$e
$po#ta#eo*$!y, "eta! )*$t haKar)
.#(iro#"e#ta!!y +rie#)!y @e$ Go
9+!a"e, pre$$*re, a#) pro)*ct:
@e$
Fo$$ o+ "ateria!\ YYYYY YYYYY YY
Mai#te#a#ce re5*ire"e#t$f YYYY YYYY YYYYY
\The !o$$ o+ "ateria! by *$i#g co#tai#"e#t a#) e/p!o$io# (e#ti#g i$ a!way$ "*ch greater tha# that by *$i#g e/p!o$io# $*ppre$$io#&
fTo e#$*re the re!iabi!ity o+ e/p!o$io# protectio# )e(ice$, reg*!ar $er(ici#g a#) "ai#te#a#ce are re5*ire)& The #at*re a#) ti"e i#ter(a!$ o+ the$e acti(itie$ )epe#)
o# tech#ica! $peci+icatio#$ a#) o# the p!a#t $it*atio#& Gor"a!!y, a+ter co""i$$io#i#g o+ the p!a#t, i#$pectio#$ are carrie) o*t i# co"parati(e!y $hort i#ter(a!$, e&g&, e(ery
"o#th& Co$iti(e e/perie#ce "ay $*b$e5*e#t!y pro(i)e +or !o#ger $er(ice i#ter(a!$ 9e(ery three "o#th$:& %t i$ reco""e#)e) to co#tract $er(ice a#) "ai#te#a#ce to re!i-
ab!e, $pecia!iKe) co"pa#ie$&
%$o!atio# $y$te" Co#tai#"e#t
./p!o$io#
(e#ti#g
./p!o$io#
$*ppre$$io#
Eo*b!e $!i)e (a!(e $y$te"

./p!o$io# )i(erter

./p!o$io# protectio#
(a!(e $y$te"

./ti#g*i$hi#g barrier N

./ti#g*i$hi#g barrier
i# co"bi#atio# with
e/p!o$io# )i(erter
N

./p!o$io# protectio# (a!(e
i# co"bi#atio# with
e/p!o$io# )i(erter

Cro)*ct !ayer a$ a barrier N

-crew co#(eyer

3otary (a!(e

3
)ABL 23019 !ost FreFuently 4se# %solation Syste/s as
&elate# to the %nstalle# Construction =-losion Protection
!easure
F%G. 23018 Cri#cip!e o+ the co#$tr*ctio#a! "ea$*re e/p!o$io# i$o!atio#&
co#)itio#$, partic*!ar!y $i#ce the +*#ctio# a#) operabi!ity o+ the$e $y$-
te"$ are #ot ge#era!!y *#re$tricte)&
E*$t-carryi#g pipe!i#e$ are )i++ere#t +ro" ga$-carryi#g pipe!i#e$N
i$o!atio# )e(ice$ ca# o#!y be *$e) which )o #ot !o$e their +*#ctio# by
the pre$e#ce o+ the )*$t&
To)ay it i$ *$*a! to )i(i)e the a$$ig#e) i$o!atio# $y$te" i# accor-
)a#ce with it$ "o)e o+ operatio# i# passive i$o!atio# $y$te"$ a#)
active i$o!atio# $y$te"$& The pa$$i(e i$o!atio# $y$te"$ wor1 witho*t
a))itio#a! co#tro! *#it$A i&e&, the +*#ctio# 9re!ea$e: i$ )eter"i#e) by
the phy$ica! e++ect$ o+ the e/p!o$io#& 'cti(e i$o!atio# $y$te"$, how-
e(er, are )epe#)e#t o# a))itio#a! co#tro! a#)Jor re!ea$e "echa#i$"$,
witho*t which they are #o#+*#ctio#i#g& Tab!e 23-14 $*""ariKe$ the
)i++ere#t i$o!atio# $y$te"$&
Croper i#$ta!!atio# i$ )epe#)e#t o# the e/i$ti#g e/p!o$io# protec-
tio# "ea$*re$ a#) o# the corre$po#)i#g i$o!atio# $y$te" to be *$e)&
Thi$ g*ara#tee$ operabi!ity& %# a))itio# the app!icatio# a#) i#$ta!!a-
tio# re"ar1$ o+ the "a#*+act*rer a$ we!! a$ the !i"it$ o+ app!icatio# i#
accor)a#ce with the Type-./a"i#atio# Certi+icate are to be obeye) i#
e(ery )etai!& %# Tab!e 23-15 the "o$t +re5*e#t!y *$e) i$o!atio# $y$te"$
+or e/p!o$io# protectio# "ea$*re$ are $*""ariKe)&
'# optica! +!a"e $e#$or i#$ta!!e) at the begi##i#g o+ the pipe!i#e i$
the "o$t $*itab!e )e(ice +or $*ch a# i$o!atio# $y$te", $i#ce the propa-
gati#g +!a"e +ro" the e/p!o$io# ha$ to be )etecte) a#) e/ti#g*i$he)&
Cre$$*re )etector$ a!o#e are, i# pri#cip!e, #ot $*ite) to the ca$e o#
ha#) beca*$e there i$ #o )i$ti#ct $eparatio# betwee# the pre$$*re a#)
+!a"e +ro#t$ +or e/p!o$io# i# pipe!i#e$& ;ptica! ir $e#$or$ that ha(e a
re!ati(e!y !ow $e#$iti(ity to )ay!ight are #or"a!!y cho$e# a#) ha(e
pro(e) the"$e!(e$ a"p!y i# i#)*$tria! practice& There+ore, )ay!ight
i#to the pipe i# the (ici#ity o+ the $e#$or "*$t be a(oi)e)& %t i$ #ece$-
$ary to +!*$h the optica! !e#$ with ga$ 9e&g&, #itroge#, air: to 1eep it
)*$t-+ree&
)ABL 23018 Different %solation De*ices
Type o+ i$o!atio# -*itab!e +or2
3otary air !oc1 9acti(e: E*$t$
./ti#g*i$hi#g barrier 9acti(e: Ga$, )*$t$, a#) hybri) "i/t*re$
%# )i++ic*!t $it*atio#$, it i$ reco""e#)e) to i#$ta!! both type$ o+
$e#$or$Npre$$*re )etector i# the (e$$e! a#) +!a"e )etector i# the
pipeNa#) they "*$t be $witche) i# a# ;3-!ogic to acti(ate the i$o!a-
tio# )e(ice 9$ee 6ig& 23-14:&
The pre$$*re )etector i# the (e$$e! pro(i)e$ the ear!ie$t )etectio# o+
a# e/p!o$io# i# the i#terco##ecte) (e$$e!, wherea$ the +!a"e )etector
i# the pipe!i#e pro(i)e$ a$$*re) )etectio#, e(e# +or !aKy +!a"e$, a$
they propagate )ow# the pipe!i#e towar) the e/ti#g*i$hi#g barrier&
6or the e/p!o$io# protectio# (a!(e$ a!way$ two i#$ta!!atio# )i$ta#ce$
are to be i#)icate), #a"e!y, the minim"m a#) ma)im"m i#$ta!!atio#
)i$ta#ce$& The minim"m installation %istance e#$*re$ that the gi(e#
i$o!atio# $y$te" ca# react i# ti"e to pre(e#t a# e/p!o$io# propagatio#
beyo#) the i#$ta!!atio# p!ace& The ma)im"m installation %istance
e#$*re$ that a )eto#atio# i# the pipi#g ca##ot be +or"e) *p to the i$o-
!atio# $y$te" a#)Jor that e/ce$$i(e pre$$*re !oa)$ are a(oi)e) at the
i$o!atio# $y$te"&
4ith e/ti#g*i$hi#g barrier$ the "i#i"*" a#) the "a/i"*" i#$ta!-
!atio# )i$ta#ce$ a#) the e)ting"ishing %istance "*$t be co#$i)ere)
a+ter the e/ti#g*i$hi#g barrier& Thi$ e)ting"ishing %istance i$ $peci+ie)
a$ the "i#i"*" !e#gth a+ter the e/ti#g*i$hi#g barrier to g*ara#tee
proper +*#ctio# o+ that e/ti#g*i$hi#g barrier& ;#!y a+ter thi$ e/ti#-
g*i$hi#g )i$ta#ce "ay the pipi#g co##ect to other e5*ip"e#t&
The "i#i"*" i#$ta!!atio# )i$ta#ce betwee# the )etector which
acti(ate$ the i$o!atio# $y$te" a#) the i$o!atio# $y$te" it$e!+ )epe#)$
e$$e#tia!!y o#
M Type o+ )etector$ 9pre$$*reJ+!a"e:
M Do!*"e o+ the (e$$e! to be protecte)
M Ma/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re P
"a/
or "a/i"*" re)*ce) e/p!o-
$io# o(erpre$$*re P
re),"a/
i# the protecte) (e$$e!
M Eia"eter o+ the pipe!i#e
M 3eactio# ti"e o+ the i$o!atio# $y$te"
M Ma/i"*" e/p!o$io# o(erpre$$*re P
"a/
o+ the +*e!
M Ma/i"*" e/p!o$io# co#$ta#t 1
"a/
o+ the +*e!
M Mi#i"*" e/p!o$io# co#$ta#t 1
"i#
o+ the +*e! 9typica!!y
1
1
"a/
, b*t
./p!o$io# protectio# (a!(e Ga$, )*$t$, a#) hybri) "i/t*re$
9pa$$i(e or acti(e:
./p!o$io# )i(erter 9pa$$i(e: Ga$, )*$t$, a#) hybri) "i/t*re$
Eo*b!e $!i)e (a!(e 9acti(e: Ga$, )*$t$, a#) hybri) "i/t*re$
Cro)*ct !ayer a$ a barrier 9acti(e: E*$t$ a#) $o!(e#t h*"i) pro)*ct$
-crew co#(eyer 9pa$$i(e: E*$t$ a#) $o!(e#t h*"i) pro)*ct$
./ti#g*i$hi#g barrier or e/p!o$io# Ga$, )*$t$, a#) hybri) "i/t*re$
protectio# (a!(e i# co"bi#atio#
with e/p!o$io# )i(erter 9acti(e:
6!a"e arre$ter$ Ga$ 9$ee $*b$ectio#
<6!a"e 'rre$ter$,= !ater:
"i#i"*" 50 "barJ$:
M 6orwar) air (e!ocity i# the pipe!i#e
M Mi#i"*" ig#itio# te"perat*re o+ a )*$t c!o*) 9o#!y +or e/ti#g*i$h-
i#g barrier$:
M Type o+ $*ppre$$a#t 9o#!y +or e/ti#g*i$hi#g barrier$:
6i#a!!y, it "*$t be poi#te) o*t that a!! e/p!o$io# protectio# )e(ice$
or $y$te"$ *$e) i# practice "ay be *$e) o#!y whe# their pre$$*re rat-
i#g, +!a"eproo+, a#) +*#ctio#a! te$ti#g ha(e bee# pro(e) by co"pe-
te#t bo)ie$ a#) their te$t re$*!t$ i#c!*)i#g the !i"it$ o+ app!icatio# are
)oc*"e#te) i# a type te$t certi+icate&
Static lectricity
3o/enclature
C Capacita#ce
CJ1g ,#it o+ charge )e#$ity
CJ"
2
,#it $*r+ace charge )e#$ity
6 6ara)
L ,#it o+ e#ergy 9>o*!e$:
1
e
3e!ati(e )ie!ectric co#$ta#t, )i"e#$io#!e$$
1DJ" ,#it o+ e!ectric +ie!) i#te#$ity
" Meter
M%. Mi#i"*" ig#itio# e#ergy, "L
"L Mi!!i>o*!e
g
2
3e$i$ti(ity (a!*e, oh"$ per $5*are, *$*a!!y *$e) +or +abric$ a#) +i!"$
p- ,#it o+ co#)*cti(ity 9pico$ie"e#$:
p-J" ,#it o+ e!ectrica! co#)*cti(ity o+ !i5*i)
3 3e!ati(e h*"i)ity, T
- -ie"e#, +or"er!y "ho
T Ti"e, $
* .!ectric pote#tia!, D
D

J" ,#it o+ e!ectrica! +ie!) i#te#$ity
G3&AL &F&3CS7 Gib$o# a#) F!oy), <%#ce#)i(ity o+ Ei$charge$ +ro"
.!ectro$tatica!!y Charge) C!a$tic$,= +rit0 J0 of ppl0 Phys& 1<, pp& 1619O1631,
1965& PlantGCperations Progress B, Go& 1, La#& 1988& .#tire i$$*e )e(ote) to
paper$ o# $tatic e!ectricity, pre$e#te) at '%Ch. "eeti#g, Mi##eapo!i$, Mi##&,
'*g*$t 1987& <Crotectio# 'gai#$t %g#itio#$ 'ri$i#g ;*t o+ -tatic, Fight#i#g a#)
-tray C*rre#t$,= '"erica# Cetro!e*" %#$tit*te 3eco""e#)e) Cractice 2003,
1998& M& G!or, <.!ectro$tatic %g#itio# aKar)$ '$$ociate) with 6!a""ab!e -*b-
$ta#ce$ i# the 6or" o+ Ga$e$, Dapor$, Mi$t$, a#) E*$t$,= !nst0 Phys0 Conf0 $er0
/o0 @:6, Fo#)o#, pp& 199O206, 1999& Gatio#a! 6ire Crotectio# '$$ociatio#,
<3eco""e#)e) Cractice o# -tatic .!ectricity,= G6C' 77, H*i#cy, Ma$$&, 2007&
Gatio#a! 6ire Crotectio# '$$ociatio#, <-ta#)ar) +or the Ma#*+act*re o+ ;rga#ic
Coati#g$,= G6C' 35, 2005& <-a+ety o+ Machi#eryA G*i)a#ce a#) 3eco""e#)a-
tio#$ +or the '(oi)a#ce o+ aKar)$ )*e to -tatic .!ectricity,= Ce#e!ec 3eport
3; 44-001, .*ropea# Co""ittee +or .!ectrotech#ica! -ta#)ar)iKatio#, 0r*$-
$e!$, 1999&
Introdu&tion -par1 ig#itio# haKar)$ "*$t be co#$i)ere) whe#-
e(er $tatic charge$ "ay acc*"*!ate i# a# e#(iro#"e#t that co#tai#$
a +!a""ab!e ga$, !i5*i), or )*$t& The #ee) +or e!ectrica! bo#)i#g a#)
gro*#)i#g o+ co#)*cti(e proce$$ e5*ip"e#t i# haKar)o*$ 9c!a$$i-
+ie): !ocatio#$ i$ wi)e!y recog#iKe)& Fe$$ we!! *#)er$too) are the
ig#itio# haKar)$ a$$ociate) with $tatic charge$ o# poor!y co#)*cti(e,
+!a""ab!e !i5*i)$, $o!i)$, a#) pow)er$& -tatic charge$, ge#erate) o#
the$e "ateria!$ by #or"a! ha#)!i#g a#) proce$$i#g, ca##ot be co#-
)*cte) to gro*#) 5*ic1!y, a#) "ay ca*$e haKar)o*$ charge acc*"*-
!atio#$& The e!ectric +ie!)$ a$$ociate) with the$e charge$ "ay $tre$$ the
$*rro*#)i#g air $*++icie#t!y to ca*$e brea1)ow# by $o"e type o+ e!ec-
trica! )i$charge&
.!ectrica! )i$charge$ +ro" poor!y co#)*cti(e "ateria!$ ta1e $e(era!
+or"$, each )i++eri#g i# it$ abi!ity to ig#ite +!a""ab!e "i/t*re$& %t i$
#ot po$$ib!e to ca!c*!ate the i#ce#)i(ity o+ "o$t o+ the$e )i$charge$,
beca*$e o+ their (aryi#g ti"e a#) $patia! )i$trib*tio#$& -e(era! e#gi-
#eeri#g r*!e$ o+ th*"b +or e$ti"ati#g the re!ati(e haKar) o+ the$e )i$-
charge$ are )i$c*$$e) be!ow&
'# a#a!y$i$ o+ $tatic ig#itio# haKar) $ho*!) $tart with )ata o# the
ig#itio# $e#$iti(ity o+ the partic*!ar +!a""ab!e "ateria! at it$ "o$t
+!a""ab!e co#ce#tratio# i# air, i&e&, it$ M%.& Thi$ i$ e$pecia!!y i"por-
ta#t +or )*$t$& %t i$ pr*)e#t to )eter"i#e thi$ (a!*e o# +i#e$ o+ the $pe-
ci+ic )*$t o+ i#tere$t, rather tha# to re!y o# p*b!i$he) )ata& &ybri%
mi)t"res, i&e&, "i/t*re$ o+ )*$t a#) (apor +or which (apor co#ce#tra-
tio#$ "ay be be!ow their !ower +!a""ab!e !i"it, ca# be ig#ite) by
$"a!!er )i$charge e#ergie$ tha# "ight be e/pecte)&
The 1ey to $a+e operatio# i$ to pro(i)e a# a)e5*ate "ea#$ o+ charge
)i$$ipatio# +ro" charge) "ateria!$ to gro*#)& Thi$ re5*ire$ "obi!ity
o+ charge$ i# or o# the charge) "ateria! pl"s e!ectrica! co#ti#*ity +ro"
the "ateria! to gro*#)&
efinitions
Bonding ' "etho) o+ pro(i)i#g e!ectrica! co#ti#*ity betwee# two
or "ore co#)*cti(e ob>ect$ to pre(e#t e!ectrica! $par1i#g betwee# the"&
C#arge relaxation time The ti"e re5*ire) +or a charge i# a !i5-
*i) or o# a $o!i) "ateria! to )i$$ipate to 36&8 perce#t o+ it$ i#itia! (a!*e
whe# the "ateria! i$ gro*#)e)&
Ele&tri&al dis&#arge ' c*rre#t +!ow that occ*r$ whe# the e!ec-
trica! +ie!) $tre#gth e/cee)$ the )ie!ectric brea1)ow# (a!*e o+ a
"e)i*" $*ch a$ air&
!lammable mixture ' "i/t*re o+ a ga$, (apor, "i$t, or )*$t i# air
which i$ withi# it$ +!a""ab!e ra#ge&
.rounding ' $pecia! +or" o+ bo#)i#g i# which a co#)*cti(e
ob>ect i$ co##ecte) to 9earth: gro*#)&
In&endive dis&#arge '#y e!ectrica! )i$charge that ha$ $*++icie#t
e#ergy to ig#ite a $peci+ie) +!a""ab!e "i/t*re&
%inimum ignition energ" The $"a!!e$t a"o*#t o+ $par1 e#ergy
that ha$ bee# +o*#) capab!e o+ ig#iti#g a $peci+ie) +!a""ab!e "i/t*re
i# a $ta#)ar) te$t&
(tati&-dissipative (antistati&) material ;#e with a# e!ectrica!
re$i$ti(ity that i$ !ow e#o*gh to "a1e it i#capab!e o+ acc*"*!ati#g haK-
ar)o*$ co#ce#tratio#$ o+ $tatic charge$ whe# gro*#)e)&
Ele&trostati& C#arging The pri"ary ca*$e o+ e!ectro$tatic
chargi#g i$ co#tact e!ectri+icatio#, which ta1e$ p!ace whe# two )i++er-
e#t "ateria!$ are bro*ght i#to co#tact a#) $eparate)& ;ther ca*$e$
i#c!*)e i#)*ctio# chargi#g, the +or"atio# o+ $pray$, a#) i"pi#ge"e#t
o+ charge) "i$t or partic!e$ o# a# *#gro*#)e) co#)*ctor&
Contact electrification i#(o!(e$ the co#tact a#) $eparatio# o+
$o!i)-$o!i), $o!i)-!i5*i), or !i5*i)-!i5*i) $*r+ace$& C*re ga$e$ )o #ot
ca*$e chargi#g *#!e$$ they carry )rop!et$ or )*$t partic!e$&
.++ort$ to 5*a#ti+y the "ag#it*)e a#) po!arity o+ co#tact chargi#g
ha(e ha) !i"ite) $*cce$$, beca*$e "i#*te (ariatio#$ i# the type$ a#)
co#ce#tratio# o+ co#ta"i#a#t$ e/ert a !arge i#+!*e#ce o# charge $epa-
ratio#& .(e# !i1e $o!i)-$o!i) $*r+ace$ ca# pro)*ce $ig#i+ica#t charge
$eparatio#& The charge )e#$ity o# $eparate) $*r+ace$ i$ *$*a!!y (ery
#o#*#i+or"& .ach $*r+ace "ay co#tai# both Y a#) X charge$, with
"ore o+ o#e po!arity tha# o+ the other& '+ter $eparatio#, the charge$
)i$$ipate $!ow!y or rapi)!y, )epe#)i#g *po# the e!ectrica! re$i$ti(ity o+
the "ateria! a#) the pre$e#ce o+ a path to gro*#)&
Co#tact e!ectri+icatio# at !i5*i)-!i5*i) a#) !i5*i)-$o!i) $*r+ace$ i$
attrib*te) to the a)$orptio# o+ io#$ o+ o#e po!arity by o#e $*r+ace& %o#$
o+ oppo$ite po!arity +or" a )i++*$e !ayer #ear the i#ter+ace& %+ the )i+-
+*$e !ayer i$ carrie) a!o#g by "o(i#g !i5*i), or i# a pipe!i#e, the +!ow-
i#g charge$ 9ca!!e) a streaming c"rrent: "ay create a $par1i#g haKar)
)ow#$trea"& ;#e protecti(e "ea$*re i$ to 1eep the charge) !i5*i) i#
a c!o$e), gro*#)e) $y$te" 9a rela)ation chamber: !o#g e#o*gh to
a!!ow +or $a+e )i$$ipatio# o+ the charge$&
The "ag#it*)e o+ the $trea"i#g c*rre#t i# a#y gi(e# $it*atio# i$ #ot
rea)i!y ca!c*!ate)& .5*atio#$, )eri(e) e/peri"e#ta!!y, +or $o"e !i5-
*i)$ 90*$ti# a#) E*1e1, Electrostatic &a'ar%s in the Petrole"m
!n%"stry, 3e$earch -t*)ie$ Cre$$, Fetchworth, .#g!a#), 1983: $how
that +!ow (e!ocity a#) +i!ter$ ha(e the greate$t i#+!*e#ce o# pipe!i#e
chargi#g& -trea"i#g c*rre#t$ ca# *$*a!!y be !i"ite) to $a+e !e(e!$ by
!i"iti#g (e!ocitie$ to !e$$ tha# 1 "J$&
Char$e in#uction ta1e$ p!ace whe# a co#)*cti#g ob>ect i$
e/po$e) to e!ectric +ie!)$ +ro" other ob>ect$& ./a"p!e$ i#c!*)e the
i#)*ctio# chargi#g o+ a h*"a# bo)y by charge) c!othi#g, the chargi#g
o+ a co#)*cti(e !i5*i) i# a charge) p!a$tic co#tai#er, a#) the chargi#g
o+ the co#)*cti(e coati#g o# o#e-$i)e-"eta!!iKe) +i!" by $tatic charge$
o# the *#coate) $*r+ace&
'!tho*gh charge i#)*ctio# ca# ta1e p!ace whether or #ot the co#-
)*cti(e ob>ect i$ gro*#)e), a $par1i#g haKar) i$ pre$e#t o#!y i+ the
co#)*ctor i$ #ot gro*#)e)& Thi$ phe#o"e#o# ca# co#(ert a re!ati(e!y
i##oc*o*$ charge b*i!)*p o# a #o#co#)*ctor to a $erio*$ $par1i#g
haKar) by rai$i#g the pote#tia! o+ the co#)*ctor abo(egro*#) 9;we#$,
<-par1 %g#itio# aKar)$ Ca*$e) by Charge %#)*ctio#,= PlantGCpera-
tions Progress B, #o& 1, pp& 37O39, 1988:&
Erop!et$, +or"e) by s-ray no,,les, te#) to be high!y charge),
e(e# i+ the co#)*cti(ity o+ the !i5*i) i$ high& 0eca*$e there i$ #o path
to gro*#) +ro" the )rop!et$, their charge$ ca# acc*"*!ate o# a#
*#gro*#)e) co#)*ctor to ca*$e $par1i#g& %+ +!a""ab!e (apor i$
pre$e#t, a$ i# $o"e ta#1 c!ea#i#g operatio#$, it i$ e$$e#tia! that the
$pray #oKK!e a#) the ta#1 be bo#)e) or $eparate!y gro*#)e)& ;ther
preca*tio#$ i#c!*)e the *$e o+ a #o#+!a""ab!e c!ea#i#g $o!(e#t or the
*$e o+ a# i#ert ga$&
'!tho*gh charge) /ists are *#ab!e to ca*$e ig#itio# o+ +!a""ab!e
(apor by $e!+-ge#erate) $par1i#g, it i$ i"porta#t that the "i$t #ot
i"pi#ge o# a# *#gro*#)e) co#)*ctor&
C#arge issipation %t i$ a# e/peri"e#ta! +act that charge)
ob>ect$ e/ert a +orce o# other charge) ob>ect$& Thi$ beha(ior i$
e/p!ai#e) by the pre$e#ce o+ a# electric fiel%, i&e&, e!ectric !i#e$ o+
+orce, each o+ which e"a#ate$ +ro" a Y charge a#) ter"i#ate$ o# a X
charge& The magnit"%e o+ the +ie!) i$ )e+i#e) a$ the +orce o# a *#it te$t
charge, p!ace) at the poi#t o+ i#tere$t& The %irection o+ the +ie!) i$ the
)irectio# o+ the +orce o# a Y te$t charge p!ace) at that poi#t&
-tatic charge ge#eratio# ca*$e$ a# ig#itio# haKar) o#!y i+ the acc*-
"*!ate) charge$ create a# e!ectric +ie!) that i$ $*++icie#t to pro)*ce a#
e!ectrica! )i$charge i# a +!a""ab!e at"o$phere& %# "o$t proce$$e$,
thi$ "ea#$ that the e!ectric +ie!) i#te#$ity at $o"e !ocatio# "*$t reach
the )ie!ectric brea1)ow# $tre#gth o+ air 9#o"i#a!!y 3 d 10
6
DJ":& The
ob>ecti(e o+ $tatic co#tro! "ea$*re$ i$ to e#$*re that e!ectric +ie!)
i#te#$itie$ ca##ot reach thi$ (a!*e&
0o#)i#g a#) gro*#)i#g are the pri"ary "ea#$ o+ )i$$ipati#g charge$
+ro" con#ucti*e o'@ects. 0o#)i#g c!a"p$ $ho*!) be o+ the $i#g!e-
poi#t type, which bite$ thro*gh o/i)e or e#a"e! coati#g$ to "a1e
co#tact with the bare "eta!& ;wi#g to the $t*r)y co#$tr*ctio# o+
bo#)i#g c!a"p$ a#) cab!e$, their i#itia! re$i$ta#ce i$ !e$$ tha# 1 g& %t i$
goo) practice to (i$*- a!!y i#$pect the co#)itio# o+ bo#)i#g cab!e$ a#)
c!a"p$ )*ri#g each *$e, a#) to "ea$*re the re$i$ta#ce o+ te"porary
bo#)i#g cab!e$ at !ea$t a##*- a!!y, to co#+ir" that it i$ !e$$ tha#, $ay, 25
g&
Char$e0#issi-ati*e /aterials a!!ow $tatic charge$ to )i$$ipate
witho*t ca*$i#g haKar)o*$ acc*"*!atio#$& Charge )i$$ipatio# #or"a!!y
ta1e$ p!ace by co#)*ctio# a!o#g the "ateria! to gro*#)& The charge-
)i$$ipati#g beha(ior o+ $*ch "ateria!$ i$ "ea$*re) at a co#tro!!e) te"-
perat*re a#) re!ati(e h*"i)ity, i# ter"$ o+ g
2
9oh"$ per $5*are: o+
electrical s"rface resistivity& The "a/i"*" $a+e re$i$ti(ity )epe#)$, i#
part, *po# the rate o+ charge ge#eratio#, b*t i$ typica!!y i# the ra#ge o+
10
8
to 10
11
g
2
+or +abric$ a#) +i!"$ P'-TM -ta#)ar) Te$t Metho)
E257-99 92005:, <EC 3e$i$ta#ce or Co#)*cta#ce o+ %#$*!ati#g Mate-
ria!$=Q&
'# a!ter#ate te$t +or charge-)i$$ipati#g per+or"a#ce i$ the charge
%ecay te$t, i# which the ti"e o+ charge )ecay i$ "ea$*re) a+ter a
pote#tia! o+ 5 1D ha$ bee# app!ie) to the $peci"e# 96e)era! Te$t
Metho) -ta#)ar) 101C, Metho) 4046&1:& 6or "a#y p*rpo$e$, a
charge )ecay ti"e o+ 0&5 $ to 500 D, "ea$*re) at the 3 i# e#) *$e,
i#)icate$ acceptab!e per+or"a#ce&
The e!ectrica! $*r+ace re$i$ti(ity a#) the charge )ecay ti"e o+ "o$t
"ateria!$ (ary $*b$ta#tia!!y with 3& %t i$ i"porta#t that te$t $peci-
"e#$ be co#)itio#e) a#) te$te) at the !owe$t 3 e/pecte) )*ri#g
*$e& %te"$ that are acceptab!e at 50 perce#t 3 "ay #ot be $a+e at 20
perce#t 3&
-o"e +abric$ co#tai# a $"a!! perce#tage o+ co#)*cti(e or a#ti$tatic
+iber$ or $tap!e, which !i"it charge acc*"*!atio# by air ioni'ation&
The$e $tatic-)i$$ipati(e +abric$ )o #ot )epe#) *po# e!ectrica! co#)*c-
tio# o+ $tatic charge$, a#) "ay #ot pa$$ the re$i$ti(ity or the charge
)ecay te$t& Their per+or"a#ce i$ #ot h*"i)ity-)epe#)e#t& '#ti$tatic
per+or"a#ce i$ )eter"i#e) by "ea$*ri#g the charge tra#$+erre) i#
e!ectrica! )i$charge$ +ro" the charge) +abric, a#) by the abi!ity o+
the$e )i$charge$ to ig#ite +!a""ab!e "i/t*re$ ha(i#g a 1#ow# M%.&
The rate o+ )i$$ipatio# o+ charge$ i# liFui#, a$$*"i#g that it$ co#-
)*cti(ity a#) )ie!ectric propertie$ are co#$ta#t, ca# be e/pre$$e) a$
T S 8&851
e
JC 923-20:
where T S ti"e re5*ire) +or charge )e#$ity to )i$$ipate to 36&8T o+ it$
i#itia! (a!*e, $
1
e
S re!ati(e )ie!ectric co#$ta#t o+ !i5*i), )i"e#$io#!e$$
C S e!ectrica! co#)*cti(ity o+ !i5*i), p-J"
6!a""ab!e !i5*i)$ are co#$i)ere) partic*!ar!y $tatic-pro#e i+ their
e!ectrica! co#)*cti(ity i$ withi# the ra#ge o+ 0&1 to 10 p-J"& %+ #o par-
tic*!ate$ or i""i$cib!e !i5*i)$ are pre$e#t, the$e !i5*i)$ are co#$i)-
ere) $a+e whe# their co#)*cti(ity ha$ bee# rai$e) to 50 p-J" or
higher& 0!e#)i#g operatio#$ or other two-pha$e "i/i#g "ay ca*$e
$*ch a high rate o+ chargi#g that a co#)*cti(ity o+ at !ea$t 1000 p-J" i$
#ee)e) +or $a+e charge )i$$ipatio# 90riti$h -ta#)ar) 5958, part 1,
<Co#tro! o+ ,#)e$irab!e -tatic .!ectricity,= para& 8, 1991:&
Ele&trostati& is&#arges '# e!ectro$tatic )i$charge ta1e$ p!ace
whe# a ga$- or a (apor-air "i/t*re i$ $tre$$e) e!ectrica!!y to it$ brea1-
)ow# (a!*e& Eepe#)i#g *po# the $peci+ic circ*"$ta#ce$, the brea1-
)ow# *$*a!!y appear$ a$ o#e o+ +o*r type$ o+ )i$charge$, which (ary
great!y i# origi#, appeara#ce, )*ratio#, a#) i#ce#)i(ity&
S-ark #ischar$es are "o$t co""o# betwee# $o!i) co#)*ctor$,
a!tho*gh o#e e!ectro)e "ay be a co#)*cti(e !i5*i) or the h*"a#
bo)y& They appear a$ a #arrow, !*"i#o*$ cha##e! a#) carry a !arge
pea1 c*rre#t +or a +ew "icro$eco#)$ or !e$$& -par1$ are the o#!y +or"
o+ )i$charge +or which a "a/i"*" e#ergy ca# be ca!c*!ate), by *$i#g
the e/pre$$io#
J S 0&5C*
2
923-21:
where J S tota! e#ergy )i$$ipate), L
C S capacita#ce o+ charge) $y$te", 6
* S i#itia! pote#tia! )i++ere#ce betwee# e!ectro)e$, D
%#ci)e#t i#(e$tigatio#$ o+te# re5*ire that e$ti"ate$ be "a)e o+ the
po$$ib!e $par1 e#ergy +ro" a# *#gro*#)e) co#)*ctor& %+ the )i$-
charge path co#tai#$ $ig#i+ica#t re$i$ta#ce, $o"e o+ the $tore) e#ergy
i$ )i$$ipate) i# the re$i$ta#ce, thereby !oweri#g the e#ergy i# the
$par1 gap&
' corona i$ ge#erate) whe# a high!y #o#*#i+or" e!ectric +ie!) o+
$*++icie#t $tre#gth ter"i#ate$ o# a co#)*ctor that ha$ a $"a!! ra)i*$ o+
c*r(at*re, i&e&, a poi#t, wire, or 1#i+e e)ge& The !*"i#o*$ 9brea1)ow#:
regio# i$ co#+i#e) to a $"a!! (o!*"e #ear the coro#a e!ectro)e&
0eca*$e o+ their $"a!! pea1 c*rre#t$ a#) !o#g )*ratio#, coro#a )i$-
charge$ )o #ot ha(e $*++icie#t e#ergy to ig#ite "o$t +!a""ab!e "ate-
ria!$ +o*#) i# i#)*$try, i&e&, "ateria!$ ha(i#g a# M%. greater tha# 0&2
"L& 6or thi$ rea$o#, #o#powere) )e(ice$ that e"p!oy coro#a )i$-
charge$ +or $tatic #e*tra!iKatio# ca# be *$e) $a+e!y i# "o$t haKar)o*$
9c!a$$i+ie): !ocatio#$& Coro#a )i$charge$ can ig#ite hy)roge#-air a#)
o/yge#-e#riche) ga$ "i/t*re$&
Brush #ischar$es ta1e p!ace betwee# co#)*ctor$ a#) charge)
#o#co#)*ctor$, where the ra)i*$ o+ c*r(at*re o+ the co#)*ctor i$ too
!arge +or coro#a ge#eratio#& The #a"e re+er$ to the br*$h!i1e appear-
a#ce o+ the )i$charge, which $prea)$ +ro" the co#)*ctor to )i$crete
area$ o# the #o#co#)*ctor& The br*$h )i$charge "ay ha(e a hot
<$te"= #ear the co#)*ctor, which "ay ca*$e ig#itio# by rai$i#g the
te"perat*re o+ the +!a""ab!e "i/t*re to it$ a"toignition (a!*e&
0r*$h )i$charge$ +ro" X charge) #o#co#)*ctor$ ha(e bee# +o*#)
"ore i#ce#)i(e that tho$e +ro" Y charge) #o#co#)*ctor$& 0r*$h )i$-
charge$ "ay ig#ite +!a""ab!e "i/t*re$ that ha(e a# M%. o+ !e$$ tha#
4 "L& Thi$ !i"itatio# ari$e$ beca*$e charge$ +ro" a $"a!! area o# the
#o#co#)*ctor are ab!e to participate i# the )i$charge& Mo$t )*$t-air
"i/t*re$ ca##ot be ig#ite) by br*$h )i$charge$, beca*$e their M%.
e/cee)$ 4 "L&
-*r+ace charge )e#$itie$ ca##ot e/cee) the theoretica! (a!*e o+
2&7 d 10
X5
CJ"
2,
$et by air brea1)ow#, a#) are #or"a!!y !e$$ tha# 1&5 d
10
X5
CJ"
2
&
Pro-a$atin$ 'rush #ischar$es are "*ch !e$$ co""o# tha#
br*$h )i$charge$& They "ay occ*r whe# a #o#co#)*cti(e +i!" or p!a$-
tic !ayer ac5*ire$ a )o*b!e !ayer o+ charge$, i&e&, Y charge$ o# o#e $*r-
+ace a#) X charge$ o# the oppo$ite $*r+ace& 4ith the e!ectric +ie!)$
withi# the +i!", $*r+ace charge )e#$itie$ ca# be !arge, beca*$e they are
#ot !i"ite) by air brea1)ow#&
The )o*b!e !ayer ca# be +or"e) by co#tact 9triboe!ectric: chargi#g
o# o#e $*r+ace o+ the #o#co#)*ctor whi!e the oppo$ite $*r+ace i$ i#
co#tact with a co#)*ctor, e&g&, a #o#co#)*cti(e coati#g o# a "eta!
ch*te or a p!a$tic-!i#e), "eta! pipe +or pow)er$& ' !e$$ +re5*e#t ca*$e
i$ co#tact chargi#g o+ o#e $*r+ace o+ a #o#co#)*ctor whi!e air io#$
co!-
!ect o# the oppo$ite $*r+ace&
%#(e$tigatio#$ by G!or 9<Ei$charge$ a#) aKar)$ '$$ociate) with
the a#)!i#g o+ Cow)er$,= Electrostatics @AB;, %#$t& Chy$& Co#+& -er&
#o& 85, pp& 207O216, 1987: a#) other$ co#c!*)e that propagati#g
br*$h )i$charge$ re5*ire $*r+ace charge )e#$itie$ abo(e 2&7 d 10
X4
CJ"
2
& %# a))itio#, the )ie!ectric brea1)ow# (o!tage o+ the i#$*!ati#g
!ayer "*$t e/cee) 4 1D +or a thic1#e$$ o+ 10 h", or 8 1D +or a thic1-
#e$$ o+ 200 h"&
%+ a co#)*ctor approache$ the charge) $*r+ace, the e!ectric +ie!)
wi!! pro)*ce air io#iKatio# at the $*r+ace, which create$ a $e"ico#-
)*cti(e !ayer, thereby a!!owi#g charge$ +ro" a !arge area to participate
i# a $i#g!e )i$charge& 0eca*$e the$e )i$charge$ ca# ha(e e#ergie$ o+
1 L or "ore, they are (ery haKar)o*$ i# a +!a""ab!e e#(iro#"e#t&
They "ay a!$o ca*$e $e(ere $hoc1$ to operator$ who reach i#to a
#o#co#)*cti(e co#tai#er that i$ recei(i#g charge) pow)er, pe!!et$,
or +iber$&
Causes of 1a,ardous is&#arges *it# Liquids Self0$enerate#
#ischar$es i# (apor-air "i/t*re$ ca# be ig#ite) by $tatic )i$charge$
+ro"
high!y charge) !i5*i)$& -*ch !i5*i)$ are $ai) to <carry their ow# "atch&=
Typica! ca*$e$ o+ $*ch chargi#g +or poor!y co#)*cti(e 9Z 50 p-J":
!i5*i)$
i#c!*)e
1& igh-(e!ocity +!ow
2& 6ree-+a!!J$p!a$hi#g
3& 6i!teri#g
4& -prayi#g
5& 'gitatio# with air
6& 0!e#)i#g with pow)er
7& -ett!i#g o+ a# i""i$cib!e co"po#e#t, e&g&, water i# ga$o!i#e
8& Fi5*i) $a"p!i#g +ro" pre$$*riKe) !i#e$, *$i#g *#gro*#)e) or
#o#co#)*cti(e co#tai#er$
Con%"ctive !i5*i)$ i# #o#co#)*cti(e co#tai#er$ "ay ca*$e $par1i#g
i+ the o*t$i)e o+ the co#tai#er i$ charge) by r*bbi#g&
=ternal causes of incen#i*e static #ischar$es i#c!*)e
1& -par1$ +ro" *#gro*#)e) co#)*ctor$ or per$o#$
2& 0r*$h )i$charge$ +ro" +!e/ib!e i#ter"e)iate b*!1 co#tai#er$
96%0C$:, p!a$tic bag$, $tretch wrap, or other p!a$tic +i!"
3& Cropagati#g br*$h )i$charge$ +ro" "eta!-bac1e), p!a$tic +i!" or
!i#i#g$
$o*ders Co#tact chargi#g o+ pow)er$ occ*r$ whe#e(er partic!e$
"o(e re!ati(e to o#e a#other or to a thir) $*r+ace& -ig#i+ica#t chargi#g
i$ "o$t o+te# ge#erate) by p#e*"atic tra#$+er& Ma/i"*" charge )e#-
$itie$ 9CJ1g: o# airbor#e pow)er$ i#crea$e a$ partic!e $iKe )ecrea$e$,
beca*$e o+ !arger $*r+aceJ"a$$ ratio$& Ery +i#e$ ca# be e/pecte) to
charge "ore high!y tha# tho$e co#tai#i#g "oi$t*re& 4hi!e $*$pe#)e)
i# air, charge) pow)er po$e$ a# ig#itio# ri$1 o#!y i+ #o#co#)*cti(e
pipi#g i$ *$e) i# the co#(eyi#g !i#e$, or i+ co#)*cti(e pipi#g i$ #ot
bo#)e)& The co!!ecte) pow)er "ay acc*"*!ate $o "*ch charge per
*#it (o!*"e that the a$$ociate) e!ectric +ie!)$ ca*$e brea1)ow# o+ the
$*rro*#)i#g air i# the +or" o+ a coro#a or a br*$h )i$charge& 6or
recei(i#g co#tai#er$ !arger tha# abo*t 1 "
3
, b"lking or cone )i$-
charge$ "ay be pre$e#t& The$e )i$charge$ typica!!y ha(e e#ergie$ o+
!e$$ tha# 10 "L, b*t the (a!*e i$ $o"eti"e$ higher& The ig#itio# haK-
ar) +ro" b*!1i#g )i$charge$ ca# be "i#i"iKe) by, e&g&, *$i#g a rotary
(a!(e or bag +i!ter to preb*!1 $"a!! (o!*"e$ o+ charge) pow)er prior to
it$ co!!ectio# i# a !arge recei(er&
$ersonnel and Clot#ing -par1$ +ro" *#gro*#)e) per$o#$ po$e
a $erio*$ ig#itio# haKar) i# +!a""ab!e ga$-air, (apor-air, a#) $o"e
)*$t-air "i/t*re$, beca*$e the bo)y i$ a co#)*ctor a#) ca# $tore e#er-
gie$ a$ high a$ 40 "L& %#)*ctio# o+ $tatic charge$ o# a per$o#?$
*#gro*#)e) bo)y by charge) c!othi#g i$ a co""o# ca*$e o+ per$o#-
#e! e!ectri+icatio#& .(e# at the threshol% of shock sensation, the $tore)
e#ergy i$ abo*t 1 "L&
%t i$ e$$e#tia! that per$o#$ be gro*#)e) i# haKar)o*$ 9c!a$$i+ie):
!ocatio#$& 6or "o$t che"ica! operatio#$, the re$i$ta#ce +ro" $1i# to
gro*#) $ho*!) #ot e/cee) 100 Mg& ' !ower a!!owab!e re$i$ta#ce "ay
be $peci+ie) +or !ocatio#$ where the pre$e#ce o+ pri"ary e/p!o$i(e$,
hy)roge#-air "i/t*re$, o/yge#-e#riche) "i/t*re$, or certai# $o!i)-
$tate )e(ice$ re5*ire$ +a$ter charge )i$$ipatio#&
The co"bi#atio# o+ co#)*cti(e +!oori#g a#) co#)*cti(e 9.-E:
+ootwear i$ the pre+erre) "etho) o+ gro*#)i#g& ,#treate) co#crete
+!oori#g with co#)*cti(e +ootwear i$ *$*a!!y a)e5*ate, b*t the re$i$-
ta#ce to gro*#) $ho*!) be "ea$*re)& 4here thi$ "etho) i$ i"practi-
ca!, per$o##e!-gro*#)i#g )e(ice$ are a(ai!ab!e&
%# "o$t che"ica! p!a#t$, gro*#)e) per$o#$ ca# wear a#y type o+
c!othi#g $a+e!y& 6or the *#*$*a!!y $e#$iti(e e#(iro#"e#t$ #ote) abo(e,
charge-)i$$ipati(e or co#)*cti(e c!othi#g $ho*!) be wor#, a#) per$o#-
#e! $ho*!) be gro*#)e)& 3e"o(a! o+ o*ter gar"e#t$ i# a +!a""ab!e
!ocatio# ca# ca*$e haKar)o*$ )i$charge$ a#) $ho*!) be a(oi)e)&
'!tho*gh "o$t g!o(e$ *$e) i# the che"ica! i#)*$try $how a re$i$ta#ce
o+ !e$$ tha# 100 Mg +ro" the wearer?$ pa!" to a ha#)he!) e!ectro)e,
thi$ (a!*e $ho*!) be (eri+ie)&
C"!%CAL &AC)%;%)2
G3&AL &F&3CS7 '-TM . 1231, <Cractice +or Ca!c*!atio# o+ aKar)
Cote#tia! 6ig*re$-o+-Merit +or Ther"a!!y ,#$tab!e Materia!$,= '-TM %#ter#a-
tio#a!, 4e$t Co#$hohoc1e#, Ce##& '-TM . 1445, <-ta#)ar) Ter"i#o!ogy 3e!at-
i#g to aKar)o*$ Cote#tia! o+ Che"ica!$,= '-TM %#ter#atio#a!& '-TM . 2012,
<-ta#)ar) G*i)e +or the Creparatio# o+ a 0i#ary Che"ica! Co"patibi!ity Chart,=
'-TM %#ter#atio#a!& 0art1#echt, E)plosions> Co"rse, Prevention, Protection,
-pri#ger-Der!ag, 0er!i#, 1981& 0arto# a#) 3oger$, e)$&, Chemical 4eaction &a'-
ar%s> ("i%e to $afety, 2) e)&, G*!+ C*b!i$hi#g Co&, o*$to#, Te/&, 1997&
0ee(er, <aKar)$ i# Eryi#g Ther"a!!y ,#$tab!e Cow)er$,= !nst0 Chem0 Engr0,
&a'ar%s N, -y"p& -er& 115, 1989& 0ee(er, <-ca!i#g 3*!e$ +or Cre)ictio# o+ Ther-
"a! 3*#away,= !ntl0 $ymp0 on 4"naway 4eactions, CCC--'%Ch., Ca"bri)ge,
Ma$$&, 1989& 0o!!i#ger et a!&, !nherently $afer Chemical Processes> ,ife Cycle
pproach, CCC--'%Ch., Gew @or1, 1996& 0owe$, <' Ge#era! 'pproach to the
Cre)ictio# a#) Co#tro! o+ Cote#tia! 3*#away 3eactio#,= !nst0 Chem0 Eng0, $ymp0
$er0 :B, 1981& 0owe$, $elf-heating> Eval"ating an% Controlling the &a'ar%s,
.!$e(ier, 1984& +retherick?s 4eactive Chemical &a'ar%s 3atabase, Der$io# 3&0,
0*tterworth-ei#e"a##, ;/+or), 1999& 0rog!i, et a!&, <'$$e$$"e#t o+ 3eactio#
aKar)$ by Mea#$ o+ a 0e#ch -ca!e Ca!ori"eter,= !nst0 Chem0 Eng0, $ymp0 $er0
:B, 1981& 0rog!i, Gyga/, a#) Myer, <Ei++ere#tia! -ca##i#g Ca!ori"etryN' Cow-
er+*! -cree#i#g Metho) +or the .$ti"atio# o+ the aKar)$ %#here#t i# %#)*$tria!
Che"ica! 3eactio#$,= Therm0 naly0, 6th -y"p&, (o!& 1, 549, 1980& Ce#ter +or
Che"ica! Croce$$ -a+ety 9CCC-:, ("i%elines for Chemical 4eactivity Eval"ation
an% pplication to Process 3esign, CCC--'%Ch., Gew @or1, 1995& CCC-,
("i%elines for $afe $torage an% &an%ling of 4eactive Materials, CCC--'%Ch.,
Gew @or1, 1995& CCC-, ("i%elines for Process $afety in +atch 4eaction $ystems,
CCC--'%Ch., Gew @or1, 1999& CCC-, -a+ety '!ert, <3eacti(e Materia! aK-
ar)$2 4hat @o* Gee) To B#ow,= CCC--'%Ch., Gew @or1, 2001& Coate$, <The
'3Ci i# Che"ica! aKar) .(a!*atio#,= Thermochim0 cta B8> 369O372, 1984&
Ea(ie$, Crganic Pero)i%es, 0*tterworth$, Fo#)o#, 1961& .-C%-, Thermal
Process $afety> 3ata, ssessment Criteria, Meas"res, -a+ety -erie$, 0oo1!et 8,
./pert Co""i$$io# +or -a+ety i# the -wi$$ Che"ica! %#)*$try, 0a$e!, -witKer-
!a#), 'pri! 1993& 6e#!o#, <Ca!ori"etric Metho)$ ,$e) i# the '$$e$$"e#t o+
Ther"a!!y ,#$tab!e or 3eacti(e Che"ica!$,= !ntl0 $ymp0 for the Prevention of
Ma5or Chemical cci%ents, '%Ch., 1987& 6i$her et a!&, <."erge#cy 3e!ie+ -y$-
te" Ee$ig# ,$i#g E%.3- Tech#o!ogy2 The Ee$ig# %#$tit*te +or ."erge#cy
3e!ie+ -y$te"$ 9E%.3-: Cro>ect Ma#*a!,= '%Ch., Gew @or1, 1992& 6ra#1 a#)
Ba"e#et$1ii, 3iff"sion an% &eat Transfer in Chemical 1inetics, C!e#*" Cre$$,
1969& 6r*rip et a!&, <' 3e(iew o+ Che"ica! Co"patibi!ity %$$*e$,= !ChE ,oss
Prevention $ymp0, o*$to#, Te/&, 1997& Grewer, <Eirect '$$e$$"e#t a#) -ca!i#g
o+ 3*#away 3eactio# a#) Eeco"po$itio# 0eha(ior ,$i#g ;(e# a#) E.4'3
Te$t$,= !nst0 Chem0 Eng0, $ymp0 $er0, :B, 1981& Grewer, <,$e o+ E.4'3
Ca!ori"etry,= Proc0 4"naway Chem0 4eac0 &a'0 $ymp0, %0C, '"$ter)a",
Go(e"ber 1986& Grewer, Thermal &a'ar%s of Chemical 4eactions, .!$e(ier -ci-
e#ce, Fo#)o#, 1994& a!1, <-.E.I Der$ati!e %#$tr*"e#t +or %#(e$tigati#g Ther-
"a! -tabi!ity,= !nst0 Chem0 Eng0, $ymp0 $er0 :B, 1981& aKar) %#(e$tigatio#,
<%"pro(i#g 3eacti(e aKar) Ma#age"e#t,= 3eport #o& 2001-01-, ,&-& Che"-
ica! -a+ety a#) aKar) %#(e$tigatio# 0oar), 4a$hi#gto#, ;ctober 2002& e#)er-
$hot, <' Chec1!i$t +or %#here#t!y -a+er Che"ica! 3eactio# Croce$$ Ee$ig# a#)
;peratio#,= !ntl0 $ymp0 on 4isk, 4eliability an% $ec"rity, CCC--'%Ch., Gew
@or1, ;ctober 2002& -., 3esigning an% Cperating $afe Chemical 4eaction
Processes, ,&B& ea!th a#) -a+ety ./ec*ti(e, 2000& <ow to Cre(e#t 3*#away
3eactio#$, Ca$e -t*)y2 Che#o!-6or"a!)ehy)e 3eactio# aKar)$,= .C' 550-
699-004, ,&-& .#(iro#"e#ta! Crotectio# 'ge#cy, 4a$hi#gto#, '*g*$t 1999&
*b, <')iabatic Ca!ori"etry a#) -%B'3.I Tech#i5*e,M !nst0 Chem0 Eng0,
$ymp0 $er0 :B, 1981& *b, <./perie#ce$ with the T-C 500 a#) 3'E.I
Ca!ori"eter,= Proc0 4"naway Chem0 4eac0 &a' $ymp0, %0C, '"$ter)a",
Go(e"ber 1986& *b, <eat 0a!a#ce Ca!ori"etry a#) '*to"atio# o+ Te$ti#g
Croce)*re$,= Proc0 4"naway Chem0 4eac0 &a'0 $ymp0, %0C, '"$ter)a",
Go(e"ber 1986& !nternational ConferenceGEorkshop on Mo%eling an% Mitigat-
ing the Conse-"ences of cci%ental 4eleases of &a'ar%o"s Materials, CCC--
'%Ch., Gew @or1, 1991& !nternational Conference on &a'ar% !%entification an%
4isk nalysis, &"man Factors an% &"man 4eliability in Process $afety, CCC--
'%Ch., Gew @or1, 1992& !nternational Conference on Managing Chemical 4eac-
tivity &a'ar%s an% &igh Energy 4elease Events, CCC--'%Ch., Gew @or1, 2003&
!nternational $ymp0 on 4"naway 4eactions an% Press"re 4elief 3esign, E%.3--
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ical 4eactivity &a'ar%s, CCC--'%Ch., Gew @or1, 2003& Loh#$o# a#) Fo)a!,
<-cree# @o*r 6aci!itie$ +or Che"ica! 3eacti(ity aKar)$,= Chem0 Eng0 Prog0
AA98:2 50O58, 2003& Loh#$o# a#) ,#wi#, <'))re$$i#g Che"ica! 3eacti(ity aK-
ar)$ i# Croce$$ aKar) '#a!y$i$,= Proc0 !ntl0 Conf0 an% Eorkshop on Managing
Chemical 4eactivity &a'ar%s an% &igh Energy 4elease Events, CCC--'%Ch.,
Gew @or1, 2003& Boh!bra#), <3eacti(e Che"ica! -cree#i#g +or Ci!ot C!a#t
-a+ety,= Chem0 Eng0 Prog0 B@94:2 52, 1985& Boh!bra#), <The 3e!atio#$hip
0etwee# Theory a#) Te$ti#g i# the .(a!*atio# o+ 3eacti(e Che"ica! aKar)$,=
!ntl0 $ymp0 for the Prevention of Ma5or Chemical cci%ents, '%Ch., Gew @or1,
1987& Feggett, <Che"ica! 3eactio# aKar) %)e#ti+icatio# a#) .(a!*atio#2 Ta1i#g
the 6ir$t -tep$,= !ChE ,oss Prevention $ymp0, Gew ;r!ea#$, March 2002&
Fewi$, $a)?s 3angero"s Properties of !n%"strial Materials, 11th e)&, 4i!ey, Gew
@or1, 2004& Ma##a#, ,ees? ,oss Prevention in the Process !n%"stries, 3) e)&,
.!$e(ier, '"$ter)a", 2005& Ma#*+act*ri#g Che"i$t$ '$$ociatio# 9#ow '"erica#
Che"i$try Co*#ci!:, $electe% Case &istories, 4a$hi#gto#, 1951O1973& Mo$!ey et
a!&, <-cree# 3eacti(e Che"ica! aKar)$ .ar!y i# Croce$$ Ee(e!op"e#t,= Chem0
Eng0 Prog0 A:911:2 51O65, 2000& G6C' 430, <Co)e +or the -torage o+ Fi5*i) a#)
-o!i) ;/i)iKer$,= Gatio#a! 6ire Crotectio# '$$ociatio#, H*i#cy, Ma$$& G6C' 432,
<Co)e +or the -torage o+ ;rga#ic Cero/i)e 6or"*!atio#$,= Gatio#a! 6ire Crotec-
tio# '$$ociatio#, H*i#cy, Ma$$& G6C' 49, <aKar)o*$ Che"ica!$ Eata,= a#)
G6C' 491, <aKar)o*$ Che"ica! 3eactio#$,= i# Fire Protection ("i%e to &a'-
ar%o"s Materials, 13th e)&, Gatio#a! 6ire Crotectio# '$$ociatio#, H*i#cy, Ma$$&,
1997& G6C' 704, <-ta#)ar) -y$te" +or the %)e#ti+icatio# o+ the aKar)$ o+
Materia!$ +or ."erge#cy 3e$po#$e,= Gatio#a! 6ire Crotectio# '$$ociatio#,
H*i#cy, Ma$$&, 2001& G;'', Che"ica! 3eacti(ity 4or1$heet, Der$io# 1&5, ,&-&
Gatio#a! ;cea#ic a#) 't"o$pheric ')"i#i$tratio#, response0 restoration0
noaa0govGchemai%sGreact0html, 2002& Coha#i$h a#) Gree#, Eiley ("i%e to
Chemical !ncompatibilities, 2) e)&, 4i!ey, Gew @or1, 2003& $econ% !ntl0 $ymp0
on 4"naway 4eactions, Press"re 4elief 3esign an% Effl"ent &an%ling, E%.3--
'%Ch., Gew @or1, 1998& -t*!!, F"n%amentals of Fire an% E)plosion, '%Ch.,
Gew @or1, 1976& -t*!!, <Fi#1i#g Ther"o)y#a"ic$ a#) Bi#etic$ to Cre)ict 3ea!
Che"ica! aKar)$,= ,oss Prevention ;, p& 67, '%Ch., 1976& Tho"a$, <-e!+ eat-
i#g a#) Ther"a! %g#itio#N' G*i)e to %t$ Theory a#) 'pp!icatio#,= '-TM -TC
502, pp& 56O82, '-TM %#ter#atio#a!, 1972& Tow#$e#), <'cce!erati#g 3ate
Ca!ori"etry,= !nst0 Chem0 Eng0, $ymp0 $er0 :B, 1981& Tow#$e#) a#) Boh!bra#),
<,$e o+ '3Ci to -t*)y Ther"a!!y ,#$tab!e Che"ica!$ a#) 3*#away 3eac-
tio#$,= Proc0 4"naway Chem0 4eac0 &a'0 $ymp0, %0C, '"$ter)a", Go(e"ber
1986& Tow#$e#) a#) To*, <Ther"a! aKar) .(a!*atio# by a# 'cce!erati#g 3ate
Ca!ori"eter,= Thermochem0 cta ;6> 1O30 a#) re+ere#ce$ therei#, 1980& ,rbe#,
e)0, +retherick?s &an%book of 4eactive Chemical &a'ar%s, 6th e)&, 0*tterworth-
ei#e"a##, ;/+or), 1999& @o$hi)a et a!&, $afety of 4eactive Chemicals an%
Pyrotechnics, .!$e(ier -cie#ce, Fo#)o#, 1995&
%ntro#uction Chemical reactivity i$ the te#)e#cy o+ $*b$ta#ce$
to *#)ergo che"ica! cha#ge& ' chemical reactivity ha'ar% i$ a $it*a-
tio# with the pote#tia! +or a# *#co#tro!!e) che"ica! reactio# that ca#
re$*!t )irect!y or i#)irect!y i# $erio*$ har" to peop!e, property, or the
e#(iro#"e#t& ' che"ica! reactio# ca# get o*t o+ co#tro! whe#e(er the
reactio# e#(iro#"e#t i$ #ot ab!e to $a+e!y ab$orb the e#ergy a#) pro)-
*ct$ re!ea$e) by the reactio#& The po$$ibi!ity o+ $*ch $it*atio#$ $ho*!)
be a#ticipate) #ot o#!y i# the reactio# $tep o+ che"ica! proce$$e$ b*t
a!$o i# $torage, "i/i#g, phy$ica! proce$$i#g, p*ri+icatio#, wa$te treat-
"e#t, e#(iro#"e#ta! co#tro! $y$te"$, a#) a#y other area$ where reac-
ti(e "ateria!$ are ha#)!e) or reacti(e i#teractio#$ are po$$ib!e&
The "ai# b*$i#e$$ o+ "o$t che"ica! co"pa#ie$ i$ to "a#*+act*re
pro)*ct$ by "ea#$ o+ co#tro!!e) che"ica! reactio#$& The reacti(ity that
"a1e$ che"ica!$ *$e+*! ca# a!$o "a1e the" haKar)o*$& Che"ica! reac-
tio#$ are *$*a!!y carrie) o*t witho*t "i$hap, b*t $o"eti"e$ they get o*t
o+ co#tro! beca*$e o+ prob!e"$ $*ch a$ the wro#g or co#ta"i#ate) raw
"ateria! bei#g *$e), cha#ge) operati#g co#)itio#$, *#a#ticipate) ti"e
)e!ay$, +ai!e) e5*ip"e#t, i#co"patib!e "ateria!$ o+ co#$tr*ctio#, or !o$$
o+ te"perat*re co#tro!& -*ch "i$hap$ ca# be wor$e i+ the che"i$try
*#)er both #or"a! a#) ab#or"a! co#)itio#$ i$ #ot +*!!y *#)er$too)&
There+ore, it i$ e$$e#tia! that che"ica! proce$$ )e$ig#er$ a#) operator$
*#)er$ta#) the #at*re o+ the reacti(e "ateria!$ a#) che"i$try i#(o!(e)
a#) what it ta1e$ to co#tro! i#te#)e) reactio#$ a#) a(oi) *#i#te#)e)
reactio#$ thro*gho*t the e#tire !i+e cyc!e o+ a proce$$ +aci!ity&
Life0Cycle Consi#erations
Considering C#emi&al -ea&tivit" during $ro&ess evelop-
ment Eeci$io#$ "a)e at the ear!y )e(e!op"e#t $tage$ o+ a proce$$
+aci!ity, i#c!*)i#g co#cept*a! a#) re$earch pha$e$, wi!! i# !arge part
)eter"i#e the #at*re a#) "ag#it*)e o+ the che"ica! reacti(ity haK-
ar)$ that wi!! #ee) to be co#tai#e) a#) co#tro!!e) thro*gho*t the
e#tire !i+e cyc!e o+ the +aci!ity& 6or thi$ rea$o#, che"ica! reacti(ity haK-
ar)$ $ho*!) be co#$i)ere) +ro" the o*t$et o+ proce$$ )e(e!op"e#t,
i#c!*)i#g creati(e thi#1i#g regar)i#g +ea$ib!e a!ter#ati(e$ to the *$e o+
reacti(e "ateria!$ or the e"p!oy"e#t o+ high!y e#ergetic reacti(e $y$-
te"$& 4hat "ay $ee" rea$o#ab!e to the re$earch che"i$tNha#)!i#g
"ateria!$ i# (ery $"a!! 5*a#titie$Nwi!! ha(e (a$t i"p!icatio#$ to the
)e$ig# a#) o#goi#g operatio# o+ a +*!!-$ca!e +aci!ity that "*$t $a+e!y
co#tro! the i#te#)e) che"ica! reactio#$ a#) a(oi) *#i#te#)e) reac-
tio#$ thro*gho*t the e#tire +aci!ity !i+eti"e&
Mo$!ey et a!& )e$cribe a che"i$try haKar) a#) operabi!ity 9C'-
W;C: a#a!y$i$ approach, $i"i!ar to a 'W;C $t*)y b*t app!ie) at the
ear!y )e(e!op"e#t $tage$ o+ a #ew proce$$&
Ma#y co"pa#ie$ )e$ig#ate a partic*!ar per$o# or po$itio# a$ the
<ow#er= o+ the proce$$ che"i$tryA thi$ re$po#$ibi!ity i$ !i1e!y to cha#ge
a$ the !i+e cyc!e progre$$e$ +ro" )e(e!op"e#t to )e$ig#, co#$tr*ctio#,
a#) operatio#& Eata o# the haKar)o*$ propertie$ o+ the che"ica! reac-
tio#$ to be e"p!oye) a#) the "ateria!$ to be ha#)!e) $ho*!) begi# to
be a$$e"b!e) i#to a +or"a! )oc*"e#tatio# pac1age& -cree#i#g te$t$
9)e$cribe) !ater i# thi$ $ectio#: "ay a!$o #ee) to be per+or"e) ear!y
i# the )e(e!op"e#t proce$$ to i)e#ti+y co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ ab#or"a!
reactio#$ a#) o+ )e(iatio#$ $*ch a$ e/cee)i#g the #or"a! reactio#
te"perat*re& Thi$ )oc*"e#tatio# pac1age wi!! the# +or" part o+ the
i#+or"atio# ba$e *po# which $a+eg*ar)$ ca# be )e(e!ope) to co#tro!
che"ica! reacti(ity haKar)$&
Considering In#erentl" (afer Approa&#es (pe&ifi& to -ea&tiv-
it" 1a,ards The ba$ic co#cept$ o+ i#here#t!y $a+er p!a#t$, a#) the
ge#era! $trategie$ +or "a1i#g a +aci!ity i#here#t!y $a+er, are )etai!e) i#
the !ater $*b$ectio# o# %#here#t!y -a+er a#) More ,$er-6rie#)!y
Ee$ig#& -trategie$ that +oc*$ o# che"ica! reacti(ity haKar)$, a#) $tep$
to co#)*ct a re(iew o+ the$e $trategie$, are high!ighte) i# that $ectio#&
%#$tea) o+ choo$i#g to recei(e a#) $tore a high!y reacti(e raw "ate-
ria!, it "ay be po$$ib!e to *$e a !e$$ haKar)o*$ "ateria! that i$ o#e $tep
+arther a!o#g i# the +or"*!atio# or $y#the$i$ chai#& '!ter#ati(e!y, a
)eci$io# "ay be "a)e to ge#erate the "ateria! o# )e"a#) a#) e!i"i-
#ate a!! or "o$t $torage a#) ha#)!i#g o+ the "ateria!& Ma#y reacti(e
"ateria!$ ca# be ha#)!e) i# )i!*te $o!*tio#$, )i$$o!(e) i# !e$$ haKar)o*$
$o!(e#t$, or otherwi$e ha#)!e) *#)er i#here#t!y $a+er co#)itio#$& 96or
$o"e reacti(e "ateria!$ $*ch a$ be#Koy! pero/i)e, ha#)!i#g a$ a )i!*te
pa$te or $o!*tio# i$ e$$e#tia! to the $a+e ha#)!i#g o+ the "ateria!&:
%#here#t!y $a+er +aci!itie$ with re$pect to che"ica! reacti(ity haK-
ar)$ "*$t +oc*$ o# the "ag#it*)e o+ $tore) che"ica! e#ergy, the
1i#etic$ o+ how +a$t the e#ergy co*!) be re!ea$e), a#) the po$$ib!e
reactio# pro)*ct$ that "ay the"$e!(e$ ha(e haKar)o*$ propertie$
$*ch a$ to/icity or +!a""abi!ity&
4ith re$pect to 1i#etic$, a $!ower reactio# "ight be co#$i)ere) at
+ir$t g!a#ce to be the i#here#t!y $a+er optio# a$ co"pare) to a rapi)
reactio#& Thi$ "ay i#)ee) be the ca$e, i+ the e#ergy a#) pro)*ct$ o+
the $!ower reactio# ca# a!way$ be )i$$ipate) $a+e!y witho*t ca*$i#g
har" or !o$$& owe(er, thi$ i$ o+te# #ot the ca$e, +or two i"porta#t
rea$o#$& 6ir$t, regar)!e$$ o+ the $pee) o+ the reactio#, the $a"e pote#-
tia! che"ica! e#ergy i$ $ti!! ther"o)y#a"ica!!y pre$e#t i+ o#!y the
1i#etic$ i$ cha#ge), a#) "ay be a(ai!ab!e *#)er ab#or"a! co#)itio#$
$*ch a$ a# e/ter#a! +ire or the i#tro)*ctio# o+ a cata!ytic co#ta"i#a#t&
-eco#), a $!ower reactio# "ay a!!ow *#reacte) "ateria! to acc*"*-
!ate& e#ce +a$ter reactio#$ are ge#era!!y "ore )e$irab!e, a$ )i$c*$$e)
i# the ge#era! reactio# co#$i)eratio#$ be!ow&
6i#a!!y, with re$pect to reactio# pro)*ct$, a che"ica! reactio# that
)oe$ #ot ge#erate haKar)o*$ reactio# pro)*ct$ or by-pro)*ct$ i$
i#here#t!y $a+er tha# o#e that )oe$& Tho*ght "*$t be gi(e# #ot o#!y to
haKar)o*$ reactio# pro)*ct$, howe(er& The ge#eratio# o+ a#y 1i#) o+
#o#co#)e#$ib!e ga$e$ ca# ca*$e a (e$$e! r*pt*re )*e to i#ter#a! o(er-
pre$$*riKatio#, i+ #ot a)e5*ate!y (e#te) or re!ie(e)&
The +o!!owi#g i$ a typica! age#)a +or a# i#here#t $a+ety re(iew at
the co#cept or )e(e!op"e#t $tage o+ a #ew +aci!ity i#(o!(i#g
reacti(ity haKar)$ 9Loh#$o# et a!& 2003:2
1& 3e(iew what i$ 1#ow# o+ the che"ica! reacti(ity haKar)$ 9a$ we!!
a$ other haKar)$: that wi!! #ee) to be co#tai#e) a#) co#tro!!e) i# the
propo$e) proce$$& Thi$ e/i$ti#g !e(e! o+ 1#ow!e)ge "ight co"e +ro"
pa$t e/perie#ce, $*pp!ier$, !iterat*re re(iew$, i#ci)e#t report$, etc&
2& 0a$e) o# the !e(e! o+ 1#ow!e)ge o+ che"ica! reacti(ity haKar)$,
)eter"i#e i+ a))itio#a! $cree#i#g o+ reacti(ity haKar)$ i$ #ece$$ary&
a(- i#g reacti(e +*#ctio#a! gro*p$ "ight i#)icate the #ee) to per+or"
!itera- t*re $earche$, acce$$ )ataba$e$, or r*# )i++ere#tia! $ca##i#g
ca!ori"etry&
3& Ei$c*$$ po$$ib!e proce$$ a!ter#ati(e$ a#) their re!ati(e haKar)$,
i#c!*)i#g )i$c*$$io#$ o# $*ch topic$ a$ a!ter#ati(e $o!(e#t$ a#) po$$i-
b!e i#co"patibi!itie$ to a(oi)&
4& 0rai#$tor" a#) )i$c*$$ po$$ib!e way$ to re)*ce the haKar)$&
5& ;btai# co#$e#$*$ o# $ig#i+ica#t *#1#ow#$ that wi!! #ee) to be
a))re$$e)&
6& Eoc*"e#t the re(iew, i#c!*)i#g atte#)ee$, $cope, approach,
a#) )eci$io#$&
7& '$$ig# +o!!ow-*p ite"$, with re$po#$ibi!itie$, goa! co"p!etio#
)ate$, a#) a c!o$*re "echa#i$" $*ch a$ reco#(e#i#g a+ter a )e$ig-
#ate) #*"ber o+ wee1$&
(&ale-up Considerations ' 1ey co#$i)eratio# whe# $ca!i#g *p a
reacti(e proce$$, $*ch a$ +ro" a pi!ot p!a#t to a +*!!-$ca!e +aci!ity, i$ to
e#$*re a)e5*ate heat re"o(a! +or #or"a! or ab#or"a! e/other"ic
reactio#$& eat ge#eratio# i$ proportio#a! to vol"me 9"a$$: i# a reac-
ti(e $y$te", wherea$ heat re"o(a! i$ o#!y proportio#a! to area 9$*r+ace
area: at be$t& .(e# tho*gh the reactio# te"perat*re ca# be ea$i!y co#-
tro!!e) i# the !aboratory, thi$ )oe$ #ot "ea# that it ca# be a)e5*ate!y
co#tro!!e) i# a p!a#t-$ca!e reactor& %#crea$i#g the $iKe o+ a reactor, or
o+ a#other proce$$ or $torage (e$$e! where, e&g&, po!y"eriKatio# or
$!ow )egra)atio# ca# occ*r, witho*t a)e5*ate!y co#$i)eri#g heat
tra#$+er ca# ha(e )i$a$tro*$ e++ect$& The care+*! )e$ig# o+ the agitatio#
or recirc*!atio# $y$te" i$ !i1ewi$e i"porta#t whe# $ca!i#g *p, a#) the
co"bi#e) e++ect$ o# the )e$ig# o+ the e"erge#cy re!ie+ $y$te" "*$t
be ta1e# i#to acco*#t&
-ca!e-*p ca# a!$o ha(e a $ig#i+ica#t e++ect o# the ba$ic proce$$
co#tro! $y$te" a#) $a+ety $y$te"$ i# a reacti(e proce$$& %# partic*-
!ar, a !arger proce$$ wi!! !i1e!y re5*ire "ore te"perat*re $e#$or$ at
)i++ere#t !ocatio#$ i# the proce$$ to be ab!e to rapi)!y )etect the
o#$et o+ o*t-o+-co#tro! $it*atio#$& Co#$i)eratio# $ho*!) be gi(e# to
the i"pact o+ higher-te"perat*re gra)ie#t$ i# p!a#t-$ca!e e5*ip-
"e#t co"pare) to a !aboratory or pi!ot p!a#t reactor 9e#)er$hot
2002:&
Desi$nin$ Processes for Control of %nten#e# Che/ical &eactions
.eneral Considerations The +o!!owi#g $ho*!) be ta1e# i#to
acco*#t whe#e(er )e$ig#i#g or operati#g a che"ica! proce$$ that
i#(o!(e$ i#te#)e) che"ica! reactio#$ 9e#)er$hot 2002:& CCC-
91999: a!$o )etai!$ "a#y 1ey i$$*e$ a#) proce$$ $a+ety practice$ to
co#- $i)er that are orie#te) towar) the )e$ig# a#) operatio# o+ batch
reac- tio# $y$te"$&
M 1now the heat of reaction for the inten%e% an% other potential
chemical reactions0
M Calc"late the ma)im"m a%iabatic temperat"re for the reaction mi)-
t"re0
M 3etermine the stability of all in%ivi%"al components of the reaction
mi)t"re at the ma)im"m a%iabatic reaction temperat"re0 Thi$
"ight be )o#e thro*gh !iterat*re $earchi#g, $*pp!ier co#tact$, or
e/peri"e#tatio#&
M Un%erstan% the stability of the reaction mi)t"re at the ma)im"m
a%iabatic reaction temperat"re0 're there a#y che"ica! reactio#$,
other tha# the i#te#)e) reactio#, that ca# occ*r at the "a/i"*"
a)iabatic reactio# te"perat*re` Co#$i)er po$$ib!e )eco"po$itio#
reactio#$, partic*!ar!y tho$e which ge#erate ga$eo*$ pro)*ct$&
M 3etermine the heat a%%ition an% heat removal capabilities of the
reactor0 Eo#?t +orget to co#$i)er the reactor agitator a$ a $o*rce o+
e#ergyNabo*t 2550 0t*J9hhp:&
M !%entify potential reaction contaminants0 %# partic*!ar, co#$i)er
po$$ib!e co#ta"i#a#t$, which are *bi5*ito*$ i# a p!a#t e#(iro#-
"e#t, $*ch a$ air, water, r*$t, oi!, a#) grea$e& Thi#1 abo*t po$$ib!e
cata!ytic e++ect$ o+ trace "eta! io#$ $*ch a$ $o)i*", ca!ci*", a#)
other$ co""o#!y pre$e#t i# proce$$ water&
M Consi%er the impact of possible %eviations from inten%e% reactant
charges an% operating con%itions0 6or e/a"p!e, i$ a )o*b!e
charge o+ o#e o+ the reacta#t$ a po$$ib!e )e(iatio#, a#), i+ $o, what
i$ the i"pact`
M !%entify all heat so"rces connecte% to the reaction vessel an% %eter-
mine their ma)im"m temperat"re0
M 3etermine the minim"m temperat"re to which the reactor cooling
so"rces co"l% cool the reaction mi)t"re0
M Un%erstan% the rate of all chemical reactions0 Ther"a! haKar)
ca!ori"etry te$ti#g ca# pro(i)e *$e+*! 1i#etic )ata&
M Consi%er possible vapor-phase reactions0 The$e "ight i#c!*)e co"-
b*$tio# reactio#$, other (apor-pha$e reactio#$ $*ch a$ the reactio# o+
orga#ic (apor$ with a ch!ori#e at"o$phere, a#) (apor-pha$e )eco"-
po$itio# o+ "ateria!$ $*ch a$ ethy!e#e o/i)e or orga#ic pero/i)e&
M Un%erstan% the ha'ar%s of the pro%"cts of both inten%e% an% "nin-
ten%e% reactions0
M 4api% reactions are %esirable0 %# ge#era!, yo* wa#t che"ica! reac-
tio#$ to occ*r i""e)iate!y whe# the reacta#t$ co"e i#to co#tact&
M voi% batch processes in which all the potential chemical energy is
present in the system at the start of the reaction step0
M voi% "sing control of reaction mi)t"re temperat"re as a means for
limiting the reaction rate0
M voi% fee%ing a material to a reactor at a higher temperat"re than
the boiling point of the reactor contents0 Thi$ ca# ca*$e rapi) boi!-
i#g o+ the reactor co#te#t$ a#) (apor ge#eratio#&
Exot#ermi& -ea&tions and 2-una*a" -ea&tions3 The ter"
r"naway reaction i$ o+te# i"proper!y *$e) to re+er to a#y *#co#-
tro!!e) che"ica! reactio#& '$ proper!y *$e), it re+er$ to !o$$ o+ co#tro!
o+ a 1i#etica!!y !i"ite), e/other"ic reactio# that procee)$ at a $tab!e,
co#tro!!e) rate *#)er #or"a! co#)itio#$ a#) that i#c!*)e$ a)e5*ate
re"o(a! o+ the heat o+ reactio# 96ig& 23-15:& 4he# the $it*atio#
cha#ge$ $*ch that the heat o+ reactio# i$ #ot a)e5*ate!y re"o(e), the
e/ce$$ heat i#crea$e$ the te"perat*re o+ the reactio# "a$$, which i#
t*r# i#crea$e$ the reactio# rate a#) th*$ the rate o+ heat re!ea$e a$ a#
e/po#e#tia! +*#ctio# o+ reactio# te"perat*re& %+ #ot !i"ite) by $o"e
"ea#$ $*ch a$ 91: the !i"iti#g reacta#t bei#g e/ha*$te), 92: a $o!(e#t
re"o(i#g the heat o+ reactio# by boi!i#g o++, or 93: 5*e#chi#g or
i#hibiti#g the reactio#, thi$ <boot$trap= $it*atio# ca# re$*!t i# a#
e/po#e#tia! te"perat*re ri$e that ca# reach a$ high a$ h*#)re)$ o+
)egree$ Ce!$i*$ per "i#*te& The re$*!ti#g te"perat*re i#crea$e,
ge#eratio# o+ ga$eo*$ reactio# pro)*ct$, a#)Jor boi!o++ o+ e(aporate)
!i5*i) ca# ea$i!y e/cee) a pre$$*re a#)Jor ther"a! !i"it o+ the co#-
tai#"e#t $y$te", i+ #ot a)e5*ate!y re!ie(e)& The e!e(ate) te"pera-
t*re$ "ay a!$o i#itiate a $eco#)ary or $i)e reactio# that i$ e(e# "ore
rapi) or e#ergetic&
Thi$ r*#away $it*atio# ca# be *#)er$too) by co"pari#g 6ig& 23-15
with 6ig& 23-16, which ha$ two #ew !i#e$ a))e), +or two po$$ib!e *p$et
co#)itio#$ i# a proce$$ with a coo!i#g coi! or other heat e/cha#ger
bei#g *$e) to ab$orb the heat o+ a# e/other"ic reactio#& The te"per-
at*re o+ the coo!i#g "e)i*" "ight i#crea$e 9$hi+t +ro" !i#e 1 to !i#e
2:, or the heat-tra#$+er coe++icie#t "ight )ecrea$e, $*ch a$ by heat
e/cha#ger +o*!i#g 9$hi+t +ro" !i#e 1 to !i#e 3:& 4he# o#e o+ the$e $hi+t$
get$ pa$t poi#t T
G3
9te"perat*re o+ #o ret*r#:, the heat re"o(a! !i#e
#o !o#ger cro$$e$ the heat ge#eratio# !i#e, a#) $tab!e operatio# i$ #o
!o#ger po$$ib!e& The heat o+ reactio# ca*$e$ the $y$te" te"perat*re
to i#crea$e, which +*rther i#crea$e$ the rate o+ heat ge#eratio#, which
+*rther i#crea$e$ the $y$te" te"perat*re, etc&
Ma#y po$$ib!e ab#or"a! $it*atio#$ ca# i#itiate a r*#away reactio#&
The$e i#c!*)e
M Fo$$ o+ +!ow o+ coo!i#g "e)i*" toJ+ro" the reactor
M '# i#crea$e i# the te"perat*re o+ the coo!i#g "e)i*"
F%G. 23019 6or $tab!e operatio#, a!! heat ge#erate) by a# e/other"ic reactio# i$
tra#$+erre) to the $*rro*#)i#g$, by whate(er "ea#$ 9co#)*ctio#, e(aporatio#, etc&:&
F%G. 2301< 6or a# e/other"ic reactio# $y$te" with heat re"o(a!, e&g&, to a (e$-
$e! >ac1et a#) coo!i#g coi!, the !i"it o+ $tab!e operatio# i$ reache) a$ the reactio#
te"perat*re i#crea$e$ to T
G3
9te"perat*re o+ #o ret*r#:, beyo#) which the rate
o+ heat ge#eratio#, which i#crea$e$ e/po#e#tia!!y with i#crea$i#g te"perat*re,
e/cee)$ the capabi!ity o+ the $y$te" to re"o(e the heat o+ reactio# 9$ee te/t:&
M ' ge#era! i#crea$e i# the te"perat*re o+ the $torage or proce$$ co#-
+ig*ratio#, $*ch a$ )*e to a# e/tre"e a"bie#t co#)itio# or !o$$ o+
re+rigeratio#
M 'b#or"a! heat a))itio# to the reacti(e "ateria! or "i/t*re, $*ch a$
by a# e/ter#a! +ire or the i#>ectio# o+ $tea" to a (e$$e! >ac1et or
)irect!y i#to the "ateria! or "i/t*re
M %#te#tio#a! heati#g o+ a (e$$e! co#tai#i#g ther"a!!y $e#$iti(e "ate-
ria!, )*e to !ac1 o+ recog#itio# o+ the r*#away haKar) or other rea$o#
M Gra)*a! +o*!i#g o+ the heat e/cha#ge $*r+ace$ to the poi#t that "a/-
i"*" coo!a#t +!ow i$ #o !o#ger $*++icie#t to re"o(e the heat o+
reactio#
M Fo$$ o+ agitatio# or circ*!atio# o+ the reacta#t "a$$ or other re)*c-
tio# i# the heat-tra#$+er coe++icie#t or co#tact with the heat
e/cha#ge $*r+ace
M %#$*!atio# o+ the $y$te", re$*!ti#g i# !e$$ heat )i$$ipatio#
M '))itio# o+ a co#ta"i#a#t or e/ce$$ cata!y$t which wo*!) i#crea$e
the reactio# rate
M ./ce$$ or too rapi) a))itio# o+ a !i"iti#g reacta#t
M 0!oc1age o+ a (apor !i#e or other "ea#$ o+ i#crea$i#g the $y$te"
pre$$*re
M Fo$$ o+ a "o)erati#g )i!*e#t or $o!(e#t
M %#a)e5*ate i#hibitor co#ce#tratio# i# a $torage co#tai#er, or i#a)e-
5*ate "i/i#g o+ the i#hibitor 9i#c!*)i#g )*e to +reeKi#g o+ the "ateria!:
M Tra#$+er o+ the reacti(e "ateria! or "i/t*re to a !ocatio# #ot capa-
b!e o+ re"o(i#g the heat o+ reactio#
'$ ca# be $ee# +ro" the abo(e !i$t, r*#away reactio#$ )o #ot occ*r by
a $i#g!e "echa#i$"& They ca# ta1e p!ace #ot o#!y i# reactor$ b*t a!$o
i# raw "ateria! a#) pro)*ct $torage co#tai#er$ a#) (e$$e!$, p*ri+ica-
tio# $y$te"$, a#) a#ywhere e!$e e/other"ic reacti(e $y$te"$ a#) $e!+-
reacti#g "ateria!$ 9a$ )e$cribe) be!ow: are i#(o!(e)&
&istorical perspective '# a#a!y$i$ o+ ther"a! r*#away$ i# the
,#ite) Bi#g)o" 90arto# a#) Go!a#, <%#ci)e#t$ i# the Che"ica!
%#)*$try )*e to Ther"a! 3*#away Che"ica! 3eactio#$,= &a'ar%s N>
Process $afety in Fine an% $pecialty Chemical Plants, !Chem @@8>
3O18: i#)icate) that $*ch i#ci)e#t$ occ*r beca*$e o+ the +o!!owi#g
ge#era! ca*$e$2
M %#a)e5*ate *#)er$ta#)i#g o+ the proce$$ che"i$try a#) ther"o-
che"i$try
M %#a)e5*ate )e$ig# +or heat re"o(a!
M %#a)e5*ate co#tro! $y$te"$ a#) $a+ety $y$te"$
M %#a)e5*ate operatio#a! proce)*re$, i#c!*)i#g trai#i#g
$emibatch reactions The i#here#t!y $a+er way to operate e/other-
"ic reactio# proce$$e$ i$ to )eter"i#e a te"perat*re at which the
reactio# occ*r$ (ery rapi)!y 9e#)er$hot 2002:& The reactor ca# be
operate) at thi$ te"perat*re, whi!e +ee)i#g at !ea$t o#e o+ the reac-
ta#t$ gra)*a!!y to !i"it the pote#tia! e#ergy co#tai#e) i# the reactor&
Thi$ type o+ gra)*a! a))itio# proce$$ i$ o+te# ca!!e) semibatch& '
phy$ica! !i"it to the po$$ib!e rate o+ a))itio# o+ the !i"iti#g reacta#t i$
)e$irab!eNe&g&, a "eteri#g p*"p, +!ow !i"ite) by *$i#g a $"a!! +ee)
!i#e, or a re$trictio# ori+ice& %)ea!!y, the !i"iti#g reacta#t $ho*!) react
i""e)iate!y, or (ery 5*ic1!y, whe# it i$ charge)& The reacta#t +ee) ca#
be $toppe) i+ #ece$$ary, i+ there i$ a#y 1i#) o+ a +ai!*re 9e&g&, !o$$ o+
coo!i#g, power +ai!*re, !o$$ o+ agitatio#:, a#) the reactor wi!! co#tai#
!itt!e or #o pote#tia! che"ica! e#ergy +ro" *#reacte) "ateria!& -o"e
"ea#$ to co#+ir" act*a! reactio# o+ the !i"iti#g reage#t i$ a!$o )e$ir-
ab!e& ' )irect "ea$*re"e#t i$ be$t, b*t i#)irect "etho)$ $*ch a$ "o#-
itori#g o+ the )e"a#) +or coo!i#g +ro" a# e/other"ic batch reactor
ca# a!$o be e++ecti(e&
esign of Emergen&" -elief and Effluent Treatment ("stems
Co#tai#"e#t $y$te"$ are o#!y rare!y )e$ig#e) with $*++icie#t pre$$*re
a#) te"perat*re rati#g to +*!!y co#tai# a r*#away reactio#& 6or thi$ rea-
$o#, o(erpre$$*re protectio# i$ o+ ob(io*$ critica! i"porta#ce a$ a !a$t
!i#e o+ )e+e#$e agai#$t !o$$ e(e#t$ that ca# re$*!t +ro" r*#away reac-
tio#$& The !atter $ectio#$ i# thi$ chapter o# Cre$$*re 3e!ie+ -y$te"$ a#)
o# ."erge#cy 3e!ie+ Ee(ice .++!*e#t Co!!ectio# a#) a#)!i#g a))re$$
)e$ig# ba$i$ $e!ectio#, re!ie+ ca!c*!atio#$, a#) e++!*e#t treat"e#t $y$te"
co#+ig*ratio#$ +or reacti(e $y$te" o(erpre$$*re protectio#&
Endot#ermi& -ea&tions '# e#)other"ic reactio# proce$$ i$
ge#era!!y ea$ier to bri#g to a $a+e $tate i+ a# o*t-o+-co#tro! $it*atio# i$
)etecte)& Ei$co#ti#*i#g the heat i#p*t i$ *$*a!!y the pri"ary !i#e o+
)e+e#$e to $top the operatio#& %# thi$ regar), the e#)other"ic reac-
tio# i$ i#here#t!y $a+er tha# a# e/other"ic reactio#&
The +o!!owi#g $ho*!) e$pecia!!y be ta1e# i#to acco*#t2
M The +i#a! pro)*ct o+ a# e#)other"ic che"ica! reactio# ha$ a
greater e#ergy co#te#t tha# the $tarti#g "ateria!$& 6or thi$ rea-
$o#, "ateria!$ with #et po$iti(e heat$ o+ +or"atio# are o+te#
ter"e) en%othermic compo"n%s0 9Mo$t e/p!o$i(e$, e&g&, are
e#)other"ic co"po*#)$&: Thi$ e#ergy co#te#t ca# pote#tia!!y be
re!ea$e) i# a# *#co#tro!!e) "a##er i+ $*++icie#t e#ergy i$ agai#
a))e) to the "ateria!, $*ch a$ by heati#g it to a )eco"po$itio#
te"perat*re&
M Fi1ewi$e, i+ co#tro! i$ !o$t o+ a# e#)other"ic reactio# proce$$, $*ch
a$ by a heati#g co#tro! (a!(e ope#i#g too +ar or by a $tea" !ea1
)irect!y i#to the reactio# "a$$, a )egra)atio# reactio# or other $ec-
o#)ary or $i)e reactio# "ay be i#itiate) that ca# be e/other"ic a#)
ca# !ea) to a ther"a! r*#away&
M -o"e e#)other"ic co"po*#)$ ca# gra)*a!!y )egra)e, )eco"po$e,
beco"e "ore co#ce#trate), or beco"e $e#$itiKe) o(er ti"e&
Desi$nin$ Facilities for A*oi#ance of 4ninten#e# &eactions
.eneral Considerations The +o!!owi#g ge#era! )e$ig# a#)
operatio#a! co#$i)eratio#$ +or a(oi)i#g *#i#te#)e) che"ica! reac-
tio#$ are $*""ariKe) +ro" a CCC- -a+ety '!ert 92001:2
M Trai# a!! per$o##e! to be aware o+ reacti(ity haKar)$ a#) i#co"pati-
bi!itie$ a#) to 1#ow "a/i"*" $torage te"perat*re$ a#) 5*a#titie$&
M Ee$ig# $torage a#) ha#)!i#g e5*ip"e#t with a!! co"patib!e "ate-
ria!$ o+ co#$tr*ctio#&
M '(oi) heati#g coi!$, $pace heater$, a#) a!! other heat $o*rce$ +or
ther"a!!y $e#$iti(e "ateria!$&
M '(oi) co#+i#e"e#t whe# po$$ib!eA otherwi$e, pro(i)e a)e5*ate
e"erge#cy re!ie+ protectio#&
M '(oi) the po$$ibi!ity o+ p*"pi#g a !i5*i) reacti(e "ateria! agai#$t a
c!o$e) or p!*gge) !i#e&
M Focate $torage area$ away +ro" operati#g area$ i# $ec*re) a#)
"o#itore) !ocatio#$&
M Mo#itor "ateria! a#) b*i!)i#g te"perat*re$ where +ea$ib!e with
high-te"perat*re a!ar"$&
M C!ear!y !abe! a#) i)e#ti+y a!! reacti(e "ateria!$ a#) what "*$t be
a(oi)e) 9e&g&, heat, water:&
M Co$iti(e!y $egregate a#) $eparate i#co"patib!e "ateria!$, *$i#g
)e)icate) e5*ip"e#t i+ po$$ib!e&
M ,$e )e)icate) +itti#g$ a#) co##ectio#$ to a(oi) *#!oa)i#g a "ate-
ria! to the wro#g ta#1&
M 3otate i#(e#torie$ +or "ateria!$ that ca# )egra)e or react o(er ti"e&
M Cay c!o$e atte#tio# to ho*$e1eepi#g a#) +ire pre(e#tio# aro*#)
$torageJha#)!i#g area$&
Identif"ing $otential -ea&tions The ,&-& Che"ica! -a+ety
a#) aKar) %#(e$tigatio# 0oar)?$ aKar) %#(e$tigatio# <%"pro(i#g
3eacti(e aKar) Ma#age"e#t= 92002: high!ighte) the i"porta#ce
o+ i)e#ti+yi#g che"ica! reacti(ity haKar)$ a$ a re$*!t o+ a# e/a"i#a-
tio# o+ 167 pre(io*$ reacti(e i#ci)e#t$& CCC- ha$ p*b!i$he) a pre-
!i"i#ary $cree#i#g "etho)o!ogy +or i)e#ti+yi#g where reacti(e
haKar)$ are !i1e!y to e/i$t 9Loh#$o# et a!&, 2003:& The +!owchart +or
the pre!i"i#ary $cree#i#g "etho)o!ogy i$ $how# !ater i# the aKar)
'#a!y$i$ $*b$ectio#&
The +o!!owi#g paragraph$ brea1 )ow# the type$ o+ reacti(e "ateria!$
a#) reacti(e i#teractio#$ that a# e#gi#eer "ay #ee) to a))re$$ i# the
)e$ig# o+ a che"ica! proce$$ or other +aci!ity $*ch a$ a wareho*$e where
reacti(e "ateria!$ are ha#)!e) 9Loh#$o# a#) Fo)a!, 2003A Loh#$o# et a!&,
2003:& The$e ca# be co#$i)ere) to be i# three !arger categorie$2
M -e!+-reacti(e $*b$ta#ce$ 9po!y"eriKi#g, )eco"po$i#g, rearra#gi#g:
M -*b$ta#ce$ that are reacti(e with *bi5*ito*$ $*b$ta#ce$ $*ch a$ air
9$po#ta#eo*$!y co"b*$tib!eJpyrophoric, pero/i)e-+or"i#g:, water
9water-reacti(e:, or or)i#ary co"b*$tib!e$ 9o/i)iKer$:
M %#co"patib!e "ateria!$
$ol"meri,ing/ e&omposing/ and -earranging (ubstan&es
Mo$t o+ the$e $*b$ta#ce$ are $tab!e *#)er #or"a! co#)itio#$ or with
a# a))e) i#hibitor, b*t ca# e#ergetica!!y $e!+-react with the i#p*t o+
ther"a!, "echa#ica!, or other +or" o+ e#ergy $*++icie#t to o(erco"e
it$ acti(atio# e#ergy barrier 9$ee -ec& 4, 3eactio# Bi#etic$, 3eactor
Ee$ig#, a#) Ther"o)y#a"ic$:& The rate o+ $e!+-reactio# ca# (ary
+ro" i"perceptib!y $!ow to (io!e#t!y e/p!o$i(e, a#) i$ !i1e!y to acce!er-
ate i+ the reactio# i$ e/other"ic or $e!+-cata!ytic&
The te#)e#cy o+ a "ateria! $*ch a$ acry!ic aci) or $tyre#e to polymer-
i'e i$ *$*a!!y recog#iKe), a#) the "ateria! $a+ety )ata $heet $ho*!) be
chec1e) a#) the $*pp!ier ca# be co#tacte) a$ to whether haKar)o*$ po!y-
"eriKatio# "ight be e/pecte)& ' !e$$ e#ergetic "ea#$ o+ $e!+-reactio#
i$ by "o!ec*!ar rearrangement $*ch a$ by i$o"eriKi#g, ta*to"eri#g,
)i$proportio#ati#g, or co#)e#$i#g&
The %ecomposition o+ $o"e "ateria!$ i#to $"a!!er, "ore $tab!e "o!-
ec*!e$ ca# be i#itiate) by "echa#ica! $hoc1 a!o#e, a#) they are 1#ow#
a$ shock-sensitive0 Ma#y co""ercia!!y i"porta#t che"ica!$ are ther-
mally sensitive a#) )eco"po$e with the a))itio# o+ heat& 6or $torage
$it*atio#$, the critica! te"perat*re at which the ther"a! e#ergy i$ $*+-
+icie#t to $tart a# *#co#tro!!e) reactio# i# a partic*!ar $torage co#+ig-
*ratio# +or a $peci+ie) ti"e i$ 1#ow# a$ the self-accelerating
%ecomposition temperat"re 9-'ET:, a$ )e$cribe) i# G6C' 49&
Eeco"po$i#g "ateria!$ are $o"eti"e$ re+erre) to a$ "nstable, a#)
ge#era!!y they ha(e a po$iti(e heat o+ +or"atio# $*ch that e#ergy wi!!
be re!ea$e) whe# the )eco"po$itio# reactio# occ*r$& -e!+-reacti(e
"ateria!$ ca# o+te# be recog#iKe) by the pre$e#ce o+ certai# che"ica!
$tr*ct*re$ that te#) to co#+er reacti(ity& The$e i#c!*)e
M Carbo#-carbo# )o*b!e bo#)$ #ot i# be#Ke#e ri#g$ 9e&g&, ethy!e#e,
$tyre#e:
M Carbo#-carbo# trip!e bo#)$ 9e&g&, acety!e#e:
M Gitroge#-co#tai#i#g co"po*#)$ 9G;
2
gro*p$, a)>ace#t G ato"$,
etc&:
M ;/yge#-o/yge# bo#)$ 9pero/i)e$, hy)ropero/i)e$, oKo#i)e$:
M 3i#g co"po*#)$ with o#!y three or +o*r ato"$ 9e&g&, ethy!e#e
o/i)e:
M Meta!- a#) ha!oge#-co#tai#i#g co"p!e/e$ 9"eta! +*!"i#ate$, ha!ite$,
ha!ate$, etc&:&
' "ore co"p!ete !i$t i$ gi(e# by CCC- 91995:, a#) $peci+ic co"-
po*#)$ ca# be i#(e$tigate) i# re$o*rce$ $*ch a$ ,rbe# 91999:&
Ge#era! co#$i)eratio#$ +or a(oi)i#g *#i#te#)e) reactio#$ with $e!+-
reacti#g $*b$ta#ce$ i#c!*)e 1#owi#g the "echa#i$"$ a#) bo*#)arie$
o+ what wi!! i#itiate a $e!+-reactio#, "ai#tai#i#g )i!*e#t$ or i#hibitor$
to e/te#) the bo*#)arie$ where +ea$ib!e a#) a(oi)i#g the "echa#i$"$
9$*ch a$ $hoc1 a#) o(erte"perat*re: that wo*!) i#itiate the $e!+-reac-
tio#, a#) ha(i#g re!iab!e co#tro!$ a#) !a$t-re$ort $a+ety $y$te"$ i#
p!ace to )etect a#) )ea! with a# i#cipie#t o*t-o+-co#tro! co#)itio#&
-peci+ic )e$ig# co#$i)eratio#$ +or a +ew $*b$ta#ce$ i#c!*)i#g acry!ic
aci), $tyre#e, orga#ic pero/i)e$, ethy!e#e o/i)e, a#) 1,3-b*ta)ie#e are
gi(e# i# CCC- 91995: o# the ba$i$ o+ a# i#)*$try-practice $*r(ey&
Eetai!e) i#+or"atio# +or other $*b$ta#ce$ i$ )i$trib*te) by i#)*$try
*$er gro*p$& The$e i#c!*)e "ethacry!ic aci) a#) "ethacry!ate e$ter$
9ww w 0mpa"sa0org : a#) ethy!e#e o/i)e 9ww w 0ethyleneo)i%e0com :&
(pontaneousl" Combustible and $"rop#ori& (ubstan&es
$pontaneo"sly comb"stible $*b$ta#ce$ wi!! rea)i!y react with the o/y-
ge# i# the at"o$phere, ig#iti#g a#) b*r#i#g e(e# witho*t a# ig#itio#
$o*rce& %g#itio# "ay be i""e)iate, or "ay re$*!t +ro" a $e!+-heati#g
proce$$ that "ay ta1e "i#*te$ or ho*r$ 9he#ce, $o"e $po#ta#eo*$!y
co"b*$tib!e $*b$ta#ce$ are 1#ow# a$ self-heating "ateria!$:&
Pyrophoric "ateria!$ ig#ite $po#ta#eo*$!y o# $hort e/po$*re to air
*#)er or)i#ary a"bie#t co#)itio#$& -o"e "ateria!$ that are co#$i)-
ere) pyrophoric re5*ire a "i#i"*" re!ati(e h*"i)ity i# the at"o-
$phere +or $po#ta#eo*$ ig#itio# to occ*r& The pote#tia! o+ pyrophoric
"ateria!$ to e/hibit thi$ beha(ior i$ *$*a!!y we!! 1#ow# )*e to the
e/tre"e care re5*ire) +or their $a+e ha#)!i#g&
Cyrophoric a#) other $po#ta#eo*$!y co"b*$tib!e $*b$ta#ce$ wi!!
ge#era!!y be i)e#ti+ie) a$ $*ch o# their pro)*ct !iterat*re, "ateria!
$a+ety )ata $heet$ 9M-E-$:, or %#ter#atio#a! Che"ica! -a+ety Car)$
9%C-C$:& %+ tra#$porte), the$e $*b$ta#ce$ $ho*!) be i)e#ti+ie) a$
E;TJ,G aKar) C!a$$ 4&2 "ateria!$ +or $hippi#g p*rpo$e$ a#)
!abe!e) a$ $po#ta#eo*$!y co"b*$tib!e& 6or pyrophoric $*b$ta#ce$, the
G6C' 704 )ia"o#) +or co#tai#er or (e$$e! !abe!i#g ha$ a re) 9top:
5*a)ra#t with a rati#g o+ 4, i#)icati#g the highe$t $e(erity o+ +!a""a-
bi!ity haKar) 9G6C' 704, 2001:& Gote that pyrophoric "ateria!$ o+te#
e/hibit o#e or "ore other reacti(ity haKar)$ a$ we!!, $*ch a$ water
reacti(ity&
' $ce#ario that ha$ re$*!te) i# "a#y +ire$ a#) e/p!o$io#$ i# petro-
!e*" re+i#erie$ i#(o!(e$ iro# $*!+i)e& '# i"p*re, pyrophoric $*!+i)e i$
+or"e) whe# $trea"$ co#tai#i#g hy)roge# $*!+i)e or other (o!ati!e
$*!+*r co"po*#)$ are proce$$e) i# +erro*$ e5*ip"e#t& ;/i)atio# o+
"oi$t iro# $*!+i)e i$ high!y e/other"ic& ;pe#i#g $*!+i)e-co#tai#i#g
e5*ip"e#t witho*t a)e5*ate p*rgi#g ca# re$*!t i# rapi) $e!+-heati#g
a#) ig#itio# o+ the iro# $*!+i)e, which ca# the# ig#ite other re$i)*a!
+!a""ab!e ga$e$ or !i5*i)$ i# the e5*ip"e#t&
Ma#y $ce#ario$ i#(o!(i#g $po#ta#eo*$ co"b*$tio# i#(o!(e a co"bi-
#atio# o+ "ateria!$ e/po$e) to $*++icie#t air, o+te# i# a# i#$*!ati#g $it-
*atio# that pre(e#t$ heat +ro" a $!ow o/i)atio# reactio# +ro"
)i$$ipati#g, which re$*!t$ i# a $e!+-heati#g $it*atio#&
Fi$t$ o+ pyrophoric "ateria!$ that i#c!*)e !e$$ co""o# che"ica!$,
i#c!*)i#g "eta!$, ca# be +o*#) i# (o!*"e 2 o+ +retherick?s &an%book
of 4eactive Chemical &a'ar%s 9,rbe#, 1999:& ;ther $po#ta#eo*$!y
co"b*$tib!e $*b$ta#ce$ are tab*!ate) by their proper $hippi#g #a"e$
a#) ,GJG' #*"ber$ i# the ,&-& Eept& o+ Tra#$portatio# reg*!atio#
49 C63 172&101&
Co$$ib!e ca*$e$ o+ *#co#tro!!e) reactio#$ a$$ociate) with pyrophoric
a#) other $po#ta#eo*$!y co"b*$tib!e "ateria!$ are !i$te) i# Loh#$o# et
a!& 92003:&
$eroxide !ormers Pero)i%e formers wi!! react with the o/yge# i#
the at"o$phere to +or" *#$tab!e pero/i)e$, which i# t*r# "ight
e/p!o$i(e!y )eco"po$e i+ co#ce#trate)& Cero/i)e +or"atio#, or pero/-
i)atio#, *$*a!!y happe#$ $!ow!y o(er ti"e, whe# a pero/i)e-+or"i#g
!i5*i) i$ $tore) with !i"ite) acce$$ to air&
-*b$ta#ce$ that are pero/i)e +or"er$ wi!! o+te# ha(e a# i#hibitor or
$tabi!iKer a))e) to pre(e#t pero/i)atio#& They are o+te# #ot ea$i!y
i)e#ti+iab!e a$ pero/i)e +or"er$ by *$i#g M-E-$ or %C-C$& 3ather,
they are +re5*e#t!y i)e#ti+ie) by a#other characteri$tic, $*ch a$ +!a"-
"abi!ity, +or $torage a#) $hippi#g p*rpo$e$& ./a"p!e$ o+ pero/i)e +or-
"er$ i#c!*)e 1,3-b*ta)ie#e, 1,1-)ich!oroethy!e#e, i$opropy! ether,
a#) a!1a!i "eta!$& Loh#$o# et a!& 92003: tab*!ate other che"ica! $tr*c-
t*re$ $*$ceptib!e to pero/i)e +or"atio#&
The tota! e/c!*$io# o+ air +ro" (e$$e!$ a#) e5*ip"e#t co#tai#i#g per-
o/i)e +or"er$, a#) the e$tab!i$h"e#t a#) ob$er(i#g o+ $trict $he!+ !i+e
!i"itatio#$, are ba$ic $trategie$ +or "a#agi#g pero/i)e-+or"i#g haKar)$&
4ater--ea&tive (ubstan&es Eater-reactive s"bstances wi!!
che"ica!!y react with water, partic*!ar!y at #or"a! a"bie#t co#)i-
tio#$& 6or +ire protectio# p*rpo$e$, a "ateria! i$ co#$i)ere) water-
reacti(e i+ a ga$ or at !ea$t 30 ca!Jg 9126 1LJ1g: o+ heat i$ ge#erate)
whe# it i$ "i/e) with water 9G6C' 704, 2001:, *$i#g a two-)rop "i/-
i#g ca!ori"eter&
4ater reacti(ity ca# be haKar)o*$ by o#e or "ore o+ $e(era! "ech-
a#i$"$& The heat o+ reactio# ca# ca*$e ther"a! b*r#$, ig#ite co"-
b*$tib!e "ateria!$, or i#itiate other che"ica! reactio#$& 6!a""ab!e,
corro$i(e or to/ic ga$e$ are o+te# +or"e) a$ reactio# pro)*ct$& The
(io!e#ce o+ $o"e reactio#$ "ay )i$per$e haKar)o*$ "ateria!$& .(e#
$!ow reactio#$ ca# ge#erate $*++icie#t heat a#) o++-ga$e$ to o(erpre$-
$*riKe a#) r*pt*re a c!o$e) co#tai#er&
-*b$ta#ce$ that are water-reacti(e wi!! #ear!y a!way$ be i)e#ti+ie)
a$ $*ch o# their M-E-$ or %C-C$& They "ay be i)e#ti+ie) a$
E;TJ,G aKar) C!a$$ 4&3 "ateria!$ +or $hippi#g p*rpo$e$ a#) !abe!e)
a$ )a#ger- o*$ whe# wet& owe(er, $o"e water-reacti(e "ateria!$
are c!a$$i+ie) otherwi$e& 'cetic a#hy)ri)e i$ )e$ig#ate) C!a$$ 8A it "ay
a!$o be i)e#ti- +ie) a$ a co"b*$tib!e !i5*i)&
The tota! e/c!*$io# o+ water +ro" (e$$e!$ a#) e5*ip"e#t co#tai#i#g
water-reacti(e $*b$ta#ce$, a#) the "ai#te#a#ce o+ the pri"ary co#-
tai#"e#t i#tegrity o(er ti"e, are the ob(io*$ )e$ig# a#) operatio#a!
co#$i)eratio#$ whe# ha#)!i#g water-reacti(e $*b$ta#ce$& Eryi#g o+
e5*ip"e#t prior to $tart-*p a#) care+*! )e$ig# o+ pro(i$io#$ +or c!ea#-
i#g a#) p*rgi#g o+ e5*ip"e#t are a!$o e$$e#tia!&
'xidi,ers and 'rgani& $eroxides '# o)i%i'er i$ a#y "ateria!
that rea)i!y yie!)$ o/yge# or other o/i)iKi#g ga$, or that rea)i!y react$
to pro"ote or i#itiate co"b*$tio# o+ co"b*$tib!e "ateria!$ 9G6C'
430, 2000:& Th*$, "o$t o/i)iKer$ ca# be tho*ght o+ a$ bei#g reacti(e
with or)i#ary co"b*$tib!e !i5*i)$ or $o!i)$, which are co""o#!y *$e)
a$ proce$$, pac1agi#g, ge#era! *$e, or $tr*ct*ra! "ateria!$& They ca#
a!$o react with "a#y other re)*ci#g $*b$ta#ce$&
;/i)iKer$ wi!! #ear!y a!way$ be i)e#ti+ie) a$ $*ch o# their M-E-$ or
%C-C$& They "ay be i)e#ti+ie) a$ E;TJ,G aKar) C!a$$ 5&1 "ateri-
a!$ +or $hippi#g p*rpo$e$ a#) !abe!e) a$ o/i)iKer$& owe(er, $o"e o/i-
)iKer$ are c!a$$i+ie) otherwi$e&
Do!*"e 2 o+ +retherick?s &an%book of 4eactive Chemical &a'ar%s
9,rbe#, 1999: !i$t$ "a#y $tr*ct*re$ a#) i#)i(i)*a! che"ica! co"-
po*#)$ ha(i#g o/i)iKi#g propertie$& G6C' 432 ca# be co#$*!te) +or
typica! orga#ic pero/i)e +or"*!atio#$& Gote, howe(er, that $o"e
orga#ic pero/i)e +or"*!atio#$ b*r# with e(e# !e$$ i#te#$ity tha# or)i-
#ary co"b*$tib!e$ a#) pre$e#t #o che"ica! reacti(ity haKar)&
G6C' 430 co#tai#$ $a+ety pro(i$io#$ +or the $torage o+ !i5*i) a#)
$o!i) o/i)iKer$& G6C' 432 co#tai#$ $a+ety pro(i$io#$ +or the $torage o+
orga#ic pero/i)e +or"*!atio#$&
In&ompatible %aterials %# thi$ co#te/t, incompatible re+er$ to
two "ateria!$ #ot ab!e to co#tact each other witho*t *#)e$ire) co#$e-
5*e#ce$& '-TM . 2012 gi(e$ a "etho) +or prepari#g a bi#ary co"-
patibi!ity chart +or i)e#ti+yi#g i#co"patibi!itie$& The G;'' Che"ica!
3eacti(ity 4or1$heet *$e$ a gro*p co"patibi!ity "etho) to pre)ict
the re$*!t$ o+ "i/i#g a#y bi#ary co"bi#atio# o+ the 6080 che"ica!$ i#
the C'M.; )ataba$e, i#c!*)i#g "a#y co""o# "i/t*re$ a#) $o!*-
tio#$& Materia!$ to be co#$i)ere) i#c!*)e #ot o#!y raw "ateria!$ a#)
pro)*ct$ b*t a!$o by-pro)*ct$, wa$te pro)*ct$, c!ea#i#g $o!*tio#$,
#or"a! a#) po$$ib!e ab#or"a! "ateria!$ o+ co#$tr*ctio#, po$$ib!e co#-
ta"i#a#t$ a#) )egra)atio# pro)*ct$, "ateria! that co*!) be !e+t i# the
proce$$ +ro" a pre(io*$ batch or c!ea#o*t, a#) "ateria!$ i# i#terco#-
#ecte) pipi#g, heat-tra#$+er $y$te"$, wa$te co!!ectio# $y$te"$, or
co!ocate) $torage&
The e$$e#ce o+ the '-TM . 2012 approach i$ to )eter"i#e i#co"-
patibi!ity scenarios that co*!) +ore$eeab!y occ*r by e/a"i#i#g a!! po$-
$ib!e bi#ary co"bi#atio#$& %t "ay be #ece$$ary to re(iew a proce$$ by
*$i#g a $y$te"atic "etho) $*ch a$ a proce$$ haKar) a#a!y$i$ 9C': to
i)e#ti+y a!! i#co"patibi!ity $ce#ario$ that ha(e a $ig#i+ica#t !i1e!ihoo)
o+ occ*rre#ce a#) $e(erity o+ co#$e5*e#ce$& The $a"e re(iew ca#
the# be *$e) to e(a!*ate whether a)e5*ate $a+eg*ar)$ e/i$t or
whether +*rther ri$1 re)*ctio# i$ warra#te)&
4here the co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ co"bi#i#g two or "ore "ateria!$
*#)er gi(e# co#)itio#$ o+ te"perat*re, co#+i#e"e#t, etc&, are
*#1#ow# a#) ca##ot be pre)icte) with certai#ty, te$ti#g "ay #ee) to
be per+or"e) to $cree# +or pote#tia! i#co"patibi!itie$& Two co""o#
te$t "etho)$ *$e) +or thi$ p*rpo$e are )i++ere#tia! $ca##i#g ca!ori"e-
try a#) "i/i#g ce!! ca!ori"etry 9)e$cribe) !ater i# thi$ $ectio#:&
Ee$ig# co#$i)eratio#$ to a(oi) co#tact o+ i#co"patib!e "ateria!$
i#c!*)e tota! e/c!*$io# o+ a# i#co"patib!e $*b$ta#ce +ro" the +aci!ityA
5*a!ity co#tro! a#) $a"p!i#g o+ i#co"i#g "ateria!$A appro(a! proce-
)*re$ +or bri#gi#g #ew che"ica!$ a#) "ateria!$ o+ co#$tr*ctio# o#-
$iteA )e)icate) +itti#g$ a#) *#!oa)i#g $pot$A (e$$e!, pipi#g, a#)
co#tai#er !abe!i#gA )e)icate) or $egregate) $torageA $egregate) )i1-
i#g, )rai#age, a#) (e#t $y$te"$A 5*a!ity co#tro! o+ raw "ateria!$ a#) o+
"ateria!$ o+ co#$tr*ctio# 9both i#itia! co#$tr*ctio# a#) o#goi#g "ai#-
te#a#ce a#) "o)i+icatio#$:A $ea!!e$$ p*"p$, )o*b!e t*be $heet$, a#)
other "ea#$ o+ e/c!*)i#g $ea! +!*i), heat-tra#$+er +!*i), a#) other *ti!-
ity $*b$ta#ce$A po$iti(e i$o!atio# o+ i#terco##ectio#$ by phy$ica! )i$-
co##ect$, b!i#)i#g, or )o*b!e b!oc1 a#) b!ee) (a!(e$A a(oi)a#ce o+
"a#i+o!)$ with +!e/ib!e co##ectio#$A a#) *$e o+ co"patib!e p*rge
ga$e$, c!ea#i#g $o!*tio#$, heat-tra#$+er +!*i)$, i#$*!atio#, +ire-e/ti#-
g*i$hi#g a#) $*ppre$$io# age#t$ whe#e(er po$$ib!eA a#) re"o(a! o+
*#*$e) "ateria!$ +ro" the $ite& The$e )e$ig# co#$i)eratio#$ wi!!
a!way$ #ee) to be acco"pa#ie) by proce)*re trai#i#g, haKar) aware-
#e$$, a#) operati#g )i$cip!i#e +or the" to be e++ecti(e o# a# o#goi#g
ba$i$&
Desi$nin$ !iti$ation Syste/s to "an#le 4ncontrolle# &eac0
tions 96ro" CCC-, ("i%elines for $afe $torage an% &an%ling of
4eactive Materials, 1995, Chap& 5&: Fa$t-re$ort $a+ety $y$te"$ are
i#te#)e) to be *$e) i# "a#y reacti(e che"ica! $torage a#) ha#)!i#g
operatio#$ a$ !a$t-)itch e++ort$ to a(ert a !o$$ e(e#t $*ch a$ a# e/p!o-
$io# or a haKar)o*$ "ateria! re!ea$e, i+ the operatio# e/cee)$ $a+e
operati#g !i"it$ a#) it i$ #ot po$$ib!e to regai# co#tro! by *$i#g the
operatio#?$ #or"a! co#tro! "echa#i$"$&
In#ibitor In5e&tion %#hibitor i#>ectio# $y$te"$ are pri"ari!y *$e)
with po!y"eriKi#g "ateria!$ $*ch a$ (i#y! acetate& %+ the "ateria! begi#$
to $e!+-react i# a# *#co#tro!!e) "a##er, the# i#>ectio# o+ a po!y"eriKa-
tio# i#hibitor ca# i#ter+ere with the reactio# be+ore $*++icie#t pre$$*re
a#) te"perat*re ha(e b*i!t *p to ca*$e a re!ea$e +ro" the $torageJha#-
)!i#g co#tai#"e#t& The type o+ i#hibitor #ee)e) wi!! )epe#) o# the
#at*re o+ the po!y"eriKatio# reactio#A e&g&, a +ree-ra)ica! $ca(e#ger
"ay be *$e) a$ a# i#hibitor +or a "ateria! that react$ by +ree-ra)ica!
po!y"eriKatio#& The i#hibitor i$ o+te# the $a"e i#hibitor *$e) +or #or-
"a! $torage $tabi!ity re5*ire"e#t$, b*t i#>ecte) i# a "*ch !arger 5*a#-
tity& %+ a )i++ere#t i#hibitor i$ *$e) that i$ )e$ig#e) to 5*ic1!y 1i!! the
reactio#, it i$ ge#era!!y ca!!e) a short-stop $y$te"&
%#hibitor i#>ectio# $y$te"$ #ee) to be care+*!!y )e$ig#e) a#) "ai#-
tai#e) to pro(i)e a high!y re!iab!e !a$t-re$ort $a+ety $y$te"& -i#ce the
i#hibitor i#>ectio# $y$te" i$ o# $ta#)by a#) "ay #ot be *$e) +or
"o#th$, atte#tio# "*$t be pai) to how the $y$te" co"po#e#t$ ca# be
+*#ctio#a!!y a#) e++ecti(e!y te$te) o# a perio)ic ba$i$, $*ch a$ o#ce a
"o#th, witho*t e/ce$$i(e )i$r*ptio# o+ #or"a! operatio#$& CCC-?
("i%elines for Engineering 3esign for Process $afety 9CCC--'%Ch.,
Gew @or1, 1993, pp& 273O275: )i$c*$$e$ te$ti#g o+ co#ti#*o*$-proce$$
$a+ety $y$te"$& Thi$ +*#ctio#a! te$ti#g i$ i"porta#t #ot o#!y +or the
chec1i#g o+ a)e5*ate i#hibitor $*pp!y a#) proper!y +*#ctio#i#g )e!i(-
ery $y$te", b*t a!$o a$ the "ea#$ o+ )etecti#g a# o*t-o+-co#tro! $it*a-
tio# a#) act*ati#g the i#hibitor i#>ectio# $y$te"& -*ch $y$te"$, a$ we!!
a$ other !a$t-re$ort $a+ety $y$te"$, are !i1e!y to be co#$i)ere) safety
instr"mente% systems 9-%-$:A a#) they $ho*!) be $e!ecte), )e$ig#e),
a#) "ai#tai#e) accor)i#g!y 9$ee the !ater $ectio# o# -%-$:&
6uen&# ("stems H*e#ch $y$te"$ are *$e) +or e$$e#tia!!y a!!
type$ o+ reacti(e che"ica!$& ' 5*e#ch $y$te" i#(o!(e$ the a))itio# o+
+!oo)i#g 5*a#titie$ o+ water or other 5*e#chi#g "e)i*" to the reac-
ti(e "ateria!A the 5*e#chi#g "e)i*" "ight be a $*bcoo!e) "ateria!
$*ch a$ !i5*i) #itroge# or )ry ice i# $pecia! app!icatio#$&
The "ea#$ by which a 5*e#ch $y$te" wor1$ )epe#)$ o# the #at*re
o+ the reacti(e "ateria!A e&g&, +or water-reacti(e "ateria!$, a 5*e#ch
$y$te" wi!! )e$troy the "ateria! i# a !a$t-re$ort $it*atio# a#) ge#era!!y
+or" !e$$-haKar)o*$ pro)*ct$, a#) wi!! at the $a"e ti"e ab$orb $o"e
o+ the heat o+ reactio#& Mo$t 5*e#ch $y$te"$ are )e$ig#e) to both coo!
)ow# a#) )i!*te a "ateria! that "ay be reacti#g *#co#tro!!ab!yA the
5*e#chi#g "e)i*" "ay a!$o act*a!!y i#ter+ere with the che"ica!
reactio# or )eacti(ate a cata!y$t&
ump ("stems 6or a# i#hibitor i#>ectio# or 5*e#ch $y$te", the
i#hibitor or 5*e#chi#g "e)i*" i$ tra#$+erre) +ro" a# e/ter#a! $*pp!y
to the reacti(e "ateria!A i# a )*"p $y$te", the reacti(e "ateria! i$
tra#$+erre) +ro" the $torageJha#)!i#g +aci!ity to a $a+er !ocatio# that i$
the $a"e $iKe or, "ore co""o#!y, !arger tha# the #or"a! capacity o+
the +aci!ity& Thi$ a!!ow$ )epre$$*riKi#g a#) )ei#(e#tory o+ the reacti#g
"a$$ +ro" the +aci!ity i# a# o*t-o+-co#tro! $it*atio#, $*ch a$ a# i#cipi-
e#t r*#away reactio#&
epressuring ("stems ' !a$t-re$ort )epre$$*riKi#g $y$te" ca#
be a))e) to a reacti(e $y$te" to (e#t o++ e/ce$$i(e pre$$*re b*i!)*p i#
a ta#1 (e$$e! i# a co#tro!!e) "a##er be+ore reachi#g the re!ie+ (a!(e or
r*pt*re )i$1 $et pre$$*re& -*ch a )epre$$*riKi#g $y$te" typica!!y co#-
$i$t$ o+ a re"ote!y act*ate) (e#t (a!(e co##ecte) to the (apor $pace o+
the (e$$e!, with the (e#ti#g )i$charge )irecte) to a $cr*bber or other
treat"e#t $y$te" o+ a)e5*ate capacity& The $y$te" ca# be )e$ig#e) to
be act*ate) either "a#*a!!y, by a co#tro! roo" or +ie!) operator, or by
)etectio# o+ high pre$$*re a#)Jor high te"perat*re i# the (e$$e!&
&eacti*e "a,ar# &e*iews an# Process "a,ar# Analyses
3eacti(e haKar)$ $ho*!) be e(a!*ate) *$i#g re(iew$ o# a!! #ew
proce$$e$ a#) o# a!! e/i$ti#g proce$$e$ o# a perio)ic ba$i$& 3e(iew$
$ho*!) i#c!*)e
1& 3e(iew o+ proce$$ che"i$try, i#c!*)i#g reactio#$, $i)e reactio#$,
heat o+ reactio#, pote#tia! pre$$*re b*i!)*p, a#) characteri$tic$ o+
i#ter"e)iate $trea"$
2& 3e(iew o+ reacti(e che"ica!$ te$t )ata +or e(i)e#ce o+ +!a""a-
bi!ity characteri$tic$, e/other"$, $hoc1 $e#$iti(ity, a#) other e(i)e#ce
o+ i#$tabi!ity
3& 3e(iew o+ p!a##e) operatio# o+ proce$$, e$pecia!!y the po$$ibi!-
ity o+ *p$et$, "o)e$ o+ +ai!*re, *#e/pecte) )e!ay$, re)*#)a#cy o+
e5*ip"e#t a#) i#$tr*"e#tatio#, critica! i#$tr*"e#t$ a#) co#tro!$,
a#) wor$t-cre)ib!e-ca$e $ce#ario$
The$e re(iew$ ca# be either i# a))itio# to or co"bi#e) with
perio)ic proce$$ haKar) a#a!y$e$ 9C'$: by *$i#g "etho)$ $*ch a$
what-i+ a#a!y$i$ a#) 'W;C $t*)ie$& The !atter $ho*!) co#$cio*$!y
+oc*$ o# i)e#ti+yi#g $ce#ario$ i# which i#te#)e) reactio#$ co*!)
get o*t o+ co#tro! a#) *#i#te#)e) reactio#$ co*!) be i#itiate)& ;#e
"ea#$ o+ acco"p!i$hi#g thi$ a$ part o+ a 'W;C $t*)y ha$ bee# to
i#c!*)e chemical reaction a$ o#e o+ the para"eter$ to be i#(e$ti-
gate) +or each $t*)y #o)e& Loh#$o# a#) ,#wi# 92003: )e$cribe
other C'-re!ate) approache$ +or $t*)yi#g che"ica! reacti(ity
haKar)$&
4orst-Case T#in)ing 't e(ery poi#t i# the operatio#, the
proce$$ )e$ig#er $ho*!) co#cei(e o+ the wor$t po$$ib!e co"bi#atio# o+
circ*"$ta#ce$ that co*!) rea!i$tica!!y e/i$t, $*ch a$ !o$$ o+ coo!i#g
water, power +ai!*re, wro#g co"bi#atio# or a"o*#t o+ reacta#t$,
wro#g (a!(e po$itio#, p!*gge) !i#e$, i#$tr*"e#t +ai!*re, !o$$ o+ co"-
pre$$e) air, air !ea1age, !o$$ o+ agitatio#, )ea)hea)e) p*"p$, a#) raw
"ateria! i"p*ritie$& '# e#gi#eeri#g e(a!*atio# $ho*!) the# be "a)e
o+ the wor$t-ca$e co#$e5*e#ce$, with the goa! that the p!a#t wi!! be
$a+e e(e# i+ the wor$t ca$e occ*r$& The pre(io*$ )i$c*$$io# o+ ca!c*!at-
i#g the "a/i"*" a)iabatic te"perat*re ri$e, the# co#$i)eri#g what
"ight happe# i+ it i$ rea!iKe), i$ a# e/a"p!e o+ thi$ type o+ a#a!y$i$& '
haKar) a#) operabi!ity 9'W;C: $t*)y co*!) be *$e) to he!p i)e#ti+y
ab#or"a! $it*atio#$ a#) wor$t-ca$e co#$e5*e#ce$&
&eacti*ity )estin$ Ma#y o+ the )ata #ee)e) +or the )e$ig# o+
+aci!itie$ with reacti(ity haKar)$ i#(o!(e the )eter"i#atio# o+ ther"a!
$tabi!ity a#) o+
1& The te"perat*re at which a# e/other"ic reactio# $tart$
2& The rate o+ reactio# a$ a +*#ctio# o+ te"perat*re
3& eat ge#erate) per *#it "a$$ o+ "ateria!
%# "a#y ca$e$, )ata o# the i#crea$e o+ pre$$*re )*ri#g a reactio# are
a!$o re5*ire), e$pecia!!y +or (e#t $iKi#g, a#) o# the co"po$itio# o+ the
pro)*ct ga$e$&
The ter" onset temperat"re T
o#$et
i$ *$e) i# two co#te/t$2
1& %# a te$ti#g co#te/t, it re+er$ to the +ir$t )etectio# o+ e/other"ic
acti(ity o# the ther"ogra"& The )i++ere#tia! $ca##i#g ca!ori"eter
9E-C: ha$ a $ca# rate o+ 10UCJ"i#, wherea$ the acce!erati#g rate
ca!ori"eter 9'3C
j
: ha$ a $e#$iti(ity o+ 0&02UCJ"i#& Co#$e5*e#t!y, the
te"perat*re at which ther"a! acti(ity i$ )etecte) by the E-C ca# be
a$ "*ch a$ 50UC )i++ere#t +ro" '3C )ata&
2& The $eco#) co#te/t i$ the proce$$ reactor& There i$ a pote#tia! +or
a r*#away i+ the #et heat gai# o+ the $y$te" e/cee)$ it$ tota! heat !o$$
capabi!ity& ' $e!+-heati#g rate o+ 3UCJ)ay i$ #ot *#*$*a! +or a "o#o"er
$torage ta#1 i# the ear!y $tage$ o+ a r*#away& Thi$ corre$po#)$ to
0&00208UCJ"i#, which i$ 10 perce#t o+ the '3C?$ )etectio# !i"it&
Sources of &eacti*ity Data -e(era! i"porta#t $o*rce$ o+ reac-
ti(ity )ata are )e$cribe) i# the +o!!owi#g paragraph$&
Cal&ulations Cote#tia! e#ergy that ca# be re!ea$e) by a che"ica!
$y$te" ca# o+te# be pre)icte) by ther"o)y#a"ic ca!c*!atio#$& %+
there i$ !itt!e e#ergy, the reactio# $ti!! "ay be haKar)o*$ i+ ga$eo*$
pro)*ct$ are pro)*ce)& Bi#etic )ata are *$*a!!y #ot a(ai!ab!e i# thi$
way& Ther"o)y#a"ic ca!c*!atio#$ $ho*!) be bac1e) *p by act*a! te$t$&
ifferential (&anning Calorimetr" -a"p!e a#) i#ert re+er-
e#ce "ateria!$ are heate) i# $*ch a way that the te"perat*re$ are
a!way$ e5*a!& ;#$et-o+-reactio# te"perat*re$ reporte) by the E-C
are higher tha# the tr*e o#$et te"perat*re$, $o the te$t i$ "ai#!y a
$cree#i#g te$t&
ifferential T#ermal Anal"sis (TA) ' $a"p!e a#) i#ert re+-
ere#ce "ateria! are heate) at a co#tro!!e) rate i# a $i#g!e heati#g
b!oc1& Thi$ te$t i$ ba$ica!!y 5*a!itati(e a#) ca# be *$e) +or i)e#ti+yi#g
e/other"ic reactio#$& Fi1e the E-C, it i$ a!$o a $cree#i#g te$t&
3eporte) te"perat*re$ are #ot re!iab!e e#o*gh to be ab!e to "a1e
5*a#titati(e co#c!*$io#$& %+ a# e/other"ic reactio# i$ ob$er(e), it i$
a)(i$ab!e to co#)*ct te$t$ i# the '3C&
%ixing Cell Calorimetr" (%CC) The MCC pro(i)e$ i#+or"a-
tio# regar)i#g the i#$ta#ta#eo*$ te"perat*re ri$e re$*!ti#g +ro" the
"i/i#g o+ two co"po*#)$& Together, E-C a#) MCC pro(i)e a re!i-
ab!e o(er(iew o+ the ther"a! e(e#t$ that "ay occ*r i# a proce$$&
A&&elerating -ate Calorimetr" (A-C) Thi$ e5*ip"e#t )eter-
"i#e$ the $e!+-heati#g rate o+ a che"ica! *#)er #ear-a)iabatic co#)i-
tio#$& %t *$*a!!y gi(e$ a co#$er(ati(e e$ti"ate o+ the co#)itio#$ +or,
a#) co#$e5*e#ce$ o+, a r*#away reactio#& Cre$$*re a#) rate )ata +ro"
the '3C "ay $o"eti"e$ be *$e) +or pre$$*re (e$$e! e"erge#cy
re!ie+ )e$ig#& 'cti(atio# e#ergy, heat o+ reactio#, a#) appro/i"ate
reactio# or)er ca# *$*a!!y be )eter"i#e)& 6or "*!tipha$e reactio#$,
agitatio# ca# be pro(i)e)& Go#$tirre) '3C r*#$ "ay gi(e a#$wer$
that )o #ot a)e- 5*ate!y )*p!icate p!a#t re$*!t$ whe# there are
reacta#t$ that "ay $ett!e o*t or that re5*ire "i/i#g +or the reactio# to
be carrie) o*t 9Eea(e# a#) Eiet$che, <Cata!y$t ./p!o$io#2 ' Ca$e
i$tory,= PlantGCper0 Prog0, 'pri! 1990:&
Vent (i,ing $a&)age (V($78) The D-C i$ a# e/te#$io# o+ '3C
tech#o!ogy& The D-C2 i$ a be#ch-$ca!e apparat*$ +or characteriKi#g
r*#away che"ica! reactio#$& %t "a1e$ po$$ib!e the $iKi#g o+ pre$$*re
re!ie+ $y$te"$ with !e$$ e#gi#eeri#g e/perti$e tha# i$ re5*ire) with the
'3C or other "etho)$&
Advan&ed -ea&tive ("stem (&reening Tool (A-((T8) The
'3--T "ea$*re$ $a"p!e te"perat*re a#) pre$$*re withi# a $a"p!e
co#tai#"e#t (e$$e!& The '3--T )eter"i#e$ the pote#tia! +or r*#away
reactio#$ a#) "ea$*re$ the rate o+ te"perat*re a#) pre$$*re ri$e 9+or
ga$$y reactio#$: to a!!ow )eter"i#atio#$ o+ the e#ergy a#) ga$ re!ea$e
rate$& Thi$ i#+or"atio# ca# be co"bi#e) with $i"p!i+ie) "etho)$ to
a$$e$$ reactor $a+ety $y$te" re!ie+ (e#t re5*ire"e#t$&
(#o&) (ensitivit" -hoc1-$e#$iti(e "ateria!$ react e/other"ica!!y
whe# $*b>ecte) to a pre$$*re p*!$e& Materia!$ that )o #ot $how a#
e/other" o# a E-C or ET' are pre$*"e) #ot to be $hoc1-$e#$iti(e&
Te$ti#g "etho)$ i#c!*)e
M 3rop weight test ' weight i$ )roppe) o# a $a"p!e i# a "eta! c*p&
The te$t "ea$*re$ the $*$ceptibi!ity o+ a che"ica! to )eco"po$e
e/p!o$i(e!y whe# $*b>ecte) to i"pact& Thi$ te$t $ho*!) be app!ie) to
a#y "ateria!$ 1#ow# or $*$pecte) to co#tai# *#$tab!e ato"ic
gro*pi#g$&
M Confinement cap test Eeto#atabi!ity o+ a "ateria! i$ )eter"i#e)
by *$i#g a b!a$ti#g cap&
M %iabatic compression test igh pre$$*re i$ app!ie) rapi)!y to a
!i5*i) i# a ,-$hape) "eta! t*be& 0*bb!e$ o+ hot co"pre$$e) ga$ are
)ri(e# i#to the !i5*i) a#) "ay ca*$e e/p!o$i(e )eco"po$itio# o+ the
!i5*i)& Thi$ te$t i$ i#te#)e) to $i"*!ate water ha""er a#) $!o$hi#g
e++ect$ i# tra#$portatio#, $*ch a$ h*"pi#g o+ rai!way ta#1 car$& %t i$
(ery $e(ere a#) gi(e$ wor$t-ca$e re$*!t$&
;btai#i#g te$t )ata +or )e$ig#i#g a +aci!ity with $ig#i+ica#t reacti(ity
haKar)$ re5*ire$ +a"i!iarity with a ra#ge o+ te$t e5*ip"e#t a#) a $ig-
#i+ica#t a"o*#t o+ e/perie#ce i# the i#terpretatio# o+ te$t re$*!t$&
).:%C%)2
%ntro#uction Ma#y #at*ra! a#) arti+icia! $*b$ta#ce$ are to/ic to
h*"a#$ 9a#) a#i"a!$:& Fi5*i)$ a#) $o!i)$ ca# be i#ge$te), or e/po$*re
ca# be thro*gh the $1i#, eye$, or other e/ter#a! pa$$age$ to the bo)y&
4here the$e $*b$ta#ce$ are ga$eo*$ or (o!ati!e, to/ic e++ect$ ca# re$*!t
+ro" i#ha!atio#& '$ a re$*!t o+ acci)e#t$ a#) te$t$, it ha$ bee# )i$co(ere)
that $o"e o+ the$e $*b$ta#ce$ are "ore to/ic tha# other$& H*a#ti+icatio#
o+ the )egree o+ haKar) ha$ beco"e i"porta#t i# )e(i$i#g appropriate
"ea$*re$ +or co#tai#i#g the$e $*b$ta#ce$&
Cerce#tage Crobit (a!*e P
0&001 91 i# 10
5
: 0&73
0&01 91 i# 10
4
: 1&28
0&1 91 i# 10
3
: 1&90
1 P1TQ 91 i# 100: 2&67
3 P3TQ 93 i# 100: 3&12
10 P10TQ 91 o+ 10: 3&72
30 P30TQ 93 o+ 10: 4&48
50 P50TQ 95 o+ 10: 5&00
-e(era! che"ica! co"pa#ie$ ha(e e$tab!i$he) to/ico!ogy !aborato-
rie$ to )e(e!op 5*a#titati(e i#+or"atio# co#cer#i#g the to/icity o+ raw
"ateria!$, pro)*ct$, by-pro)*ct$, a#) wa$te "ateria!$& They i#c!*)e
Eow, E* Co#t, .a$t"a# Bo)a1, a#) ,#io# Carbi)e 96awcett a#)
4oo), $afety an% cci%ent Prevention in Chemical Cperations, 2)
e)&, pp& 262 a#) 281, 1982:& '!$o, the Che"ica! %#)*$try %#$tit*te o+
To/ico!ogy wa$ e$tab!i$he) i# 1975 to pro(i)e to/ico!ogica! haKar)$
$er(ice$, a#) The Gether!a#)$ ;rga#iKatio# o+ 'pp!ie) -cie#ti+ic
3e$earch PTG;Q ha$ per+or"e) $i"i!ar to/ico!ogica! re$earch i# the
Gether!a#)$ 9The %#$tit*tio# o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, Chlorine To)ic-
ity Monograph, p& 34, 1989:&
The pre$e#t <Croce$$ -a+ety Ma#age"e#t= $ta#)ar) o+ the ;cc*-
patio#a! -a+ety a#) ea!th 'ct re5*ire$ <to/icity i#+or"atio#= a#) <a
5*a!itati(e e(a!*atio# o+ a ra#ge o+ the po$$ib!e $a+ety a#) hea!th
e++ect$ o+ +ai!*re o+ co#tro!$ o# e"p!oyee$ i# the wor1p!ace= P,&-&
Eepart"e#t o+ Fabor, Ccc"pational $afety an% &ealth $tan%ar%s, 29
C63 1910&1199):91:9i:, 9e:93:9(ii:, a#) 9+:91:9iii:9':, 1992Q& -i"i!ar!y,
the <3i$1 Ma#age"e#t Crogra"$ +or Che"ica! 'cci)e#ta! 3e!ea$e
Cre(e#tio#= $ta#)ar) o+ the .#(iro#"e#ta! Crotectio# 'ge#cy?$ C!ea#
'ir 'ct '"e#)"e#t$ P,&-& .#(iro#"e#ta! Crotectio# 'ge#cy, 4isk
Management Programs for Chemical cci%ental 4elease Prevention,
40 C63 68&159b:93:, 159c:, 249c:97:, a#) 269b:91:, 1993Q re5*ire$ to/-
icity i#+or"atio#, a 5*a!itati(e e(a!*atio# o+ a ra#ge o+ the po$$ib!e
$a+ety a#) hea!th e++ect$ o+ +ai!*re o+ co#tro!$ o# p*b!ic hea!th a#) the
e#(iro#"e#t, a#) a#a!y$i$ o+ the o++-$ite co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ the wor$t-
ca$e re!ea$e $ce#ario a#) the other "ore !i1e!y $ig#i+ica#t acci)e#ta!
re!ea$e $ce#ario$&
To per+or" $a+ety a#) hea!th e(a!*atio#$, 5*a#titati(e 1#ow!e)ge o+
the e++ect$ o+ e/po$*re to to/ic "ateria!$ wo*!) be #ee)e)& -o"e o+
the a(ai!ab!e )ata +or i#ha!atio# to/icity 95*a#titati(e:, $1i#-ab$orptio#
to/icity 95*a!itati(e:, a#) i#ge$tio# 95*a#titati(e: o+ haKar)o*$ "ateri-
a!$ are pre$e#te) i# Tab!e % 9'"erica# %#)*$tria! ygie#e '$$ociatio#,
Emergency 4esponse Planning ("i%elines an% Eorkplace Environ-
mental E)pos"re ,evel, Go& '.'05-559, 2005A Gatio#a! %#$tit*te
+or ;cc*patio#a! -a+ety a#) ea!th, Pocket ("i%e to Chemical &a'-
ar%s, 1994A '"erica# Co#+ere#ce o+ Go(er#"e#ta! %#)*$tria!
ygie#i$t$, Threshol% ,imit *al"es for Chemical $"bstances an%
Physical gents, 2001A Gatio#a! %#$tit*te +or ;cc*patio#a! -a+ety a#)
ea!th, 4egistry of To)ic Effects of Chemical $"bstances, 1983:& To
+aci!itate *$e o+ the$e )ata, $e(era! type$ o+ graphica! a#) <probit=
e5*atio# "etho)$ are a(ai!ab!e 9Gri++ith$, <The ,$e o+ Crobit ./pre$-
$io#$ i# the '$$e$$"e#t o+ 'c*te Cop*!atio# %"pact o+ To/ic
3e!ea$e$,= Jo"rnal of ,oss Prevention in the Process !n%"stries, 42 49,
La#*ary 1991A Cr*gh, <H*a#titati(e .(a!*atio# o+ %#ha!atio#-To/icity
aKar)$,= 29th '##*a! Fo$$ Cre(e#tio# -y"po$i*", 1995:&
The $cope o+ thi$ $ectio# i$ !i"ite) to )a#gero*$ a#) !i+e-threate#-
i#g e/po$*re$ o+ the p*b!ic to to/ic "ateria!$ 9pri"ari!y ga$e$ a#)
(apor$: a#) #o#-!i+e-threate#i#g e/po$*re$ o+ e"p!oyee$ to to/ic
"ateria!$& Eata co#cer#i#g !i+e-threate#i#g co#ce#tratio#$ a#) )o$e$
o+ "a#y to/ic ga$e$, (apor$, a#) !i5*i)$ are a(ai!ab!e 9Gatio#a! %#$ti-
t*te +or ;cc*patio#a! -a+ety a#) ea!th, 4egistry of To)ic Effects of
Chemical $"bstances, 1983:&
%nhalation )o=icity7 )he "a'er Fuation %# 1924, 6ritK aber
reporte) o# hi$ a#a!y$i$ o+ the re$*!t$ o+ a#i"a! i#ha!atio# te$t$ o#
che"ica! war+are age#t$& e )i$co(ere) that the pro)*ct o+ ga$ or (apor
co#ce#tratio# a#) )*ratio# o+ e/po$*re wa$ #ear!y co#$ta#t +or a gi(e#
phy$io!ogica! e++ect& Thi$ re!atio#$hip ha$ bee# ter"e) the &aber law
9aber, F"nf *ortrage a"s %en Jahren @A97O@A96, -pri#ger-Der!ag,
1924A 6!e"i#g et a!&, Mo%ern Ccc"pational Me%icine, p& 78, 1960:2
Ct S 1 S 3 923-22:
4he# the co#ce#tratio# C i$ e/pre$$e) i# part$ per "i!!io# 9pp": a#)
the )*ratio# o+ e/po$*re t i$ e/pre$$e) i# "i#*te$, the (a!*e$ o+ the
co#$ta#t 1 a#) the )o$e 3 are i# *#it$ o+ pp"-"i#*te$&
%t i$ #ow recog#iKe) that aber?$ !aw )oe$ #ot app!y +or !o#g e/po-
$*re$ to !ow co#ce#tratio#$& 'ppare#t!y, there are "etabo!ic proce$$e$
i# the h*"a# bo)y 9a#) i# a#i"a!$: that ca# 9+or "a#y to/ic "ateria!$:
re$*!t i# biotra#$+or"atio# or )eto/i+icatio#, e!i"i#atio#, or e/cretio#
o+ to/ic "ateria!$, or ca# repair )a"age) ce!!$ or ti$$*e$ 9.!1i#$, The
Chemistry of !n%"strial To)icology, 2) e)&, p& 242, 1959A ,&-& 6e)era!
."erge#cy Ma#age"e#t 'ge#cy, &an%book of Chemical &a'ar%
nalysis Proce%"res, p& 6-7, 1989:& %t i$ !i1e!y that the ab$orptio#
proce$$ +*#ctio#$ i# proportio# to the $5*are root o+ the )*ratio# o+
e/po$*re 9Cerry, Chemical Engineers? &an%book, 4th e)&, p& 14-13 a#)
6ig$& 14-7, 14-9, a#) 14-21, 1963:&
Dosa$e Fuation The aber !aw appare#t!y app!ie$ to $hort
e/po$*re$ 9!e$$ tha# 30 "i#: 9The %#$tit*tio# o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$,
Chlorine To)icity Monograph, Tab!e 5, 3at Gro*p Co)e$ ,, G, ., I,
a#) W, a#) Mo*$e Gro*p Co)e$ G a#) 3, 1989:, b*t )oe$ #ot app!y
+or !o#g e/po$*re$ to to/ic (apor$ a#) ga$e$& .i$e#berg a#) other$
9.i$e#berg et a!&, *"lnerability Mo%el< $im"lation $ystem for
ssessing 3amage 4es"lting from Marine $pills, ,&-& Coa$t G*ar)
3eport CG-E-136-75, pp& 77, 83O89, a#) 257O267, 1975:A a!$o, 3)
%#ter#atio#a! -y"po$i*" o# Fo$$ Cre(e#tio# i# the Croce$$ %#)*$-
trie$, p& 15J1158, a#) Crocee)i#g$, p& 190, 1980: atte"pte) to "o)i+y
the )o$e e5*atio# to +it the )ata o(er a *$e+*! ra#ge o+ i#tere$t,
betwee# 5 "i# a#) 2 h 9Fee$, ,oss Prevention in the Process !n%"s-
tries, pp& 206O209, 527, 594, 599, 651O653, a#) 661, 1980:& They
+o*#) that the +o!!owi#g e5*atio# co*!) be *$e)2
C
n
t S 1 923-23:
.i$e#berg +o*#) that a (a!*e o+ 2&75 +or n wa$ appropriate +or the
ch!ori#e a#) a""o#ia )ata which were a(ai!ab!e&
%# the 20 year$ $i#ce .i$e#berg?$ report, "a#y i#ha!atio# to/icity
te$t$ ha(e bee# co#)*cte), a#) "a#y o+ the ear!ier )ata ha(e bee#
ree/a"i#e), with the re$*!t that (a!*e$ +or n ra#gi#g +ro" 0&6 to 4&9
ha(e bee# app!ie) to the abo(e )o$e e5*atio#& %t appear$ 9Gri++ith$,
<The ,$e o+ Crobit ./pre$$io#$ i# the '$$e$$"e#t o+ 'c*te Cop*!atio#
%"pact o+ To/ic 3e!ea$e$,= Jo"rnal of ,oss Prevention in the Process
!n%"stries, 4, p& 49, 1991: that the (a!*e o+ n "ay be re!ate) to the
)egree o+ breathi#g rate $ti"*!atio# 9high (a!*e o+ n: or repre$$io#
9!ow (a!*e$ o+ n:, a#) the (a!*e o+ n appare#t!y i#crea$e$ with i#crea$-
i#g e/po$*re ti"e$ 9)ecrea$i#g $!ope o+ or)i#ate C (er$*$ ab$ci$$a t:& '
(a!*e o+ 1&0 i$ +re5*e#t!y *$e) by i#(e$tigator$ i+ there are +ew )ata&
Pro'it Fuation The probit e5*atio# ha$ bee# *$e) i# a#
atte"pt to 5*a#titati(e!y corre!ate haKar)o*$ "ateria! co#ce#tratio#,
)*ratio# o+ e/po$*re, a#) probabi!ity o+ e++ectJi#>*ry, +or $e(era! type$
o+ e/po$*re$& The ob>ecti(e o+ $*ch *$e i$ to tra#$+or" the typica! $ig-
"oi)a! 9--$hape): re!atio#$hip betwee# ca*$e a#) e++ect to a $traight-
!i#e re!atio#$hip 9Ma##a#, ,ees? ,oss Prevention in the Process
!n%"stries, 3) e)&, p& 9J68, 2005:&
Crobit e5*atio#$ ha(e the +o!!owi#g +or" 9Ma##a#, ,ees? ,oss Pre-
vention in the Process !n%"stries, 3) e)&, Tab!e 9&29, 2005:2
D S k
1
Y k
2
!#* 923-24:
where D S probit (a!*e
* S (a!*e o+ <i#te#$ity o+ ca*$ati(e +actor which har"$ the
(*!#erab!e re$o*rce=
k
1
S co#$ta#t that i$ i#tercept o+ D (er$*$ * !i#e 9where (a!*e
o+ * i$ 1&0 a#) !# * i$ 0:&
k
2
S co#$ta#t that i$ $!ope o+ D (er$*$ !# * !i#e&
The +o!!owi#g tab!e ca# be *$e) to co#(ert +ro" probit (a!*e$ to
probabi!ity perce#tage$ 9Ma##a#, ,ees? ,oss Prevention in the
Process !n%"stries, 3) e)&, Tab!e 9&29, 2005:2
6or the i#ha!atio# haKar)$ o+ to/ic (apor$ a#) ga$e$, the +*#ctio# *
ha$ the +or"
* S C
n
t 923-25:
where C S co#ce#tratio# by (o!*"e, pp"
t S )*ratio# o+ e/po$*re, "i#
n S e/po#e#t that e/pre$$e$ )i++ere#ce betwee# )o$age a#)
)o$e
The ter" %osage typica!!y re+er$ to a# e#(iro#"e#ta! haKar) a#) i$
the pro)*ct o+ the co#ce#tratio# o+ to/ic ga$ or (apor at a partic*!ar
poi#t a#) the )*ratio# o+ the haKar)o*$ e#(iro#"e#t at that poi#t&
Th*$, the %osage ca# be e/pre$$e) a$ a# a(erage co#ce#tratio# "*!ti-
p!ie) by a# a(erage )*ratio#, or
3 S Ct pp""i# 923-26:
3ose typica!!y re+er$ to the a"o*#t o+ to/ic "ateria! act*a!!y
retai#e) a#) i$ $o"eti"e$ re+erre) to a$ the to)ic loa%& Th*$, the )o$e
ca# be e/pre$$e) a$ the pro)*ct o+ a co#ce#tratio# ter" a#) a )*ra-
tio#-o+-e/po$*re ter", by either o+ the +o!!owi#g re!atio#$hip$2
TF S * S C
n
t pp"
n
"i# 923-27:
TF S * S Ct
1 n
pp""i#
1 n
923-28:
%n$estion )o=icity Eata are a(ai!ab!e +or the ac"te 9$i#g!e-)o$e:
i#ge$tio#Jora! to/icity o+ "a#y to/ic "ateria!$ 9Gatio#a! %#$tit*te +or
;cc*patio#a! -a+ety a#) ea!th, 4egistry of To)ic Effects of Chemical
$"bstances, 1983A Fewi$, $a)?s 3angero"s Properties of !n%"strial
Materials, 9th e)&, 1996:& owe(er, (ery +ew )ata are a(ai!ab!e +or
pro- !o#ge) i#ge$tio# or perio)ic )o$e$ o+ to/ic "ateria!$& %t i$ !i1e!y
that "etabo!ic proce$$e$ wo*!) operate to i#crea$e the tota!
b"r%en re5*ire) +or to/ic e++ect$ +or $*ch chro#ic e/po$*re$, e/cept
+or $o"e "ateria!$ 9$*ch a$ "erc*ry a#) !ea): which appare#t!y ca#
acc*"*!ate i# the bo)y&
The pri"ary ro*te +or i#ge$tio# o+ to/ic "ateria!$ 9e$pecia!!y )*$t$,
"i$t$, a#) (apor$: i$ by the $wa!!owi#g o+ "*c*$ a#) $a!i(a that ha$
ab$orbe) the$e "ateria!$ )*ri#g breathi#g& Ci!ia i# the #o$e a#)
e$ophag*$ 9wi#)pipe: $weep +oreig# "ateria!$ that ha(e bee# e"be)-
)e) or ab$orbe) by the$e +!*i)$ towar) the phary#/, where the co#ta-
"i#ate) +!*i) i$ $wa!!owe) 9G*yto#, Te)tbook of Me%ical Physiology,
3) e)&, pp& 555, 556, 880, a#) 894, 1966:&
Skin0Contact )o=icity Eata +or ac*te 9$hort-ter": e/po$*re$ o+
the $1i# to corro$i(e a#) to/ic !i5*i)$, $o!i)$, a#) ga$e$ are e/tre"e!y
!i"ite), partic*!ar!y where the co#$e5*e#ce$ are $e(ere or +ata! i#>*ry,
a#) the a(ai!ab!e )ata "ay #ot be *$e+*!, +ro" a# e#gi#eeri#g $ta#)-
poi#t& 6or e/a"p!e, the $1i# to/icity o+ hy)roge# pero/i)e to rat$ i$
$tate) a$ 4060 "gJ1g, b*t the $1i# area a#) )*ratio# o+ e/po$*re are
#ot $tate)& Th*$, it i$ #ot po$$ib!e 9with the a(ai!ab!e )ata: to e$ti"ate
the re!atio#$hip a"o#g perce#t o+ bo)y $*r+ace e/po$e) to a corro$i(e
"ateria!, the co#ce#tratio# o+ the corro$i(e "ateria!, the )*ratio# o+
e/po$*re 9be+ore re"o(a! o+ the corro$i(e "ateria!:, a#) the $e(erity o+
the e++ect&
-o"ewhat i# co#tra$t, there are co#$i)erab!e )ata co#cer#i#g the
re!ati(e!y !o#g-ter" e++ect$ o+ e/po$*re to to/ic "ateria!$, where
there are irritatio#, t*"orige#ic, repro)*cti(e, or "*tatio# co#$e-
5*e#ce$ 9Gatio#a! %#$tit*te +or ;cc*patio#a! -a+ety a#) ea!th,
4egistry of To)ic Effects of Chemical $"bstances, 1983:& %# the
ab$e#ce o+ better $1i#-co#tact )ata, it "ight be appropriate to *$e
pare#tera! or $*bc*ta#eo*$ i#>ectio# )ata +or a wor$t-ca$e e/po$*re
9e&g&, thro*gh a c*t i# the $1i#:& owe(er, *$e o+ i#tra(e#o*$ or
i#traperito#ea! )ata "ight o(er$tate the $1i# e/po$*re to/icity o+ a
"ateria!&
The ,&-& Eepart"e#t o+ Tra#$portatio# a#) other$ ha(e )e(e!ope)
g*i)a#ce +or the corro$i(ity o+ che"ica! $*b$ta#ce$ 9,&-& Eepart"e#t
o+ Tra#$portatio#, $hippers<(eneral 4e-"irements for $hipments
an% Packagings, 49 C63 173&136, 3efinitions, a#) 49 C63 173&137,
ssignment of Packing (ro"p, 1998:A '"erica# -ociety +or Te$ti#g
a#) Materia!$, Practice for ,aboratory !mmersion Corrosion Testing
of Metals, G-31, 2002A ;rga#iKatio# +or .co#o"ic Cooperatio# a#)
Ee(e!op"e#t, ("i%eline for Testing of Chemicals<c"te 3ermal
!rritationGCorrosion, #o& 404, 1992:& The +o!!owi#g )e+i#itio#$ app!y
+or C!a$$ 8 corro$i(e "ateria!$2
Packin$ Grou- 1GGreat Dan$er7 6*!! thic1#e$$ )e$tr*ctio# o+
h*"a# $1i# 9e/po$*re ti"e, 3 "i# or !e$$A ob$er(atio# ti"e, 60 "i#:&
Packin$ Grou- 2G!e#iu/ Dan$er7 6*!! thic1#e$$ )e$tr*ctio# o+
h*"a# $1i# 9e/po$*re ti"e, 3 to 60 "i#A ob$er(atio# ti"e, 14 )ay$:&
Packin$ Grou- 3G!inor Dan$er7 6*!! thic1#e$$ )e$tr*ctio# o+
h*"a# $1i# 9e/po$*re ti"e, 1 to 4 hA ob$er(atio# ti"e, 14 )ay$:&
./a"p!e$ o+ a$$ig#"e#t$ to pac1i#g gro*p$ are $how# i# the tab!e
at the botto" o+ the page&
'#other e++ect o+ $1i#-co#tact to/icity i$ )er"atiti$& Thi$ ca# be
ca*$e) by <phy$ica!= age#t$, $*ch a$ )eterge#t$ a#) $o!(e#t$ that
re"o(e the #at*ra! oi!$ +ro" the $1i# a#) thereby re#)er the $1i# $*$-
ceptib!e to "ateria!$ that or)i#ari!y )o #ot a++ect the $1i# 9Gatio#a!
-a+ety Co*#ci!, F"n%amentals of !n%"strial &ygiene, 3) e)&, p& 23,
1988:& Eer"atiti$ a!$o ca# be ca*$e) by )e$$ica#t$ a#) water-reacti(e
che"ica!$ that re"o(e "oi$t*re +ro" the $1i#, ge#erati#g heat a#)
ca*$i#g b*r#$& ;ther ca*$e$ are o/i)iKer$A protei# precipita#t$A a!!er-
gic or a#aphy!actic protei#$A +rictio#, pre$$*re, a#) tra*"aA ther"a!
a#) e!ectro"ag#etic ra)iatio#A bio!ogica! age#t$A a#) p!a#t poi$o#$&
Eer"atiti$ ca# be pre(e#te) or co#tro!!e) by co#tai#"e#t o+ $1i#-
co#tact haKar)$ a#) *$e o+ too!$ to a(oi) co#tact 9e#gi#eeri#g co#-
tro!$: or by the weari#g o+ protecti(e c!othi#g, i#c!*)i#g g!o(e$ a#)
eye a#) +ace protectio#, a#) goo) per$o#a! hygie#e, i#c!*)i#g ha#)
a#) +ace wa$hi#g 9a)"i#i$trati(e co#tro!$: 9Gatio#a! -a+ety Co*#ci!,
F"n%amentals of !n%"strial &ygiene, 3) e)&, pp& 106, 108, 467, 469,
a#) 471, 1988:&
Co/-ilation of Data Tab!e 23-16 pre$e#t$ i#ha!atio# to/icity
)ata +or the +o!!owi#g criteria2
The e"erge#cy re$po#$e p!a##i#g g*i)e!i#e$ 9.3CG: co#ce#tratio#$
+or the +o!!owi#g type$ o+ e++ect$, +or 1-h e/po$*re$ 9'"erica# %#)*$tria!
ygie#e '$$ociatio#, Emergency 4esponse Planning ("i%elines an%
Eorkplace Environmental E)pos"re ,evel, #o& '.'05-559, 2005:2
.3CG-1 Mi!), tra#$ie#t hea!th e++ect$, witho*t
ob>ectio#ab!e o)or
.3CG-2 Go irre(er$ib!e or actio#-i"pairi#g e++ect$
.3CG-3 Go !i+e-threate#i#g e++ect$
The i""e)iate!y )a#gero*$ to !i+e a#) hea!th 9%EF: co#ce#tra-
tio#$ 9Gatio#a! %#$tit*te +or ;cc*patio#a! -a+ety a#) ea!th, Pocket
("i%e to Chemical &a'ar%s, 1994:, +or 30-"i# e/po$*re$&
Da!*e$ +or wor1p!ace e#(iro#"e#ta! e/po$*re !e(e!$ 94..F$: +or
"a#y "ateria!$ #ot !i$te) i# Tab!e 23-16 ca# be obtai#e) +ro" the
'"erica# %#)*$tria! ygie#e '$$ociatio#, at ww w 0aiha0org0
The thre$ho!) !i"it (a!*e$ 9TFD$: or ti"e-weighte) a(erage$
9T4'$: +or 8-h e/po$*re$ o+ wor1er$ 9'"erica# Co#+ere#ce o+ Go(-
er#"e#ta! %#)*$tria! ygie#i$t$, Threshol% ,imit *al"es for Chemical
$"bstances an% Physical gents, 2001:&
Gro*p 'ci)$ '!coho!$ ;/i)e$ y)ro/i)e$ a!oge#$ '#hy)ri)e$
1 y)ro+!*oric aci)A
$e!e#ic aci)
'!1y! phe#o!$ 6!*ori#eA ch!ori#eA
bro"i#e
2 y)roch!oric aci)A
acetic aci)A #itric aci)
Ce#to! Cho$phor*$ pe#to/i)e Cota$$i*" hy)ro/i)eA
$o)i*" hy)ro/i)e
'cetic
a#hy)ri)e
3 Cho$phoric aci) Ca!ci*" o/i)e '""o#i*" hy)ro/i)e Cropio#ic
a#hy)ri)e
)ABL 2301< &PG ;alues an# .ther )o=icity ;alues for )o=ic !aterials
6or "ateria!$ that are !i$te) i# the ,-.C' 40 C63 68&130 !i$t a#) i# the GLTCC' Gro*p ' a#) 0 !i$t$ 9a$ o+ La#*ary 1, 2005A re+er to c*rre#t i$$*e$ +or cha#ge$:&
3efinitions>
E-$.-9 The "a/i"*" airbor#e co#ce#tratio# be!ow which it i$ be!ie(e) #ear!y a!! i#)i(i)*a!$ co*!) be e/po$e) +or *p to 1 h witho*t e/perie#ci#g other tha#
"i!), tra#$ie#t a)(er$e hea!th e++ect$ or witho*t percei(i#g a c!ear!y )e+i#e) ob>ectio#ab!e o)or&
E-$.-7 The "a/i"*" airbor#e co#ce#tratio# be!ow which it i$ be!ie(e) #ear!y a!! i#)i(i)*a!$ co*!) be e/po$e) +or *p to 1 h witho*t e/perie#ci#g or )e(e!op-
i#g irre(er$ib!e or other $erio*$ hea!th e++ect$ or $y"pto"$ that co*!) i"pair a# i#)i(i)*a!?$ abi!ity to ta1e protecti(e actio#&
E-$.-: The "a/i"*" airbor#e co#ce#tratio# be!ow which it i$ be!ie(e) #ear!y a!! i#)i(i)*a!$ co*!) be e/po$e) +or *p to 1 h witho*t e/perie#ci#g or )e(e!-
opi#g !i+e-threate#i#g hea!th e++ect$&
IL1 %""e)iate!y )a#gero*$ to !i+e a#) hea!th, +or 1-h e/po$*re$& 4here #o %EF )ata are a(ai!ab!e, the 50T !etha! co#ce#tratio# i$ $how#, a$ FC502
pp"Jti"e&
4EEL-; 4or1p!ace e#(iro#"e#ta! e/po$*re !e(e!, +or 8-h ti"e-weighte) a(erage 9T4':&
4EEL-C 4or1p!ace e#(iro#"#eta! e/po$*re !e(e!, a$ a cei!i#g 9#ot to be e/cee)e): (a!*e&
TLV-T4A Thre$ho!) !i"it (a!*e, ti"e-weighte) a(erage +or 8-h e/po$*re$, with cei!i#g co#ce#tratio#$ $how# a$ C, a#) with $1i# ab$orptio# haKar) a$ -& The
;-' per"i$$ib!e e/po$*re !i"it 9C.F: i$ the !ower o+ the T4' or the cei!i#g !i"it&
'ral FE50 )ata are recor)e) where they are a(ai!ab!e 9N i#)icate$ a to/icity !i$ti#g b*t #o ora! to/icity )ata:& 4here the "ateria! i$ a ga$ at #or"a! te"pera-
t*re$ a#) pre$$*re 925UC a#) 1 at":, the at"o$pheric-pre$$*re boi!i#g poi#t i$ gi(e#&
Materia! C'- #o& .3CG-1 .3CG-2 .3CG-3 %EF 4..F-8 4..F-C TFD-T4' ;ra!, "gJ1g
'ceta!)ehy)e 75-07-0 10 pp" 200 pp" 1000 pp" Ca 92000 pp": N N 0&25 pp" C 1930
'cro!ei# 107-02-8 0&1 pp" 0&5 pp" 3 pp" 2 pp" N N 0&1 pp" C 7
'cry!o#itri!e 107-13-1 10 pp" 35 pp" 75 pp" FC502 576J4 h N N 2 pp" 27
'""o#ia 7664-41-7 25 pp" 150 pp" 750 pp" 300 pp" N N 25 pp" 350
'r$i#e 7784-42-1 N 0&5 pp" 1&5 pp" Ca 93 pp": N N 0&05 pp" X62&5UC
0oro# tri+!*ori)e 7637-07-2 2 "gJ"
3
30 "gJ"
3
100 "gJ"
3
25 pp" N N 1 pp" C X99&8UC
0ro"i#e 7726-95-6 0&1 pp" 0&5 pp" 5 pp" 3 pp" N N 0&1 pp" 14
Carbo# )i$*!+i)e 75-15-0 1 pp" 50 pp" 500 pp" 500 pp" N N 10 pp" 2125
Carbo# "o#o/i)e 630-08-0 200 pp" 350 pp" 500 pp" 1200 pp" N N 25 pp" X191&5UC
Ch!ori#e 7782-50-5 1 pp" 3 pp" 20 pp" 10 pp" N N 0&5 pp" X34&1UC
Ch!ori#e )io/i)e 10049-04-4 N 0&5 pp" 3 pp" 5 pp" N N 0&1 pp" 10&9UC
Ch!oro+or" 67-66-3 N 50 pp" 5000 pp" Ca 9500 pp": N N 10 pp" 36
Ch!oropicri# 76-06-2 0&1 pp" 0&3 pp" 1&5 pp" 2 pp" N N 0&1 pp" 250
Ch!oropre#e 126-99-8 N N N Ca 9300 pp": N N 10 pp" 260
Eich!oro$i!a#e 4109-96-0 N N N FC502 215J N N N N
Eiethy!a"i#e 109-89-7 N N N 200 pp" N N 5 pp" 540
Ei"ethy!a"i#e 124-40-3 0&6 pp" 100 pp" 350 pp" 500 pp" N N 5 pp" 240
Ei"ethy!hy)raKi#e 57-14-7 N N N Ca 915 pp": N N 0&01 pp" 122
.pich!orohy)ri# 106-89-8 2 pp" 20 pp" 100 pp" Ca 975 pp": N N 0&5 pp" 90
.thy!a"i#e 75-04-7 N N N 600 pp" N N 5 pp" 400
.thy!e#e)ia"i#e 107-15-3 N N N 1000 pp" N N 10 pp" 470
.thy!e#ei"i#e 151-56-4 N N N Ca 9100 pp": N N 0&5 pp" 15
.thy!e#e o/i)e 75-21-8 G' 50 pp" 500 pp" Ca 9800 pp": N N 1 pp" 72
.thy!"ercapta# 75-08-1 N N N 500 pp" N N 0&5 pp" 1960
6!*ori#e 7782-41-4 0&5 pp" 5 pp" 20 pp" 25 pp" N N 1 pp" X188&3UC
6or"a!)ehy)e 50-00-0 1 pp" 10 pp" 25 pp" Ca 920 pp": N N 0&3 pp" C 42
6*ra# 110-00-9 N N N FC502 43J1 h Mi#i"iKe N N N
y)raKi#e 302-01-2 0&5 pp" 5 pp" 30 pp" Ca 950 pp": N N 0&01 pp" 49
y)roge# bro"i)e 10035-10-6 N N N 30 pp" N N 3 pp" C X66&7UC
y)roge# ch!ori)e 7647-01-0 3 pp" 20 pp" 150 pp" 50 pp" N N 5 pp" C X85&0UC
y)roge# cya#i)e 74-90-8 G' 10 pp" 25 pp" 50 pp" N N 4&7 pp" C 2
y)roge# +!*ori)e 7664-39-3 2 pp" 20 pp" 50 pp" 30 pp" N N 3 pp" C X19&5UC
y)roge# $e!e#i)e 7783-07-5 G' 0&2 pp" 2 pp" 1 pp" N N 0&05 pp" X41UC
y)roge# $*!+i)e 7783-06-4 0&1 pp" 30 pp" 100 pp" 100 pp" N N 10 pp" X60UC
%ro# pe#tacarbo#y! 13463-40-6 N N N FC502 870J10 "i# N N 0&1 pp" 12
%$opropy!a"i#e 75-31-0 N N N 750 pp" N N 5 pp" 820
Bete#e 143-50-0 N N N 5 pp" N N 0&5 pp" 1300
Methacry!o#itri!e 126-98-7 N N N FC502 36J4 h N N 1 pp" 15
Methy!a"i#e 74-89-5 10 pp" 100 pp" 500 pp" 100 pp" N N 5 pp" X6&3UC
Methy! bro"i)e 74-83-9 G' 50 pp" 200 pp" Ca 9250 pp": N N 1 pp" 214
Methy! ch!ori)e 74-87-3 G' 400 pp" 1000 pp" Ca 92000 pp": N N 50 pp" X24UC
Methy!hy)raKi#e 60-34-4 N N N Ca 920 pp": N N 0&01 pp" 22
Methy! io)i)e 74-88-4 25 pp" 50 pp" 125 pp" Ca 9100 pp": N N 2 pp" 150
Methy! i$ocya#ate 624-83-9 0&025 pp" 0&25 pp" 1&5 pp" 3 pp" N N 0&02 pp" 69
Methy! "ercapta# 74-93-1 0&005 pp" 25 pp" 100 pp" 150 pp" N N 0&5 pp" 6&0UC
Methy! ch!oro$i!a#e 75-79-6 0&5pp" 3 pp" 15 pp" FC502 29J2 h 1 pp" 1 pp" N 1000
Methy!(i#y!1eto#e 78-94-4 N N N FC502 2&4J4 h N N 0&2 pp" 31
Gic1e! carbo#y! 13463-39-3 N N N Ca 92 pp": N N 0&05 pp" 43UC
Gitric aci) 9white +*"i#g: 7697-37-2 1 pp" 6 pp" 78 pp" 25 pp" N N 2 pp" 430
Gitric o/i)e 10102-43-9 N N N FC502 315J15 "i# N N 25 pp" X151&8UC
Gitroge# )io/i)e 10102-44-0 1 pp" 15 pp" 30 pp" 20 pp" N N 3 pp" 20&8UC
;!e*" 8014-95-7 2 "gJ"
3
10 "gJ"
3
30 "gJ"
3
FC502 347J1 h N N N N
;Ko#e 10028-15-6 N N N 5 pp" N N 0&05 pp" X112UC
Cerch!ory! +!*ori)e 7616-94-6 N N N 100 pp" N N 3 pp" X47UC
Cho$ge#e 75-44-5 G' 0&2 pp" 1 pp" 2 pp" N N 0&1 pp" 7&6UC
Cho$phi#e 7803-51-2 G' 0&5 pp" 5 pp" 50 pp" N N 0&3 pp" X87UC
Cho$phor*$ o/ych!ori)e 10025-87-3 N N N FC502 48J4 h N N 0&1 pp" 380
Cho$phor*$ trich!ori)e 7719-12-2 0&5 pp" 3 pp" 15 pp" 25 pp" N N 0&2 pp" 550
Cropy!e#e o/i)e 75-56-9 50 pp" 250 pp" 750 pp" Ca 9400 pp": N N 2 pp" 380
-tibi#e 7803-52-3 %E 0&5 pp" 1&5 pp" 5 pp" N N 0&1 pp" X18UC
)ABL 2301< &PG ;alues an# .ther )o=icity ;alues for )o=ic !aterials 9Concl"%e%:
Materia! C'- #o& .3CG-1 .3CG-2 .3CG-3 %EF 4..F-8 4..F-C TFD-T4' ;ra!, "gJ1g
-*!+*r )io/i)e 7446-09-5 0&3 pp" 3 pp" 15 pp" 100 pp" N N 2 pp" X10UC
-*!+*ric aci)
-*!+*r trio/i)e
7664-93-9
7446-11-9
2 "gJ"
3
2 "gJ"
3
10 "gJ"
3
10 "gJ"
3
30 "gJ"
3
30 "gJ"
3
15 "gJ"
3
FC502 ]9J6 h
N
N
N
N
0&25 pp"
N
2140
N
Tetra#itro"etha#e 509-14-8 N N N 4 pp" N N 0&005 pp" 130
Thio#y! ch!ori)e 7719-09-7 0&2 pp" 2 pp" 10 pp" FC502 500J1 h N N 1 pp" N
Tita#i*" tetrach!ori)e 7550-45-0 5 "gJ"
3
20 "gJ"
3
100 "gJ"
3
FC502 13J2 h 0&5 "gJ"
3
N N N
To!*e#e )i-i$ocya#ate 584-84-9 0&01 pp" 0&15 pp" 0&6 pp" Ca 92&5 pp": N N 0&005 pp" 5800
Tri"ethy!a"i#e 75-50-3 N N N FC502 3500J4 h 1 pp" N 5 pp" 2&9UC
Di#y! acetate 108-05-4 5 pp" 75 pp" 500 pp" FC502 1550J4 h N N 10 pp" 1613
Di#y! trich!oro$i!a#e 75-94-5 N N N FC502 500J4 h 1 pp" 1 pp" N 1&280
The 50 perce#t !etha! )o$e$ o+ i#ge$te) to/ic "ateria!$ that co*!)
ca*$e +ata! i#>*ry 9Gatio#a! %#$tit*te +or ;cc*patio#a! -a+ety a#)
ea!th, 4egistry of To)ic Effects of Chemical $"bstances, 1983:&
4here )ata +or the abo(e categorie$ co*!) #ot be +o*#) i# the a(ai!-
ab!e !iterat*re, b*t the "ateria! wa$ !i$te) i# the ,-.C' or GLTCC'
$ta#)ar)$, the FC50 (a!*e 9op& cit&: wa$ e#tere) i# the %EF co!*"#&
'))itio#a! )ata co#cer#i#g re!ati(e!y !o#g-ter" e/po$*re$ o+ the
p*b!ic to to/ic che"ica!$ are pre$e#te) i# Tab!e 23-17&
Safe$uar#s a$ainst )o=icity "a,ar#s Certai#!y the be$t pro-
tectio# agai#$t to/icity haKar)$ i$ co"p!ete co#tai#"e#t o+ haKar)o*$
"ateria!$ withi# proce$$i#g e5*ip"e#t&
4here co"p!ete co#tai#"e#t i$ i"practica!, e/ha*$t (e#ti!atio#
9pre+erab!y to a $cr*bber: ca# !i"it or e!i"i#ate e/po$*re to to/ic
"ateria!$& The e/ha*$t (e#ti!atio# rate 9(e!ocity or (o!*"etric rate:
"ay be ca!c*!ab!e +or (o!ati!e !i5*i)$ +ro" $pi!! $iKe a#) (apor pre$$*re
9,&-& .#(iro#"e#ta! Crotectio# 'ge#cy, 4isk Management Program
("i%ance for Cffsite Conse-"ence nalysis, 'ppe#)i/ E, .5*atio#
E-1, 1999:, b*t te$t$ to )eter"i#e co#ce#tratio#$ i# air *$*a!!y wo*!)
be #ee)e) +or )*$ty proce$$e$ a#) +*giti(e re!ea$e$ o+ ga$e$&
%+ co#tai#"e#t a#) e/ha*$t (e#ti!atio# are #ot co#$i)ere) a)e-
5*ate, cartri)ge re$pirator$ or $e!+-co#tai#e) breathi#g apparat*$ ca#
pro(i)e protectio# agai#$t i#ha!atio# 9a#), i# $o"e ca$e$, i#ge$tio#:
o+ to/ic "ateria!$& %# 1994, the ;cc*patio#a! -a+ety a#) ea!th -ta#-
)ar)$ were a"e#)e) to re5*ire that <the e"p!oyer $ha!! a$$e$$ the
wor1p!ace to )eter"i#e i+ haKar)$ are pre$e#t, or are !i1e!y to be
pre$e#t, which #ece$$itate the *$e o+ per$o#a! protecti(e e5*ip"e#t
9CC.:& %+ $*ch haKar)$ are pre$e#t, or !i1e!y to be pre$e#t, the
e"p!oyer $ha!! $e!ect, a#) ha(e each a++ecte) e"p!oyee *$e, the type$
o+ CC. that wi!! protect the a++ecte) e"p!oyee +ro" the haKar)$
i)e#ti+ie) i# the haKar) a$$e$$"e#t= P,&-& Eepart"e#t o+ Fabor,
Ccc"pational $afety an% &ealth $tan%ar%s, 29 C63 1910&1329):,
1999Q& Thi$ haKar) a$$e$$"e#t wo*!) ai) i# )eter"i#i#g the type o+
breathi#g protectio# that i$ appropriate +or the to/icity haKar)&
G*i)e!i#e$ +or appropriate *$e o+ breathi#g protectio# are gi(e# i#
thi$ -ta#)ar) 9,&-& Eepart"e#t o+ Fabor, Ccc"pational $afety an%
&ealth $tan%ar%s, 29 C63 1910&134 a#) 'ppe#)ice$ ', 0, a#) C to
1910&134, a#) 'ppe#)i/ 0 to -*bpart %, 1999:& ;-' ha$ #ot yet
pro(i)e) o++icia! '$$ig#e) Crotectio# 6actor$, i# Tab!e % o+ thi$ -ta#-
)ar), b*t "a#*+act*rer$ )o pro(i)e the$e +actor$& '$ e/a"p!e$, a +*!!-
+ace cartri)ge re$pirator typica!!y ha$ a protectio# +actor o+ 50 d C.F,
a#) a $e!+-co#tai#e) breathi#g apparat*$ typica!!y ha$ a protectio#
+actor o+ 10,000 d C.F&
Conclusion To/icity )ata are a(ai!ab!e +or "a#y tho*$a#)$ o+
$o!i), !i5*i), a#) ga$eo*$ che"ica!$ a#) other "ateria!$& The )ata +or
i#ha!atio# to/icity pro(i)e g*i)a#ce +or co#ce#tratio# a#) )*ratio#
!i"it$, +or protectio# o+ the p*b!ic, che"ica! p!a#t e"p!oyee$, a#)
e"erge#cy re$po#$e per$o##e!& -i"i!ar )ata +or i#ge$tio# a#) $1i#
co#tact with to/ic "ateria!$ are #ot a$ rea)i!y a(ai!ab!e& %#(e$tigatio#
i#to to/ic e++ect$ i$ co#ti#*i#g, $o that to/ic "ateria!$ ca# be ha#)!e)
$a+e!y&
.)"& "A5A&DS
"a,ar#s of ;acuu/
Introdu&tion -torage ta#1$ a#) "a#y other e5*ip"e#t ite"$
o+te# ha(e a re!ati(e!y !ow re$i$ta#ce to the )a"age that ca# be ca*$e)
by i#ter#a! (ac**"& The !ow (ac**" rati#g +or $*ch e5*ip"e#t a#)
the a"o*#t o+ )a"age that ca# re$*!t are o+te# $*rpri$i#g a#) pote#-
tia!!y co$t!y !e$$o#$ !ear#e) by p!a#t e#gi#eer$ a#) operator$&
Equipment Limitations ' rob*$t i#ter#a! pre$$*re rati#g +or a
piece o+ e5*ip"e#t i$ #o g*ara#tee that it wi!! with$ta#) a# apprecia-
b!e (ac**"& %#)*$try !o$$ e/perie#ce i#c!*)e$ +ai!*re$ o+ (e$$e!$ with
)e$ig# pre$$*re rati#g$ i# e/ce$$ o+ 25 p$ig 9-a#)er$, <Dicti"$ o+ Dac-
**",= Procee%ings of the 9;th nn"al ,oss Prevention $ymposi"m,
'%Ch., 1993:& Fow-pre$$*re $torage ta#1$ are partic*!ar!y +ragi!e&
6or e/a"p!e, a# at"o$pheric +i/e)-roo+ $torage ta#1 "ay o#!y with-
$ta#) a (ac**" o+ 2&5 "bar 90&036 p$i or 1 i# water: 90riti$h Cetro-
!e*", &a'ar%s of Trappe% Press"re an% *ac""m, 2003:&
Lac1ete) (e$$e!$ ca# be partic*!ar!y (*!#erab!e to i#ter#a! (ac**",
$i#ce the operati#g pre$$*re o+ the heat-tra#$+er "e)i*" i# the >ac1et
a))$ to the )i++ere#tia! pre$$*re that wo*!) otherwi$e e/i$t betwee#
the at"o$phere a#) the (e$$e! i#terior&
4hi!e "a#y pre$$*re (e$$e!$ "ay with$ta#) a $ig#i+ica#t (ac**",
)e$ig# ca!c*!atio#$ are re5*ire) to co#+ir" thi$& ,#!e$$ $peci+ica!!y
rate) +or (ac**" $er(ice, e5*ip"e#t $ho*!) be a$$*"e) to be $*b>ect
to )a"age by (ac**"& 4he# e5*ip"e#t i$ proc*re), co#$i)eratio#
$ho*!) be gi(e# to i#c!*)i#g the (ac**" rati#g i# the pre$$*re (e$$e!
ca!c*!atio#$ a#) co)e $ta"p& %# "a#y i#$ta#ce$, the a))itio#a! co$t o+
)oi#g $o wi!! be a# i#$ig#i+ica#t +ractio# o+ the tota! proc*re"e#t co$t
+or the (e$$e! 9$ee Crotecti(e Mea$*re$ +or .5*ip"e#t:&
Consequen&es of Va&uum amage De$$e!$, ta#1 tr*c1$, or rai!-
car$ ca# be )i"p!e) by partia! co!!ap$e or, "ore $ig#i+ica#t!y, cr*$he)
!i1e *$e) )ri#1 ca#$& 6ort*#ate!y, e5*ip"e#t )a"age) by *#)erpre$-
$*riKatio# )oe$ #ot +ai! e/p!o$i(e!y, a$ "ight occ*r with o(erpre$$*riKe)
e5*ip"e#t& Ge(erthe!e$$, !o$$ o+ co#tai#"e#t o+ e5*ip"e#t co#te#t$
i$ a rea! ri$1, )*e to )a"age to the (e$$e! or to the pipi#g co##ecte) to
the (e$$e!& -ig#i+ica#t re!ea$e$ o+ to/ic, +!a""ab!e, or otherwi$e haK-
ar)o*$ "ateria!$ ca# re$*!t, with $e(ere co#$e5*e#ce$&
'!ter#ati(e!y, (ac**" withi# e5*ip"e#t co*!) !ea) to i#gre$$ o+ air
i#to i#erte) or +*e!-rich $y$te"$, po$i#g a +ire or e/p!o$io# haKar)
withi# the e5*ip"e#t&
The pote#tia! +or <1#oc1-o#= e++ect$ re$*!ti#g +ro" e5*ip"e#t
)a"age $ho*!) be co#$i)ere)&
Common Causes of Equipment +nderpressuri,ation .5*ip-
"e#t ca# be e/po$e) to e/ce$$i(e (ac**" )*e to a# *#a#ticipate)
"echa#i$" creati#g a (ac**" a#)Jor the +ai!*re or i#a)e5*ate )e$ig#
o+ protecti(e $y$te"$ pro(i)e) to "itigate the haKar)&
' co""o# $ce#ario i#(o!(e$ the p*"pi#g, )rai#i#g, or $ipho#i#g o+
!i5*i) +ro" a ta#1 that ha$ #o, or a# i#a)e5*ate, (e#ti#g capacity a#)
th*$ ca##ot a!!ow the e#try o+ air at a rate $*++icie#t to bac1+i!! behi#)
the )roppi#g !i5*i) !e(e!&
-i"i!ar!y, (ac**"$ ca# be create) whe# a b!ower, +a#, co"pre$-
$or, or >et e>ector re"o(e$ ga$e$ +ro" e5*ip"e#t& The "ag#it*)e o+
the (ac**" attai#ab!e wi!! be go(er#e) by the per+or"a#ce charac-
teri$tic$ o+ the )e(ice& ;ther "echa#i$"$ +or ge#erati#g a (ac**",
which ha(e bee# )e"o#$trate) by i#)*$try e/perie#ce, i#c!*)e the
+o!!owi#g&
M Con%ensation of vapors or cooling of hot gases0 6or e/a"p!e,
$tea" i$ co""o#!y *$e) to c!ea# (e$$e!$ a#), !e$$ +re5*e#t!y, to
create a# i#ert at"o$phere i#$i)e o+ e5*ip"e#t& -tea" co#)e#$-
i#g i#$i)e a c!o$e) (e$$e! ca# create a $ig#i+ica#t (ac**", a#)
(e$$e!$ 9e&g&, rai!car$: ha(e co!!ap$e) whe# a!! (e$$e! i#!et$ were
)ABL 2301B /er$ency an# Continuous =-osure Gui#ance
Le*els for Selecte# Air'orne Conta/inants
Co""ittee o# To/ico!ogy Gatio#a! 3e$earch Co*#ci!
Do!&
Materia! 9co#ce#tratio#$
i# pp", e/cept +or
"gJ"
3
:
."erge#cy
e/po$*re !i"it$
Co#ti#*o*$
e/po$*re
!i"it
60-"i# 24-h 90-)ay
1
1
4
%D
1
3
1
D%
4
D%%%
2
2
1
2
2
2
D
5
2
4
1
D
5
%%
%%%
4
2
1
1
4
D
5
4
%
4
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
'ceto#e 'cro!ei#
'!*"i#*" o/i)e
'""o#ia
'r$i#e
0ro"otri+!*oro"etha#e
Carbo# )i$*!+i)e
Carbo# "o#o/i)e
Carbo# "o#o/i)e
Ch!ori#e
Ch!ori#e
Ch!ori#e tri+!*ori)e
Ch!oro+or"
Eich!oro)i+!*oro"etha#e
Eich!oro+!*oro"etha#e
Eich!orotetra+!*oroetha#e
Ei"ethy! hy)raKi#e
Ei"ethy! hy)raKi#e
.tha#o!a"i#e
.thy!e#e g!yco!
6!*ori#e
y)raKi#e
y)raKi#e
y)roge# ch!ori)e
y)roge# +!*ori)e
y)roge# $*!+i)e
%$opropy! a!coho!
Merc*ry (apor
Metha#e
Metha#o!
Methy! hy)raKi#e
Methy! hy)raKi#e
Gitroge# )io/i)e
Gitroge# o/i)e$
Gitro*$ o/i)e
;Ko#e
Cho$ge#e
-*!+*ric aci)
Trich!oro+!*oro"etha#e
Trich!orotri+!*oroetha#e
-o)i*" hy)ro/i)e
-*!+*r )io/i)e
Di#y!i)e#e ch!ori)e
Iy!e#e
8,500
0&05
15\
10
1&0
25,000
200
25
400
0&5
3
1
100
10,000
100
10,000
15
0&24
50
40
15
5
0&12
2
4
GJF
400
GJF
GJF
200
15
0&24
1
2
10,000
1
0&2
5\
1,500
1,500
2\
10
GJF
200
1,000
0&01
GJF
GJF
0&1
GJF
100
GJF
50
GJF
0&5
GJF
30
1,000
3
1,000
GJF
0&01
3
20
10
GJF
0&005
GJF
GJF
10
200
0&2\
5,000
10
GJF
0&01
0&04
GJF
GJF
0&1
0&02
2\
500
500
GJF
5
10
100
200
0&01
GJF
GJF
0&01
100
50
GJF
20
GJF
0&1
GJF
1
100
1
100
GJF
GJF
0&5
4
7&5
GJF
GJF
GJF
GJF
1
1
0&01\
5,000
GJF
GJF
GJF
GJF
GJF
GJF
0&02
0&01
1\
100
100
GJF
1
0&15
50
GJF S #ot !i$te)A #o g*i)a#ce i$ gi(e#&
\Co#ce#tratio# i# "i!!igra"$ per c*bic "eter&
c!o$e) i""e)iate!y a+ter $tea" c!ea#i#g& The rapi) a))itio# o+
coo! !i5*i) to a (e$$e! co#tai#i#g a hot, (o!ati!e !i5*i) ca#
"ar1e)!y re)*ce the (apor pre$$*re o+ the !i5*i)& The $*))e#
coo!i#g o+ a $torage ta#1 by a th*#)er$tor" ca# create a (ac**"
whe# ga$e$ i# the (e$$e! hea) $pace coo! a#)Jor (apor$ o+ (o!ati!e
!i5*i)$ co#)e#$e& The '"erica# Cetro!e*" %#$tit*te 9'C%, *ent-
ing tmospheric an% ,ow-Press"re $torage Tanks, -ta#)ar)
2000, 4a$hi#gto#, 1998: pro(i)e$ g*i)a#ce +or i#-breathi#g
re5*ire"e#t$ a$ a +*#ctio# o+ ta#1 capacity to protect agai#$t thi$
!atter $ce#ario&
M bsorption of a gas in a li-"i%0 De$$e!$ ha(e co!!ap$e) whe#
a""o#ia (apor +ro" the hea) $pace )i$$o!(e) i# water withi# the
(e$$e! 9Fee$, ,oss Prevention in the Process !n%"stries, 2) e)&, 0*t-
terworth$, Fo#)o#, 1996:& ' $i"i!ar pote#tia! $ho*!) be co#$i)ere)
+or C! a#) water&
M Chemical reactions that remove gases from the hea% space0 The
corro$io# o+ the i#terior o+ a $tee! (e$$e!, e$pecia!!y i+ the (e$$e! i$
#ew!y +abricate) or ha$ bee# che"ica!!y c!ea#e), ca# co#$*"e a#)
re"o(e a $ig#i+ica#t 5*a#tity o+ the o/yge# +ro" the (e$$e! at"o-
$phere& ;ther che"ica! reactio#$ 9e&g&, a""o#ia reacti#g with
hy)roge# ch!ori)e to +or" a""o#i*" ch!ori)e: ca# re)*ce the
a"o*#t o+ ga$ or (apor i# the (e$$e!&
Cr*)e#t )e$ig# re5*ire$ that e5*ip"e#t be protecte) +ro" cre)i-
b!e *#)erpre$$*riKatio# $ce#ario$& .5*ip"e#t )a"age ca# re$*!t
whe# $*ch protectio#$ are o"itte), i"proper!y $iKe), i#correct!y
)e$ig#e) or i#$ta!!e), or i#a)e5*ate!y "ai#tai#e)& Co""o# +ai!*re$
i#c!*)e the +o!!owi#g&
M Fail"re to consi%er appropriate challenges when %etermining the
re-"ire% relief capacity 9e&g&, "a/i"*" rate$ o+ !i5*i) with-
)rawa! or coo!i#g o+ (e$$e! co#te#t$:& Cre)ib!e co#ti#ge#cie$
9e&g&, th*#)er$tor" coo!i#g a (e$$e! )*ri#g $tea"-o*t: $ho*!) be
co#$i)ere)&
M !na%e-"ate capacity, or fail"re, of vessel blanketing systems0 %#ert
ga$ $*pp!ie$ are o+te# pipe) to (e$$e!$ to "ai#tai# a re)*ce)-o/yge#
at"o$phere )*ri#g !i5*i) with)rawa!& Coi#ci)e#t high )e"a#) +or
i#ert e!$ewhere, c!o$*re o+ a (a!(e, or )ep!etio# o+ the $*pp!y co*!)
re$*!t i# the +ai!*re to pre(e#t a (ac**"& ' co""o# "ea#$ o+ i#i-
tia!!y i#erti#g a (e$$e! i$ to +i!! the (e$$e! with !i5*i), the# )rai# the
!i5*i) whi!e a!!owi#g the b!a#1eti#g $y$te" to bac1+i!! the hea)
$pace with i#ert ga$& ,#!e$$ the b!a#1eti#g $y$te" i$ $iKe) to
acco""o)ate the )rai#age rate 9which "ay e/cee) the #or"a!
proce$$ )e"a#):, there i$ a ri$1 o+ co!!ap$i#g the (e$$e!&
M Cperating errors0 Ma#y (e$$e! co!!ap$e$ ha(e re$*!te) +ro" c!o$i#g
or +ai!i#g to ope# a (a!(e i# a (e#t !i#e& 6or thi$ rea$o#, (a!(e$ i# (ac-
**" re!ie+ !i#e$ $ho*!) be a(oi)e), a#) they "ay be prohibite) by
$o"e )e$ig# co)e$&
M Maintenance errors0 ;#e co""o# error i$ the +ai!*re to re"o(e a#
i$o!atio# b!i#) i# a (e#t !i#e whe# ret*r#i#g a (e$$e! to $er(ice&
.(e# a thi# $heet o+ p!a$tic p!ace) o(er a# ope# #oKK!e "ay be $*+-
+icie#t to a!!ow a (e$$e!-)a"agi#g (ac**" to be pro)*ce) 90C,
&a'- ar%s of Trappe% Press"re an% *ac""m, 2003:&
M !nappropriate mo%ifications0 %# o#e i#ci)e#t, a ho$e wa$ co##ecte)
to a (e#t !i#e that wa$ pro(i)e) +or both pre$$*re a#) (ac**" pro-
tectio#& The ho$e wa$ $*b"erge) i#to a )r*" o+ !i5*i) i# a#
atte"pt to $cr*b (apor$ e"itte) +ro" the (e#t& ;#!y a +ew i#che$ o+
$*b"erge#ce were re5*ire) to e#$*re that the (e#t wa$ e++ecti(e!y
b!oc1e) the #e/t ti"e a (ac**" wa$ p*!!e) o# the (e$$e! 9Fee$,
,oss Prevention in the Process !n%"stries, 2) e)&, 0*tterworth$,
Fo#)o#, 1996:&
M Fail"re of vac""m control loop0 Co#tro! +ai!*re$ ca# either i#itiate
e(e#t$ 9e&g&, i#crea$e the $pee) o+ a# e/ha*$ter: or )i$ab!e protec-
tio#$ 9e&g&, re)*ce the rate o+ $*pp!y o+ i#ert ga$ to a (e$$e!:&
M Pl"gging of vent lines or %evices0 Croce$$ "ateria!$ ca# "igrate
i#to a#) occ!*)e (e#t $y$te"$ whe# they po!y"eriKe, cry$ta!!iKe,
co#)e#$e, or $o!i)i+y& Mo#o"er$ re5*iri#g a# i#hibitor to pre(e#t
po!y"eriKatio# ca# e(aporate +ro" a ta#1 a#) the# co#)e#$e i#
the (e#t !i#e, +ree o+ the i#hibitor& 4a/e$ a#) other high-"e!ti#g-
poi#t "ateria!$ ca# $o!i)i+y *po# coo!i#g i# the (e#t $y$te", )*$t$
ca# acc*"*!ate, a#) water (apor ca# co#)e#$e to +or" !i5*i)
$ea!$ i# !ow poi#t$ o+ (e#t !i#e$ or +reeKe i# the wi#ter& -*ch $ce-
#ario$ are a partic*!ar prob!e" i# ca$e$ where +!a"e arre$tor$,
$cree#$, a#) other )e(ice$ i#tro)*ce $"a!! apert*re$ i# the (e#t
+!ow path& C!*ggi#g o+ (e#t !i#e$ by a#i"a! or i#$ect #e$t$ i$ #ot
*#co""o#&
M !na%e-"ate or incorrect maintenance0 Mecha#ica! )e(ice$ $*ch a$
(ac**" brea1er$ a#) +!a"e arre$tor$ re5*ire ro*ti#e "ai#te#a#ce
atte#tio# to e#$*re that they pro(i)e their i#te#)e) protecti(e
+*#ctio#& %#correct "ai#te#a#ce 9e&g&, cha#gi#g the (ac**"
brea1er $et pre$$*re: co*!) )e+eat the i#te#)e) protectio#&
Fee$ 9,oss Prevention in the Process !n%"stries, 2) e)&, 0*tter-
worth$, Fo#)o#, 1996:, 0C 9&a'ar%s of Trappe% Press"re an% *ac-
""m, 2003:, a#) B!etK 9Ehat Eent ErongF<Case &istories of
Process Plant 3isaster, G*!+ C*b!i$hi#g Co"pa#y, 1989: i#c!*)e
a))itio#a! ca$e hi$torie$ pro(i)i#g (a!*ab!e !e$$o#$ abo*t how
e5*ip"e#t +ai!*re$ a#) h*"a# error$ ca# co"bi#e to i#+!ict (ac**"
)a"age&
$rote&tive %easures for Equipment %+ e5*ip"e#t i$ $*b>ect to
e/perie#ci#g a (ac**", the i#here#t!y $a+er a!ter#ati(e wo*!) be to
)e$ig# the e5*ip"e#t to with$ta#) a +*!! (ac**"& 4hi!e thi$ "ay #ot be
;
2
9(o! T: .++ect$
23&5 Ma/i"*" <$a+e !e(e!= 923 (o! T i$ o+te# the high-!e(e! a!ar"
o+ "o$t ;
2
)etector$:
21 Typica! ;
2
co#ce#tratio# i# air
19&5 Mi#i"*" <$a+e !e(e!= 919 (o! T i$ o+te# the !ow-!e(e! a!ar" o+
"o$t ;
2
)etector$:
15O19 6ir$t $ig# o+ hypo/ia& Eecrea$e) abi!ity to wor1 $tre#*o*$!y& May
i#)*ce ear!y $y"pto"$ i# per$o#$ with coro#ary, p*!"o#ary, or
circ*!atory prob!e"$&
12O14 3e$piratio# i#crea$e$ with e/ertio#A p*!$e *pA i"paire) "*$c*!ar
coor)i#atio#, perceptio#, a#) >*)g"e#t
10O12 3e$piratio# +*rther i#crea$e$ i# rate a#) )epth, poor >*)g"e#t,
!ip$ b!*e
8O10 Me#ta! +ai!*re, +ai#ti#g, *#co#$cio*$#e$$, a$he# +ace, b!*e#e$$ o+
!ip$, #a*$ea, (o"iti#g, i#abi!ity to "o(e +ree!y
6O8 6 "i#, 50T probabi!ity o+ )eathA 8 "i#, 100T probabi!ity o+ )eath
4O6 Co"a i# 40 $, co#(*!$io#$, re$piratio# cea$e$, )eath
eco#o"ica!!y +ea$ib!e +or !arge $torage ta#1$, the i#cre"e#ta! co$t +or
$"a!!er (e$$e!$ "ay #ot be prohibiti(e, partic*!ar!y whe# tra)e) o++
agai#$t the capita! a#) co#ti#*e) operati#g a#) "ai#te#a#ce co$t$ o+
$o"e a!ter#ati(e$ 9e&g&, protecti(e i#$tr*"e#tatio# $y$te"$:& The i#cre-
"e#ta! +abricatio# co$t o+ pro(i)i#g a $*itab!e (ac**" rati#g ca# be !e$$
tha# 10 perce#t +or (e$$e!$ o+ *p to 3000-ga! #o"i#a! capacity a#) ha(-
i#g a 15-p$ig pre$$*re rati#g 94i#t#er, <Chec1 the Dac**" 3ati#g o+
@o*r Ta#1$,= Chemical Engineering, pp& 157O159, 6ebr*ary 1991:&
Care+*! proce$$ haKar)$ a#a!y$i$ "ay $how that a partic*!ar (e$$e!
#ee) #ot be )e$ig#e) to with$ta#) a +*!! (ac**" 9e&g&, i+ the "a/i"*"
attai#ab!e (ac**" i$ !i"ite) to the per+or"a#ce characteri$tic$ o+ a#
e/ha*$ter:& 4hate(er the (ac**" rati#g, rate) (e$$e!$ "*$t be peri-
o)ica!!y i#$pecte) to e#$*re that i#ter#a! or e/ter#a! corro$io# ha$ #ot
)i"i#i$he) the (e$$e! $tre#gth&
3e!iab!e protectio#$ agai#$t e/ce$$i(e (ac**" $ho*!) be pro(i)e)
whe#e(er e5*ip"e#t ca##ot with$ta#) the (ac**"$ that ca# cre)ib!y
be achie(e)& %# $o"e !ow-ri$1 $it*atio#$, protectio#$ "ay co#$i$t o+
a)"i#i$trati(e co#tro!$ i"p!e"e#te) by a)e5*ate!y trai#e) per$o#-
#e!& 4here the ri$1 o+ )a"age i$ higher or where )e$ig# $ta#)ar)$ or
co)e$ re5*ire, e#gi#eere) protectio#$ $ho*!) be i"p!e"e#te)&
4here proce$$, $a+ety, a#) e#(iro#"e#ta! co#$i)eratio#$ per"it,
(ac**" protectio# "ay be pro(i)e) by proper!y $iKe) e(er-ope# (e#t$&
'!ter#ati(e!y, acti(e protecti(e )e(ice$ a#) $y$te"$ are re5*ire)& Dac-
**" brea1er (a!(e$ )e$ig#e) to ope# a#) a)"it air at a pre)eter"i#e)
(ac**" i# the (e$$e! are co""o#!y *$e) o# $torage ta#1$, b*t "ay #ot
be $*itab!e +or $o"e app!icatio#$ i#(o!(i#g +!a""ab!e !i5*i)$& %#ert ga$
b!a#1eti#g $y$te"$ "ay be *$e) i+ a)e5*ate capacity a#) re!iabi!ity ca#
be e#$*re)& 4here the $o*rce o+ the (ac**" ca# be )ee#ergiKe) or
i$o!ate), $*itab!y re!iab!e $a+ety i#$tr*"e#te) $y$te"$ 9e&g, i#ter!oc1$:
ca# be pro(i)e)&
'C% 9*enting tmospheric an% ,ow-Press"re $torage Tanks, -ta#-
)ar) 2000, 4a$hi#gto#, 1998: pro(i)e$ g*i)a#ce +or (ac**" protec-
tio# o+ !ow-pre$$*re $torage ta#1$& 4here (ac**" re!ie+ )e(ice$ are
pro(i)e), they $ho*!) co""*#icate )irect!y with the (apor $pace i#
the (e$$e! a#) $ho*!) be i#$ta!!e) $o that they ca##ot be $ea!e) o++ by
the !i5*i) co#te#t$ i# the (e$$e!& Da!(e$ $ho*!) be a(oi)e) i# the i#!et$
or o*t!et$ o+ (ac**" re!ie+ )e(ice$ *#!e$$ the (a!(e$ are re!iab!y car-
$ea!e) or !oc1e) ope#, or e/ce$$ re!ie+ capacity i$ pro(i)e) 9e&g&, (ia
"*!tip!e-way (a!(e$:&
"a,ar#s of %nerts
Introdu&tion The *$e o+ i#ert ga$e$ to )i$p!ace o/yge# +ro"
e5*ip"e#t at"o$phere$ i# or)er to pre(e#t co"b*$tio# a#), perhap$,
co#$e5*e#t e/p!o$io#$ ha$ bee# )e$cribe) i# the $*b$ectio# <6!a"-
"abi!ity&= ;ther app!icatio#$ +or i#erti#g e/i$t, i#c!*)i#g pre(e#ti#g
91: corro$io# or other )eterioratio# o+ o*t-o+-$er(ice e5*ip"e#t, 92:
)egra)atio# o+ o/yge#-$e#$iti(e pro)*ct$, or 93: e/other"ic reactio#$
with air- or water-reacti(e "ateria!$& 4hi!e the ri$1 o+ per$o##e!
a$phy/iatio# i# a# o/yge#-)e+icie#t e#(iro#"e#t i$ the "o$t +re-
5*e#t!y recog#iKe) co#cer#, other haKar)$ $*ch a$ to/icity, te"pera-
t*re a#) pre$$*re e/tre"e$, a#) che"ica! i#co"patibi!itie$ a!$o #ee)
to be co#$i)ere)&
(our&es of Inerts The "o$t co""o#!y *$e) i#ert ga$e$ are G
2
a#) C;
2
, b*t other ga$e$ a#) (apor$ $*ch a$ argo# 9'r:, he!i*" 9e:,
$tea", a#) e/ha*$t ga$e$ +ro" co"b*$tio# )e(ice$ are a!$o *$e)& The
choice o+ the "o$t appropriate i#ert +or a gi(e# app!icatio# "*$t be
ba$e) *po# +actor$ $*ch a$ co$t, a(ai!abi!ity, re!iabi!ity o+ $*pp!y, e++ec-
ti(e#e$$, a#) co"patibi!ity with proce$$ $trea"$ 9C*#!i++, <'(oi)i#g
./p!o$io#$ by Mea#$ o+ %#erti#g -y$te"$,= %Che". -y"po$i*"
-erie$ #o& 148, 2001A Gro$$e! a#) Wa!o$h, ("i%elines for $afe &an-
%ling of Pow%ers an% +"lk $oli%s, CCC--'%Ch., 2004:&
Tra)itio#a!!y, i#ert$ ha(e bee# obtai#e) +ro" $o*rce$ $*ch a$ high-
pre$$*re ga$ cy!i#)er$ or t*be trai!er$ or thro*gh e(aporatio# o+ cryo-
ge#ic !i5*i)$ +ro" b*!1 ta#1$& ;ther $o*rce$ o+ i#ert$ i#c!*)e 9G6C'
69, $tan%ar% on E)plosion Prevention $ystems, Gatio#a! 6ire Crotec-
tio# '$$ociatio#, 2002A 6M G!oba!, Fo$$ Cre(e#tio# Eata -heet 7-59,
!nerting an% P"rging of Tanks, Process *essels, an% E-"ipment, 2000:
M ;#-$ite cryoge#ic air $eparatio# p!a#t$
M Ga$ ge#erator$ b*r#i#g or cata!ytica!!y o/i)iKi#g a hy)rocarbo# to
pro)*ce a# o/yge#-)e+icie#t pro)*ct ga$
M Gitroge# pro)*ce) by the air o/i)atio# o+ a""o#ia
M Gitroge# pro)*ce) by re"o(a! o+ o/yge# +ro" air *$i#g pre$$*re
$wi#g a)$orptio# 9C-': or "e"bra#e $eparatio# *#it$
%#ert ga$ $trea"$ ge#erate) o# $ite $ho*!) be care+*!!y "o#itore) to
e#$*re )etectio# o+ a# e/ce$$i(e!y high ;
2
co#ce#tratio# i# the pro)*ct
ga$ i# the e(e#t o+ e5*ip"e#t +ai!*re or operatio#a! *p$et 9e&g&, )*e to
a too high air-to-+*e! ratio i# a co"b*$tio# ge#erator or the +ai!*re o+ a
"e"bra#e i# a "e"bra#e $eparator:& Co#$i)eratio# $ho*!) be gi(e#
to "o#itori#g other i#)icator$ o+ prob!e"$ i# the i#ert ge#erator 9e&g&,
"o#itori#g +or !ow )i++ere#tia! pre$$*re acro$$ the "e"bra#e a$ a#
i#)icatio# o+ the +ai!*re o+ a "e"bra#e $eparator:&
Asp#"xiation and Toxi&it" 1a,ards '# a$phy/ia#t i$ a che"i-
ca! 9either a ga$ or a (apor: that ca# ca*$e )eath or *#co#$cio*$#e$$ by
$*++ocatio# 90C, &a'ar%s of /itrogen an% Catalyst &an%ling, 2003:& '
$i"p!e a$phy/ia#t i$ a che"ica!, $*ch a$ G
2
, e, or 'r, who$e e++ect$
are ca*$e) by the )i$p!ace"e#t o+ ;
2
i# air, re)*ci#g the ;
2
co#ce#-
tratio# be!ow it$ #or"a! (a!*e o+ appro/i"ate!y 21 (o! T& The phy$io-
!ogica! e++ect$ o+ o/yge# co#ce#tratio# re)*ctio# by $i"p!e
a$phy/ia#t$ are i!!*$trate) i# Tab!e 23-18 90C, &a'ar%s of /itrogen
an% Catalyst &an%ling, 2003:&
The phy$io!ogica! proce$$e$ !ea)i#g to )eath +ro" hypo/ia 9i&e&,
i#$*++icie#t $*pp!y o+ o/yge# to the bo)y ti$$*e$: are )e$cribe) by 'ir
Cro)*ct$ 9'ir Cro)*ct$, 3angers of C)ygen-3eficient tmospheres,
-a+etygra" 17, 1998:& 't (ery !ow o/yge# co#ce#tratio#$, !o$$ o+ co#-
$cio*$#e$$ occ*r$ withi# abo*t 10 $ o+ the +ir$t breath, +o!!owe) by
)eath withi# 2 to 4 "i#& ' per$o# e/po$e) to a# o/yge#-)e+icie#t e#(i-
ro#"e#t "ay #ot recog#iKe the war#i#g $ig#$ a#) "ay #ot be ab!e to
rea$o# or ta1e protecti(e actio# be+ore *#co#$cio*$#e$$ occ*r$& Dic-
ti"$ re"o(e) +ro" a# ;
2
-)e+icie#t at"o$phere re5*ire re$*$citatio#
thro*gh the a)"i#i$tratio# o+ ;
2
to pre(e#t )eath P,&-& Che"ica!
-a+ety a#) aKar) %#(e$tigatio# 0oar) 9C-0:, &a'ar%s of /itrogen
sphy)iation, -a+ety 0*!!eti# #o& 2003-10-0, 2003Q&
Chy$ica! e/ertio# i#crea$e$ o/yge# )e"a#) a#) "ay re$*!t i# o/y-
ge# )e+icie#cy $y"pto"$ at higher o/yge# co#ce#tratio#$ 9CG', C)y-
gen-3eficient tmospheres, C*b!icatio# -0-2, 2001:, a#) i#)i(i)*a!$
i# poor hea!th "ay be !e$$ to!era#t o+ re)*ce) o/yge# co#ce#tratio#$&
The g*i)a#ce i# Tab!e 23-18 a$$*"e$ a $ea-!e(e! !ocatio# a#) $ho*!)
be app!ie) ca*tio*$!y +or +aci!itie$ at $ig#i+ica#t a!tit*)e$A howe(er,
;-'?$ 3e$piratory Crotectio# -ta#)ar) accept$ 19&5 (o! T a$ a $a+e
;
2
co#ce#tratio# *p to a# a!tit*)e o+ 8000 +t 9;-', 29 C63
1910&134, 3e$piratory Crotectio# -ta#)ar), 1998:&
%# it$ $a+ety b*!!eti# o# the haKar)$ o+ #itroge# a$phy/iatio#, C-0
i)e#ti+ie) 80 #itroge# a$phy/iatio# )eath$ a#) 50 i#>*rie$ occ*rri#g i# 85
i#ci)e#t$ betwee# 1992 a#) 2002 9C-0, &a'ar%s of /itrogen sphy)ia-
tion, -a+ety 0*!!eti# #o& 2003-10-0, 2003:&
' che"ica! a$phy/ia#t wor1$ by i#ter+eri#g with the bo)y?$ abi!ity to
ab$orb or tra#$port ;
2
to the ti$$*e$& ' re!e(a#t e/a"p!e o+ a che"ica!
a$phy/ia#t i$ C;, which ca# be pre$e#t i# i#ert ga$ $trea"$ pro)*ce)
)ABL 2301D Physiolo$ical ffects of &e#uce# .
2
At/os-heres
)ABL 2301C Physiolo$ical ffects of =-osure to C.
2
C;
2
9(o! T: .++ect$
1 -!ight i#crea$e i# breathi#g rate&
2 0reathi#g rate i#crea$e$ to 50T abo(e #or"a!& Cro!o#ge)
e/po$*re ca# ca*$e hea)ache a#) tire)#e$$&
3 0reathi#g i#crea$e$ to twice the #or"a! rate a#) beco"e$
!abore)& 4ea1 #arcotic e++ect& %"paire) heari#g, hea)ache,
i#crea$e i# b!oo) pre$$*re a#) p*!$e rate&
4O5 0reathi#g i#crea$e$ to appro/i"ate!y +o*r ti"e$ the #or"a!
rate, $y"pto"$ o+ i#to/icatio# beco"e e(i)e#t, a#) $!ight
cho1i#g "ay be +e!t&
5O10 Characteri$tic $harp o)or #oticeab!e& Dery !abore)
breathi#g, hea)ache, (i$*a! i"pair"e#t, a#) ri#gi#g i#
the ear$& L*)g"e#t "ay be i"paire), +o!!owe) withi#
"i#*te$ by !o$$ o+ co#$cio*$#e$$&
50O100 ,#co#$cio*$#e$$ occ*r$ "ore rapi)!y abo(e 10 (o! T !e(e!&
Cro!o#ge) e/po$*re to high co#ce#tratio#$ "ay e(e#t*a!!y
re$*!t i# )eath +ro" a$phy/iatio#&
by co"b*$tio#& ./po$*re to C; co#ce#tratio#$ o+ appro/i"ate!y
1000 a#) 13,000 pp" ca# ca*$e, re$pecti(e!y, !o$$ o+ co#$cio*$#e$$
a+ter 1 h a#) *#co#$cio*$#e$$ a#) )a#ger o+ )eath a+ter 1 to 3 "i#
9Mei)!, E)plosive an% To)ic &a'ar%o"s Materials, Tab!e 28, p& 293,
G!e#coe Cre$$, 1970:&
Gote that C;
2
act$ a$ #either a $i"p!e a$phy/ia#t 9!i1e G
2
: #or a
che"ica! a$phy/ia#t 9!i1e C;:& The #or"a! co#ce#tratio# o+ C;
2
i#
air i$ appro/i"ate!y 300 pp" 90&03 (o! T:& Tab!e 23-19 9'ir Cro)*ct$,
Carbon 3io)i%e, -a+etygra" 18, 1998: i!!*$trate$ that e/po$*re to air
)i!*te) by 5 (o! T C;
2
9yie!)i#g a# o/yge# co#ce#tratio# o+ 21 d 0&95,
or appro/i"ate!y 20 (o! T: pro"pt$ phy$io!ogica! e++ect$ that are
"ore $e(ere tha# tho$e i#+erre) +ro" Tab!e 23-18 +or )i!*tio# by the
$a"e a"o*#t o+ #itroge#&
%#>*rie$ a#) +ata!itie$ +ro" a$phy/iatio# are o+te# a$$ociate) with
per$o##e! e#try i#to i#erte) e5*ip"e#t or e#c!o$*re$& G*i)a#ce o#
$a+e proce)*re$ +or co#+i#e) $pace acce$$ are pro(i)e) by ;-'
9;-', 29 C63 1910&146, Confine% $pace Entry $tan%ar%, 2000:,
the '"erica# Gatio#a! -ta#)ar)$ %#$tit*te 9'G-%, W117&1, $afety
4e-"irements for Confine% $paces, 2003:, o)$o# 9o)$o#, <-a+e
.#try i#to Co#+i#e) -pace$,= &an%book of Chemical &ealth an%
$afety, '"erica# Che"ica! -ociety, 2001:, a#) 0C 90C, &a'ar%s of
/itrogen an% Catalyst &an%ling, 2003:& ;-' ha$ e$tab!i$he) 19&5
(o! T a$ the "i#i"*" $a+e o/yge# co#ce#tratio# +or co#+i#e) $pace
e#try witho*t $*pp!e"e#ta! o/yge# $*pp!y 9$ee Tab!e 23-18:& Gote
that ;-' i"po$e$ a $a+e *pper !i"it o# ;
2
co#ce#tratio# o+ 23&5
(o! T to protect agai#$t the e#ha#ce) +!a""abi!ity haKar)$ a$$ociate)
with ;
2
-e#riche) at"o$phere$&
$#"si&al 1a,ards ' (ariety o+ phy$ica! haKar)$ are pre$e#te) by
the (ario*$ i#ert$ i# co""o# *$age&
&igh temperat"re The high-te"perat*re o++-ga$e$ +ro" co"b*$-
tio#-ba$e) $o*rce$ o+ i#ert$ typica!!y "*$t be 5*e#che) be+ore *$e&
4ater $cr*bbi#g, i# a))itio# to re)*ci#g the te"perat*re, ca#
re"o(e $oot a#) $*!+*r co"po*#)$ 9which co*!) react with "oi$t*re
to +or" corro$i(e aci)$: pre$e#t i# the o++-ga$& The h*"i)ity o+ the
re$*!ta#t ga$ $trea" "ay "a1e it *#$*itab!e +or i#erti#g app!icatio#$
where "oi$t*re ca##ot be to!erate)&
,$e o+ $tea" a$ a# i#ert re5*ire$ that e5*ip"e#t be "ai#tai#e) at
a# e!e(ate) te"perat*re to !i"it co#)e#$atio# that wo*!) !ower the
i#ert co#ce#tratio#& 6M G!oba! 96M G!oba!, Fo$$ Cre(e#tio# Eata
-heet 7-59, !nerting an% P"rging of Tanks, Process *essels, an%
E-"ipment, 2000: reco""e#)$ a "i#i"*" te"perat*re o+ 160U6&
The Co"pre$$e) Ga$ '$$ociatio# 9CG', $afe &an%ling of Com-
presse% (ases in Containers, C*b!icatio# C-1, 2000: ca*tio#$ agai#$t
the *$e o+ $tea" i# 91: $y$te"$ where britt!e "ateria!$ 9$*ch a$ ca$t
iro#: "ay be $tre$$e) by ther"a! e/pa#$io#, 92: $y$te"$ with c!o$e
c!eara#ce$ where high te"perat*re$ "ay ca*$e per"a#e#t warpi#g or
"a!a)>*$t"e#t, a#) 93: $y$te"$ where pipe coati#g$ or p!a$tic "ateri-
a!$ "ay be )a"age) by high te"perat*re$& Crotectio# +or per$o##e! to
pre(e#t ther"a! b*r#$ +ro" e5*ip"e#t "ay be re5*ire)&
%# a))itio#, $o"e e5*ip"e#t or e5*ip"e#t $*pport$ "ay #ot ha(e
the $tre#gth to $*pport a $ig#i+ica#t !oa) o+ co#)e#$ate, a#) pro(i$io#$
"*$t be "a)e +or re"o(a! o+ co#)e#$ate +ro" the i#erte) e5*ip"e#t&
,ow temperat"re The at"o$pheric boi!i#g poi#t$ +or G
2
, C;
2
,
e, a#) 'r are X196, X79, X269, a#) X186UC, re$pecti(e!y& The pote#-
tia! +or cryoge#ic b*r#$ "*$t be a))re$$e) i# operati#g a#) "ai#te-
#a#ce proce)*re$ a#) i# $peci+yi#g per$o#a! protecti(e e5*ip"e#t
re5*ire"e#t$&
Cryoge#ic te"perat*re$ ca# ca*$e e"britt!e"e#t o+ $o"e "ateri-
a!$ o+ co#$tr*ctio# 9e&g&, carbo# $tee!: a#) "*$t be co#$i)ere) i# the
)e$ig# o+ i#ert ga$ )e!i(ery $y$te"$& Co#tro!$ $ho*!) be pro(i)e) to
e#$*re that operatio#a! *p$et$ )o #ot a!!ow the "igratio# o+ cryoge#ic
!i5*i)$ to pipi#g or e5*ip"e#t #ot )e$ig#e) to with$ta#) $*ch !ow
te"perat*re$&
The pote#tia! +or the co#)e#$atio# a#) +ractio#a! )i$ti!!atio# o+ air
o# the o*t$i)e o+ e5*ip"e#t co#tai#i#g cryoge#ic !i5*i)$ with boi!i#g
poi#t$ !e$$ tha# that o+ ;
2
"*$t be co#$i)ere)& 6or e/a"p!e, beca*$e
G
2
boi!$ at a !ower te"perat*re tha# ;
2
9X196 (er$*$ X183UC:, air ca#
co#)e#$e o# the o*t$i)e o+ !i5*i) G
2
-beari#g pipi#g& The !i5*i) that
)rop$ o++ o+ the pipi#g wi!! be e#riche) i# ;
2
a#) ca# po$e a#
e#ha#ce) +ire or e/p!o$io# ri$1 i# the (ici#ity o+ the e5*ip"e#t&
&igh press"re Cryoge#ic !i5*i)$ pro)*ce !arge (o!*"e$ o+ ga$
*po# e(aporatio# 9+or e/a"p!e, 1 (o!*"e o+ !i5*i) G
2
pro)*ce$ 694
(o!*"e$ o+ ga$ at 20UC: 9'ir Cro)*ct$, $afe &an%ling of Cryogenic
,i-"i%s, -a+etygra" 16, 1999:& Co#tai#er$ $*ch a$ tra#$port a#) $tor-
age (e$$e!$ "*$t be pro(i)e) with o(erpre$$*re re!ie+ to a))re$$ thi$
haKar)& '# a))itio#a! co#cer# i$ the hy)ro$tatic pre$$*re that ca# be
pro)*ce) i+ cryoge#ic !i5*i)$ are trappe) i# a !i5*i)-+*!! $y$te"&
'b$e#t a (apor $pace to a!!ow !i5*i) e/pa#$io#, e/tre"e!y high pre$-
$*re$ ca# be pro)*ce)A accor)i#g!y, pre$$*re re!ie+ )e(ice$ "*$t be
i#$ta!!e) i# $ectio#$ o+ e5*ip"e#t where cryoge#ic !i5*i)$ "ight
beco"e trappe) betwee# c!o$e) (a!(e$&
Gi(e# the !arge !i5*i)-to-ga$ e/pa#$io# ratio, co#$i)eratio# $ho*!)
be gi(e# to !i"iti#g the 5*a#tity o+ cryoge#ic !i5*i) $tore) i#$i)e tight
e#c!o$*re$ or b*i!)i#g$ that co*!) beco"e pre$$*riKe)& The a$phy/ia-
tio# haKar) a$$ociate) with i#ert ga$e$ wa$ a))re$$e) pre(io*$!y&
Cortab!e co#tai#er$ o+ high-pre$$*re i#ert ga$e$ ca# operate at
pre$$*re$ o+ tho*$a#)$ o+ po*#)$ per $5*are i#ch& -*itab!e preca*-
tio#$ are re5*ire) to protect co#tai#er$ a#) a$$ociate) reg*!ator$ a#)
pipi#g +ro" )a"age& 3e+er to CG' 9CG', $afe &an%ling of Com-
presse% (ases in Containers, C*b!icatio# C-1, 2000A CG', Preca"tions
for Connecting Compresse% (as Containers to $ystems, C*b!icatio#
-0-10, 2003: a#) 'ir Cro)*ct$ 9'ir Cro)*ct$, &an%ling, $torage, an%
Use of Compresse% (as Cylin%ers, -a+etygra" 10, 2000: +or g*i)a#ce&
'ir Cro)*ct$ 9'ir Cro)*ct$, Pro%"ct Migration of ,i-"efie% Com-
presse% (ases in Manifol%e% $ystems, -a+etygra" 38, 2003: pro(i)e$
preca*tio#ary g*i)a#ce with re$pect to "a#i+o!)i#g o+ !i5*i)-co#tai#-
i#g cy!i#)er$& ' te"perat*re )i++ere#ce o+ o#!y a +ew )egree$ betwee#
cy!i#)er$ ca# ca*$e ga$ +ro" the war"er cy!i#)er to "igrate thro*gh
the "a#i+o!) to the coo!er cy!i#)er, where it co*!) co#)e#$e a#)
pote#tia!!y +i!! the cy!i#)er& ' !i5*i)-+i!!e) cy!i#)er co*!) r*pt*re i+ it
wa$ $*b$e5*e#t!y (a!(e) c!o$e)&
$tatic electricity The *$e o+ high-pre$$*re C;
2
+or i#erti#g po$e$
a co#cer# +or pote#tia! $tatic e!ectricity haKar)$& C;
2
co#(ert$ )irect!y
to a $o!i) i+ the !i5*i) i$ )epre$$*riKe) be!ow 61 p$ig 9'ir Cro)*ct$,
Carbon 3io)i%e, -a+etygra" 18, 1998:& Co#$e5*e#t!y, )i$charge o+ !i5-
*i) C;
2
pro)*ce$ C;
2
<$#ow= that, whe# "o(i#g at a high (e!ocity, ca#
ge#erate $tatic e!ectric charge& %#ce#)i(e $par1$ 95 to 15 "L at 10 to 20
1D: ha(e bee# reporte) 9,rbe#, +retherick?s &an%book of 4eactive
Chemical &a'ar%s, 6th e)&, 0*tterworth-ei#e"a## Ft)&, 1999:&
C#emi&al In&ompatibilit" 1a,ards 4hi!e G
2
a#) C;
2
"ay act
a$ i#ert$ with re$pect to "a#y co"b*$tio# reactio#$, they are +ar +ro"
bei#g che"ica!!y i#ert& ;#!y the #ob!e ga$e$ 9e&g&, 'r a#) e: ca#, +or
practica! p*rpo$e$, be regar)e) a$ tr*e i#ert$& 6ra#1 96ra#1, <%#erti#g
+or ./p!o$io# Cre(e#tio#,= Procee%ings of the 6Bth nn"al ,oss Pre-
vention $ymposi"m, '%Ch., 2004: !i$t$ a #*"ber o+ i#co"patibi!itie$
+or G
2
, C;
2
, a#) C; 9which ca# be pre$e#t i# ga$ $trea"$ +ro" co"-
b*$tio#-ba$e) i#ert ga$ ge#erator$:& Gotab!e i#co"patibi!itie$ +or G
2
are !ithi*" "eta! a#) tita#i*" "eta! 9which i$ reporte) to b*r# i#
G
2
:& C;
2
i$ i#co"patib!e with "a#y "eta!$ 9e&g&, a!*"i#*" a#) the
a!1a!i "eta!$:, ba$e$, a#) a"i#e$, a#) it +or"$ carbo#ic aci) i# water,
which ca# corro)e $o"e "ateria!$& C; i$ a $tro#g re)*ci#g age#t a#)
i$ i#co"patib!e with o/i)iKer$, pota$$i*", $o)i*", $o"e a!*"i#*"
co"po*#)$, a#) certai# "eta! o/i)e$& Trace "eta!$ a#) re$i)*a!
orga#ic co"po*#)$ "ay co#ta"i#ate ga$ $trea"$ +ro" co"b*$tio#-
ba$e) i#ert ga$ ge#erator$, po$i#g a (ariety o+ pote#tia! i#co"patibi!-
ity a#) pro)*ct 5*a!ity co#cer#$&
Certai# po!y"eriKatio# i#hibitor$ a))e) to $tabi!iKe "o#o"er$
re5*ire a $"a!! co#ce#tratio# o+ )i$$o!(e) ;
2
to be e++ecti(e 9G6C'
69, $tan%ar% on E)plosion Prevention $ystems, Gatio#a! 6ire Crotec-
tio# '$$ociatio#, 2002:& 6or e/a"p!e, "ethy! acry!ate a#) ethy! acry-
!ate are co""o#!y $tabi!iKe) with hy)ro5*i#o#e "o#o"ethy! ether&
%#)*$try g*i)a#ce reco""e#)$ a "i#i"*" co#ce#tratio# o+ 5 (o! T
;
2
i# the at"o$phere abo(e the acry!ate to pre(e#t po!y"eriKatio#
9%#terco"pa#y Co""ittee +or the -a+ety a#) a#)!i#g o+ 'cry!ic
Mo#o"er$, crylate Esters, $"mmary of $afety an% &an%ling,
3) e)&, 2002:&
%3"&3)L2 SAF& DS%G3 A3D .)"& P&%3C%PLS
%3"&3)L2 SAF& A3D !.&
4S&0F&%3DL2 DS%G3
%ntro#uction 6or "a#y year$ the *$*a! proce)*re i# p!a#t
)e$ig# wa$ to i)e#ti+y the haKar)$, by o#e o+ the $y$te"atic tech#i5*e$
)e$cribe) !ater or by waiti#g *#ti! a# acci)e#t occ*rre), a#) the# a))
protecti(e e5*ip"e#t to co#tro! the" or to protect peop!e +ro" their
co#$e5*e#ce$& Thi$ protecti(e e5*ip"e#t i$ o+te# co"p!e/ a#)
e/pe#$i(e a#) re5*ire$ reg*!ar te$ti#g a#) "ai#te#a#ce& %t o+te#
i#ter+ere$ with the $"ooth operatio# o+ the p!a#t a#) i$ $o"eti"e$
bypa$$e)& Gra)*a!!y the i#)*$try ca"e to rea!iKe that, whe#e(er po$-
$ib!e, we $ho*!) )e$ig# *$er-+rie#)!y p!a#t$ that ca# with$ta#) h*"a#
error a#) e5*ip"e#t +ai!*re witho*t $erio*$ e++ect$ o# $a+ety 9a#) o*t-
p*t a#) e++icie#cy:& 4he# we ha#)!e +!a""ab!e, e/p!o$i(e, to/ic, or
corro$i(e "ateria!$, we ca# to!erate o#!y (ery !ow +ai!*re rate$, o+ peo-
p!e a#) e5*ip"e#t, rate$ which it "ay be i"po$$ib!e or i"practicab!e
to achie(e co#$i$te#t!y +or !o#g perio)$&
The "o$t e++ecti(e way o+ )e$ig#i#g *$er-+rie#)!y p!a#t$ i$ to a(oi),
whe# po$$ib!e, !arge i#(e#torie$ o+ haKar)o*$ "ateria!$ i# proce$$ or
$torage& <4hat yo* )o#?t ha(e, ca#?t !ea1&= Thi$ $o*#)$ ob(io*$, b*t
*#ti! the e/p!o$io# at 6!i/boro*gh i# 1974, !itt!e $y$te"atic tho*ght
wa$ gi(e# to way$ o+ re)*ci#g i#(e#torie$& The i#)*$try $i"p!y
)e$ig#e) a p!a#t a#) accepte) whate(er i#(e#tory the )e$ig#
re5*ire), co#+i)e#t it co*!) be 1ept *#)er co#tro!& 6!i/boro*gh wea1-
e#e) that co#+i)e#ce, a#) 10 year$ !ater 0hopa! a!"o$t )e$troye) it&
C!a#t$ i# which we a(oi) a haKar), by re)*ci#g i#(e#torie$ or a(oi)i#g
haKar)o*$ reactio#$, are *$*a!!y ca!!e) i#here#t!y $a+er&
The pri#cip!e way$ o+ )e$ig#i#g i#here#t!y $a+er p!a#t$, a#) other
way$ o+ "a1i#g p!a#t$ *$er-+rie#)!y, are $*""ariKe) be!ow, with
e/a"p!e$ 9B!etK, Process Plants> &an%book for !nherently $afer
3esign, Tay!or R 6ra#ci$, 1998:&
%ntensification or !ini/i,ation ;#e approach i$ to *$e $o !it-
t!e haKar)o*$ "ateria! that it )oe$ #ot "atter i+ it a!! !ea1$ o*t& 6or
e/a"p!e, at 0hopa! "ethy! i$ocya#ate 9M%C:, the "ateria! that !ea1e)
a#) 1i!!e) o(er 2000 peop!e, wa$ a# i#ter"e)iate that wa$ co#(e#ie#t
b*t #ot e$$e#tia! to $tore& 4ithi# a +ew year$ "a#y co"pa#ie$ ha)
re)*ce) their $toc1$ o+ M%C a#) other haKar)o*$ i#ter"e)iate$&
%#te#$i+icatio# i$ the pre+erre) ro*te to i#here#t!y $a+er )e$ig# a$
the p!a#t$, bei#g $"a!!er, are a!$o cheaper 90e!!, ,oss Prevention in
the Process !n%"stries, %#$tit*tio# o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$ -y"po$i*"
-erie$ #o& 34, 1971 p& 50:&
Su'stitution %+ i#te#$i+icatio# i$ #ot po$$ib!e, the# a# a!ter#ati(e
i$ to *$e a $a+er "ateria! i# p!ace o+ a haKar)o*$ o#e& Th*$ it i$ po$$i-
b!e to rep!ace +!a""ab!e $o!(e#t$, re+rigera#t$, a#) heat-tra#$+er
"e)ia by #o#+!a""ab!e or !e$$ +!a""ab!e 9high-boi!i#g: o#e$, haK-
ar)o*$ pro)*ct$ by $a+er o#e$, proce$$e$ that *$e haKar)o*$ raw "ate-
ria!$ or i#ter"e)iate$ by proce$$e$ that )o #ot& '$ a# e/a"p!e o+ the
!atter, the pro)*ct "a#*+act*re) at 0hopa! 9carbary!: wa$ "a)e +ro"
three raw "ateria!$& Methy! i$ocya#ate i$ +or"e) a$ a# i#ter"e)iate&
%t i$ po$$ib!e to react the $a"e raw "ateria!$ i# a )i++ere#t or)er $o
that a )i++ere#t a#) !e$$ haKar)o*$ i#ter"e)iate i$ +or"e)&
Attenuation or !o#eration '#other a!ter#ati(e to i#te#$i+ica-
tio# i$ atte#*atio#, or *$i#g a haKar)o*$ "ateria! *#)er the !ea$t haK-
ar)o*$ co#)itio#$& Th*$ !arge 5*a#titie$ o+ !i5*e+ie) ch!ori#e,
a""o#ia, a#) petro!e*" ga$ ca# be $tore) a$ re+rigerate) !i5*i)$ at
at"o$pheric pre$$*re i#$tea) o+ *#)er pre$$*re at a"bie#t te"pera-
t*re& 9Fea1$ +ro" the re+rigeratio# e5*ip"e#t $ho*!) a!$o be co#$i)-
ere), $o there i$ probab!y #o #et gai# i# re+rigerati#g 5*a#titie$ !e$$
tha# a +ew h*#)re) to#$&: Eye$t*++$ that +or" e/p!o$i(e )*$t$ ca# be
ha#)!e) a$ $!*rrie$&
Li/itation of ffects of Failures .++ect$ o+ +ai!*re$ ca# be !i"-
ite) by e5*ip"e#t )e$ig# or cha#ge i# reactio# co#)itio#$, rather
tha# by a))i#g protecti(e e5*ip"e#t& 6or e/a"p!e2
M eati#g "e)ia $*ch a$ $tea" or hot oi! $ho*!) #ot be hotter tha#
the te"perat*re at which the "ateria!$ bei#g heate) are !iab!e to
ig#ite $po#ta#eo*$!y or react *#co#tro!!ab!y&
M -pira!-wo*#) ga$1et$ are $a+er tha# +iber ga$1et$ beca*$e i+ the
bo!t$ wor1 !oo$e or are #ot tighte#e) correct!y, the !ea1 rate i$ "*ch
!ower&
M T*b*!ar reactor$ are $a+er tha# pot reactor$ a$ the i#(e#tory i$ *$*-
a!!y !ower a#) a !ea1 ca# be $toppe) by c!o$i#g a (a!(e&
M Dapor-pha$e reactor$ are $a+er tha# !i5*i)-pha$e o#e$ a$ the "a$$
+!ow rate thro*gh a ho!e o+ a gi(e# $iKe i$ "*ch !e$$& 9Thi$ i$ a!$o
a# e/a"p!e o+ atte#*atio#&:
M ' $"a!!, )eep )i1e) area aro*#) a $torage ta#1 i$ $a+er tha# a !arge
$ha!!ow o#e a$ the e(aporatio# rate i$ !ower a#) the area o+ a#y +ire
i$ $"a!!er&
M Cha#gi#g the or)er o+ operatio#$, re)*ci#g the te"perat*re, or
cha#gi#g a#other para"eter ca# pre(e#t "a#y r*#away reactio#$&
M 3e)*ce the +re5*e#cy o+ haKar)o*$ operatio#$ $*ch a$ $a"p!i#g or
"ai#te#a#ce& 4e $ho*!) co#$i)er the opti"*" ba!a#ce betwee#
re!iabi!ity a#) "ai#te#a#ce&
Si/-lification -i"p!er p!a#t$ are +rie#)!ier tha# co"p!e/ o#e$ a$
they pro(i)e +ewer opport*#itie$ +or error a#) !e$$ e5*ip"e#t which
ca# go wro#g& -o"e o+ the rea$o#$ +or co"p!icatio# i# p!a#t )e$ig# are
M The #ee) to co#tro! haKar)$& %+ we ca# i#te#$i+y or carry o*t o#e o+
the other actio#$ a!rea)y )i$c*$$e), we #ee) !e$$ a))e) protecti(e
e5*ip"e#t a#) p!a#t$ wi!! there+ore be $i"p!er&
M ' )e$ire +or +!e/ibi!ity& M*!ti$trea" p!a#t$ with #*"ero*$ cro$$o(er$
a#) (a!(e$, $o that a#y ite" ca# be *$e) o# a#y $trea", ha(e #*"er-
o*$ !ea1age poi#t$, a#) error$ i# (a!(e $etti#g$ are ea$i!y "a)e&
M Fa(i$h pro(i$io# o+ i#$ta!!e) $pare$ with the acco"pa#yi#g i$o!atio#
a#) cha#geo(er (a!(e$&
M Co#ti#*e) a)here#ce to tra)itio#a! r*!e$ or practice$ that are #o
!o#ger #ece$$ary&
M Ee$ig# proce)*re$ that re$*!t i# a +ai!*re to i)e#ti+y haKar)$ *#ti!
!ate i# )e$ig#& 0y thi$ ti"e it i$ i"po$$ib!e to a(oi) the haKar), a#)
a!! we ca# )o i$ to a)) co"p!e/ e5*ip"e#t to co#tro! it&
+nock0on ffects C!a#t$ $ho*!) be )e$ig#e) $o that tho$e i#ci-
)e#t$ that )o occ*r )o #ot pro)*ce 1#oc1-o# or )o"i#o e++ect$& Thi$
ca# be )o#e, e&g&, by
M Cro(i)i#g +irebrea1$, abo*t 15 " wi)e, betwee# $ectio#$, $i"i!ar to
+irebrea1$ i# a +ore$t, to re$trict the $prea) o+ +ire&
M Focati#g e5*ip"e#t that i$ !iab!e to !ea1 o*t-o+-)oor$ $o that !ea1$
o+ +!a""ab!e ga$e$ a#) (apor$ are )i$per$e) by #at*ra! (e#ti!atio#&
%#)oor$ a +ew te#$ o+ 1i!ogra"$ are $*++icie#t +or a# e/p!o$io# that
ca# )e$troy the b*i!)i#g& ;*t)oor$ a +ew to#$ are #ece$$ary +or $eri-
o*$ )a"age& ' roo+ o(er a piece o+ e5*ip"e#t, $*ch a$ a co"pre$-
$or, i$ acceptab!e, b*t wa!!$ $ho*!) be a(oi)e)& %+ !ea1$ o+ to/ic ga$e$
are !iab!e to occ*r, it "ay be $a+er to !ocate the p!a#t i#)oor$, *#!e$$
!ea1$ wi!! )i$per$e be+ore they reach "e"ber$ o+ the p*b!ic or
e"p!oyee$ o# other *#it$&
%3"&3)L2 SAF& DS%G3 A3D .)"& P&%3C%PLS 2303C
M Co#$tr*cti#g $torage ta#1$ $o that the roo+-wa!! we!) wi!! +ai! be+ore
the ba$e-wa!! we!), th*$ pre(e#ti#g $pi!!age o+ the co#te#t$& %# ge#-
era!, i# )e$ig#i#g e5*ip"e#t we $ho*!) co#$i)er the way i# which it
i$ "o$t !i1e!y to +ai! a#), whe# po$$ib!e, !ocate or )e$ig# the e5*ip-
"e#t $o a$ to "i#i"iKe the co#$e5*e#ce$&
!akin$ %ncorrect Asse/'ly %/-ossi'le C!a#t$ $ho*!) be
)e$ig#e) $o that i#correct a$$e"b!y i$ )i++ic*!t or i"po$$ib!e& 6or
e/a"p!e, co"pre$$or (a!(e$ $ho*!) be )e$ig#e) $o that i#!et a#) e/it
(a!(e$ ca##ot be i#tercha#ge)A ho$e co##ectio#$ o+ )i++ere#t type$ or
$iKe$ $ho*!) be *$e) +or co"pre$$e) air a#) #itroge#&
!akin$ Status Clear %t $ho*!) be po$$ib!e to $ee at a g!a#ce i+
e5*ip"e#t ha$ bee# a$$e"b!e) or i#$ta!!e) i#correct!y or whether it i$
i# the ope# or $h*t po$itio#& 6or e/a"p!e2
M Chec1 (a!(e$ $ho*!) be "ar1e) $o that i#$ta!!atio# the wro#g way
ro*#) i$ ob(io*$& %t $ho*!) #ot be #ece$$ary to !oo1 +or a +ai#t arrow
har)!y (i$ib!e be#eath the )irt&
M Gate (a!(e$ with ri$i#g $pi#)!e$ are +rie#)!ier tha# (a!(e$ with #o#-
ri$i#g $pi#)!e$, a$ it i$ ea$y to $ee whether they are ope# or $h*t&
0a!! (a!(e$ a#) coc1$ are +rie#)!y i+ the ha#)!e$ ca##ot be rep!ace)
i# the wro#g po$itio#&
M 6ig*re 8 p!ate$ are +rie#)!ier tha# $!ip p!ate$ 9b!i#)$: a$ their po$i-
tio# i$ appare#t at a g!a#ce& %+ $!ip p!ate$ are *$e), their pro>ecti#g
tag$ $ho*!) be rea)i!y (i$ib!e, e(e# whe# the !i#e i$ i#$*!ate)& %#
a))itio#, $pectac!e p!ate$ are ea$ier to +it tha# $!ip p!ate$, i+ the pip-
i#g i$ rigi), a#) are a!way$ a(ai!ab!e o# the >ob& %t i$ #ot #ece$$ary to
$earch +or o#e, a$ with $!ip p!ate$&
)olerance 4he#e(er po$$ib!e, e5*ip"e#t $ho*!) to!erate poor
i#$ta!!atio# or operatio# witho*t +ai!*re& ./pa#$io# !oop$ i# pipewor1
are "ore to!era#t o+ poor i#$ta!!atio# tha# are e/pa#$io# >oi#t$ 9be!-
!ow$:& 6i/e) pipe$, or artic*!ate) ar"$, i+ +!e/ibi!ity i$ #ece$$ary, are
+rie#)!ier tha# ho$e$& 6or "o$t app!icatio#$, "eta! i$ +rie#)!ier tha#
g!a$$ or p!a$tic&
0o!te) >oi#t$ are +rie#)!ier tha# 5*ic1-re!ea$e co*p!i#g$& The +or-
"er are *$*a!!y )i$"a#t!e) by a +itter a+ter i$$*e o+ a per"it-to-wor1&
;#e wor1er prepare$ the e5*ip"e#t a#) a#other ope#$ it *pA the
i$$*e o+ the per"it pro(i)e$ a# opport*#ity to chec1 that the correct
preca*tio#$ ha(e bee# ta1e#& %# a))itio#, i+ the >oi#t$ are *#bo!te)
correct!y, a#y trappe) pre$$*re i$ i""e)iate!y appare#t a#) the
>oi#t ca# be re"a)e or the pre$$*re a!!owe) to b!ow o++& %# co#tra$t,
"a#y acci)e#t$ ha(e occ*rre) beca*$e operator$ ope#e) *p e5*ip-
"e#t that wa$ *#)er pre$$*re, witho*t i#)epe#)e#t co#$i)eratio# o+
the haKar)$, *$i#g 5*ic1-re!ea$e co*p!i#g$& There are, howe(er,
)e$ig#$ o+ 5*ic1-re!ea$e co*p!i#g which gi(e the operator a $eco#)
cha#ce&
Low Leak &ate %+ +rie#)!y e5*ip"e#t )oe$ !ea1, it )oe$ $o at a
!ow rate which i$ ea$y to $top or co#tro!& ./a"p!e$ a!rea)y "e#tio#e)
are $pira!-wo*#) ga$1et$, t*b*!ar reactor$, a#) (apor-pha$e reactor$&
ase of Control Croce$$e$ with a +!at re$po#$e to cha#ge are
ob(io*$!y +rie#)!ier tha# tho$e with a $teep re$po#$e& Croce$$e$ i#
which a ri$e o+ te"perat*re )ecrea$e$ the rate o+ reactio# are +rie#)-
!ier tha# tho$e with a po$iti(e te"perat*re coe++icie#t, b*t thi$ i$ a )i+-
+ic*!t i)ea! to achie(e i# the che"ica! i#)*$try& owe(er, there are a
+ew e/a"p!e$ o+ proce$$e$ i# which a ri$e i# te"perat*re re)*ce$ the
rate o+ reactio#& 6or e/a"p!e, i# the "a#*+act*re o+ pero/i)e$, water
i$ re"o(e) by a )ehy)rati#g age#t& %+ "ag#e$i*" $*!+ate i$ *$e) a$ the
age#t, a ri$e i# te"perat*re ca*$e$ re!ea$e o+ water by the age#t, )i!*t-
i#g the reacta#t$ a#) $toppi#g the reactio# 9Gerri$o# a#) (a#?t Fa#),
!2EC Process 3esign, 28, 1985, p& 893:&
Software %# $o"e progra""ab!e e!ectro#ic $y$te"$ 9C.-$:,
error$ are "*ch ea$ier to )etect a#) correct tha# i# other$& 'cci)e#-
ta!!y pre$$i#g the wro#g 1ey $ho*!) #e(er pro)*ce $erio*$ co#$e-
5*e#ce$& %+ we pre$$ the )e!ete 1ey o# o*r co"p*ter$, $o"eti"e$ we
are a$1e) i+ we rea!!y wa#t to )o $oA b*t $toc1$ a#) c*rre#cy ha(e bee#
acci)e#ta!!y $o!) or bo*ght beca*$e $o"eo#e pre$$e) the wro#g 1ey&
%+ we *$e the ter" software i# the wi)er $e#$e to co(er a!! proce)*re$,
a$ )i$ti#ct +ro" har)ware or e5*ip"e#t, $o"e $o+tware i$ "*ch
+rie#)!ier tha# other$& 6or e/a"p!e, i+ "a#y type$ o+ ga$1et$ or #*t$
a#) bo!t$ are $toc1e), $oo#er or !ater the wro#g type wi!! be i#$ta!!e)&
%t i$ better, a#) cheaper i# the !o#g r*#, to 1eep the #*"ber o+ type$
$toc1e) to a "i#i"*" e(e# tho*gh "ore e/pe#$i(e type$ tha# are
$trict!y #ece$$ary are *$e) +or $o"e app!icatio#$&
Actions 3ee#e# for the Desi$n of %nherently Safer an# 4ser0
Frien#ly Plants
1& Ee$ig#er$ #ee) to be "a)e aware that there i$ $cope +or i"pro(-
i#g the +rie#)!i#e$$ o+ the p!a#t$ they )e$ig#&
2& To achie(e "a#y o+ the cha#ge$ $*gge$te) abo(e, it i$ #ece$$ary
to carry o*t "*ch "ore critica! e/a"i#atio# a#) $y$te"atic co#$i)er-
atio# o+ a!ter#ati(e$ )*ri#g the ear!y $tage$ o+ )e$ig# tha# ha$ bee#
c*$to"ary i# "o$t co"pa#ie$& Two $t*)ie$ are $*gge$te), o#e at the
co#cept*a! or b*$i#e$$ a#a!y$i$ $tage whe# the proce$$ i$ bei#g cho$e#
a#) a#other at the +!ow $heet $tage& 6or the !atter the *$*a! haKar) a#)
operabi!ity $t*)y 9'W;C: 5*e$tio#$ "ay be $*itab!e b*t with o#e
)i++ere#ce& %# a #or"a! 'W;C $t*)y o# a !i#e )iagra", i+ we are )i$-
c*$$i#g <"ore o+ te"perat*re,= $ay, we a$$*"e that it i$ *#)e$irab!e
a#) !oo1 +or way$ o+ pre(e#ti#g it& %# a 'W;C o+ a +!ow $heet, we
$ho*!) a$1 i+ <"ore o+ te"perat*re= wo*!) be better& 6or the co#cep-
t*a! $t*)y, )i++ere#t 5*e$tio#$ are #ee)e)&
Ma#y co"pa#ie$ wi!! $ay that they )o co#$i)er a!ter#ati(e$ )*ri#g the
ear!y $tage$ o+ p!a#t )e$ig#& owe(er, what i$ !ac1i#g i# "a#y co"pa-
#ie$ i$ a +or"a!, $y$te"atic $tr*ct*re) proce)*re o+ the 'W;C type&
4he# a #ew p!a#t i$ #ee)e), it i$ *$*a!!y wa#te) a$ $oo# a$
po$$ib!e, a#) $o there i$ #o ti"e to co#$i)er a#) )e(e!op i#here#t!y
$a+er )e$ig#$ 9or other i##o(atio#$:& 4he# we are )e$ig#i#g a #ew
p!a#t, we are co#- $cio*$ o+ a!! the i"pro(e"e#t$ we co*!) ha(e "a)e
i+ we ha) ha) "ore ti"e& The$e po$$ib!e i"pro(e"e#t$ $ho*!) be
#ote) a#) wor1 o# their +ea$ibi!ity $tarte), rea)y +or the p!a#t a+ter
#e/t& ,#!e$$ we )o $o, we wi!! #e(er i##o(ate a#) wi!! *!ti"ate!y !o$e
to tho$e who )o&
3& To achie(e the "ore )etai!e) i"pro(e"e#t$ $*gge$te) abo(e, it
"ay be #ece$$ary to a)) a +ew 5*e$tio#$ to tho$e a$1e) )*ri#g a #or-
"a! 'W;C& 6or e/a"p!e, what type$ o+ (a!(e, ga$1et, b!i#), etc& wi!!
be *$e)`
%3C%D3) %3;S)%GA)%.3 A3D "4!A3 &&.&
'!tho*gh "o$t co"pa#ie$ i#(e$tigate acci)e#t$ 9a#) "a#y i#(e$tigate
)a#gero*$ i#ci)e#t$ i# which #o o#e wa$ i#>*re):, the$e i#(e$tigatio#$
are o+te# $*per+icia! a#) we +ai! to !ear# a!! the !e$$o#$ +or which we
ha(e pai) the high price o+ a# acci)e#t& The co!!ectio# o+ e(i)e#ce i$
*$*a!!y a)e5*ate, b*t o+te# o#!y $*per+icia! co#c!*$io#$ are )raw#
+ro" it& %)e#ti+yi#g the ca*$e$ o+ a# acci)e#t i$ !i1e pee!i#g a# o#io#&
The o*ter !ayer$ )ea! with the i""e)iate tech#ica! ca*$e$ a#) trig-
geri#g e(e#t$ whi!e the i##er !ayer$ )ea! with way$ o+ a(oi)i#g the
haKar) a#) with the *#)er!yi#g wea1#e$$e$ i# the "a#age"e#t $y$-
te" 9B!etK, ,earning from cci%ents, 3) e)&, G*!+ Cro+e$$io#a!, 2001:&
Eea!i#g with the i""e)iate tech#ica! ca*$e$ o+ a !ea1, e&g&, wi!! pre-
(e#t a#other !ea1 +or the $a"e rea$o#& %+ we ca# *$e $o !itt!e o+ the
haKar)o*$ "ateria! that !ea1$ )o #ot "atter, or a $a+er "ateria!
i#$tea), a$ )i$c*$$e) abo(e, we pre(e#t a!! $ig#i+ica#t !ea1$ o+ thi$ haK-
ar)o*$ "ateria!& %+ we ca# i"pro(e the "a#age"e#t $y$te" or
i"pro(e o*r )e$ig#$, we "ay be ab!e to pre(e#t "a#y "ore acci)e#t$&
;ther poi#t$ to watch whe# yo* are )rawi#g co#c!*$io#$ +ro" the
+act$ are a$ +o!!ow$2
1& '(oi) the te"ptatio# to !i$t ca*$e$ we ca# )o !itt!e or #othi#g
abo*t& 6or e/a"p!e, a $o*rce o+ ig#itio# $ho*!) #ot be !i$te) a$ the pri-
"ary ca*$e o+ a +ire or e/p!o$io# a$ !ea1$ o+ +!a""ab!e ga$e$ are !iab!e
to ig#ite e(e# tho*gh we re"o(e 1#ow# $o*rce$ o+ ig#itio#& The ca*$e
i$ whate(er !e) to the +or"atio# o+ a +!a""ab!e "i/t*re o+ ga$ or
(apor a#) air& 93e"o(a! o+ 1#ow# $o*rce$ o+ ig#itio# $ho*!), howe(er,
be i#c!*)e) i# the reco""e#)atio#$&:
-i"i!ar!y, h*"a# error $ho*!) #ot be !i$te) a$ a ca*$e& -ee ite" 7
be!ow&
2& Eo #ot pro)*ce a !o#g !i$t o+ reco""e#)atio#$ witho*t a#y i#)i-
catio# o+ the re!ati(e co#trib*tio#$ they wi!! "a1e to the re)*ctio# o+
ri$1 or witho*t a#y co"pari$o# o+ co$t$ a#) be#e+it$& 3e$o*rce$ are
#ot *#!i"ite), a#) the "ore we $pe#) o# re)*ci#g o#e haKar), the
!e$$ there i$ !e+t to $pe#) o# re)*ci#g other$&
3& ' #a"e) per$o# $ho*!) be "a)e re$po#$ib!e +or carryi#g o*t
each agree) reco""e#)atio#, a#) a co"p!etio# )ate agree) with hi"
or her& The report $ho*!) be bro*ght +orwar) at thi$ ti"eA otherwi$e,
#othi#g wi!! happe# e/cept a repeat o+ the acci)e#t&
4& '(oi) the te"ptatio# to o(erreact a+ter a# acci)e#t a#) i#$ta!! a#
e/ce$$i(e a"o*#t o+ protecti(e e5*ip"e#t or co"p!e/ proce)*re$ that
2308E P&.CSS SAF)2
*ent &eco//en#ations for Pre*entionH!iti$ation
./te#$i(e )a"age
0etter +ire protectio#
6ire
%g#itio# by
pa$$i#g (ehic!e
0etter co#tro! o+ (ehic!e "o(e"e#t$
0etter !ayo*t
Fea1
%#$ta!! ga$ )etector$ R e"erge#cy i$o!atio# (a!(e$
./pa#$io# >oi#t
i#$ta!!e) i#correct!y
0etter trai#i#g o+ +itter$
0etter i#$pectio# a+ter co#$tr*ctio# R "ai#te#a#ce
Beep eye$ ope# o# p!a#t (i$it$
4a$ poor i#$ta!!atio# to!erate) i# the pa$t`
Eeci$io# to *$e e/pa#$io#
>oi#t o# thi$ *#it
Critica! e/a"i#atio# o+ )e$ig#$ by haKop
Eeci$io# to a!!ow
*$e o+ e/pa#$io# >oi#t$
Eo #ot *$e e/pa#$io# >oi#t$ i# !i#e$ carryi#g haKar)o*$ "ateria!$
More i#(o!(e"e#t by proce$$ $a+ety e/pert$ i# )e$ig#
F%G. 2301B '# e/a"p!e o+ the "a#y way$ by which a# acci)e#t co*!) ha(e
bee# pre(e#te)&
are *#!i1e!y to be +o!!owe) a+ter a +ew year$ ha(e e!ap$e)& -o"eti"e$
a# acci)e#t occ*r$ beca*$e the protecti(e e5*ip"e#t a(ai!ab!e wa$
#ot *$e), b*t #e(erthe!e$$ the report reco""e#)$ i#$ta!!atio# o+
"ore protecti(e e5*ip"e#tA or a# acci)e#t occ*r$ beca*$e co"p!e/
proce)*re$ were #ot +o!!owe), a#) the report reco""e#)$ e/tra pro-
ce)*re$& %t wo*!) be better to +i#) o*t why the origi#a! e5*ip"e#t
wa$ #ot *$e) or the origi#a! proce)*re$ were #ot +o!!owe)&
5& 3e"e"ber that +ew, i+ a#y, acci)e#t$ ha(e a $i#g!e ca*$e& %#
"o$t ca$e$ "a#y peop!e ha) a# opport*#ity to pre(e#t it, +ro" the
che"i$t who )e(e!ope) the proce$$ to the operator who c!o$e) the
wro#g (a!(e& 6ig*re 23-17 $how$ by e/a"p!e the opport*#itie$ that
were a(ai!ab!e to pre(e#t a +ire or "i#i"iKe the co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ a#
appare#t!y $i"p!e i#ci)e#t2 a# e/pa#$io# >oi#t 9be!!ow$: wa$ i#cor-
rect!y i#$ta!!e) i# a pipe!i#e $o that it wa$ )i$torte)& '+ter $o"e
"o#th$ it !ea1e), a#) a pa$$i#g (ehic!e ig#ite) the e$capi#g (apor&
Ea"age wa$ e/te#$i(e a$ the $*rro*#)i#g e5*ip"e#t ha) #ot bee#
+ire-protecte) to $a(e o# co$t$&
The +itter who i#$ta!!e) the e/pa#$io# >oi#t i#correct!y co*!) ha(e
pre(e#te) the +ire& -o co*!) the per$o# who wa$ re$po#$ib!e +or her or
hi$ trai#i#g a#) $*per(i$io#A $o co*!) the )e$ig#er$ i+ they ha) #ot
$peci+ie) a# e/pa#$io# >oi#t, ha) carrie) o*t a 'W;C, or ha) co#-
$*!te) e/pert$A $o co*!) the a*thor o+ the co"pa#y?$ )e$ig# $ta#)ar)$,
a#) tho$e re$po#$ib!e +or the trai#i#g o+ )e$ig#er$A tho$e re$po#$ib!e
+or i#$pectio# o+ wor1"a#$hip, a#) a#yo#e who 1ept hi$ or her eye$
ope# whe# wa!1i#g ro*#) the p!a#t&
6& 4he# yo* are rea)i#g a# acci)e#t report, !oo1 +or the thi#g$ that
are #ot $ai)& 6or e/a"p!e, a g!a#) !ea1 o# a !i5*e+ie) +!a""ab!e ga$
p*"p ca*ght +ire a#) ca*$e) co#$i)erab!e )a"age& The report )rew
atte#tio# to the co#ge$te) !ayo*t, the a"o*#t o+ re)*#)a#t e5*ip-
"e#t i# the area, the +act that a gearbo/ ca$i#g ha) bee# "a)e o+ a!*-
"i#*", which "e!te), a#) $e(era! other *#$ati$+actory +eat*re$& %t )i)
#ot $tre$$ that there ha) bee# a #*"ber o+ g!a#) !ea1$ o# thi$ p*"p
o(er the year$, that re!iab!e g!a#)$ are a(ai!ab!e +or !i5*e+ie) ga$e$ at
a"bie#t te"perat*re$, a#) there+ore there wa$ #o #ee) to ha(e to!er-
ate) a !ea1y p*"p o# thi$ )*ty&
7& 't o#e ti"e "o$t acci)e#t$ were $ai) to be )*e to h*"a# error,
a#) i# a $e#$e they a!! are& %+ $o"eo#e, )e$ig#er, "a#ager, operator, or
"ai#te#a#ce wor1er ha) )o#e $o"ethi#g )i++ere#t!y, the acci)e#t
wo*!) #ot ha(e occ*rre)& owe(er, the ter" h"man error i$ #ot (ery
he!p+*! a$ )i++ere#t type$ o+ error re5*ire 5*ite )i++ere#t actio#$ to
pre(e#t their happe#i#g agai#& The +o!!owi#g c!a$$i+icatio# o+ error$ i$
reco""e#)e) a$ it he!p$ *$ $ee the type o+ actio# #ee)e) to pre(e#t
a repeat 9B!etK, n Engineer?s *iew of &"man Error, 3) e)&, %#$tit*-
tio# o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, ,#ite) Bi#g)o", a#) Tay!or a#) 6ra#-
ci$, 2001:&
a& -o"e error$, ca!!e) "i$ta1e$, are )*e to poor trai#i#g or i#$tr*c-
tio#$N$o"eo#e )i) #ot 1#ow what to )o& %t i$ a "a#age"e#t re$po#-
$ibi!ity to pro(i)e goo) trai#i#g a#) i#$tr*ctio#$ a#) a(oi)
i#$tr*ctio#$ that are )e$ig#e) to protect the writer rather tha# he!p
the rea)er& owe(er "a#y i#$tr*ctio#$ we write, prob!e"$ wi!! ari$e
that are #ot co(ere), a#) $o peop!e, partic*!ar!y operator$, $ho*!) be
trai#e) i# +!e/ibi!ity, i&e&, the abi!ity to )iag#o$e a#) ha#)!e *#+ore$ee#
$it*atio#$& %+ the i#$tr*ctio#$ are har) to +o!!ow, ca# the >ob be $i"p!i-
+ie)`
b0 -o"e acci)e#t$, ca!!e) (io!atio#$ or #o#co"p!ia#ce, occ*r
beca*$e $o"eo#e 1#ew what to )o b*t "a)e a )eci$io# #ot to )o it&
4e $ho*!), i+ po$$ib!e, $i"p!i+y the >ob 9i+ the correct "etho) i$ )i++i-
c*!t, a# i#correct o#e wi!! be *$e):A e/p!ai# the rea$o#$ +or the i#$tr*c-
tio#$A carry o*t chec1$ +ro" ti"e to ti"e to $ee that i#$tr*ctio#$ are
bei#g +o!!owe)A a#) #ot t*r# a b!i#) eye i+ they are #ot& 4hi!e $o"e
(io!atio#$ "a1e the >ob ea$ier, "a#y are "a)e by peop!e who thi#1
they ha(e +o*#) a better way o+ )oi#g the >ob& %+ i#$tr*ctio#$ are i#cor-
rect, a (io!atio# ca# pre(e#t a# acci)e#t&
The "etho)$ o+ beha(iora! $cie#ce ca# be *$e) to re)*ce (io!atio#$&
-pecia!!y trai#e) "e"ber$ o+ the wor1+orce 1eep their eye$ ope# a#)
tact+*!!y )raw the atte#tio# o+ +e!!ow wor1er$ to (io!atio#$ $*ch a$ +ai!-
*re$ to wear protecti(e c!othi#g& The$e tech#i5*e$ ca# re)*ce the
i#ci)e#ce o+ e(ery)ay acci)e#t$, b*t they ha(e !itt!e or #o i#+!*e#ce o#
proce$$ $a+ety&
c0 -o"e acci)e#t$N"i$"atche$Nocc*r beca*$e the >ob i$ beyo#)
the phy$ica! or "e#ta! abi!ity o+ the per$o# a$1e) to )o it, $o"eti"e$
beyo#) a#yo#e?$ abi!ity& 4e $ho*!) i"pro(e the p!a#t )e$ig# or
"etho) o+ wor1i#g&
%0 The +o*rth category i$ the co""o#e$t, a "o"e#tary $!ip or
!ap$e o+ atte#tio#& Thi$ happe#$ to e(eryo#e +ro" ti"e to ti"e a#)
ca##ot be pre(e#te) by te!!i#g peop!e to be "ore care+*!, te!!i#g the"
to 1eep their "i#)$ o# the >ob, or better trai#i#g& %# +act, $!ip$ a#)
!ap$e$ o+ atte#tio# occ*r o#!y whe# we are we!! trai#e)& 4e p*t o*r-
$e!(e$ o# a*topi!ot a#) carry o*t the ta$1 witho*t co#ti#*a!!y "o#itor-
i#g o*r progre$$, tho*gh we "ay chec1 it +ro" ti"e to ti"e& The$e
error$ are "ore !i1e!y to occ*r whe# we are )i$tracte) or $tre$$e)& To
a(oi) $!ip$ a#) !ap$e$ o+ atte#tio#, a!! we ca# )o i$ to cha#ge the p!a#t
)e$ig# or "etho) o+ wor1i#g $o a$ to re"o(e opport*#itie$ +or error
9or "i#i"iKe the co#$e5*e#ce$ or pro(i)e opport*#itie$ +or reco(-
ery:& 4e $ho*!), whe#e(er po$$ib!e, )e$ig# *$er-+rie#)!y p!a#t$ 9$ee
abo(e: that ca# with$ta#) error$ 9a#) e5*ip"e#t +ai!*re$: witho*t $*+-
+eri#g $erio*$ e++ect$ o# $a+ety 9a#) o*tp*t a#) e++icie#cy:& %t i$ "ore
e++ecti(e to cha#ge the beha(ior o+ e5*ip"e#t tha# to try to cha#ge
the beha(ior o+ peop!e&
4he# a# acci)e#t report $ay$ that a# acci)e#t wa$ )*e to h*"a#
error, the writer *$*a!!y "ea#$ a# error by a# operator or other +ro#t
!i#e wor1er& 0*t )e$ig#er$ a#) "a#ager$ a!$o "a1e error$, #ot $!ip$ or
!ap$e$ o+ atte#tio# a$ they *$*a!!y ha(e ti"e to chec1 their wor1, a$
we!! a$ "i$ta1e$ or, !e$$ o+te#, (io!atio#$&
%3S)%)4)%.3AL !!.&2
Mo$t acci)e#t$ occ*r #ot beca*$e we )o #ot 1#ow how to pre(e#t
the" b*t beca*$e we )o #ot *$e the i#+or"atio# that i$ a(ai!ab!e& The
reco""e#)atio#$ "a)e a+ter a# acci)e#t are +orgotte# whe# the peo-
p!e i#(o!(e) ha(e !e+t the p!a#tA the proce)*re$ they i#tro)*ce) are
a!!owe) to !ap$e, the e5*ip"e#t they i#$ta!!e) i$ #o !o#ger *$e), a#)
the acci)e#t happe#$ agai#& The +o!!owi#g actio#$ ca# pre(e#t or
re)*ce thi$ !o$$ o+ i#+or"atio#&
M %#c!*)e a #ote o# the rea$o# why i# e(ery i#$tr*ctio#, co)e, a#)
$ta#)ar) a$ we!! a$ acco*#t$ o+ acci)e#t$ that wo*!) #ot ha(e
occ*rre) i+ the i#$tr*ctio#, co)e, or $ta#)ar) ha) bee# +o!!owe)&
M Ee$cribe o!) acci)e#t$ a$ we!! a$ rece#t o#e$ i# $a+ety b*!!eti#$ a#)
#ew$!etter$, a#) )i$c*$$ the" at $a+ety "eeti#g$&
M 6o!!ow *p at reg*!ar i#ter(a!$ 9e&g&, )*ri#g a*)it$: to $ee that the
reco""e#)atio#$ "a)e a+ter acci)e#t$ are bei#g +o!!owe), i#
)e$ig# a$ we!! a$ operatio#$&
M Ma1e $*re that reco""e#)atio#$ +or cha#ge$ i# )e$ig# are accept-
ab!e to the )e$ig# orga#iKatio#&
M 3e"e"ber that the +ir$t $tep )ow# the roa) to a# acci)e#t i$
ta1e# whe# $o"eo#e t*r#$ a b!i#) eye to a "i$$i#g b!i#) 9or other
+eat*re:&
M ;# each *#it 1eep a "e"ory boo1, a +o!)er o+ report$ o# pa$t
acci)e#t$, which i$ co"p*!$ory rea)i#g +or #ew recr*it$ a#)
which other$ )ip i#to +ro" ti"e to ti"e& %t $ho*!) i#c!*)e re!e(a#t
report$ +ro" other co"pa#ie$ b*t $ho*!) #ot i#c!*)e c*t$ a#)
br*i$e$&
M Ge(er re"o(e e5*ip"e#t be+ore yo* 1#ow why it wa$ i#$ta!!e)&
Ge(er aba#)o# a proce)*re be+ore yo* 1#ow why it wa$ a)opte)&
M 4he# peop!e are "o(i#g to other >ob$ i# the co"pa#y or !ea(i#g it,
"a1e $*re that the re"ai#i#g e"p!oyee$ at a!! !e(e!$ ha(e a)e5*ate
1#ow!e)ge a#) e/perie#ce&
M %#c!*)e i"porta#t acci)e#t$ o+ the pa$t i# the trai#i#g o+
*#)ergra)*- ate$ a#) co"pa#y e"p!oyee$& The trai#i#g $ho*!) $tart
with acco*#t$ o+ acci)e#t$ that )e"o#$trate the #ee) +or co)e$,
$ta#)ar)$, or i#$tr*c- tio#$& '$1 a*)ie#ce "e"ber$ to $ay what they
think $ho*!) be )o#e to pre(e#t $i"i!ar acci)e#t$ +ro" happe#i#g
agai#& More wi!! be re"e"- bere) a+ter a )i$c*$$io# tha# a+ter a
!ect*re, a#) a*)ie#ce "e"ber$ are "ore !i1e!y to be co#(i#ce) whe#
they ha(e wor1e) o*t +or the"$e!(e$ the actio#$ that $ho*!) be ta1e#
9B!etK, ,essons from 3isaster<&ow Crgani'ations &ave /o
Memory an% cci%ents 4ec"r, %#$tit*tio# o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$,
3*gby, ,#ite) Bi#g)o", 1993, Chap& 10:& -*it- ab!e acci)e#t$ +or
)i$c*$$io# ca# be +o*#) i# boo1$ o+ acci)e#t ca$e hi$- torie$, b*t !oca!
acci)e#t$ ha(e the greate$t i"pact&
M There are "a#y )ataba$e$ o+ acci)e#t$ a$ we!! a$ boo1$ o+ ca$e hi$-
torie$, b*t they ha(e bee# !itt!e *$e)& 4e #ee) better retrie(a! $y$-
te"$ $o that we ca# +i#), "ore ea$i!y tha# at pre$e#t, )etai!$ o+ pa$t
acci)e#t$, i# o*r ow# a#) other co"pa#ie$, a#) the reco""e#)a-
tio#$ "a)e a+terwar)&
P&.CSS SAF)2 A3AL2S%S
"A5A&D A3AL2S%S
G3&AL &F&3CS7 '!ai"o, &an%book of Chemical &ealth an% $afety,
;/+or) ,#i(er$ity Cre$$, Gew @or1, 2001A Chemical E)pos"re !n%e), 2) e)&,
'%Ch., Gew @or1, 1994A Co*#ci! o+ the .*ropea# ,#io#, Eirecti(e 96J82J.C,
Prevention of Ma5or cci%ents, Eece"ber 9, 1996A CCH3', ("i%elines for
Chem- ical Process ="antitative 4isk nalysis, 2) e)&, CCC--'%Ch., Gew
@or1, 2000A Craw!ey, Cre$to#, a#) Ty!er, &PCP> ("i%e to +est Practice,
%Che"., 3*gby, 4arwic1$hire, ,&B&, 2002A Crow! a#) Fo*(ar, Chemical
Process $afety> F"n%a- mentals with pplications, 2) e)&, Cre#tice-a!!,
.#g!ewoo) C!i++$, G&L&, 2002A Eowe!!, <Ma#agi#g the C' Tea",= Process
$afety Progress 13, #o& 1, La#*ary
1994A 3ow Fire an% E)plosion !n%e), '%Ch., Gew @or1, La#*ary 1994A arri$,
Patty?s !n%"strial &ygiene, 5th e)&, 4i!ey, Gew @or1, 2000A ("i%elines for
3esign $ol"tions for Process E-"ipment Fail"res, '%Ch., Gew @or1, 1997A &EP
("i%e- lines for &a'ar% Eval"ation Proce%"res, 2) e)&, '%Ch., Gew @or1, 1992A
Loh#$o#, 3*)y, a#) ,#wi#, Essential Practices for Managing Chemical 4eactivity
&a'ar%s, '%Ch., Gew @or1, 2003A B#ow!to#, &a'ar% an% Cperability $t"%ies,
Che"etic$ %#ter#atio#a! Co&, Ft)&, Da#co*(er, 0riti$h Co!*"bia, 6ebr*ary 1989A
,CP ,ayer of Protection nalysis, '%Ch., Gew @or1, 2001A Ma##a#, ,ees? ,oss
Prevention in the Process !n%"stries, 0*tterworth-ei#e"a##, Fo#)o#, 2005A
Mo$!ey, Ge$$, a#) e#)er$hot, <-cree# 3eacti(e Che"ica! aKar)$ .ar!y i#
Croce$$ Ee(e!op"e#t,= Chemical Engineering Progress, 9691:, pp& 51O65A
G;'', Chemical 4eactivity Eorksheet, Der$io# 1&6, ,&-& Gatio#a! ;cea#ic a#)
't"o$pheric ')"i#i$tratio#,
2004 9http>GGresponse0restoration0noaa0govGchemai%sGreact0html :A -1e!to#, Process
$afety nalysis> n !ntro%"ction, G*!+ C*b!i$hi#g, o*$to#, Te/&, 1997A $*
("i%elines for naly'ing an% Managing the $ec"rity *"lnerabilities of Fi)e%
Chemical $ites, '%Ch., Gew @or1, 2003A Twee))a!e, Managing 4isk an%
4eliabil- ity of Process Plants& G*!+ Cro+e$$io#a!, o*$to#, Te/&, 2003A ,-.C',
<3i$1 Ma#- age"e#t Crogra"$ +or Che"ica! 'cci)e#ta! 3e!ea$e Cre(e#tio#
3e5*ire"e#t$,=
40 C63 68A ,&-& ;-', <Croce$$ -a+ety Ma#age"e#t o+ igh!y aKar)o*$
Che"ica!$, ./p!o$i(e$ a#) 0!a$ti#g 'ge#t$,= 29 C63 1910&119A 4e!!$, &a'ar%
!%entification an% 4isk ssessment, %Che"., 3*gby, 4arwic1$hire, ,&B&, 1996&
%ntro#uction The "ea#i#g o+ ha'ar% i$ o+te# co#+*$e) with risk0
&a'ar% i$ )e+i#e) a$ the i#here#t pote#tia! o+ a "ateria! or acti(ity to
har" peop!e, property, or the e#(iro#"e#t& aKar) )oe$ #ot ha(e a
probabi!ity co"po#e#t&
There are )i++ere#ce$ i# ter"i#o!ogy o# the "ea#i#g o+ risk i# the
p*b!i$he) !iterat*re that ca# !ea) to co#+*$io#& 4isk ha$ bee# )e+i#e)
i# (ario*$ way$ 9CCH3', 2000, pp& 5, 6:& %# thi$ e)itio# o+ the ha#)-
boo1, risk i$ )e+i#e) a$ <a "ea$*re o+ h*"a# i#>*ry, e#(iro#"e#ta!
)a"age, or eco#o"ic !o$$ i# ter"$ o+ both the i#ci)e#t !i1e!ihoo) a#)
"ag#it*)e o+ the i#>*ry, )a"age, or !o$$&= 4isk i"p!ie$ a probabi!ity o+
$o"ethi#g occ*rri#g&
Definitions of )er/s 6o!!owi#g are $o"e )e+i#itio#$ that are
*$e+*! i# *#)er$ta#)i#g the co"po#e#t$ o+ haKar)$ a#) ri$1&
A&&ident ' $peci+ic co"bi#atio# o+ e(e#t$ or circ*"$ta#ce$ that
!ea)$ to a# *#)e$irab!e co#$e5*e#ce&
A&ute #a,ard The pote#tia! +or i#>*ry or )a"age to occ*r a$ a
re$*!t o+ a $hort-)*ratio# e/po$*re to the e++ect$ o+ a# acci)e#t&
Cause-&onsequen&e ' proce)*re *$i#g )iagra"$ to i!!*$trate
the ca*$e$ a#) co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ a partic*!ar $ce#ario& They are #ot
wi)e!y *$e) beca*$e, e(e# +or $i"p!e $y$te"$, )i$p!ayi#g a!! ca*$e$
a#) o*tco"e$ !ea)$ to (ery co"p!e/ )iagra"$&
C#emi&al Exposure Index (CEI) ' "etho) o+ rati#g the re!a-
ti(e pote#tia! o+ ac*te hea!th haKar) to peop!e +ro" po$$ib!e che"ica!
re!ea$e i#ci)e#t$, )e(e!ope) by Eow Che"ica! Co"pa#y&
C#roni& #a,ard The pote#tia! +or i#>*ry or )a"age to occ*r a$ a
re$*!t o+ pro!o#ge) e/po$*re to a# *#)e$irab!e co#)itio#&
Consequen&e The )irect, *#)e$irab!e re$*!t o+ a# acci)e#t, *$*-
a!!y "ea$*re) i# hea!th a#) $a+ety e++ect$, e#(iro#"e#ta! i"pact$, !o$$
o+ property, or b*$i#e$$ co$t$&
Consequen&e anal"sis ;#ce haKar)$ a#) $peci+ic i#ci)e#t $ce#ar-
io$ thro*gh which tho$e haKar)$ "ight i"pact peop!e, the e#(iro#"e#t,
or property ha(e bee# i)e#ti+ie), "etho)$ e/i$t +or a#a!yKi#g their co#-
$e5*e#ce$ 9$iKe o+ (apor c!o*), b!a$t )a"age ra)i*$, o(erpre$$*re
e/pecte), etc&:& Thi$ i$ i#)epe#)e#t o+ +re5*e#cy or probabi!ity&
omino effe&t '# i#ci)e#t which $tart$ i# o#e piece o+ e5*ip"e#t
a#) a++ect$ other #earby ite"$, $*ch a$ (e$$e!$ co#tai#i#g haKar)o*$
"ateria!$, by ther"a! b!a$t or +rag"e#t i"pact& Thi$ ca# !ea) to e$ca!a-
tio# o+ co#$e5*e#ce$ or +re5*e#cy o+ occ*rre#ce& Thi$ i$ a!$o 1#ow# a$
a knock-on effect0
Event '# occ*rre#ce i#(o!(i#g e5*ip"e#t per+or"a#ce or h*"a#
actio# or a# occ*rre#ce e/ter#a! to the $y$te" that ca*$e$ $y$te" *p$et&
'# e(e#t i$ a$$ociate) with a# i#ci)e#t, either a$ a ca*$e or a co#trib*t-
i#g ca*$e o+ the i#ci)e#t, or a$ a re$po#$e to a# i#itiati#g e(e#t&
Event tree ' graphica! !ogic "o)e! that i)e#ti+ie$ a#) pote#tia!!y
5*a#ti+ie$ po$$ib!e o*tco"e$ +o!!owi#g a# i#itiati#g e(e#t&
!ailure mode and effe&t anal"sis (!%EA) ' haKar) i)e#ti+ica-
tio# tech#i5*e i# which a!! 1#ow# +ai!*re "o)e$ o+ co"po#e#t$ or
+eat*re$ o+ a $y$te" are co#$i)ere) i# t*r# a#) *#)e$ire) o*tco"e$
are #ote)& %t i$ o+te# *$e) i# co"bi#atio# with haKar) a#) operabi!ity
9'W;C: $t*)ie$ or +a*!t tree a#a!y$i$&
!ault tree ' graphica! !ogic "o)e! +or repre$e#ti#g the co"bi#a-
tio#$ o+ (ario*$ $y$te" $tate$ which !ea) to a partic*!ar o*tco"e,
1#ow# a$ the top event0
!ire and Explosion Index (!<EI) ' haKar) i#)e/ )e(e!ope) by
Eow Che"ica! Co"pa#y *$e) to ra#1 +ire a#) e/p!o$io# haKar)$ i# a
che"ica! proce$$&
1a,ard '# i#here#t phy$ica! or che"ica! characteri$tic that ha$
the pote#tia! +or ca*$i#g har" to peop!e, the e#(iro#"e#t, or prop-
erty&
1A='$ (1A=ard and '$erabilit" stud") ' +or"a! haKar)
i)e#ti+icatio# a#) e(a!*atio# proce)*re ba$e) o# the app!icatio# o+
g*i)e wor)$ to i)e#ti+y po$$ib!e )e(iatio#$ +ro" the i#te#)e) operatio#
o+ the proce$$&
In&ident The !o$$ o+ co#tai#"e#t o+ "ateria! or e#ergy, e&g&, a
!ea1 o+ a +!a""ab!e a#) to/ic ga$&
Intera&tion matrix ' two-)i"e#$io#a! "atri/ !i$ti#g a!! co"po-
#e#t$ o+ i#tere$t o# the ) a#) y a/e$ a#) recor)i#g the co#$e5*e#ce$
o+ "i/i#g o+ the$e co"po#e#t$ +or each co"bi#atio# o+ the co"po-
#e#t$& %t i$ *$e+*! +or i)e#ti+yi#g che"ica! reactio# haKar)$ a#) i#co"-
patibi!itie$&
La"er-of-prote&tion anal"sis (L'$A) ' "etho), ba$e) o#
e(e#t tree a#a!y$i$, o+ e(a!*ati#g the e++ecti(e#e$$ o+ i#)epe#)e#t
protectio# !ayer$ i# re)*ci#g the !i1e!ihoo) or $e(erity o+ a# *#)e$ire)
e(e#t&
$ro&ess #a,ard anal"sis ($1A) '#y o+ a #*"ber o+ tech#i5*e$
+or *#)er$ta#)i#g a#) "a#agi#g the ri$1 o+ a che"ica! proce$$ or
p!a#t& ./a"p!e$ o+ C' tech#i5*e$ i#c!*)e 'W;C, chec1!i$t$, what-
i+ "etho)$, +a*!t tree a#a!y$i$, e(e#t tree a#a!y$i$, a#) other$&
Process "a,ar# Analysis &e$ulations %# the ,#ite) -tate$,
the ;-' r*!e +or Croce$$ -a+ety Ma#age"e#t 9C-M: o+ igh!y
To/ic aKar)o*$ Che"ica!$, 29 C63 1910&119, part 9e:, re5*ire$ a#
i#itia! C' a#) a# *p)ate e(ery 5 year$ +or proce$$e$ that ha#)!e
!i$te) che"ica!$ or co#tai# o(er 10,000 !b 94356 1g: o+ +!a""ab!e
"ateria!& The C' "*$t be )o#e by a tea", "*$t i#c!*)e e"p!oyee$
$*ch a$ operator$ a#) "echa#ic$, a#) "*$t ha(e at !ea$t o#e per$o#
$1i!!e) i# the "etho)o!ogy e"p!oye)& -*gge$te) "etho)o!ogie$ +ro"
Croce$$ -a+ety Ma#age"e#t are !i$te) i# Tab!e 23-20& The C' "*$t
co#$i)er haKar)$ !i$te) i# the C-M 3*!e, part 9e:, i#c!*)i#g i#+or"a-
tio# +ro" pre(io*$ i#ci)e#t$ with pote#tia! +or cata$trophic co#$e-
5*e#ce$, e#gi#eeri#g a#) a)"i#i$trati(e co#tro!$ a#) co#$e5*e#ce$
o+ their +ai!*re, +aci!ity $iti#g, a#) h*"a# +actor$& Co#$e5*e#ce$ o+
+ai!*re o+ co#tro!$ "*$t be co#$i)ere)& The 1ey to goo) C' )oc*-
"e#tatio# i$ to )o it right away whi!e the i#+or"atio# i$ +re$h& Cerio)ic
+o!!ow-*p o+ the C' $t*)y i$ #ee)e) by "a#age"e#t a#) $a+ety pro-
+e$$io#a!$ to co#+ir" that a!! reco""e#)atio#$ ha(e bee# a))re$$e)&
The C' "*$t be re(iewe) a$ part o+ the "a#age"e#t o+ cha#ge
proce)*re$ whe# the +aci!ity i$ "o)i+ie) i# a#y way& 9Eowe!!, 1994,
pp& 30O34&:
'$ re5*ire) by the C!ea# 'ir 'ct '"e#)"e#t$ o+ 1990, the ,-.C'
"a#)ate$ a 3i$1 Ma#age"e#t Crogra" 93MC: +or !i$te) $*b$ta#ce$
940 C63 68:& 3MC re5*ire$ 91: a haKar) a$$e$$"e#t that )etai!$ the
pote#tia! e++ect$ o+ a# acci)e#ta! re!ea$e, a# acci)e#t hi$tory o+ the !a$t
5 year$, a#) a# e(a!*atio# o+ wor$t-ca$e a#) a!ter#ati(e acci)e#ta!
re!ea$e$A 92: a pre(e#tio# progra" that i#c!*)e$ $a+ety preca*tio#$
a#) "ai#te#a#ce, "o#itori#g, a#) e"p!oyee trai#i#g "ea$*re$A a#)
93: a# e"erge#cy re$po#$e progra" that $pe!!$ o*t e"erge#cy hea!th
care, e"p!oyee trai#i#g "ea$*re$, a#) proce)*re$ +or i#+or"i#g the
p*b!ic a#) re$po#$e age#cie$, $ho*!) a# acci)e#t occ*r&
Mo$t co*#trie$ a!$o ha(e reg*!atio#$ a#a!ogo*$ to the ,&-& reg*!a-
tio#$& 6or e/a"p!e, the .*ropea# ,#io# i$$*e) the <-e(e$o %%= Eirec-
ti(e i# 1996 9rep!aci#g the origi#a! 1982 )irecti(e: which re5*ire$ a!!
"e"ber $tate$ to i"p!e"e#t reg*!atio#$ +or the co#tro! o+ "a>or acci-
)e#t haKar)$& '!$o, i# a))itio# to the ,&-& go(er#"e#t re5*ire"e#t$,
)ABL 2302E Process "a,ar# Analysis !etho#s Liste#
in the .S"A Process Safety !ana$e/ent &ule
M 4hat-i+
M Chec1!i$t
M 4hat-i+Jchec1!i$t
M aKar) a#) operabi!ity $t*)y 9'W;C:
M 6ai!*re "o)e a#) e++ect a#a!y$i$ 96M.':
M 6a*!t tree a#a!y$i$ 96T':
M '# appropriate e5*i(a!e#t "etho)o!ogy
-;,3C.2 Eowe!!, 1994, pp& 30O34&
"a#y $tate a#) !oca! go(er#"e#t$ ha(e i"p!e"e#te) reg*!atio#$
re5*iri#g proce$$ haKar) a#a!y$i$ a#) ri$1 "a#age"e#t&
"a,ar# %#entification an# Analysis )ools The haKar) a#) ri$1
a$$e$$"e#t too!$ *$e) (ary with the $tage o+ the pro>ect +ro" the ear!y
)e$ig# $tage to p!a#t operatio#$& Ma#y tech#i5*e$ are a(ai!ab!e& %# the
+o!!owi#g )i$c*$$io#, they wi!! be categoriKe) a$ haKar) i)e#ti+icatio#
a#) a#a!y$i$ too!$, haKar) ra#1i#g "etho)$, a#) !ogic "o)e! "etho)$&
3e(iew$ )o#e ear!y i# pro>ect$ o+te# re$*!t i# ea$ier, "ore e++ecti(e
cha#ge$&
(afet"/ 1ealt#/ Environmental/ and Loss $revention -evie*s
Mo$t che"ica! co"pa#ie$ ha(e $peci+ic i#ter#a! protoco!$ )e+i#i#g
the$e re(iew$, which "ay ha(e )i++ere#t #a"e$ or )e$criptio#$ i# )i+-
+ere#t orga#iKatio#$& %# "o$t orga#iKatio#$, the$e re(iew$ are co#-
)*cte) at (ario*$ $tage$ i# the proce$$ !i+e cyc!e, +ro" i#itia! proce$$
co#cept*a!iKatio#, thro*gh !aboratory )e(e!op"e#t, $ca!e-*p, p!a#t
)e$ig#, $tart-*p, operatio#, "o)i+icatio#, a#) $h*t)ow#& The $cope
a#) +oc*$ o+ the re(iew wi!! be )i++ere#t at )i++ere#t $tage$ i# )e(e!-
op"e#t, with re(iew$ ear!y i# proce$$ )e(e!op"e#t +oc*$i#g o# "a>or
haKar)$ a#) $trategie$ +or "a#agi#g the ri$1$& '$ the proce$$ a#) p!a#t
beco"e c!ear!y )e+i#e), the re(iew$ wi!! +oc*$ "ore o# )etai!$ o+ the
)e$ig# a#) operatio#& The p*rpo$e o+ the re(iew$ i$ to ha(e a# i#)e-
pe#)e#t 9+ro" the )e(e!op"e#t, )e$ig#, or operatio# tea": e(a!*a-
tio# o+ the proce$$ a#) !ayo*t +ro" $a+ety, i#)*$tria! hygie#e,
e#(iro#"e#ta!, a#) !o$$ pre(e#tio# poi#t$ o+ (iew& %t i$ o+te# )e$irab!e
to co"bi#e the$e re(iew$ to i"pro(e the e++icie#cy o+ the *$e o+ ti"e
+or the re(iewer$ 9&EP Chap$& 4&1, 4&4, 6&1, 6&4, 13:&
C#e&)lists Chec1!i$t$ are $i"p!e "ea#$ o+ app!yi#g e/perie#ce to
)e$ig#$ or $it*atio#$ to e#$*re that the +eat*re$ appeari#g i# the !i$t
are #ot o(er!oo1e)& Chec1!i$t$ te#) to be ge#era! a#) "ay #ot be
appropriate to a $peci+ic $it*atio#& They "ay #ot ha#)!e a)e5*ate!y
the #o(e! )e$ig# or *#*$*a! proce$$& 9&EP, Chap$& 4&2, 6&2, 16, 20:&
The CCC- 3esign $ol"tions for Process E-"ipment Fail"res 91997:
pro(i)e$ a *$e+*! $et o+ chec1!i$t$ +or co""o# che"ica! proce$$i#g
e5*ip"e#t&
4#at-if 't each proce$$ $tep, what-i+ 5*e$tio#$ are +or"*!ate)
a#) a#$were) to e(a!*ate the e++ect$ o+ co"po#e#t +ai!*re$ or proce-
)*ra! error$& Thi$ tech#i5*e re!ie$ o# the e/perie#ce !e(e! o+ the 5*e$-
tio#er& 4hat-i+ "etho)$ are o+te# *$e) i# co#>*#ctio# with chec1!i$t$
9&EP Chap$& 4&5, 4&6, 6&5, 6&6, 12, 20:&
!ailure %ode and Effe&t Anal"sis (!%EA) Thi$ i$ a $y$te"atic
$t*)y o+ the ca*$e$ o+ +ai!*re$ a#) their e++ect$& '!! ca*$e$ or "o)e$ o+
+ai!*re are co#$i)ere) +or each e!e"e#t o+ a $y$te", a#) the# a!! po$-
$ib!e o*tco"e$ or e++ect$ are recor)e) 9&EP Chap$& 4&8, 6&8, 19:&
-ea&tive C#emistr" -evie*s The proce$$ che"i$try i$ re(iewe)
+or e(i)e#ce o+ e/other"$, $hoc1 $e#$iti(ity, a#) other i#$tabi!ity, with
e"pha$i$ o# po$$ib!e e/other"ic reactio#$& The p*rpo$e o+ thi$ re(iew
i$ to pre(e#t *#e/pecte) a#) *#co#tro!!e) che"ica! reactio#$& 3e(iew-
er$ $ho*!) be 1#ow!e)geab!e peop!e i# the +ie!) o+ reacti(e che"ica!$
a#) i#c!*)e peop!e +ro" !o$$ pre(e#tio#, "a#*+act*ri#g, a#) re$earch&
The CCC- Essential Practices for Managing Chemical 4eactivity &a'-
ar%s pro(i)e$ a *$e+*! protoco! +or i)e#ti+yi#g che"ica! reacti(ity haK-
ar)$ 9Loh#$o# et a!&, 2003:& ' $erie$ o+ 5*e$tio#$ abo*t the che"ica!
ha#)!i#g operatio#$ a#) the "ateria!$ are *$e) to )eter"i#e i+ there
are po$$ib!e reacti(ity haKar)$& 6ig*re 23-18 $*""ariKe$ the CCC-
protoco! +or i)e#ti+yi#g reactio# haKar)$&
Intera&tion %atrix (Compatibilit" C#art) '# i#teractio#
"atri/ i$ a too! +or i)e#ti+yi#g a#) *#)er$ta#)i#g pote#tia! haKar)$,
i#c!*)i#g reactio# haKar)$, +ro" co"bi#atio#$ o+ "ateria!$ 9&EP,
1992, Chap$& 3&3, 11&3:& The "o$t co""o# repre$e#tatio# i$ a two-
)i"e#$io#a! "atri/, !i$ti#g a!! co"po#e#t$ o+ i#tere$t 9i#c!*)i#g, e&g&,
che"ica!$A "ateria!$ o+ co#$tr*ctio#A pote#tia! co#ta"i#a#t$A e#(iro#-
"e#ta! co#ta"i#a#t$ $*ch a$ air, r*$t, or waterA *ti!itie$:& The co#$e-
5*e#ce$ o+ "i/i#g the "ateria!$ +or each row-co!*"# i#ter$ectio# are
i)e#ti+ie)& 6ig*re 23-19 i$ a# e/a"p!e o+ a# i#teractio# "atri/&
Loh#$o# et a!& 92003: )e$cribe the *$e o+ the i#teractio# "atri/, a#)
Mo$!ey et a!& 92000: pro(i)e a $peci+ic e/a"p!e& The ,&-& Gatio#a!
;cea#ic a#) 't"o$pheric ')"i#i$tratio# 9G;'': ha$ )e(e!ope) a
co"p*ter too!, the Chemical 4eactivity Eorksheet, which ca# ge#erate
a# i#teractio# "atri/ +or "ateria!$ i# the progra"?$ )ataba$e 9G;'',
2004:&
Industrial 1"giene -evie*s The$e re(iew$ e(a!*ate the pote#-
tia! o+ a proce$$ to ca*$e har" to the hea!th o+ peop!e& The re(iew
F%G. 2301D CCC- pre!i"i#ary $cree#i#g +or che"ica! reacti(ity haKar)$& PFrom Johnson et al0 #9776.; copyright
!ChE; repro%"ce% with permission0Q
#or"a!!y )ea!$ with chro#ic e++ect$ o+ e/po$*re to che"ica!$ a#) other
har"+*! age#t$ 9e&g&, #oi$e, heat, repetiti(e "otio#: i# the wor1p!ace&
Chapter 44 o+ Patty?s !n%"strial &ygiene re(iew$ i#)*$tria! hygie#e
$*r(ey proce)*re$&
!a&ilities -evie*s There are "a#y 1i#)$ o+ +aci!itie$ re(iew$
that are *$e+*! i# )etecti#g a#) pre(e#ti#g proce$$ $a+ety prob!e"$&
They i#c!*)e pre$tart-*p re(iew$ 9be+ore the p!a#t operate$:, #ew-
p!a#t re(iew$ 9the p!a#t ha$ $tarte), b*t i$ $ti!! #ew:, re(iew$ o+ e/i$t-
i#g p!a#t$ 9$a+ety, tech#o!ogy, a#) operatio#$ a*)it$ a#) re(iew$:,
"a#age"e#t re(iew$, critica! i#$tr*"e#t re(iew$, a#) haKar)o*$
"ateria!$ tra#$portatio# re(iew$&
1A='$ 9&EP, 1992, Chap$& 4&7, 6&7, 14, 18A B#ow!to#, 1989A
Fee$, 2005A CCH3', 2000, pp& 583O587:& 'W;C i$ a +or"a! haKar)
i)e#ti+icatio# a#) e(a!*atio# proce)*re )e$ig#e) to i)e#ti+y haKar)$
to peop!e, proce$$ p!a#t$, a#) the e#(iro#"e#t& The tech#i5*e$ ai" to
$ti"*!ate, i# a $y$te"atic way, the i"agi#atio# o+ )e$ig#er$ a#) peop!e
F%G. 2301C ypothetica! co"patibi!ity chart& 9Copyright $TM !nternational0 4eprinte% with permission0:
who operate p!a#t$ or e5*ip"e#t to i)e#ti+y pote#tia! haKar)$&
'W;C $t*)ie$ a$$*"e that a haKar) or operati#g prob!e" ca# ari$e
whe# there i$ a )e(iatio# +ro" the )e$ig# or operati#g i#te#tio#&
'ctio#$ to correct i)e#ti+ie) haKar) or operatio#a! $ce#ario$ ca# the#
be ta1e# be+ore a rea! i#ci)e#t occ*r$& The pri"ary goa! i# per+or"-
i#g a 'W;C $t*)y i$ to i)e#ti+y, #ot a#a!yKe or 5*a#ti+y, the haKar)$
i# a proce$$& The e#) pro)*ct o+ a 'W;C i$ a !i$t o+ co#cer#$ a#)
reco""e#)atio#$ +or pre(e#tio# o+ prob!e"$, #ot a# a#a!y$i$ o+ the
occ*rre#ce, +re5*e#cy, o(era!! e++ect$, a#) the )e+i#ite $o!*tio#& '
'W;C $t*)y i$ "o$t co$t-e++ecti(e whe# )o#e )*ri#g p!a#t )e$ig#N
it i$ ea$ier a#) cheaper to cha#ge a )e$ig# tha# to "o)i+y a# e/i$ti#g
p!a#t& owe(er, 'W;C i$ a (a!*ab!e proce$$ haKar) a#a!y$i$ too! at
a#y $tage i# the !i+e cyc!e o+ a p!a#t&
The$e $t*)ie$ "a1e *$e o+ the co"bi#e) e/perie#ce a#) trai#i#g o+
a gro*p o+ 1#ow!e)geab!e peop!e i# a $tr*ct*re) $etti#g& -o"e 1ey
'W;C ter"$ are a$ +o!!ow$&
Intention ow the part or proce$$ i$ e/pecte) to operate&
.uide *ords -i"p!e wor)$ *$e) to 5*a!i+y the i#te#tio# i# or)er
to g*i)e a#) $ti"*!ate creati(e thi#1i#g a#) $o )i$co(er )e(iatio#$&
Tab!e 23-21 )e$cribe$ co""o#!y *$e) g*i)e wor)$&
eviations Eepart*re$ +ro" the i#te#tio# )i$co(ere) by $y$te"-
atic app!icatio# o+ g*i)e wor)$&
Causes 3ea$o#$ that )e(iatio#$ "ight occ*r&
Consequen&es 3e$*!t$ o+ )e(iatio#$ i+ they occ*r&
(afeguards Cre(e#tio#, "itigatio#, a#) co#tro! +eat*re$ which
a!rea)y e/i$t i# the p!a#t, or which are a!rea)y i#corporate) i# a #ew
)e$ig#&
A&tions Cre(e#tio#, "itigatio#, a#) co#tro! +eat*re$ which )o
#ot c*rre#t!y e/i$t a#) are reco""e#)e) by the 'W;C tea"&
'ctio#$ "ay a!$o i#c!*)e reco""e#)atio#$ +or a))itio#a! $t*)y i+ the
'W;C tea" )oe$ #ot ha(e $*++icie#t i#+or"atio#, or ti"e to *#)er-
$ta#) a co#cer# $*++icie#t!y to "a1e a $peci+ic reco""e#)atio#&
)ABL 23021 So/e "A5.P Gui#e Wor#s 4se# in Con@unction with Process Para/eters
G*i)e wor) Mea#i#g$ Co""e#t$
/o, /ot, /one Co"p!ete #egatio# o+ )e$ig# i#te#tio#$ Go part o+ i#te#tio# i$ achie(e) a#) #othi#g e!$e occ*r$
More H*a#titati(e i#crea$e$ H*a#titie$ a#) re!e(a#t phy$ica! propertie$ $*ch a$ +!ow rate$, heat, pre$$*re
,ess H*a#titati(e )ecrea$e$ o+ a#y re!e(a#t -a"e a$ abo(e
phy$ica! para"eter$
s well as H*a!itati(e i#crea$e '!! )e$ig# a#) operati#g i#te#tio#$ are achie(e) a$ we!! a$ $o"e a))itio#a! acti(ity
Part of ' 5*a!itati(e )ecrea$e -o"e part$ o+ the i#te#tio# are achie(e), other$ are #ot
4everse Fogica! oppo$ite o+ i#te#tio# 'cti(itie$ $*ch a$ re(er$e +!ow or che"ica! reactio#, or poi$o# i#$tea) o+ a#ti)ote
Cther than Co"p!ete $*b$tit*tio# Go part o+ i#te#tio# i$ achie(e)A $o"ethi#g 5*ite )i++ere#t happe#$
-;,3C.2 B#ow!to#, 1989&
The 'W;C $t*)y i$ #ot co"p!ete *#ti! re$po#$e to actio#$ ha$ bee#
)oc*"e#te)& %#itia! 'W;C p!a##i#g $ho*!) e$tab!i$h the "a#age-
"e#t +o!!ow-*p proce)*re that wi!! be *$e)&
The g*i)e wor)$ are *$e) i# co#>*#ctio# with the proce$$ i#te#-
tio#$ to ge#erate po$$ib!e )e(iatio#$ +ro" the i#te#)e) operatio# 9$ee
Tab!e 23-21:& -o"e e/a"p!e$ o+ )e(iatio#$ that "ight be ge#erate) i#
the co*r$e o+ a 'W;C $t*)y i#c!*)e
M Go +!ow
M 3e(er$e +!ow
M Fe$$ +!ow
M %#crea$e) te"perat*re
M Eecrea$e) te"perat*re
M Co"po$itio# cha#ge
M -a"p!i#g
M Corro$io#Jero$io#
The 'W;C tea" the# )eter"i#e$ the $peci+ic ca*$e$ o+ each )e(ia-
tio#A e&g&, #o +!ow o+ a partic*!ar "ateria! i# a $peci+ie) pipe "ight
i#c!*)e ca*$e$ $*ch a$ a "a#*a! (a!(e i"proper!y c!o$e), p*"p $top$,
pipe p!*gge) with $o!i)$, etc& The 'W;C tea" the# )eter"i#e$ the
co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ the )e(iatio# +or each ca*$e a#) 5*a!itati(e!y )eci)e$
the "ag#it*)e o+ haKar)& The tea" i)e#ti+ie$ a#y e/i$ti#g $a+eg*ar)$
i# the p!a#t or )e$ig# a#) 5*a!itati(e!y >*)ge$ whether they are a)e-
5*ate& %+ the tea" )eter"i#e$ that a))itio#a! $a+eg*ar)$ are re5*ire),
it "ay reco""e#) $peci+ic actio#$& The tea" "ay )eter"i#e that the
i$$*e re5*ire$ greater $t*)y tha# ca# be acco""o)ate) i# the ti"e
+ra"e o+ a 'W;C "eeti#g a#) reco""e#) "ore e/te#$i(e e(a!*a-
tio# to )eter"i#e i+ +*rther actio# i$ #ee)e), a#) what that actio#
$ho*!) be&
Ma#y 'W;C $t*)ie$ i#corporate a 5*a!itati(e e(a!*atio# o+ ri$1 to
a$$i$t the tea" i# e(a!*ati#g the a)e5*acy o+ e/i$ti#g $a+eg*ar)$, a#)
the #ee) +or a))itio#a! $a+eg*ar)$& Thi$ i#(o!(e$ co#$tr*cti#g a ri$1
"atri/, $*ch a$ the o#e $how# i# 6ig& 23-20& The tea" )eter"i#e$,
ba$e) o# it$ 1#ow!e)ge o+ the p!a#t, e/perie#ce, a#) e#gi#eeri#g
>*)g"e#t, which o+ the $e(era! co#$e5*e#ce a#) !i1e!ihoo) categorie$
i# the ri$1 "atri/ be$t )e$cribe the partic*!ar )e(iatio#-ca*$e-co#$e-
5*e#ce $e5*e#ce *#)er co#$i)eratio#& -ce#ario$ with high co#$e-
5*e#ce a#) high +re5*e#cy repre$e#t a !arge ri$1, tho$e with !ow
!i1e!ihoo) a#) co#$e5*e#ce are o+ !ow ri$1& '# orga#iKatio# ca# *$e
the "atri/ to e$tab!i$h g*i)e!i#e$ +or which o+ the bo/e$ i# the ri$1
"atri/ re5*ire actio#&
'W;C $t*)ie$ "ay be "a)e o# batch a$ we!! a$ co#ti#*o*$
proce$$e$& 6or a co#ti#*o*$ proce$$, the wor1i#g )oc*"e#t i$ *$*a!!y
a $et o+ +!ow $heet$ or pipi#g a#) i#$tr*"e#t )iagra"$ 9CR%E$:& 0atch
proce$$e$ ha(e a#other )i"e#$io#2 ti"e& Ti"e i$ *$*a!!y #ot $ig#i+i-
ca#t with a co#ti#*o*$ proce$$ that i$ operati#g $"ooth!y, a!tho*gh
$tart-*p a#) $h*t)ow# "*$t a!$o be co#$i)ere), whe# the co#ti#*o*$
proce$$ wi!! re$e"b!e a batch proce$$& 6or batch proce$$e$, the wor1-
i#g )oc*"e#t$ co#$i$t #ot o#!y o+ the +!ow $heet$ or CR%E$ b*t a!$o
F%G. 2302E ./a"p!e o+ C' 5*a!itati(e ri$1 "atri/&
)ABL 23022 "A5.P Gui#e Wor#s Associate# with )i/e
G*i)e wor) Mea#i#g
/o time -tep9$: "i$$e)
More time -tep )oe$ #ot occ*r whe# it $ho*!)
,ess time -tep occ*r$ be+ore pre(io*$ $tep i$ +i#i$he)
Erong time 6!ow or other acti(ity occ*r$ whe# it $ho*!) #ot
-;,3C.2 B#ow!to#, 1989&
the operati#g proce)*re$& ;#e "etho) to i#corporate thi$ +o*rth
)i"e#$io# i$ to *$e g*i)e wor)$ a$$ociate) with ti"e, $*ch a$ tho$e
)e$cribe) i# Tab!e 23-22&
'W;C $t*)ie$ i#(o!(e tea" "e"ber$, at !ea$t $o"e o+ who" ha(e
ha) e/perie#ce i# the p!a#t )e$ig# to be $t*)ie)& The$e tea" "e"-
ber$ app!y their e/perti$e to achie(e the ai"$ o+ 'W;C& There are
+o*r o(era!! ai"$ to which a#y 'W;C $t*)y $ho*!) be a))re$$e)2
1& %)e#ti+y a$ "a#y )e(iatio#$ a$ po$$ib!e +ro" the way the )e$ig#
i$ e/pecte) to wor1, their ca*$e$, a#) prob!e"$ a$$ociate) with the$e
)e(iatio#$&
2& Eeci)e whether actio# i$ re5*ire), a#) i)e#ti+y way$ i# which
the prob!e" ca# be $o!(e)&
3& %)e#ti+y ca$e$ i# which a )eci$io# ca##ot be "a)e i""e)iate!y,
a#) )eci)e what i#+or"atio# or actio# i$ re5*ire)&
4& .#$*re that re5*ire) actio#$ are +o!!owe) thro*gh&
The tea" !ea)er i$ a 1ey to the $*cce$$ o+ a 'W;C $t*)y a#)
$ho*!) ha(e a)e5*ate trai#i#g +or the >ob& Croper p!a##i#g i$ i"por-
ta#t to $*cce$$& The !ea)er i$ act*a!!y a +aci!itator 9a )i$c*$$io# !ea)er
a#) o#e who 1eep$ the "eeti#g$ o# trac1: who$e +aci!itati#g $1i!!$ are
>*$t a$ i"porta#t a$ tech#ica! 1#ow!e)ge& The !ea)er o*t!i#e$ the
bo*#)arie$ o+ the $t*)y a#) e#$*re$ that the )e$ig# i#te#tio# i$ c!ear!y
*#)er$too)& The !ea)er app!ie$ g*i)e wor)$ a#) e#co*rage$ the tea"
to )i$c*$$ ca*$e$, co#$e5*e#ce$, a#) po$$ib!e re"e)ia! actio#$ +or
each )e(iatio#& Cro!o#ge) )i$c*$$io#$ o+ how a prob!e" "ay be
$o!(e) $ho*!) be a(oi)e)& %)ea!!y, the tea" !ea)er $ho*!) be acco"-
pa#ie) by a $cribe or recor)er, +reei#g the !ea)er +or +*!!-ti"e +aci!i-
tati#g& The $cribe $ho*!) ta1e #ote$ i# )etai! +or +*!! recor)i#g o+ a$
"*ch o+ the "eeti#g a$ i$ #ece$$ary to capt*re the i#te#t o+ actio#$
a#) reco""e#)atio#$&
Ma#y co"pa#ie$ o++er co"p*ter too!$ to he!p +aci!itate a#) )oc*-
"e#t 'W;C $t*)ie$&
Tea" $iKe i$ i"porta#t& a(i#g +ewer tha# three co#trib*ti#g "e"-
ber$, e/c!*)i#g the $ecretary a#) !ea)er, wi!! probab!y re)*ce tea"
e++ecti(e#e$$& ' tea" $iKe o+ +i(e to eight, i#c!*)i#g the !ea)er a#)
$cribe, i$ probab!y opti"*"& The ti"e re5*ire) +or 'W;C $t*)ie$ i$
$ig#i+ica#t& %t ha$ bee# e$ti"ate) that each !i#e or no%e 9a #o)e i$ *$*-
a!!y a !i#e or a# ite" o+ e5*ip"e#t: "ay re5*ire i# the ra#ge o+ 30
"i#
+or a# e/perie#ce) tea", a!tho*gh the ti"e "ay (ary wi)e!y )epe#)-
i#g o# the co"p!e/ity o+ the $y$te"& %t $ho*!) be recog#iKe) that the
ti"e re5*ire) +or 'W;C $t*)ie$ "ay #ot rea!!y be a))itio#a! ti"e
+or the pro>ect a$ a who!e, partic*!ar!y i+ $tarte) ear!y e#o*gh i# the
)e$ig#, a#) "ay act*a!!y $a(e ti"e o# the pro>ect& %t a!$o $ho*!) "a1e
po$$ib!e $"oother $tart-*p$ a#) "a1e the proce$$ or p!a#t $a+er a#)
ea$ier to operate, which wi!! "ore tha# pay bac1 the co$t o+ the
'W;C $t*)y )*ri#g the !i+e o+ the p!a#t&
"a,ar# &ankin$ !etho#s aKar) ra#1i#g "etho)$ 9&EP,
1992, Chap$& 4&3, 6&3: a!!ow the a#a!y$t to co"pare the haKar)$ o+
$e(era! proce$$e$, p!a#t$, or acti(itie$& They ca# be *$e) to co"pare
a!ter#ati(e che"ica! proce$$ ro*te$, p!a#t )e$ig#$, p!a#t $iti#g
optio#$, or other )e$ig# choice$& aKar) ra#1i#g "etho)$ ca# a!$o be
*$e+*! +or prioritiKi#g +aci!itie$ +or a))itio#a! ri$1 "a#age"e#t $t*)ie$&
They ge#era!!y pro)*ce a #*"erica! $core +or the proce$$ bei#g e(a!-
*ate)& The $core$ ge#era!!y )o #ot ha(e *#it$ a#) are o#!y "ea#i#g+*!
re!ati(e to each other i# the co#te/t o+ the haKar) i#)e/ bei#g *$e)&
-o"e o+ the "ore co""o#!y *$e) haKar) ra#1i#g "etho)$ are brie+!y
)i$c*$$e)&
>!$A (tandard ("stem for Identifi&ation of 1ealt#/ !lamma-
bilit"/ -ea&tivit"/ and -elated 1a,ards 9G6C' 704, 2001: Thi$
pri#te) "ateria! i$ #ot the co"p!ete a#) o++icia! po$itio# o+ the
Gatio#a! 6ire Crotectio# '$$ociatio# o# the re+ere#ce) $*b>ect, which
i$ repre$e#te) o#!y by the $ta#)ar) i# it$ e#tirety&
)ABL 23023 3FPA BE8 Syste/ for %#entification of "a,ar#s
Eegree
o+
haKar)
ea!th haKar)
co!or co)e2
b!*e
6!a""abi!ity haKar)
co!or co)e2
re)
%#$tabi!ity haKar)
co!or co)e2 ye!!ow
4 Materia!$ that, *#)er Materia!$ that wi!! rapi)!y or co"p!ete!y Materia!$ that i# the"$e!(e$
e"erge#cy (aporiKe at at"o$pheric pre$$*re a#) are rea)i!y capab!e o+
co#)itio#$, ca# be #or"a! a"bie#t te"perat*re or that are )eto#atio# or e/p!o$i(e
!etha! rea)i!y )i$per$e) i# air a#) wi!! b*r# )eco"po$itio# or e/p!o$i(e
rea)i!y& reactio# at #or"a!
te"perat*re$ a#) pre$$*re$&
3 Materia!$ that, *#)er Fi5*i)$ a#) $o!i)$ that ca# be ig#ite) Materia!$ that i# the"$e!(e$
e"erge#cy *#)er a!"o$t a!! a"bie#t te"perat*re are capab!e o+ )eto#atio# or
co#)itio#$, ca# ca*$e co#)itio#$& Materia!$ i# thi$ )egree e/p!o$i(e )eco"po$itio# or
$erio*$ or per"a#e#t pro)*ce haKar)o*$ at"o$phere$ with air e/p!o$i(e reactio#, b*t that
i#>*ry *#)er a!"o$t a!! a"bie#t te"perat*re$ or, re5*ire a $tro#g i#itiati#g
tho*gh *#a++ecte) by a"bie#t $o*rce or that "*$t be
te"perat*re$, are rea)i!y ig#ite) heate) *#)er co#+i#e"e#t
*#)er a!"o$t a!! co#)itio#$& be+ore i#itiatio#&
2 Materia!$ that, *#)er Materia!$ that "*$t be "o)erate!y heate) Materia!$ that rea)i!y
e"erge#cy or e/po$e) to re!ati(e!y high a"bie#t *#)ergo (io!e#t che"ica!
co#)itio#$, ca# ca*$e te"perat*re$ be+ore ig#itio# ca# occ*r& cha#ge at e!e(ate)
te"porary Materia!$ i# thi$ )egree wo*!) #ot, *#)er te"perat*re$ a#) pre$$*re$&
i#capacitatio# or #or"a! co#)itio#$, +or" haKar)o*$
re$i)*a! i#>*ry at"o$phere$ with air, b*t *#)er high
a"bie#t te"perat*re$ or *#)er "o)erate
heati#g co*!) re!ea$e (apor i# $*++icie#t
5*a#titie$ to pro)*ce haKar)o*$
at"o$phere$ with air&
1 Materia!$ that, *#)er Materia!$ that "*$t be preheate) be+ore Materia!$ that i# the"$e!(e$
e"erge#cy ig#itio# ca# occ*r& Materia!$ i# thi$ are #or"a!!y $tab!e, b*t that
co#)itio#$, ca# ca*$e )egree re5*ire co#$i)erab!e preheati#g, ca# beco"e *#$tab!e at
$ig#i+ica#t irritatio# *#)er a!! a"bie#t te"perat*re co#)itio#$, e!e(ate) te"perat*re$ a#) pre$$*re$&
be+ore ig#itio# a#) co"b*$tio# ca#
occ*r&
0 Materia!$ that, *#)er Materia!$ that wi!! #ot b*r# *#)er typica! Materia!$ that i# the"$e!(e$
e"erge#cy +ire co#)itio#$, i#c!*)i#g i#tri#$ica!!y are #or"a!!y $tab!e, e(e#
co#)itio#$, wo*!) #o#co"b*$tib!e "ateria!$ $*ch a$ *#)er +ire co#)itio#$&
o++er #o haKar) co#crete, $to#e, a#) $a#)&
beyo#) that o+
or)i#ary co"b*$tib!e
"ateria!$
-;,3C.2 3epri#te) with per"i$$io# +ro" G6C' 704, $tan%ar% $ystem for the !%entification of the Fire &a'ar%s of Materi-
als, Gatio#a! 6ire Crotectio# '$$ociatio#, H*i#cy, Ma$$&, 2001& Thi$ pri#te) "ateria! i$ #ot the co"p!ete a#) o++icia! po$itio#
o+ the Gatio#a! 6ire Crotectio# '$$ociatio# o# the re+ere#ce) $*b>ect, which i$ repre$e#te) o#!y by the $ta#)ar) i# it$ e#tirety&
Thi$ i$ a brie+ $*""ary o+ G6C' 704 which a))re$$e$ haKar)$ that
"ay be ca*$e) by $hort-ter" e/po$*re to a "ateria! )*ri#g ha#)!i#g
*#)er co#)itio#$ o+ +ire, $pi!!, or $i"i!ar e"erge#cie$& Thi$ $ta#)ar)
pro(i)e$ a $i"p!e, ea$i!y recog#iKe) a#) *#)er$too) $y$te" o+ "ar1-
i#g$& The ob>ecti(e i$ to pro(i)e o#-the-$pot i)e#ti+icatio# o+ haK-
ar)o*$ "ateria!$& The "ar1i#g$ pro(i)e a ge#era! i)ea o+ the haKar)$
o+ a "ateria! a#) the $e(erity o+ the$e haKar)$ a$ they re!ate to ha#-
)!i#g, +ire protectio#, e/po$*re, a#) co#tro!& Thi$ $ta#)ar) i$ #ot
app!icab!e to tra#$portatio# or to *$e by the ge#era! p*b!ic& %t i$ a!$o
#ot app!icab!e to chro#ic e/po$*re& 6or a +*!! )e$criptio# o+ thi$ $ta#-
)ar), re+er to G6C' 704&
The $y$te" i)e#ti+ie$ the haKar)$ o+ a "ateria! i# +o*r pri#cipa! cat-
egorie$2 hea!th, +!a""abi!ity, reacti(ity, a#) *#*$*a! haKar)$ $*ch a$
reacti(ity with water& The )egree o+ $e(erity o+ hea!th, +!a""abi!ity,
a#) reacti(ity i$ i#)icate) by a #*"erica! rati#g that ra#ge$ +ro" 0 9#o
haKar): to 4 9$e(ere haKar):& Tab!e 23-23 )e$cribe$ the characteri$tic$
a$$ociate) with the (ario*$ rati#g$A +or a )etai!e) )e$criptio# o+ the
)egree o+ $e(erity rati#g$, $ee G6C' 704& The i#+or"atio# i$ pre-
$e#te) i# a $5*are-o#-poi#t 9)ia"o#): +ie!) o+ #*"erica! rati#g$, e&g&,
a$ $how# i# 6ig$& 23-21 thro*gh 23-23& %#+or"atio# i$ pre$e#te) a$
+o!!ow$2
M ea!th rati#g i# b!*e at #i#e o?c!oc1
M 6!a""abi!ity rati#g i# re) at twe!(e o?c!oc1
M 3eacti(ity haKar) rati#g i# ye!!ow at three o?c!oc1
M ,#*$*a! haKar)$ at $i/ o?c!oc1
Materia!$ that )e"o#$trate *#*$*a! reacti(ity with water are i)e#ti-
+ie) a$ 4, a#) "ateria!$ that po$$e$$ o/i)iKi#g propertie$ $ha!! be
i)e#- ti+ie) by the !etter$ ;I& ;ther $pecia! haKar) $y"bo!$ "ay be
*$e) to i)e#ti+y ra)ioacti(e haKar)$, corro$i(e haKar)$, $*b$ta#ce$
that are to/ic to +i$h, a#) $o o#& The *$e o+ thi$ $y$te" pro(i)e$ a
$ta#)ar) "etho) o+ i)e#ti+yi#g the re!ati(e )egree o+ haKar) that i$
co#tai#e) i# (ario*$ ta#1$, (e$$e!$, a#) pipe!i#e$&
!ire and Explosion Index (!<EI) 93ow Fire an% E)plosion
!n%e) &a'ar% Classification ("i%e, 1994A Ma##a#, 2005, pp& 8J13O
8J22&:
F%G. 23021 G6C' 704 haKar) rati#g$ +or *$e where $peci+ie) co!or bac1-
gro*#) i$ *$e) with #*"era!$ o+ co#tra$ti#g co!or$& 9/FP ;7I, 977@0:
F%G. 23022 6or *$e where white bac1gro*#) i$ *$e)& 9/FP ;7I, 977@0:
The 6R.% i$ *$e) to rate the pote#tia! o+ haKar) +ro" +ire$ a#) e/p!o-
$io#$& %t$ p*rpo$e i$ to 5*a#ti+y )a"age +ro" a# i#ci)e#t& %t i)e#ti+ie$
e5*ip"e#t that co*!) co#trib*te to a# i#ci)e#t a#) way$ to "itigate
po$$ib!e i#ci)e#t$& %t i$ a way to co""*#icate to "a#age"e#t the
5*a#titati(e haKar) pote#tia!& The 6R.% "ea$*re$ rea!i$tic "a/i"*"
!o$$ pote#tia! *#)er a)(er$e operati#g co#)itio#$& %t i$ ba$e) o# 5*a#-
ti+iab!e )ata& %t i$ )e$ig#e) +or +!a""ab!e, co"b*$tib!e, a#) reacti(e
"ateria!$ that are $tore), ha#)!e), or proce$$e)& %t )oe$ #ot a))re$$
+re5*e#cy 9ri$1: e/cept i#)irect!y, #or )oe$ it a))re$$ $peci+ic haKar)$
to peop!e e/cept i#)irect!y& The goa!$ o+ the 6R.% are to rai$e aware-
#e$$ o+ !o$$ pote#tia! a#) i)e#ti+y way$ to re)*ce pote#tia! $e(erity
a#) pote#tia! )o!!ar !o$$ i# a co$t-e++ecti(e "a##er& The i#)e/ #*"ber
ha$ $ig#i+ica#ce a$ a co"pari$o# a#) i# ca!c*!atio#$ to e$ti"ate the
ma)im"m probable property %amage 9MCCE:& %t a!$o pro(i)e$ a
"etho) +or "ea$*ri#g the e++ect o+ o*tage 9p!a#t bei#g $h*t )ow#: o#
the b*$i#e$$& %t i$ ea$y +or *$er$ to get cre)ib!e re$*!t$ with a $"a!!
a"o*#t o+ trai#i#g&
C#emi&al Exposure Index (CEI) 9Chemical E)pos"re !n%e),
1994A Ma##a#, 2005, pp& 8J22O8J26&: The C.% pro(i)e$ a "etho) o+
rati#g the re!ati(e pote#tia! o+ ac*te hea!th haKar) to peop!e +ro" po$-
$ib!e che"ica! re!ea$e i#ci)e#t$& %t "ay be *$e) +or prioritiKi#g i#itia!
proce$$ haKar) a#a!y$i$ a#) e$tab!i$hi#g the )egree o+ +*rther a#a!y$i$
#ee)e)& The C.% a!$o "ay be *$e) a$ part o+ the $ite re(iew proce$$&
The $y$te" pro(i)e$ a "etho) o+ ra#1i#g o#e ri$1 re!ati(e to a#other&
%t i$ #ot i#te#)e) to )e+i#e a partic*!ar co#tai#"e#t $y$te" a$ $a+e or
*#$a+e, b*t pro(i)e$ a way o+ co"pari#g to/ic haKar)$& %t )ea!$ with
ac*te, #ot chro#ic, re!ea$e$& 6!a""abi!ity a#) e/p!o$io# haKar)$ are
#ot i#c!*)e) i# thi$ i#)e/& To )e(e!op a C.%, i#+or"atio# #ee)$
i#c!*)e
F%G. 23023 6or *$e where white bac1gro*#) i$ *$e) or +or $ig#$ or p!acar)$&
9/FP ;7I, 977@0:
M '# acc*rate p!ot p!a# o+ the p!a#t a#) $*rro*#)i#g area
M ' $i"p!i+ie) proce$$ +!ow $heet $howi#g co#tai#"e#t (e$$e!$, "a>or
pipi#g, a#) 5*a#tity o+ che"ica!$
M Chy$ica!, che"ica!, a#) to/ico!ogica! propertie$ o+ the che"ica!$
M Croce$$ (ariab!e$ $*ch a$ pre$$*re$, te"perat*re$, a#) 5*a#titie$ o+
"ateria!$
(ubstan&e 1a,ard Index The -*b$ta#ce aKar) %#)e/ 9-%:
wa$ )e(e!ope) +or *$e by ,&-& ;-' +or ra#1i#g "ateria! haKar)$
)*ri#g the )e(e!op"e#t o+ the ;-' Croce$$ -a+ety Ma#age"e#t
reg*!atio#$& -% i$ )e+i#e) a$ <the e5*i!ibri*" (apor co#ce#tratio#
9.DC: o+ a "ateria! at 20UC )i(i)e) by a# ac*te to/icity co#ce#tra-
tio#&= -% i$ a "ea$*re o+ the abi!ity o+ a re!ea$e) "ateria! to be
tra#$-
porte) thro*gh the air a#) i"pact peop!e& The .DC i$ )e+i#e) a$ the
(apor pre$$*re o+ the "ateria! at 20UC d 10
6
760& Ei++ere#t orga#iKa-
tio#$ *$i#g the -% "ay *$e )i++ere#t to/icity "ea$*re$, +or e/a"p!e,
.3CG-3, %EF, or '.GF&
Consequen&e-Based -an)ing ("stems 3e!ea$e co#$e5*e#ce
"o)e!i#g ca# be *$e) to ra#1 pote#tia! che"ica! haKar)$& 6or e/a"-
p!e, the ,-.C'?$ 3MC reg*!atio#$ re5*ire co#$e5*e#ce "o)e!i#g +or
a pre)e+i#e) wor$t-ca$e $ce#arioNre!ea$e o+ the e#tire co#te#t$ o+
the !arge$t co#tai#er o+ a "ateria! i# 10 "i#& .C' pro(i)e$ !oo1*p
tab!e$ a#) $o+tware 93MCCo"p: to a$$i$t i# e$ti"ati#g the haKar) )i$-
ta#ce$ +or "ateria!$ co(ere) by the 3MC reg*!atio#$&
Lo$ic !o#el !etho#s The +o!!owi#g too!$ are "o$t co""o#!y
*$e) i# 5*a#titati(e ri$1 a#a!y$i$, b*t ca# a!$o be *$e+*! 5*a!itati(e!y
to
*#)er$ta#) the co"bi#atio#$ o+ e(e#t$ which ca# ca*$e a# acci)e#t&
The
!ogic "o)e!$ ca# a!$o be *$e+*! i# *#)er$ta#)i#g how protecti(e
$y$te"$
i"pact (ario*$ pote#tia! acci)e#t $ce#ario$& The$e "etho)$ wi!! be thor-
o*gh!y )i$c*$$e) i# the <3i$1 '#a!y$i$= $*b$ectio#& '!$o, haKar) i)e#ti+i-
catio# a#) e(a!*atio# too!$ )i$c*$$e) i# thi$ $ectio# are (a!*ab!e
prec*r$or$ to a 5*a#titati(e ri$1 a#a!y$i$ 9H3':& Ge#era!!y a H3'
5*a#-
ti+ie$ the ri$1 o+ haKar) $ce#ario$ which ha(e bee# i)e#ti+ie) by *$i#g
too!$ $*ch a$ tho$e )i$c*$$e) abo(e&
M 6a*!t tree a#a!y$i$
M .(e#t tree a#a!y$i$
M Ca*$e-co#$e5*e#ce )iagra"
M Fayer-o+-protectio# a#a!y$i$ 9F;C':
&%S+ A3AL2S%S
G3&AL &F&3CS7 ("i%elines for Chemical Process ="antitative 4isk
nalysis, 2) e)&, CCC--'%Ch., Gew @or1, 2000& 're#)t, <Ma#age"e#t o+
H*a#titati(e 3i$1 '$$e$$"e#t i# the Che"ica! Croce$$ %#)*$try,= Plant Cper-
ations Progress, (o!& 9, #o& 4, '%Ch., Gew @or1, ;ctober 1990& CM', <'
Ma#ager?$ G*i)e to H*a#titati(e 3i$1 '$$e$$"e#t,= Che"ica! Ma#*+act*r-
er$? '$$ociatio#, Eece"ber 1989& .6C., <3i$1 '#a!y$i$ i# the Croce$$
%#)*$trie$,= .*ropea# 6e)eratio# o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eeri#g, C*b!icatio#
-erie$ #o& 45, 1985& Fee$, ,oss Prevention in the Process !n%"stries 2) e)&,
0*tterworth$, 0o$to#, 1996& 4or!) 0a#1, Man"al of !n%"strial &a'ar%
ssessment Techni-"es, ;++ice o+ .#(iro#"e#ta! a#) -cie#ti+ic '++air$,
4or!) 0a#1, 4a$hi#gto#, E&C&, 1985& ("i%elines for Chemical Transportation
4isk nalysis, CCC--'%Ch., Gew @or1, 1995&
F&643C2 S)%!A)%.3 &F&3CS7 ("i%elines for Process E-"ipment
4eliability 3ata, CCC--'%Ch., Gew @or1, 1989& 0i!!i#gto# a#) '!!a#, 4eliabil-
ity Eval"ation of Engineering $ystems> Concepts an% Techni-"es, C!e#*" Cre$$,
Gew @or1, 1983& 6*$$e!!, Cower$, a#) 0e##ett$, <6a*!t Tree$2 ' -tate o+ the 'rt
Ei$c*$$io#,= !EEE Transactions on 4eliability, 1974& 3obert$, G& & et a!&, Fa"lt
Tree &an%book, G,3.G-0492, 4a$hi#gto#, E&C& -wai# a#) G*tt"a##, &an%-
book of &"man 4eliability nalysis with Emphasis on /"clear Power Plant
pplications, G,3.GJC3-1278, ,-G3C, 4a$hi#gto#, E&C&, 1983&
C.3S643C S)%!A)%.3 &F&3CS7 ("i%elines for Use of *apor
Clo"% 3ispersion Mo%els, CCC--'%Ch., Gew @or1, 1987& TG;, Metho%s for
the Cal- c"lation of the Physical Effects of the Escape of 3angero"s Materials>
,i-"i%s an% (ases 9<The @e!!ow 0oo1=:, 'pe!)oor#, The Gether!a#)$, 1979&
Un%erstan%ing E)plosions, CCC--'%Ch., Gew @or1, 2003& ("i%elines for
Eval"ating the Char- acteristics of *apor Clo"% E)plosions, CCC--'%Ch., Gew
@or1, 1994& ("i%elines for Use of *apor Clo"% 3ispersion Mo%els, 2) e)&,
CCC--'%Ch., Gew @or1,
1996& ("i%elines for Conse-"ence nalysis of Chemical 4eleases, CCC--'%Ch.,
Gew @or1, 1999& Tech#ica! 3eport #o& 55, Techni-"es for ssessing !n%"strial
&a'ar%s, 4or!) 0a#1, 4a$hi#gto#, 1988&
&%S+ S)%!A)%.3 &F&3CS7 ea!th a#) -a+ety ./ec*ti(e, Canvey<n
!nvestigation of Potential &a'ar%s from the Cperations in the Canvey
!slan%JTh"rrock rea, M-;, Fo#)o#, 1978& 3a$"*$$e#, 4eactor $afety
$t"%y> n ssessment of cci%ent 4isk in U0$0 Commercial /"clear Power
Plants, 4'--1400 G,3.G 75J014, 4a$hi#gto#, E&C&, 1975& 3i>#"o#) C*b-
!ic '*thority, 4isk nalysis of : Potentially &a'ar%o"s !n%"strial Cb5ects in
the 4i5nmon% rea< Pilot $t"%y, E& 3ei)e!, 0o$to#, 1982& Co#$i)i#e, The
ssessment of !n%ivi%"al an% $ocietal 4isks, -3E 3eport 3-310, -a+ety a#)
3e!iabi!ity Eirectorate, ,B'.', 4arri#gto#, 1984& 0ayb*tt, <,#certai#ty i#
3i$1 '#a!y$i$,= Co#+ere#ce o# Mathe"atic$ i# Ma>or 'cci)e#t 3i$1 '$$e$$"e#t,
,#i(er$ity o+ ;/+or), ,&B&, 1986&
&%S+ C&%)&%A A3D &%S+ DC%S%.3 !A+%3G7 '!e, <The %"p!e"e#tatio# o+ a#
./ter#a! -a+ety Co!icy i# the Gether!a#)$,= !ntl0 Conference on &a'ar% !%entifi-
cation an% 4isk nalysis, &"man Factors an% 4eliability in Process $afety,
'%Ch., Gew @or1, pp& 173O183, 1992A Gib$o#, <aKar) '#a!y$i$ a#) 3i$1 Cri-
teria,= Chemical Engineering Progress, Go(& 1980, pp& 46O50A Gib$o#, <The ,$e
o+ 3i$1 Criteria i# the Che"ica! %#)*$try,= Trans0 of !ChemE ;@, Ct& 0, pp&
117O123, 1993A ea!th a#) -a+ety ./ec*ti(e, 4e%"cing 4isks Protecting People,
&$E?s 3ecision Making Process, -. 0oo1$, Fo#)o#, 2001A e!"er$ a#)
-cha!!er, <Ca!c*!ate) Croce$$ 3i$1$ a#) ea!th Ma#age"e#t,= Plant Cperations
Progress, 1, #o& 3, pp& 190O194, 1982A 3e#$haw, <' Ma>or 'cci)e#t Cre(e#tio#
Crogra",= Plant Cperations Progress, 9, #o& 3, pp& 194O197, 1990A Ci1aar a#)
-ea"a#, 4eview of 4isk Control, Woeter"eer, Mi#i$terie D3;M, Gether-
!a#)$, 1995A Tools for Making c"te 4isk 3ecisions with Chemical Process
$afety !mplications, CCC--'%Ch., Gew @or1, 1995A a"" a#) -chwartK,
<%$$*e$ a#) -trategie$ i# 3i$1 Eeci$io# Ma1i#g,= !ntl0 Process $afety Manage-
ment Conference an% Eorkshop, -a# 6ra#ci$co, '%Ch., Gew @or1, pp&
351O371, 1993&
%ntro#uction The pre(io*$ $ectio#$ )ea!t with tech#i5*e$ +or
5*a!itati(e haKar) a#a!y$i$ o#!y& Thi$ $ectio# a))re$$e$ the 5*a#tita-
ti(e "etho)o!ogie$ a(ai!ab!e to a#a!yKe a#) e$ti"ate ri$1, which i$ a
+*#ctio# o+ both the co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ a# i#ci)e#t a#) it$ +re5*e#cy&
The app!icatio# o+ the$e "etho)o!ogie$ i# "o$t i#$ta#ce$ i$ #ot tri(ia!&
' $ig#i+ica#t a!!ocatio# o+ re$o*rce$ i$ #ece$$ary& There+ore, a $e!ec-
tio# proce$$ or ri$1 prioritiKatio# proce$$ i$ a)(i$e) be+ore co#$i)eri#g
a ri$1 a#a!y$i$ $t*)y&
%"porta#t )e+i#itio#$ are a$ +o!!ow$&
A&&epted ris) The ri$1 i$ co#$i)ere) to!erab!e +or a gi(e# acti(ity
by tho$e re$po#$ib!e +or "a#agi#g or reg*!ati#g the operatio# o+ a
haKar)o*$ +aci!ity& The ter" acceptable risk ha$ o+te# bee# *$e), b*t
thi$ i#e(itab!y rai$e$ the 5*e$tio#, <'cceptab!e to who"`= Twee))a!e
9Managing 4isk an% 4eliability of Process Plants, G*!+ Cro+e$$io#a!,
o*$to#, Te/, 2003, p& 70: $*gge$t$ that accepte% risk i$ a better ter"
beca*$e it "a1e$ it c!ear that the ri$1 ha$ bee# accepte) by tho$e
re$po#$ib!e +or the )eci$io#$ o# how to b*i!), operate, a#) reg*!ate
the +aci!ity&
Event sequen&e ' $peci+ic, *#p!a##e) $e5*e#ce o+ e(e#t$ co"-
po$e) o+ i#itiati#g e(e#t$ a#) i#ter"e)iate e(e#t$ that "ay !ea) to a#
i#ci)e#t&
!requen&" The rate at which ob$er(e) or pre)icte) e(e#t$
occ*r&
In&ident out&ome The phy$ica! o*tco"e o+ a# i#ci)e#tA e&g&, a
!ea1 o+ a +!a""ab!e a#) to/ic ga$ co*!) re$*!t i# a >et +ire, a (apor
c!o*) e/p!o$io#, a (apor c!o*) +ire, or a to/ic c!o*)&
$robabilit" The !i1e!ihoo) o+ the occ*rre#ce o+ e(e#t$, the (a!-
*e$ o+ which ra#ge +ro" 0 to 1&
$robabilit" anal"sis 4ay to e(a!*ate the !i1e!ihoo) o+ a# e(e#t
occ*rri#g& 0y *$i#g +ai!*re rate )ata +or e5*ip"e#t, pipi#g, i#$tr*-
"e#t$, a#) +a*!t tree tech#i5*e$, the +re5*e#cy 9#*"ber o+ e(e#t$ per
*#it ti"e: ca# be 5*a#titati(e!y e$ti"ate)&
$robit model ' "athe"atica! "o)e! o+ )o$age a#) re$po#$e i#
which the )epe#)e#t (ariab!e 9re$po#$e: i$ a probit #*"ber that i$
re!ate) thro*gh a $tati$tica! +*#ctio# )irect!y to a probabi!ity&
6uantitative ris) assessment (6-A) The $y$te"atic )e(e!op-
"e#t o+ #*"erica! e$ti"ate$ o+ the e/pecte) +re5*e#cy a#) co#$e-
5*e#ce o+ pote#tia! acci)e#t$ a$$ociate) with a +aci!ity or a# operatio#&
,$i#g co#$e5*e#ce a#) probabi!ity a#a!y$e$ a#) other +actor$ $*ch a$
pop*!atio# )e#$ity a#) e/pecte) weather co#)itio#$, H3' e$ti"ate$
the +ata!ity rate +or a gi(e# $et o+ e(e#t$&
-is) ' "ea$*re o+ eco#o"ic !o$$ or h*"a# i#>*ry i# ter"$ o+
both i#ci)e#t !i1e!ihoo) 9+re5*e#cy: a#) the "ag#it*)e o+ the !o$$ or
i#>*ry 9co#$e5*e#ce:&
-is) anal"sis The )e(e!op"e#t o+ a# e$ti"ate o+ ri$1 ba$e) o#
e#gi#eeri#g e(a!*atio# a#) "athe"atica! tech#i5*e$ +or co"bi#i#g
e$ti"ate$ o+ i#ci)e#t co#$e5*e#ce$ a#) +re5*e#cie$& %#ci)e#t$ i# the
co#te/t o+ the )i$c*$$io# i# thi$ chapter are ac*te e(e#t$ which i#(o!(e
!o$$ o+ co#tai#"e#t o+ "ateria! or e#ergy&
-is) assessment The proce$$ by which re$*!t$ o+ a ri$1 a#a!y$i$
are *$e) to "a1e )eci$io#$, either thro*gh a re!ati(e ra#1i#g o+ ri$1
re)*ctio# $trategie$ or thro*gh co"pari$o# with ri$1 target$& The
ter"$ risk analysis a#) risk assessment are o+te# *$e) i#tercha#geab!y
i# the !iterat*re&
' typica! haKar) i)e#ti+icatio# proce$$, $*ch a$ a haKar) a#) oper-
abi!ity 9'W;C: $t*)y, i$ $o"eti"e$ *$e) a$ a $tarti#g poi#t +or $e!ec-
tio# o+ pote#tia! "a>or ri$1$ +or ri$1 a#a!y$i$& ;ther $e!ectio# or
$cree#i#g proce$$e$ ca# a!$o be app!ie)& owe(er "a>or ri$1$ are cho-
$e#, a 'W;C $t*)y i$ a goo) $tarti#g poi#t to )e(e!op i#+or"atio#
+or the ri$1 a#a!y$i$ $t*)y& ' "a>or ri$1 "ay 5*a!i+y +or ri$1 a#a!y$i$ i+
the "ag#it*)e o+ the i#ci)e#t i$ pote#tia!!y 5*ite !arge 9high pote#tia!
co#$e5*e#ce: or i+ the +re5*e#cy o+ a $e(ere e(e#t i$ >*)ge) to be high
9high pote#tia! +re5*e#cy: or both& ' +!owchart which )e$cribe$ a po$-
$ib!e proce$$ +or ri$1 a#a!y$i$ i$ $how# i# 6ig& 23-24&
The co"po#e#t$ o+ a ri$1 a#a!y$i$ i#(o!(e the e$ti"atio# o+ the +re-
5*e#cy o+ a# e(e#t, a# e$ti"atio# o+ the co#$e5*e#ce$, a#) the $e!ec-
tio# a#) ge#eratio# o+ the e$ti"ate o+ ri$1 it$e!+&
' ri$1 a#a!y$i$ ca# ha(e a (ariety o+ pote#tia! goa!$2
1& To $cree# or brac1et a #*"ber o+ ri$1$ i# or)er to prioritiKe
the" +or po$$ib!e +*t*re $t*)y
2& To e$ti"ate ri$1 to e"p!oyee$
3& To e$ti"ate ri$1 to the p*b!ic
4& To e$ti"ate +i#a#cia! ri$1
5& To e(a!*ate a ra#ge o+ ri$1 re)*ctio# "ea$*re$
6& To "eet !ega! or reg*!atory re5*ire"e#t$
7& To a$$i$t i# e"erge#cy p!a##i#g
The $cope o+ a $t*)y re5*ire) to $ati$+y the$e goa!$ wi!! be )epe#)e#t
*po# the e/te#t o+ the ri$1, the )epth o+ the $t*)y re5*ire), a#) the
!e(e! o+ re$o*rce$ a(ai!ab!e 9"athe"atica! "o)e!$ a#) too!$ a#) $1i!!e)
peop!e to per+or" the $t*)y a#) a#y i#ter#a! or e/ter#a! co#$trai#t$:&
' ri$1 a#a!y$i$ ca# be app!ie) to +i/e) +aci!itie$ or tra#$portatio#
"o(e"e#t$, a!tho*gh "*ch o+ the atte#tio# to)ay $ti!! ce#ter$ o# the
+or"er& %# a +i/e)-+aci!ity ri$1 a#a!y$i$, H3' ca# ai) ri$1 "a#age"e#t
)eci$io#$ with re$pect to
1& Che"ica! proce$$e$
2& Croce$$ e5*ip"e#t
3& ;perati#g proce)*re$
4& Che"ica! i#(e#torie$
5& -torage co#)itio#$
%# a tra#$portatio# ri$1 a#a!y$i$ 9T3':, the ri$1 para"eter$ are
"ore e/te#$i(e, b*t "ore re$tricti(e i# $o"e way$& ./a"p!e$ o+ ri$1
para"eter$ that co*!) be co#$i)ere) are
1& '!ter#ate "o)e$ o+ tra#$port
2& 3o*te$
3& Tra(e! re$trictio#$
4& -hip"e#t $iKe
5& -hippi#g co#)itio#$ 9e&g&, pre$$*re, te"perat*re:
6& Co#tai#er )e$ig#
7& ,#it $iKe 9e&g&, b*!1 (er$*$ )r*"$:
The ob>ecti(e o+ a ri$1 a#a!y$i$ i$ to re)*ce the !e(e! o+ ri$1 wher-
e(er practica!& M*ch o+ the be#e+it o+ a ri$1 a#a!y$i$ co"e$ +ro" the
)i$cip!i#e which it i"po$e$ a#) the )etai!e) *#)er$ta#)i#g o+ the
"a>or co#trib*tor$ o+ the ri$1 that +o!!ow$& There i$ ge#era! agree"e#t
that i+ ri$1$ ca# be i)e#ti+ie) a#) a#a!yKe), the# "ea$*re$ +or ri$1
re)*ctio# ca# be e++ecti(e!y $e!ecte)&
The e/perti$e re5*ire) i# carryi#g o*t a ri$1 a#a!y$i$ i$ $*b$ta#tia!&
'!tho*gh (ario*$ $o+tware progra"$ are a(ai!ab!e to ca!c*!ate the +re-
5*e#cy o+ e(e#t$ or their co#$e5*e#ce$, or e(e# ri$1 e$ti"ate$, e#gi-
#eeri#g >*)g"e#t a#) e/perie#ce are $ti!! (ery "*ch #ee)e) to
pro)*ce "ea#i#g+*! re$*!t$& '#) a!tho*gh pro+e$$io#a! co*r$e$ are
a(ai!ab!e i# thi$ $*b>ect area, there i$ a $ig#i+ica#t !ear#i#g c*r(e
re5*ire) #ot o#!y +or e#gi#eer$ to beco"e practice) ri$1 a#a!y$t$, b*t
a!$o +or "a#age"e#t to be ab!e to *#)er$ta#) a#) i#terpret the
re$*!t$& 6or the$e rea$o#$, it "ay be *$e+*! to *ti!iKe a co#$*!ta#t orga-
#iKatio# i# thi$ +ie!)&
The a#a!y$i$ o+ a ri$1Nthat i$, it$ e$ti"atio#N!ea)$ to the a$$e$$-
"e#t o+ that ri$1 a#) the )eci$io#-"a1i#g proce$$e$ o+ $e!ecti#g the
F%G. 23028 ;#e (er$io# o+ a ri$1 a#a!y$i$ proce$$& 9CCP$-!ChE, @ABA, p0 @6, by permission0:
appropriate !e(e! o+ ri$1 re)*ctio#& %# "o$t $t*)ie$ thi$ i$ a# iterati(e
proce$$ o+ ri$1 a#a!y$i$ a#) ri$1 a$$e$$"e#t *#ti! the ri$1 i$ re)*ce)
to $o"e $peci+ie) !e(e!& The 5*e$tio# o+ how $a+e i$ $a+e e#o*gh ha$
to be a))re$$e) either i"p!icit!y or e/p!icit!y i# the )eci$io#-"a1i#g
proce$$& Thi$ $*b>ect i$ )i$c*$$e) i# greater )etai! !ater o# i# thi$
$ectio#&
FreFuency sti/ation There are two pri"ary $o*rce$ +or e$ti-
"ate$ o+ i#ci)e#t +re5*e#cie$& The$e are hi$torica! recor)$ a#) the
app!icatio# o+ +a*!t tree a#a!y$i$ a#) re!ate) tech#i5*e$, a#) they are
#ot #ece$$ari!y app!ie) i#)epe#)e#t!y& -peci+ic hi$torica! )ata ca#
$o"eti"e$ be *$e+*!!y app!ie) a$ a chec1 o# +re5*e#cy e$ti"ate$ o+
(ario*$ $*be(e#t$ o+ a +a*!t tree, +or e/a"p!e&
The *$e o+ hi$torica! )ata pro(i)e$ the "o$t $traight+orwar)
approach to the ge#eratio# o+ i#ci)e#t +re5*e#cy e$ti"ate$ b*t i$ $*b-
>ect to the app!icabi!ity a#) the a)e5*acy o+ the recor)$& Care $ho*!)
be e/erci$e) i# e/tracti#g )ata +ro" !o#g perio)$ o+ the hi$torica!
recor) o(er which )e$ig# or operati#g $ta#)ar)$ or "ea$*re"e#t cri-
teria "ay ha(e cha#ge)&
'# e$ti"ate o+ the tota! pop*!atio# +ro" which the i#ci)e#t i#+or-
"atio# ha$ bee# obtai#e) i$ i"porta#t a#) "ay be )i++ic*!t to obtai#&
6a*!t tree a#a!y$i$ a#) other re!ate) e(e#t +re5*e#cy e$ti"atio#
tech#i5*e$, $*ch a$ e(e#t tree a#a!y$i$, p!ay a cr*cia! ro!e i# the ri$1
a#a!y$i$ proce$$& 6a*!t tree$ are !ogic )iagra"$ that )epict how co"-
po#e#t$ a#) $y$te"$ ca# +ai!& The *#)e$ire) e(e#t beco"e$ the top
e(e#t a#) $*b$e5*e#t $*be(e#t$, a#) e(e#t*a!!y ba$ic ca*$e$, are the#
)e(e!ope) a#) co##ecte) thro*gh !ogic gate$& The +a*!t tree i$ co"-
p!ete) whe# a!! ba$ic ca*$e$, i#c!*)i#g e5*ip"e#t +ai!*re$ a#) h*"a#
error$, +or" the ba$e o+ the tree& There are ge#era! r*!e$ +or co#$tr*c-
tio#, which ha(e bee# )e(e!ope) by practitio#er$, b*t #o $peci+ic
r*!e$ +or e(e#t$ or gate$ to *$e& The co#$tr*ctio# o+ a +a*!t tree i$ $ti!!
"ore o+ a# art tha# a $cie#ce& '!tho*gh a #*"ber o+ atte"pt$ ha(e
bee# "a)e to a*to"ate the co#$tr*ctio# o+ +a*!t tree$ +ro" proce$$
+!ow )iagra"$ or pipi#g i#$tr*"e#tatio# )iagra"$, the$e atte"pt$
ha(e bee# !arge!y *#$*cce$$+*! PC& B& '#)ow, <Ei++ic*!tie$ i# 6a*!t
Tree -y#the$i$ +or Croce$$ C!a#t,= !EEE Transactions on 4eliability
&02C91:2 2, 1980Q&
;#ce the +a*!t tree i$ co#$tr*cte), 5*a#titati(e +ai!*re rate a#)
probabi!ity )ata "*$t be obtai#e) +or a!! ba$ic ca*$e$& ' #*"ber o+
e5*ip"e#t +ai!*re rate )ataba$e$ are a(ai!ab!e +or ge#era! *$e& ow-
e(er, $peci+ic e5*ip"e#t +ai!*re rate )ata i$ ge#era!!y !ac1i#g a#),
there+ore, )ata e$ti"atio# a#) re)*ctio# tech#i5*e$ "*$t be app!ie)
to ge#eric )ataba$e$ to he!p co"pe#$ate +or thi$ $hortco"i#g& 'cc*racy
a#) app!icabi!ity o+ )ata wi!! a!way$ be a co#cer#, b*t *$e+*! re$*!t$
+ro" 5*a#ti+yi#g +a*!t tree$ ca# ge#era!!y be obtai#e) by e/perie#ce)
practitio#er$&
*"a# error probabi!itie$ ca# a!$o be e$ti"ate) *$i#g "etho)-
o!ogie$ a#) tech#i5*e$ origi#a!!y )e(e!ope) i# the #*c!ear i#)*$try&
' #*"ber o+ )i++ere#t "o)e!$ are a(ai!ab!e 9-wai#, <Co"parati(e
.(a!*atio# o+ Metho)$ +or *"a# 3e!iabi!ity '#a!y$i$,= G3- Cro>-
ect 3- 688, 1988:& Thi$ e$ti"atio# proce$$ $ho*!) be )o#e with
great care, a$ "a#y +actor$ ca# a++ect the re!iabi!ity o+ the e$ti"ate$&
Metho)o!ogie$ *$i#g e/pert opi#io# to obtai# +ai!*re rate a#) prob-
abi!ity e$ti"ate$ ha(e a!$o bee# *$e) where there i$ $par$e or i#ap-
propriate )ata&
%# $o"e i#$ta#ce$, p!a#t-$peci+ic i#+or"atio# re!ati#g to +re5*e#-
cie$ o+ $*be(e#t$ 9e&g&, a re!ea$e +ro" a re!ie+ )e(ice: ca# be co"pare)
agai#$t re$*!t$ )eri(e) +ro" the 5*a#titati(e +a*!t tree a#a!y$i$, $tart-
i#g with ba$ic co"po#e#t +ai!*re rate )ata&
'# e/a"p!e o+ a +a*!t tree !ogic )iagra" *$i#g 'GE a#) ;3 gate
!ogic i$ $how# i# 6ig& 23-25&
The !ogica! $tr*ct*re o+ a +a*!t tree ca# be )e$cribe) i# ter"$ o+
boo!ea# a!gebraic e5*atio#$& -o"e $peci+ic prere5*i$ite$ to the app!i-
catio# o+ thi$ "etho)o!ogy are a$ +o!!ow$&
M .5*ip"e#t $tate$ are bi#ary 9wor1i#g or +ai!e):&
M Tra#$itio# +ro" o#e $tate to a#other i$ i#$ta#ta#eo*$&
M Co"po#e#t +ai!*re$ are $tati$tica!!y i#)epe#)e#t&
M The +ai!*re rate a#) repair rate are co#$i$te#t +or each e5*ip"e#t
ite"&
M '+ter repair, the co"po#e#t i$ ret*r#e) to the wor1i#g $tate&
Mi#i"a! c*t $et a#a!y$i$ i$ a "athe"atica! tech#i5*e +or )e(e!opi#g
a#) pro(i)i#g probabi!ity e$ti"ate$ +or the co"bi#atio#$ o+ ba$ic
co"po#e#t +ai!*re$ a#)Jor h*"a# error probabi!itie$, which are
#ece$$ary a#) $*++icie#t to re$*!t i# the occ*rre#ce o+ the top e(e#t&
' #*"ber o+ $o+tware progra"$ are a(ai!ab!e to per+or" the$e ca!-
c*!atio#$, gi(e# the ba$ic +ai!*re )ata a#) +a*!t tree !ogic )iagra"
9'%Ch.-CCC-, 2000:& ;ther !e$$ we!! 1#ow# approache$ to 5*a#ti+y-
i#g +a*!t tree e(e#t +re5*e#cie$ are bei#g practice), which re$*!t i#
gate-by-gate ca!c*!atio#$ *$i#g )i$crete-$tate, co#ti#*o*$-ti"e,
Mar1o( "o)e!$ 9Eoe!p et a!&, <H*a#titati(e 6a*!t Tree '#a!y$i$, Gate-
by-Gate Metho),= Plant Cperations Progress 893:2 227O238, 1984:&
*C
+o#ret)r#
,a!,e
*re$$)re
re!ie( ,a!,e
*re$$)re
re-)ci#g ,a!,e
%#$tr)"e#t
air $y$te"
.ir
co"pre$$or
.ir recei,er
/ecei,er
e0p!o-e$
.ir (!ow i#to recei,er
e0cee-$ (!ow o)t at
pre$$)re -a#ger !e,e!
*re$$)re re!ie( ,a!,e (ai!$ to
gi,e a-e1)ate -i$charge at
pre$$)re -a#ger !e,e!
*re$$)re re-)ci#g
,a!,e (!ow !e$$ tha#
co"pre$$or (!ow
*re$$)re co#tro!
!oop ca)$e$
co"pre$$or to r)#
%#correct
-e$ig#
2irt 3ther ca)$e$
4)btree
%#correct
-e$ig#
%#$tr)"e#t
air $y$te"
pre$$)re
ab#or"a!!y
high
4ee $)btree
.ir (!ow o)t or air
$y$te" 5-e"a#- 6
!ea'age7 ab#or"a!
a#-
%#$tr)"e#t air
$y$te" pre$$)re
ab#or"a!!y !ow
3ther ca)$e$
.ir (!ow o)t o( air
$y$te" #or"a! b)t
(!ow i# ab#or"a!!y !ow
*re$$)re re-)ci#g ,a!,e
partia!!y or co"p!ete!y
$ei8e- $h)t or b!oc'e-
e0cee-$ pre$$)re
re-)ci#g ,a!,e
capacity
4ee $)btree
2irt 3ther ca)$e$
F%G. 23029 Croce$$ )rawi#g a#) +a*!t tree +or e/p!o$io# o+ a# air recei(er& 9From ,ees, @AB7, pp0 977, 97@, by permission0:
%)e#ti+icatio# a#) 5*a#titati(e e$ti"atio# o+ co""o#-ca*$e +ai!-
*re$ are ge#era! prob!e"$ i# +a*!t tree a#a!y$i$& 0oo!ea#
approache$ are ge#era!!y better $*ite) to "athe"atica!!y ha#)!e
co""o#-ca*$e +ai!*re$& The ba$ic a$$*"ptio# i$ that +ai!*re$ are
co"p!ete!y i#)epe#)e#t e(e#t$, b*t i# rea!ity )epe#)e#cie$ wi!!
e/i$t a#) the$e are categoriKe) a$ co""o# ca*$e +ai!*re$ 9CC6$:&
0oth 5*a!itati(e a#) 5*a#titati(e tech#i5*e$ ca# be app!ie) to i)e#-
ti+y a#) a$$e$$ CC6$& '# e/ce!!e#t o(er(iew o+ CC6 i$ a(ai!ab!e
9'%Ch.-CCC-, 2000:&
.(e#t tree a#a!y$i$ i$ a#other *$e+*! +re5*e#cy e$ti"atio# tech-
#i5*e *$e) i# ri$1 a#a!y$i$& %t i$ a botto"-*p !ogic )iagra", which
$tart$ with a# i)e#ti+iab!e e(e#t& 0ra#che$ are the# ge#erate), which
!ea) to $peci+ic chro#o!ogica!!y ba$e) o*tco"e$ with )e+i#e) proba-
bi!itie$& .(e#t tree a#a!y$i$ ca# pro(i)e a !ogic bri)ge +ro" the top
e(e#t, $*ch a$ a +!a""ab!e re!ea$e i#to $peci+ic i#ci)e#t o*tco"e$
9e&g&, #o ig#itio#, +!a$h +ire, or (apor c!o*) e/p!o$io#:& Crobabi!itie$ +or
each !i"b i# the e(e#t tree )iagra" are a$$ig#e) a#), whe# "*!tip!ie)
by the $tarti#g +re5*e#cy, pro)*ce +re5*e#cie$ at each #o)e poi#t +or
a!! the (ario*$ i#ci)e#t o*tco"e $tate$& The probabi!itie$ +or a!! o+ the
!i"b$ at a#y gi(e# !e(e! o+ the e(e#t tree "*$t $*" to 1&0& .(e#t tree$
are ge#era!!y (ery he!p+*! towar) the ge#eratio# o+ a +i#a! ri$1 e$ti-
"ate& 6ig*re 23-26 $how$ a# e(e#t tree +or a re!ea$e o+ FCG 9'%Ch.-
CCC-, 2000:&
Fayer$-o+-protectio# a#a!y$i$ 9F;C': i$ a $e"i5*a#titati(e "etho)-
o!ogy +or a#a!yKi#g a#) a$$e$$i#g ri$1& %t i$ typica!!y app!ie) a+ter a
5*a!itati(e haKar)$ a#a!y$i$ ha$ bee# co"p!ete), which pro(i)e$ the
F;C' tea" with a !i$ti#g o+ haKar) $ce#ario$ with a$$ociate) $a+e-
g*ar)$ +or co#$i)eratio#& F;C' *$e$ $i"p!i+ie) "etho)$ to character-
iKe the proce$$ ri$1 ba$e) o# the +re5*e#cy o+ occ*rre#ce a#)
co#$e5*e#ce $e(erity o+ pote#tia! haKar) $ce#ario$& The proce$$ ri$1 i$
co"pare) to the ow#erJoperator ri$1 criteria& 4he# the proce$$ ri$1
e/cee)$ the ri$1 criteria, protectio# !ayer$ are i)e#ti+ie) that re)*ce
the proce$$ ri$1 to the ri$1 criteria&
The protectio# !ayer$ are $a+eg*ar)$ that are )e$ig#e) a#) "a#-
age) to achie(e $e(e# core attrib*te$2 i#)epe#)e#ce, +*#ctio#a!ity,
i#tegrity, re!iabi!ity, a*)itabi!ity, acce$$ $ec*rity, a#) "a#age"e#t o+
cha#ge& Crotectio# !ayer$ "ay i#c!*)e i#here#t!y $a+er )e$ig#, co#tro!,
$*per(i$ory, pre(e#tio#, "itigatio#, !i"itatio#, barrier$, a#) e"er-
ge#cy re$po#$e $y$te"$, )epe#)i#g o# the ow#erJoperator?$ ri$1 "a#-
age"e#t $trategy&
%# ge#era!, ri$1 re)*ctio# i$ acco"p!i$he) by i"p!e"e#ti#g o#e or
"ore protecti(e !ayer$, which re)*ce the +re5*e#cy a#)Jor co#$e-
5*e#ce o+ the haKar) $ce#ario& F;C' pro(i)e$ $peci+ic criteria a#)
re$trictio#$ +or the e(a!*atio# o+ protectio# !ayer$, e!i"i#ati#g the
$*b>ecti(ity o+ 5*a!itati(e "etho)$ at $*b$ta#tia!!y !e$$ co$t tha# +*!!y
5*a#titati(e tech#i5*e$& F;C' i$ a ratio#a!, )e+e#$ib!e "etho)o!ogy
that a!!ow$ a rapi), co$t-e++ecti(e "ea#$ +or i)e#ti+yi#g the protectio#
!ayer$ that !ower the +re5*e#cy a#)Jor the co#$e5*e#ce o+ $peci+ic
haKar) $ce#ario$&
ConseFuence sti/ation Gi(e# that a# i#ci)e#t 9re!ea$e o+
"ateria! or e#ergy: ha$ bee# )e+i#e), the co#$e5*e#ce$ ca# be e$ti-
"ate)& The ge#era! !ogic )iagra" i# 6ig& 23-27 i!!*$trate$ the$e ca!c*-
!atio#$ +or the re!ea$e o+ a (o!ati!e haKar)o*$ $*b$ta#ce&
6or a#y $peci+ic i#ci)e#t there wi!! be a# i#+i#ite #*"ber o+ i#ci-
)e#t o*tco"e ca$e$ that ca# be co#$i)ere)& There i$ a!$o a wi)e
)egree o+ co#$e5*e#ce "o)e!$ which ca# be app!ie)& %t i$ i"porta#t,
there+ore, to *#)er$ta#) the ob>ecti(e o+ the $t*)y to !i"it the #*"-
ber o+ i#ci)e#t o*tco"e ca$e$ to tho$e which $ati$+y that ob>ecti(e& '#
e/a"p!e o+ (ariab!e$ which ca# be co#$i)ere) i$ a$ +o!!ow$&
M H*a!ity, "ag#it*)e, a#) )*ratio# o+ the re!ea$e
M Ei$per$io# para"eter$ 9wi#) $pee), wi#) )irectio#, weather $tabi!ity:
M %g#itio# probabi!ity, ig#itio# $o*rce$J!ocatio#, ig#itio# $tre#gth 9+!a"-
"ab!e re!ea$e$:
M .#ergy !e(e!$ co#trib*ti#g to e/p!o$i(e e++ect$ 9+!a""ab!e re!ea$e$:
M %"pact o+ re!ea$e o# peop!e, property, or e#(iro#"e#t 9ther"a!
ra)iatio#, pro>ecti!e$, $hoc1-wa(e o(erpre$$*re, to/ic )o$age:
9arge
9*G
9ea'age
.
1 10
X4
:yr
%""e-iate
%g#itio#
;
<e$ 50&17
=i#- to
*op)!ate-
.rea
C
<e$ 50&157
2e!aye-
%g#itio#
2
<e$ 50&97
>?C@
or A!a$h
Aire @
<e$ 50&57
+o 50&57
%g#ite- Bet
*oi#t$ at
9*G Ta#'
A
<e$ 50&27
+o 50&87
<e$ 50&27
+o 50&87
3)tco"e
;9@?@
9oca! ther"a! ha8ar-
?C@
A!a$h (ire a#- ;9@?@
A!a$h (ire
.;A
.;A
.;C2@
.;C2@A
.;C2@A
Are1)e#cy
2 10
X 6
:year
8 10
X6
:year
6&1 10
X6
:year
1&2 10
X6
:year
4&9 10
X6
:year
X6
+o 50&17
4a(e -i$per$a! .;C2 1&4 10 :year
+o 50&97
+o 50&857
<e$ 50&97
+o 50&17
<e$ 50&57
+o 50&57
<e$ 50&27
+o 50&87
?C@
A!a$h (ire a#- ;9@?@
A!a$h (ire
4a(e -i$per$a!
.;C2@
.;C2@A
.;C2@A
.;C2
Tota!
39&5 10
X6
:year
6&9 10
X6
:year
27&5 10
X6
:year
7&6 10
X6
:year
1 10
X4
:year
F%G. 2302< -a"p!e e(e#t tree +or a re!ea$e o+ FCG& 9!ChE-CCP$, 9777, p0 69A0:
4e!ectio# o( a /e!ea$e %#ci-e#t
C /)pt)re or ;rea' i# *ipe!i#e
C o!e i# a Ta#' or *ipe!i#e
C /)#away /eactio#
C Aire @0ter#a! to ?e$$e!
C 3ther$
4e!ectio# o( a 4o)rce Mo-e!
to 2e$cribe /e!ea$e %#ci-e#tD
/e$)!t$ May %#c!)-eE
C Tota! F)a#tity /e!ea$e-
5or /e!ea$e 2)ratio#7
C /e!ea$e /ate
C Materia! *ha$e
4e!ectio# o( 2i$per$io# Mo-e!
5i( app!icab!e7
C +e)tra!!y ;)oya#t
C ea,ier Tha# .ir
C 3ther$
/e$)!t$ May %#c!)-eE
C 2ow#wi#- Co#ce#tratio#
C .rea .((ecte-
C 2)ratio#
A!a""ab!e
4e!ectio# o( Aire
a#- @0p!o$io# Mo-e!
C T+T @1)i,a!e#cy
C M)!ti-@#ergy @0p!o$io#
C Aireba!!
C ;a'er-4treh!ow
C 3ther$
/e$)!t$ May %#c!)-eE
C ;!a$t 3,erpre$$)re
C /a-ia#t eat A!)0
A!a""ab!e
a#-:or To0icG
To0ic
4e!ectio# o( @((ect Mo-e!
C /e$po#$e ,$& 2o$e
C *robit Mo-e!
C 3ther$
/e$)!t$ May %#c!)-eE
C To0ic /e$po#$e
C +o& o( %#-i,i-)a!$ .((ecte-
C *roperty 2a"age
Mitigatio# Aactor$E
C @$cape
C @"erge#cy /e$po#$e
C 4he!ter i# *!ace
C Co#tai#"e#t 2i'e$
C 3ther$
/i$' Ca!c)!atio#
F%G. 2302B ;(era!! !ogic )iagra" +or co#$e5*e#ce a#a!y$i$ o+ (o!ati!e haKar)o*$ $*b$ta#ce$&
9CCP$-!ChE, @ABA, p0 :70:
M Mitigatio# e++ect$ 9$a+e ha(e#$, e(ac*atio#, )ayti"eJ#ightti"e pop-
*!atio#$:
Crobit "o)e!$ ha(e bee# +o*#) ge#era!!y *$e+*! to )e$cribe the
e++ect$ o+ i#ci)e#t o*tco"e ca$e$ o# peop!e or property +or "ore co"-
p!e/ ri$1 a#a!y$e$& 't the other e#) o+ the $ca!e, the e$ti"atio# o+ a
)i$- ta#ce withi# which the pop*!atio# wo*!) be e/po$e) to a
co#ce#tratio# o+ .3CG-2 or higher "ay be $*++icie#t to )e$cribe the
i"pact o+ a $i"- p!e ri$1 a#a!y$i$&
Cortio#$ or a!! o+ the "ore co"p!e/ ca!c*!atio# proce$$e$, *$i#g
$peci+ic co#$e5*e#ce "o)e!$, ha(e bee# i#corporate) i#to a +ew co"-
"ercia!!y a(ai!ab!e $o+tware pac1age$ 9'%Ch.-CCC-, 2000:& The$e
progra"$ $ho*!) be *$e) by ri$1 a#a!y$t$ with e/te#$i(e e#gi#eeri#g
e/perie#ce, a$ $ig#i+ica#t >*)g"e#t wi!! $ti!! be re5*ire)&
The o*tp*t o+ the$e ca!c*!atio# proce$$e$ i$ o#e or "ore pair$ o+ a#
i#ci)e#t or i#ci)e#t o*tco"e ca$e +re5*e#cy a#) it$ e++ect 9co#$e-
5*e#ce or i"pact:&
&isk sti/ation There are a #*"ber o+ ri$1 "ea$*re$ which ca#
be e$ti"ate)& The $peci+ic ri$1 "ea$*re$ cho$e# are ge#era!!y re!ate)
to the $t*)y ob>ecti(e a#) )epth o+ $t*)y, a#) a#y pre+ere#ce$ or
re5*ire"e#t$ e$tab!i$he) by the )eci$io# "a1er$& Ge#era!!y, ri$1
10
"ea$*re$ ca# be bro1e# )ow# i#to three categorie$2 ri$1 i#)ice$, i#)i-
(i)*a! ri$1 "ea$*re$, a#) $ocieta! ri$1 "ea$*re$&
3i$1 i#)ice$ are *$*a!!y $i#g!e-#*"ber e$ti"ate$, which "ay be *$e)
to co"pare o#e ri$1 with a#other or *$e) i# a# ab$o!*te $e#$e co"-
pare) to a $peci+ic target& 6or ri$1$ to e"p!oyee$ the fatal acci%ent rate
96'3: i$ a co""o#!y app!ie) "ea$*re& The 6'3 i$ a $i#g!e-#*"ber
i#)e/, which i$ the e/pecte) #*"ber o+ +ata!itie$ +ro" a $peci+ic e(e#t
ba$e) o# 10
8
e/po$*re ho*r$& 6or wor1er$ i# a che"ica! p!a#t the 6'3
wo*!) be ca!c*!ate) +or a $peci+ic e(e#t a$
6'3 S
10
8

8760
EPk 923-29:
where 6'3 S e/pecte) #*"ber o+ +ata!itie$ +ro" a $peci+ic e(e#t
ba$e) o# 10
8
e/po$*re ho*r$
E S +re5*e#cy o+ e(e#t, yr
X1
P S probabi!ity o+ bei#g 1i!!e) by e(e#t at a $peci+ic !ocatio#
k S +ractio# o+ ti"e $pe#t at $peci+ic !ocatio#
owe(er, the wor1er i# a che"ica! p!a#t co*!) be e/po$e) to other
pote#tia! e(e#t$ that "ight re$*!t i# a +ata!ity& %# thi$ ca$e the o(era!!
6'3 +or the wor1er wo*!) be
F%G. 2302C ./a"p!e o+ a $ocieta! ri$1 6-G c*r(e& 9!ChE-CCP$, @ABA, p0 I0I0:
8
6'3 S

E
i
P
i 5
k
5
923-30:
8760
i 5
.ach $*b$cript i i$ a $peci+ic e(e#t a#) each $*b$cript 5 i$ a $peci+ic
!ocatio#&
3e+ere#ce$ are a(ai!ab!e which pro(i)e 6'3 e$ti"ate$ +or (ario*$
occ*patio#$, "o)e$ o+ tra#$portatio#, a#) other acti(itie$ 9B!etK, <The
3i$1 .5*atio#$N4hat 3i$1 -ho*!) 4e 3*#`,= /ew $cientist, May
12, pp& 320O325, 1977:&
6ig*re 23-28 i$ a# e/a"p!e o+ a# i#)i(i)*a! ri$1 co#to*r p!ot, which
$how$ the e/pecte) +re5*e#cy o+ a# e(e#t ca*$i#g a $peci+ie) !e(e! o+
har" at a $peci+ie) !ocatio#, regar)!e$$ o+ whether a#yo#e i$ pre$e#t
at that !ocatio# to $*++er that !e(e! o+ har"&
The tota! i#)i(i)*a! ri$1 at each poi#t i$ e5*a! to the $*" o+ the i#)i-
(i)*a! ri$1$ at that poi#t +ro" a!! i#ci)e#t o*tco"e ca$e$&
F%G. 2302D ./a"p!e o+ a# i#)i(i)*a! ri$1 co#to*r p!ot& 9CCP$-!ChE, @ABA,
p0 9:A0:
n
%3
), y
S

%3
), y, i
923-31:
iS1
where %3
),y
S tota! i#)i(i)*a! ri$1 o+ +ata!ity at geographica! !ocatio# ),y
%3
),y,i
S i#)i(i)*a! ri$1 o+ +ata!ity at geographica! !ocatio# ),y
+ro" i#ci)e#t o*tco"e ca$e i
n S tota! #*"ber o+ i#ci)e#t o*tco"e ca$e$
' co""o# +or" o+ $ocieta! ri$1 "ea$*re i$ a# 6-G c*r(e, which i$
#or"a!!y pre$e#te) a$ a c*"*!ati(e )i$trib*tio# p!ot o+ +re5*e#cy F
(er$*$ #*"ber o+ +ata!itie$ /0 '# e/a"p!e o+ thi$ type o+ "ea$*re i$
$how# i# 6ig& 23-29&
'#y i#)i(i)*a! poi#t o# the c*r(e i$ obtai#e) by $*""i#g the +re-
5*e#cie$ o+ a!! e(e#t$ re$*!ti#g i# that #*"ber o+ +ata!itie$ or greater&
The $!ope o+ the c*r(e a#) the "a/i"*" #*"ber o+ +ata!itie$ are two
1ey i#)icator$ o+ the )egree o+ ri$1&
&isk Criteria ;#ce a ri$1 e$ti"ate i$ prepare), a!ter#ati(e$ to
re)*ce the ri$1 ca# be )eter"i#e)A b*t o#e a!way$ +ace$ the cha!-
!e#ge o+ how !ow a ri$1 !e(e! i$ !ow e#o*gh& Ei++ere#t co*#trie$ i#
the wor!) ha(e e$tab!i$he) #*"erica! criteria P'F. 91992: a#) -.
92001:Q pri"ari!y a$ a too! to a))re$$ the -e(e$o reg*!atio#$& %# a))i-
tio#, o(er the year$ (ario*$ che"ica! co"pa#ie$ ha(e e$tab!i$he)
#*"erica! target$ PGib$o# 91980:, e!"er$ 91982:, a#) 3e#$haw
91990:Q& ' goo) $*r(ey paper o# the *$e o+ ri$1 g*i)e!i#e$ by both
go(er#"e#t$ a#) operati#g co"pa#ie$ i$ pro(i)e) by Ci1aar a#)
-ea"a# 91995:&
&isk Decision !akin$ 3i$1 criteria repre$e#t the +ir$t $tep
i# ri$1 )eci$io# "a1i#g& .++ort$ "*$t be "a)e to re)*ce the ri$1 at
!ea$t to a <to!erab!e= ri$1 !e(e!, which "ay be )ictate) by a go(-
er#"e#t or a# operati#g co"pa#y& ;#ce the to!erab!e !e(e! i$
reache), the# a))itio#a! ri$1 re)*ctio#$ $ho*!) $ti!! be e(a!*ate)&
' #*"ber o+ criteria a!$o pro(i)e g*i)a#ce o# a !e(e! o+ ri$1 that
re5*ire$ #o +*rther ri$1 re)*ctio#& %# betwee# the$e two !e(e!$ i$
a ra#ge o+ ri$1 where ri$1 re)*ctio# optio#$ #ee) to be e(a!*ate)&
ow +ar to co#ti#*e re)*ci#g ri$1 be!ow the to!erab!e !e(e! i$ *p
to the i#)i(i)*a! co"pa#y a#) i$ a +*#ctio# o+ co$t$ a#) be#e+it$
9)egree o+ ri$1 re)*ctio#:& 't $o"e poi#t a))itio#a! ri$1 re)*c-
tio#$ ha(e !itt!e be#e+it& a"" a#) -chwartK 91993: $*""ariKe
$o"e $trategie$ +or co#$i)eratio#, a#) CCC--'%Ch. 91995: pro-
(i)e$ a# i#tro)*ctio# to a #*"ber o+ )eci$io# a#a!y$i$ too!$ which
co*!) be app!ie)&
D%SC"A&G &A)S F&.! P43C)4&D
L%3S A3D ;SSLS
3o/enclature
a Coe++icie#t i# #o#e5*i!ibri*" co"pre$$ibi!ity +actor, .5& 923-74:
Cro$$-$ectio#a! area perpe#)ic*!ar to +!ow, "
2
C
3
Ei$charge coe++icie#t
l Cre$$*re ratio, PJP
0
Gree1
C
3(
Ei$charge coe++icie#t +or ga$ +!ow
C
3,
Ei$charge coe++icie#t +or !i5*i) +!ow
C
p
eat capacity at co#$ta#t pre$$*re, LJ91gB:
C
v
eat capacity at co#$ta#t (o!*"e, LJ91gB:
3 Cipe )ia"eter, "
Two-pha$e "*!tip!ier, pre$$*re )rop +or two-pha$e +!ow )i(i)e) by
pre$$*re )rop +or $i#g!e-pha$e +!ow
-i#g!e- or two-pha$e (i$co$ity, Ca $
m ;(era!! i#c!i#atio# a#g!e o+ pipe to horiKo#ta! +ro" $o*rce to
brea1, )eg
3
T
Ta#1 )ia"eter, "
f 6a##i#g +rictio# +actor
F
!
Cipe i#c!i#atio# +actor )e+i#e) by .5& 923-43:
g Gra(itatio#a! acce!eratio#, "
2
( Ma$$ +!*/, 1gJ9"
2
$:
& -peci+ic e#tha!py, LJ1g
&
(,
eat o+ (aporiKatio# 9&
(
X &
,
: at $at*ratio#, LJ1g
1 -!ip (e!ocity ratio, "
(
J"
,
1
e
G*"ber o+ (e!ocity hea)$ +or +itti#g$, e/pa#$io#$, co#tractio#$,
a#) be#)$
, Fe#gth o+ pipe, "
/ 4f,J3 Y 1
e
, pipe re$i$ta#ce or #o#e5*i!ibri*" co"pre$$ibi!ity
+actor
P Cre$$*re, Ca S GJ"
2
= eat-tra#$+er rate, 41g
4 Ga$ co#$ta#t, LJ91g"o!B:
$ -peci+ic e#tropy, LJ91gB:
t Ti"e, $
T Te"perat*re, 1
" De!ocity, "J$
v -peci+ic (o!*"e, "
3
J1g
v
(,
-peci+ic (o!*"e )i++ere#ce, v
(
X v
,
, "
3
J1g
w Ma$$ )i$charge rate, 1gJ$
) Dapor 5*a!ity, 1g (aporJ1g "i/t*re or "o!e +ractio# o+ !i5*i)
co"po#e#t$
y Mo!e +ractio# o+ (apor co"po#e#t$
N
m
Foc1hart Marti#e!!i para"eter
' Dertica! )i$ta#ce, "
Gree1
^ Do!*"e +ractio# (apor, "
3
(aporJ"
3
"i/t*re
n Ei"e#$io#!e$$ $peci+ic (o!*"e, vJv
0
o eat capacity ratio, C
p
JC
v
p Ee#$ity, 1gJ"
3
q -!ope o+ )i"e#$io#!e$$ $peci+ic (o!*"e to reciproca! )i"e#$io#!e$$
pre$$*re, )e+i#e) by .5$& 923-61a: a#) 923-61b:
-*b$cript$
a '"bie#t
b 0ac1pre$$*re
b*b 0*bb!e poi#t, pre$$*re a#) $at*ratio# te"perat*re whe# +ir$t (apor
b*bb!e$ appear
c l
ch
l
$
, ratio o+ cho1e) pre$$*re to $at*ratio# pre$$*re
ch Cho1e)
C Co#)e#$ab!e co"po#e#t$ 9the co#ta"i#a#t:
% Ei$charge
)ew Eew poi#t, pre$$*re a#) $at*ratio# te"perat*re whe# +ir$t 9or !a$t:
!i5*i) occ*r$
)i++ Ei++ere#tia! +or"
e .5*i(a!e#t, +or two-pha$e $peci+ic (o!*"e with $!ip
g,( Ga$ or (apor
& o"oge#eo*$ +!ow 9$!ip (e!ocity ratio o+ *#ity:
i#t %#tegra! +or"
! %#ert or pa))i#g ga$ co"po#e#t
, Fi5*i)
"a/ Ma/i"*"
/ Go#e5*i!ibri*"
ori ;ri+ice
p Cipe +!ow
s -at*ratio# 9or b*bb!e poi#t:
$o! -o!i)$
$ Co#$ta#t $peci+ic e#tropy
v Dapor pre$$*re
0 %#itia! $tag#atio# co#)itio#$
1 Coi#t at which bac1pre$$*re +ro" pipe i$ +e!t a+ter e#tra#ce +ro" ta#1
2 C!a#e at (e#a co#tracta or at pipe p*#ct*re
\ Ei"e#$io#!e$$
G3&AL &F&3CS7 0ragg, <.++ect o+ Co"pre$$ibi!ity o# the Ei$charge
Coe++icie#t o+ ;ri+ice$ a#) Co#(erge#t GoKK!e$,= J0 Mech0 Eng0 $ci0, 22 35O44,
1960& Chere"i$i#o++ a#) G*pta, e)$&, &an%book of Fl"i%s in Motion, '## 'rbor
-cie#ce, '## 'rbor, Mich&, 1983& Chi$ho!", Two-Phase Flow in Pipelines an%
&eat E)changers, George Go)wi#, Gew @or1, i# a$$ociatio# with the %#$tit*tio#
o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, 1983& Ea*bert a#) Ea##er, <Chy$ica! a#) Ther"o)y-
#a"ic Cropertie$ o+ C*re Che"ica!$, Eata Co"pi!atio#,= E%CC3 9Ee$ig# %#$t&
o+ Chy$& Crop$& 3e$&: '%Ch., Gew @or1, 1989& Eie#er a#) -ch"i)t, <-iKi#g o+
Thrott!i#g Ee(ice +or Ga$JFi5*i) Two-Cha$e 6!ow, Cart 12 -a+ety Da!(e$, Cart 22
Co#tro! Da!(e$, ;ri+ice$, a#) GoKK!e$,= J0 &a'ar%o"s Mat0 2394:2 335O344,
Eece"ber 2004A 2891:2 29O37, March 2005& .!y a#) *ber, <G%-T Ther"o-
phy$ica! Cropertie$ o+ y)rocarbo# Mi/t*re$ Eataba$e 9-T3'CC Crogra":,=
Der$io# 1&0 ,$er$? G*i)e, ,&-& Eept& o+ Co""erce, Gatio#a! %#$tit*te o+ -ta#-
)ar)$ a#) Tech#o!ogy 9G%-T:, Gaither$b*rg, M)&, 6eb& 1990& 6i$her et a!&,
Emergency 4elief $ystem 3esign Using 3!E4$ Technology, '%Ch., Gew @or1,
1992& Graha", <The 6!ow o+ 'ir-4ater Mi/t*re$ Thro*gh GoKK!e$,= Gatio#a!
.#gi#eeri#g Faboratorie$ 9G.F: 3eport #o& 308, .a$t Bi!bri)e, G!a$gow,
1967& Lob$o#, <;# the 6!ow o+ Co"pre$$ib!e 6!*i)$ Thro*gh ;ri+ice$,= Proc0
!nstn0 Mech0 Engrs0 1<C937:2 767O776, 1955& <The Two-Cha$e Critica! 6!ow o+
;#e-Co"po#e#t Mi/t*re$ i# GoKK!e$, ;ri+ice$, a#) -hort T*be$,= Trans0 $ME
J0 &eat Transfer, C395:2 179OG87, 1976& Fee a#) -o""er+e!), <Ma/i"*" Fea1-
age Ti"e$ Thro*gh C*#ct*re o!e$ +or Croce$$ De$$e!$ o+ Dario*$ -hape$,= J0
&a'ar%o"s Mat0 3D91: 27O40, L*!y 1994& Fee a#) -o""er+e!), <-a+e Erai#age
or Fea1age Co#$i)eratio#$ a#) Geo"etry i# the Ee$ig# o+ Croce$$ De$$e!$,=
Trans0 !ChemE B2, part 02 88O89, May 1994& Fe*#g, <' Ge#era!iKe) Corre!a-
tio# +or ;#e-Co"po#e#t o"oge#eo*$ .5*i!ibri*" 6!a$hi#g Cho1e) 6!ow,=
!ChE J0 32910:2 1743O1746, 1986& Fe*#g, <-i"i!arity 0etwee# 6!a$hi#g a#)
Go#-+!a$hi#g Two-Cha$e 6!ow,= !ChE J0 3<95:2 797, 1990& Fe*#g, <-iKe -a+ety
3e!ie+ Da!(e$ +or 6!a$hi#g Fi5*i)$,= Chem0 Eng0 Prog0 DD92:2 70O75, 6ebr*ary
1992& Fe*#g, <Two-Cha$e 6!ow Ei$charge i# GoKK!e$ a#) Cipe$N' ,#i+ie)
'pproach,= J0 ,oss Prevention Process !n%0 3927:2 27O32, La#*ary 1990& Fe*#g
a#) Cio!e1, <6!a$hi#g 6!ow Ei$charge o+ %#itia!!y -*bcoo!e) Fi5*i) i# Cipe$,=
$ME Trans0 J0 Fl"i%s Eng0 11<93:, -epte"ber 1994& Fe*#g a#) .p$tei#,
<6!a$hi#g Two-Cha$e 6!ow %#c!*)i#g the .++ect$ o+ Go#co#)e#$ab!e Ga$e$,=
$ME Trans0 J0 &eat Transfer 11391:2 269, 6ebr*ary 1991& Fe*#g a#) .p$tei#,
<' Ge#era!iKe) Corre!atio# +or Two-Cha$e Go#-+!a$hi#g o"oge#eo*$ Cho1e)
6!ow,= $ME J0 &eat Transfer 11292:, May 1990& Fe*#g a#) Gro!"e$, <The
Ei$charge o+ Two-Cha$e 6!a$hi#g 6!ow i# a oriKo#ta! E*ct,= !ChE J0 3393:2
524O527, 1987A a!$o errata, 3896:2 1030, 1988& Fe(e#$pie!, <The Ei$charge o+
Ga$e$ +ro" a 3e$er(oir Thro*gh a Cipe,= !ChE J0 2393:2 402O403, 1977&
Foc1hart a#) Marti#e!!i, <Cropo$e) Corre!atio# o+ Eata +or %$other"a!
Two-Cha$e, Two-Co"po#e#t 6!ow i# Cipe$,= Chem0 Eng0 Prog0 8991:2 39O48,
La#*ary 1949& -i"p$o#, 3oo#ey, a#) Gratta#, <Two-Cha$e 6!ow Thro*gh Gate
Da!(e$ a#) ;ri- +ice C!ate$,= %#t& Co#+& o# the Chy$ica! Mo)e!i#g o+ M*!ti-pha$e
6!ow, Co(e#try, ,&B&, 'pri! 19O20, 1983& -oKKi a#) -*ther!a#), <Critica! 6!ow
o+ -at*rate) a#) -*bcoo!e) 4ater at igh Cre$$*re,= Ge#era! .!ectric Co&
3eport #o& G.E;-
13418, L*!y 1975A a!$o $ME $ymp0 on /on-e-"ilibri"m Two-Phase Flows,
1975& Ta#gre#, Eo)ge, a#) -ie+ert, <Co"pre$$ibi!ity .++ect$ i# Two-Cha$e
6!ow,= J0 pplie% Phys0 2E7 637O645, 1949& ,chi)a a#) Garai, <Ei$charge o+
-at*rate) 4ater Thro*gh Cipe$ a#) ;ri+ice$,= Proc0 6% !ntl0 &eat Transfer
Conf0, $ME, Chicago, 92 1O12, 1966& Da# )e# '11er, -#oey, a#) -poe!$tra,
<Ei$charge$ o+ Cre$$*riKe) Fi5*e+ie) Ga$e$ Thro*gh 'pert*re$ a#) Cipe$,= !0
Chem0 E0 $ymposi"m $er0 9Fo#)o#: DE7 .23O35, 1983& 4at$o#, Da*gha#, a#)
Mc6ar!a#e, <Two-Cha$e Cre$$*re Erop with a -harp-.)ge) ;ri+ice,= Gatio#a!
.#gi#eeri#g Faboratorie$ 9G.F: 3eport #o& 290, .a$t Bi!bri)e, G!a$gow, 1967&
4oo)war), <Ei$charge 3ate$ Thro*gh o!e$ i# Croce$$ De$$e!$ a#) Cipi#g,= i#
6the#a1i$, e)&, Prevention an% Control of cci%ental 4eleases of &a'ar%o"s
(ases, Da# Go$tra#) 3ei#ho!), Gew @or1, 1993, pp& 94O159& 4oo)war) a#)
M*)a#, <Fi5*i) a#) Ga$ Ei$charge 3ate$ Thro*gh o!e$ i# Croce$$ De$$e!$,= J0
,oss Prevention> 893:2 161O165, 1991&
*
*
2
H *
a"b
*
1
*
0
*
2
I
2
*
0
c
*
1
I
2
F%G. 2303E Type$ o+ acci)e#ta! )i$charge a#) pre$$*re e(a!*atio# poi#t$&
.*er*iew Mo)e!i#g the co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ acci)e#ta! re!ea$e$ o+
haKar)o*$ "ateria!$ begi#$ with the ca!c*!atio# o+ )i$charge rate$&
%# the "o$t ge#era! ca$e, the )i$charge) "ateria! i$ "a)e *p o+ a
(o!ati!e +!a$hi#g !i5*i) a#) (apor a!o#g with #o#co#)e#$ab!e ga$e$
a#) $o!i) partic!e$& Mo$t o+ the "o)e! )e(e!op"e#t i$ gi(e# i# ter"$
o+ two-pha$e, (apor Y !i5*i) +!ow, b*t it ca# be rea)i!y e/te#)e) to
three pha$e$ with (apor, !i5*i), p!*$ $*$pe#)e) $o!i)$ +!ow& The
$o!i)$ co#trib*te pri"ari!y to the )e#$ity a#) heat capacity o+ the
"i/t*re, co#trib*ti#g e#ergy to the +!a$hi#g a#) to the $*b$e5*e#t
)i$per$io#&
)y-es of Dischar$e aKar)o*$ acci)e#ta! re!ea$e$ ca# occ*r
+ro" (e$$e!$, pipe!i#e$, reactor$, a#) )i$ti!!atio# co!*"#$& The "ore
co""o# acci)e#ta! e(e#t$ are brea1$ i# a (e$$e! or it$ a$$ociate) pip-
i#g& 6ig*re 23-30 i!!*$trate$ thi$& 6or a (e$$e!, the pipi#g attach"e#t$
ca# be +ro" a )ip !eg or +ro" the botto" or top o+ the (e$$e!& ' p*#c-
t*re i# the (apor $pace o+ the (e$$e! or a brea1 i# a top-attach"e#t
pipe, i#itia!!y at !ea$t, )i$charge$ (apor p!*$ the pa))i#g ga$ *$e) to
"ai#tai# (e$$e! pre$$*re& Thi$ pa))i#g ga$ ca# be air +or a# at"o$-
pheric (e$$e!& The )i$charge) (apor ca# coo! *po# e/pa#$io# a#) co#-
)e#$e !i5*i)$ whe# the pre$$*re i# the >et )rop$ to the )ew poi#t
pre$$*re P
)ew
&
' p*#ct*re i# the !i5*i) $pace o+ the (e$$e! or a brea1 i# the bot-
to"-attach"e#t or )ip-!eg pipe, i#itia!!y, at !ea$t, )i$charge$ !i5*i)
p!*$ a#y $o!i)$ pre$e#t witho*t a#y #o#co#)e#$ab!e co"po#e#t$& The
!i5*i) ca# begi# to +!a$h whe# the pre$$*re )rop$ to the b*bb!e poi#t
pre$$*re P
b*b
& %+ the !i5*i) i$ e/tre"e!y (o!ati!e, it co*!) tota!!y e(apo-
rate whe# the pre$$*re )rop$ be!ow the )ew poi#t, pro)*ci#g (apor
p!*$ $o!i)$& The i#itia! "a$$ (apor +ractio# )
0
i$ Kero a$ i$ the i#itia!
(o!-
ner$y Balance !etho# for .rifice Dischar$e -o!*tio#$ ca#
be +o*#) +or the )i$charge rate by $o!(i#g the e#ergy ba!a#ce a#)Jor
the "o"e#t*" ba!a#ce& The e#ergy ba!a#ce $o!*tio# i$ 5*ite $i"p!e
a#) ge#era!, b*t i$ $e#$iti(e to i#acc*racie$ i# phy$ica! propertie$ cor-
re!atio#$& The e5*atio#$ be!ow app!y to ori+ice +!ow& ' $eparate
"o"e#t*" ba!a#ce$ $o!*tio# i$ app!ie) to pipe +!ow to +i#) the pre$-
$*re !o$$e$& The ba!a#ce$ are writte# acro$$ a# ori+ice +ro" a p!a#e 0
i#$i)e the ta#1 at $tag#a#t co#)itio#$ 9i&e&, +ar e#o*gh away +ro" the
ori+ice that the (e!ocity i#$i)e the ta#1 i$ #eg!igib!e: to a p!a#e at the
bac1pre$$*re P
b
at poi#t 2&
& S & Y
1
9(
2
v
2
: Y = 923-32: 0 2 e 2
2
3are!y, i+ e(er, i$ the heat-tra#$+er ter" H #o##eg!igib!e&
Cer+or" a# i$e#tropic e/pa#$io#& That i$, a$ the pre$$*re )ecrea$e$
+ro" P
0
to the bac1pre$$*re P
b
9*$*a!!y a"bie#t pre$$*re P
a
:, $e!ect
i#ter"e)iate (a!*e$ o+ pre$$*re P
1
& 't each P
1
+i#) the te"perat*re
that 1eep$ $ co#$ta#t T
$1
& -o!(e +or the (apor +ractio# ), *$i#g the
e#tropy ba!a#ce betwee# p!a#e$ 0 a#) 12
$
0
S )$
(1
Y 91 X ) X )
$o!
: $
,1
Y )
$o!
$
$o!
923-33:
*
2,
T
2
*"e +ractio# ^
0
&
6or a p*#ct*re, brea1, or pre$$*re re!ie+ (a!(e 9C3D: ope#i#g +ro" a
reactor or )i$ti!!atio# co!*"#, there "ay be #o c!ear-c*t !e(e! )i$ti#-
g*i$hi#g the !i5*i) a#) (apor pha$e$& That i$, the $y$te" i$ i#itia!!y
"i/e)&
%# thi$ ca$e, #o#co#)e#$ab!e ga$e$, co#)e#$ab!e (apor$, a#) !i5*i) p!*$
$o!i)$ are i#itia!!y )i$charge)& The (a!*e o+ ^
0
i$ #o#Kero a#) !e$$ tha#
*#ity, re+!ecti#g the co#trib*tio#$ o+ the ga$e$ a#) (apor$&
6or a b!ow-)ow# ca!c*!atio#, the co#)itio#$ cha#ge& 4ith a ta#1
(apor $pace re!ea$e, a$ the pre$$*re )ecrea$e$, the !i5*i) co*!) reach
it$ b*bb!e poi#t a#) begi# to +!a$h& Dapor b*bb!e$ i# the !i5*i) ge#er-
ate a !i5*i) $we!!, $o a +rothy, two-pha$e i#ter+ace ri$e$ a#) co*!) )ri(e
o*t a!! the (apor 9a!o#g with #o#co#)e#$ab!e$: a#) begi# two-pha$e
+!a$hi#g +!ow o+ !i5*i) witho*t #o#co#)e#$ab!e$& Th*$, the )i$charge
ca!c*!atio# wo*!) a!$o cha#ge +ro" a (apor )i$charge to a two-pha$e
+!a$hi#g !i5*i) )i$charge&
The e#ergy a#) "o"e#t*" ba!a#ce e5*atio#$ are )raw# acro$$
p!a#e$ at poi#t$ 0, 1, a#) 2, a$ i!!*$trate) +or a ge#era! ca$e i# 6ig&
*
1
*
0,
T
0
0
0,
,
0
2 9 $i#
0
2,
,
2
23-31& F%G. 23031 Co#+ig*ratio# "o)e!e) +or pipe +!ow with e!e(atio# cha#ge&

2
(
2
,

e
2

,
M
a
s
s

)
a
p
o
r

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r
a
c
t
i
o
n
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s

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u
+
,

k
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-
m
.
s
/
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(
o
,

k
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0
1

u
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m

s
2
e
m
p
,
o
C
-i#ce the "a$$ +ractio# o+ $o!i)$ i$ co#$ta#t, the (apor +!a$h +ractio# i$
$
0
X P91 X )
$o!
:$
,1
X )
$o!
$
$o!
Q
T

$1
3405
340
673
683
) S
9$ X $ :
923-34:
(1 ,1 T$1
34.5
693
6i#) the e#tha!py &
2
at T
$1
+ro" phy$ica! property corre!atio#$& De!oc-
ity i$ +o*#) $o!(i#g .5& 923-32: +or ho"oge#eo*$ +!ow 9with = S 0:2
34.
3465
6.3
(v
e
S " S 2 9&
0
X
&
2
:
923-35:
346
633
6i#) the )e#$ity p +ro" a# e5*atio# o+ $tate at P
1
,T
$1
+or the pha$e
)e#$itie$ p
(
a#) p
,
, a#) the reciproca! o+ the ho"oge#eo*$ $peci+ic
(o!*"e v
&
& Ca!c*!ate the "a$$ +!*/ +ro"
3435
3 73
65 05 55 :5 ;5 665
( S "p S
"
v
923-36:
Pressure, psia
-earch with (a!*e$ o+ P
1
*#ti! ( i$ "a/i"iKe)& The cho1e pre$$*re, P
ch
i$ the (a!*e o+ P
1
that pro)*ce$ a "a/i"*" (a!*e o+ "a$$ +!*/ (
"a/
&
The )i$charge rate w i$ gi(e# +ro" the "a$$ +!*/, a )i$charge coe++i-
cie#t C
3
, a#) the ori+ice cro$$-$ectio#a! area a$
w S C
3
(
"a/
923-37:
Thi$ approach i$ i!!*$trate) +or two-pha$e +!a$hi#g +!ow with a "*!ti-
co"po#e#t "i/t*re 9"o!e +ractio#$ 0&477 a!!y! a!coho!, 0&3404 a!!y!
0
,ap Te"p
F%G. 23032 ./a"p!e +!a$h c*r(e +or "*!tico"po#e#t "ateria!&
%# )i"e#$io#!e$$ (ariab!e$, the "o"e#t*" ba!a#ce i$
ch!ori)e, 0&1826 )o)eca#e:& 6ig*re 23-32 p!ot$ the +!a$h c*r(e $how-
n %l Y (
2
1
2 2 2
g $i# m %'
i#g that a$ pre$$*re )ecrea$e$, +!a$hi#g begi#$ at the b*bb!e poi#t o+
7&22 bar9a: 9104&7 p$ia: a#) i#crea$e$ to 30&8 "a$$ T& 't the $a"e
ti"e, te"perat*re +o!!ow$ the $at*ratio# c*r(e )ow#& 6ig*re 23-33
p!ot$ the two-pha$e )e#$ity, the (e!ocity, a#) the pro)*ct o+ the$e, the
"a$$ +!*/ (0 %# the p!ot ( i$ a "a/i"*" at 8586 1gJ9"
2
$: at the cho1e
pre$$*re >*$t be!ow the b*bb!e poi#t& Thi$ i$ $o beca*$e the two-pha$e
)e#$ity )rop$ 5*ic1!y a$ +!a$hi#g occ*r$ at re)*ce) pre$$*re$, whi!e
the (e!ocity i#crea$e$ "ore $!ow!y& 4ith a )i$charge coe++icie#t o+
0&61 a#) a 2-i# ori+ice 9area o+ 0&002027 "
2
: the )i$charge rate w i$
10&6 1gJ$&
!o/entu/ Balance in Di/ensionless ;aria'les 6or pipe
+!ow, it i$ #ece$$ary to $o!(e the "o"e#t*" ba!a#ce& The "o"e#t*"
ba!a#ce i$ $i"p!i+ie) by *$i#g the +o!!owi#g )i"e#$io#!e$$ (ariab!e$2

n %n Y / (

n r
,
Y

S 0 923-40:
2
P
0
v
0
where / co!!ect$ the +rictio# !o$$ ter"$ i# ter"$ o+ the #*"ber o+
(e!ocity hea)$, or
/ S 4 f
%'
Y 1 923-41:
3
The two-pha$e +!ow "*!tip!ier
,
i$ )i$c*$$e) i# a !ater $ectio#&
The "o"e#t*" ba!a#ce +or ho"oge#eo*$ +!ow ca# be +actore) to
a +or" that e#ab!e$ i#tegratio# a$
p
n %n Y n %l
Cre$$*re ratio2 l S
P
X/ S 923-42:
1 2 2
P
0
(
p
n Y F
!
(
Ma$$ +!*/ ratio2 (
\
S
P
0
p
0
-peci+ic (o!*"e ratio2 n S
v
v
0
923-38:
63333
;333
7333
:333
8333
733
:33
833
533
The )i$charge re!atio#$hip$ are )eri(e) by $o!(i#g the )i++ere#tia!
"o"e#t*" ba!a#ce o(er a ta#1 p!*$ pipe2
5333
9333
0333
933
033
%' 1 .33
v %P Y (
2
v %v Y

4f Y 1
e

(
2
v
2
r
2
Y g $i# m %' S 0 923-39: .333
, ,
3 2
6333
633
The ter"$ repre$e#t, re$pecti(e!y, the e++ect o+ pre$$*re gra)ie#t,
acce!eratio#, !i#e +rictio#, a#) pote#tia! e#ergy 9$tatic hea):& The
e++ect o+ +itti#g$, be#)$, e#tra#ce e++ect$, etc&, i$ i#c!*)e) i# the ter"
1
e
corre!ate) a$ a #*"ber o+ e++ecti(e <(e!ocity hea)$&= The i#c!i#a-
tio# a#g!e m i$ the a#g!e to the horiKo#ta! +ro" the e!e(atio# o+ the
pipe co##ectio# to the (e$$e! to the )i$charge poi#t& The ter" r
2
i$ the
two-pha$e "*!tip!ier that correct$ the !i5*i)-pha$e +rictio# pre$$*re
!o$$ to a two-pha$e pre$$*re !o$$& .5*atio# 923-39: i$ writte# i# *#it$
o+ pre$$*reJ)e#$ity&
3 3
65 05 55 :5 ;5
Pressure, psi
G ) rho
F%G. 23033 ./a"p!e o+ *$i#g the e#ergy ba!a#ce to +i#) the ori+ice )i$charge
+!*/&
2
p
l
2

o 1
(
2
%l %P
2
(
2
w
2 m
P
by )e+i#i#g a pipe i#c!i#atio# +actor F
!
a$
g3 $i#m
F
!
S

4 f
,0
P
0
v
0
923-43:
+!ow $o!*tio# i$ "o$t *$e+*!& Tra#$+or"i#g P a#) p to te"perat*re
T, *$i#g .5& 923-44: a!!ow$ .5& 923-50: to be i#tegrate) to gi(e a
$o!*tio# i# ter"$ o+ the i#itia! )i$charge rate w
0
a#) the i#itia! ta#1
"a$$ m
T0
2
w 9t: w
0
PF9t:Q
9o 1:9o O 1:
923-51:
where F
!
i$ po$iti(e +or *p+!ow, #egati(e +or )ow#+!ow, a#) Kero +or
horiKo#ta! +!ow&
Analytical Solutions for .rifice an# Pi-e Flow .5*atio#
923-42: ca# be $o!(e) a#a!ytica!!y +or pipe brea1$ a#) ta#1 p*#ct*re$
+or the +o!!owi#g ca$e$2
M -*bcoo!e) !i5*i) +!ow
M ')iabatic e/pa#$io# o+ i)ea! ga$e$
where
F9t: 91 t:
1
923-52a:
w
0
9o 1:

M 6!a$hi#g !i5*i) +!ow witho*t #o#co#)e#$ab!e ga$e$ 9^
0
S 0:
M -*bcoo!e) !i5*i) "i/e) with #o#co#)e#$ab!e ga$e$ 9^
0
] 0: 9+roKe#
+!ow:

T0
923-52b:
M 6!a$hi#g !i5*i) "i/e) with #o#co#)e#$ab!e ga$e$ 9hybri) +!ow:
The $o!*tio#$ +or a!! e/cept hybri) +!ow +o!!ow&
.rifice Dischar$e for Gas Flow The a#a!ytic $o!*tio# +or )i$-
charge thro*gh a# ori+ice o+ a# i)ea! ga$ i$ )eri(e) by i#(o1i#g the
e5*atio# o+ $tate +or a)iabatic e/pa#$io# o+ a# i)ea! ga$2
Pi-e an# .rifice Flow for Su'coole# LiFui#s -i#ce !i5*i)$
are e$$e#tia!!y i#co"pre$$ib!e, n i$ co#$ta#t at n
0
, a#) %n i$ Kero i# .5&
923-42:& 3ecog#iKi#g that l
0
a#) n
0
are *#ity, we $ee that i#tegratio#
gi(e$
l
9
o
o J9oX1:
1 2 2
P
S

p

S

T

923-44:
/

(
\p
n
0
F
!
n
0
s
%l l
2
l
0

P
7 0
T
0
0
where
o
C
P

C
*
1 l
2
923-45:
or (
\p
S 2 F
!

/
923-53:
The $o!*tio# i$
(
2
2o
2 o
91 l
9o 1: o
: 923-46:
The $o!*tio# +or ori+ice +!ow i$ a $pecia! ca$e with / e5*a! to *#ity
9e#tra#ce !o$$e$ o#!y: a#) F
%
e5*a! to Kero, gi(i#g
\g
S l
2 2
o 1 (
\ori
2 91
l
2
:
923-54:
Thi$ $o!*tio# app!ie$ +or both $*b$o#ic a#) cho1e) +!ow& %+ the +!ow i$
cho1e), the e/it pre$$*re ratio l
2
i$ rep!ace) by the cho1e) pre$$*re
ratio l
ch
, gi(e# by
3u/erical Solution for .rifice Flow 4ith ori+ice +!ow, the !a$t
two ter"$ o+ the "o"e#t*" ba!a#ce 9!i#e re$i$ta#ce a#) pote#tia!
e#ergy cha#ge: are #eg!igib!e& The "o"e#t*" ba!a#ce, .5& 923-40:,
re)*ce$ to
2
o

9o 1:
l
ch



923-47:
\
n % n n %l 923-55:
.5*atio# 923-47: "*$t be e(a!*ate) to te$t +or cho1e) +!ow i# a#y
e(e#t& 4he# l
ch
+ro" .5& 923-47: i$ $*b$tit*te) i#to .5& 923-46:, the
ge#era! $o!*tio# re)*ce$ to the cho1e) +!ow $o!*tio#2
Thi$ e5*atio# ca# be treate) i# )i++ere#tia! +or" a#) i# i#tegra! +or"&
%# )i++ere#tia! +or" it beco"e$
%n
1J2
%v
1J2
2
9o 1:J9o 1:
(
\)i++




or (
)i++




923-56:
(
\g
S o


923-48:
o 1
The )i$charge rate i$ +o*#) by *$i#g .5$& 923-37: a#) 923-38:&
Blow#own of Gas Dischar$e throu$h .rifice '# a#a!ytic
6or the i#tegra! +or", e/pre$$ .5& 923-55: a$
1
$o!*tio# i$ a(ai!ab!e +or b!ow)ow# 9ti"e-)epe#)e#t )i$charge: o+ a#
i)ea! ga$ +ro" a ta#1& The ti"e-(aryi#g "a$$ o+ ga$ i# the ta#1 m
T
i$
the pro)*ct o+ the ta#1 (o!*"e *
T
a#) the )e#$ity p2
m
T
9t: *
T
p 9t: 923-49:
to obtai#

\
%n
2
2
n %l
1 2
Ei++ere#tiati#g, $o!(i#g +or %t, a#) i#tegrati#g gi(e$
(
\
%n 9 2n %l: 923-57:
%# ge#era!, the !i"it$ o+ i#tegratio# are +ro" n
0
, l
0
to a# arbitrary +i#a!
%p
poi#t n, l 9recog#iKi#g that n
$
n
0
1:& owe(er, thi$ "etho) wor1$
t *
T
s

923-50:
better, *$i#g a# i#)e+i#ite i#tegratio# o+ %n2
P
0
where w i$ the ti"e-(aryi#g )i$charge rate& Typica!!y, a!! b*t a $"a!!
+ractio#
o+ the
"a$$ i#
a ta#1 i$
)i$charge)
at $o#ic
+!ow, $o
a $o#ic


1
(
\i#t

n
l
0
1 2
2
s
n
%l
l
923-58:
2
n
<
f
l
u
+
,

k
'

-
m
.
s
/
or i# )i"e#$io#a! +or"
(er$*$ l
1
: begi##i#g at the b*bb!e poi#t P
$
, where l i$ l
s
& 6or $i#g!e
q i$ +o*#) by *$i#g the C!apeyro# e5*atio# to gi(e
p
0
1
1 2
co"po#e#t$,
(
i#t


2
s
v%P

923-59:
C T P v 9P :
2
v
p
q
p, 0 $

(,0 $
923-61a:
.5*atio#$ 923-56: a#) 923-59: are rea)i!y e(a!*ate) at i#ter"e)iate
v
,0
&
(,0
9P
$
:
pre$$*re poi#t$ P
1
i# the ra#ge P
a
Z P
1
Z P
0
, gi(i#g two c*r(e$ +or (0
The two c*r(e$ cro$$ at the cho1e poi#t, which i$ a!$o the poi#t o+
"a/i"*" "a$$ +!*/, a$ i!!*$trate) i# 6ig& 23-34 +or a "i/t*re o+ i$ob*-
ta#e 990&898 "o! T: a#) ethy!e#e 99&102 "o! T: i#itia!!y at 33&0 bara
a#) 357&4 B& The "a$$ +!*/ ( +o*#) by e(a!*ati#g .5& 923-59: i$
!abe!e) (
i#t
i# the +ig*re, a#) the (a!*e o+ ( +o*#) by e(a!*ati#g .5&
923-56: i$ !abe!e) (
)i++
& The (
i#t
c*r(e ha$ a "a/i"*" (a!*e o+ 20,637
1gJ9"
2
$: at the cho1e pre$$*re o+ 20&64 bara&
The )i$a)(a#tage o+ thi$ $o!*tio# i$ that it i$ $e#$iti(e to i#acc*ra-
cie$ i# the phy$ica! propertie$ corre!atio#$ *$e) to e(a!*ate the +!a$h
+ractio# a#) $peci+ic (o!*"e$& 6ig*re 23-34 i$ +o*#) by *$i#g
E%CC3 propertie$ 9Ea*bert a#) Ea##er, 1989:& The "a$$ +!*/
+o*#) )oe$ #ot agree we!! with that +o*#) by *$i#g the e#ergy ba!-
a#ce "etho) that gi(e$ 24,330 1gJ9"
2
$:& %# a))itio#, the right"o$t
bra#ch o+ the (
)i++
c*r(e i$ a#o"a!o*$!y !ow a#) cro$$e$ the (
i#t
c*r(e $p*rio*$!y to the right o+ the "a/i"*" +!*/& 0y *$i#g "ore
acc*rate phy$ica! propertie$ )e(e!ope) by the -T3'CC progra" o+
G%-T 9.!y a#) *ber, 1990:, the "a/i"*" (a!*e o+ (
i#t
agree$ with
that +o*#) by the e#ergy ba!a#ce "etho) a#) the right-ha#) bra#ch
o+ the (
)i++
c*r(e )oe$ #ot +a!! !ow a#) ca*$e thi$ co#+*$io#& 6or thi$
rea$o# the "etho) i$ #ot reco""e#)e) +or ge#era! *$e, b*t pro-
(i)e$ goo) co#+ir"atio#$ whe# *$e) with acc*rate phy$ica! proper-
tie$ corre!atio#$&
./e$a !etho# !o#el for Co/-ressi'le Flows The +actore)
"o"e#t*" ba!a#ce, .5& 923-42:, ca# be a#a!ytica!!y i#tegrate) a+ter
+ir$t re!ati#g the )i"e#$io#!e$$ $peci+ic (o!*"e n to the )i"e#$io#!e$$
pre$$*re ratio l& ' "etho) to )o thi$, )e$ig#ate) the omega metho%,
wa$ $*gge$te) by Fe*#g 91986:2
'!ter#ate!y, *$e the $!ope o+ the n (er$*$ l
1
c*r(e betwee# the b*b-
b!e poi#t a#) a $eco#), !ower pre$$*re at n
2
, l
2
to e(a!*ate q, or
n
2
1
q 1 923-61b:
l
s
Gl
9
Thi$ i$ a "ore co#(e#ie#t +or"*!a +or "*!tico"po#e#t "i/t*re$&
Thi$ (a!*e o+ q ca# be ca!!e) the $at*ratio# (a!*e or q
s
, $i#ce it
app!ie$ o#!y with +!a$hi#g !i5*i)$ 9i&e&, i# the +!a$hi#g regio# +or pre$-
$*re$ !e$$ tha# the b*bb!e poi#t, a$ $ee# i# 6ig& 23-32:& ' ge#era!iKa-
tio# )e+i#e$ o"ega to app!y a!$o with #o#co#)e#$ab!e ga$e$ by *$i#g
^
0
S )
v
0
v
v
0
Jv
0
q ^
0
91 ^
0
:q
s
923-61c:
"o/o$eneous Fuili'riu/ ./e$a !etho# for .rifice an#
"ori,ontal Pi-e Flow The ho"oge#eo*$ e5*i!ibri*" "o)e!
9.M: $o!*tio# i$ obtai#e) by $*b$tit*ti#g .5& 923-60: +or n a#)
i#tegrati#g the "o"e#t*" ba!a#ce& The $o!*tio# i$ gi(e# +ir$t +or
horiKo#ta! +!ow, with the +!ow i#c!i#atio# +actor F
!
S 0& ;ri+ice +!ow
i$ a $pecia! ca$e i# which o#!y the ori+ice $o!*tio# i$ #ee)e)& 6or
pipe +!ow, two $o!*tio#$ are #ee)e), the ori+ice +!ow $o!*tio# gi(i#g
(
\ori
a#) the pipe +!ow $o!*tio# gi(i#g (
\p
& C!a#e 1 i# 6ig& 23-31 i$ at
the pre$$*re ratio l
1
where the pipe pre$$*re ba!a#ce begi#$ a#)
the i#!et ori+ice pre$$*re !o$$ e#)$& The +i#a! pipe $o!*tio# +i#)$ l
1
$o
that
(
\ori
(
\p
923-62:
The i#tegratio# +or both $o!*tio#$ "*$t be co#)*cte) o(er the $*b-
n S
t
l l
923-60:
the b*bb!e poi#t pre$$*re ratio l co*!) +a!! either i# the ori+ice +!ow
q

l
s
O 1

Y1 i+
l
s
] 1
coo!e) regio# a#) the +!a$hi#g regio#& The co"p!icati#g +actor i$ that

s
i#tegratio# $pa# 9l
s
l
1
:, gi(i#g +!a$hi#g i# the ori+ice 9ca$e 1:, or i#
l
s the pipe i#tegratio# $pa# 9l
s
, l
1
:, gi(i#g +!a$hi#g i# the pipe 9ca$e 2:&
1&0 i+
l
c 1
.5*atio# 923-60: repre$e#t$ a !i#ear re!atio#$hip betwee# the two- or
three-pha$e $peci+ic (o!*"e a#) reciproca! pre$$*re 9v (er$*$ P
1
or n
The$e two optio#$ are i!!*$trate) i# 6ig& 23-35&
'gai#, o(er the $*bcoo!e) regio# +ro" l
0
to l
s
, %n i$ Kero a#) n i$
co#$ta#t at *#ity, n
0
& The $o!*tio#$ +or the two ca$e$ are a$ +o!!ow$2
Case @> Flashing in Crifice, Two-Phase Flashing Flow in Pipe
2t91 l
s
: Pql
s
!#9l
s
Gl
ch
: 9q 1:9l
s
l
ch
:Qu
(
\ori
S 923-63:
0.333
.7333
.9333
.3333
68333
6.333
C.4@ 1
2
H
;
2
ch
*ipe 3ri(ice
1 $
0
H1
7333 9333
3
6 9 : 63 60 68 6; .. .5 .7 06 09 C.4@ 2
A!a$hi#g 4)bcoo!e-
*ipe 3ri(ice
Pressure, bara
G
i#t
G
-i((
2
H
; $ 1
0
H1
F%G. 23038 G*"erica! $o!*tio# o+ the "o"e#t*" ba!a#ce +or ori+ice +!ow *$i#g
.5$& 923-56: a#) 923-59:&
A!a$hi#g 4)bcoo!e-
F%G. 23039 ;ptio#$ +or i#tegratio# ra#ge o+ .M o"ega "etho)&
(
2
n
1



\ !
\p
S 2

l
1
l
2
ql
s
l
2
n
2
1 1

923-64:
The o"ega "etho) .M $o!*tio# +or ori+ice +!ow i$ p!otte) i# 6ig&

2
!#
23-36& The $o!*tio# +or +!a$hi#g !i5*i)$ witho*t #o#co#)e#$ab!e$ i$ to
(
2
1 q 91 q: l n

n

/ 2 !#


2
Case 9> $"bcoole% ,i-"i% in Crifice, Flashing in Pipe
\ori
S 29l
0
l
1
: 923-65:
the right o+ q 1, a#) the $o!*tio# +or +roKe# +!ow with $*bcoo!e) !i5-
*i)$ p!*$ #o#co#)e#$ab!e$ i$ to the !e+t& The o"ega "etho) .M
$o!*tio# +or horiKo#ta! pipe +!ow i$ p!otte) i# 6ig& 23-37 a$ the ratio o+
pipe "a$$ +!*/ to ori+ice "a$$ +!*/&
"! for %ncline# Pi-e, Dischar$e %+ a pipe !ea1 occ*r$ at a#
e!e(atio# abo(e or be!ow the p*"p or $o*rce ta#1 the e!e(atio# cha#ge
ca# be i)ea!iKe) betwee# the $tarti#g a#) e#)i#g poi#t$ a$ $how# i#
6ig& 23-38& That i$, e!e(atio# cha#ge$ ca# be treate) a$ a# i#c!i#e) pipe
ls l2 ls l2 qls l2n2
with a #o#-Kero i#c!i#atio# +actor F
!
& Thi$ i$ a# appro/i"atio# to the
l
1
l
s
!#



\p
S 2

act*a! pipi#g i$o"etric$, b*t i$ o+te# a# a)e5*ate appro/i"atio#&
The .M $o!*tio# i# thi$ ca$e i$ i"p!icit i# (
\p
2
1 q
(
2
1 q
n
91 q:
2
l
s
n
$
/ 2 !#
2
n
$
Case @> Flashing in Crifice, Two-Phase Flashing Flow in Pipe>
,$e .5& 923-63: +or (
\ori
2
923-66:
The cho1e poi#t i$ +o*#) by the *$*a! "a/i"iKatio# re!atio#$hip2
/ Y !#

N9l
2
:

l
1

2

S

N9l
1
: l
2
1 X q
9l X l : 1 2
c
%(\
Y
b91 X q: X cql
s
!#
N9l
2
:
926-69:
0 923-67:

2c
2

N9l
1
:
%l
2 l2 lch
bcql
s
X 91 X q:9b
2
X 2ac: Thi$ gi(e$ a# i"p!icit e5*atio# i# the cho1e) pre$$*re ratio l
c
9$hort-
ha#) +or l
ch
l
s
:2
%+ q c 22
Y P!
0
9l
2
: X !
0
9l
1
:Q
2c
2
Case 9> $"bcoole% ,i-"i% in Crifice, Flashing in Pipe> ,$e .5&
2 2 2 2
l
c
q 9q 2:91 l
c
: 2q !# l
c
2q 91 l
c
: 0 923-68a:
'# e/p!icit e5*atio# pro(i)e$ a# a)e5*ate appro/i"ate $o!*tio# +or
923-65: +or (
\ori&
2
N9l : l
2
l1 l 1 q
!arger (a!*e$ o+ q2
/ !#


2


$


$
9l l :
6or q v 22 N9l$: l2
1
(
2
F
c
s 2
l
c
0&55 0&217 !# q 0&046 9!# q:
2
0&0049!# q:
3
923-68b:
b91 q: cql
s

2
N9l
2
:
6or ori+ice +!ow, the )e+i#itio# o+ cho1e) +!ow i# ter"$ o+ the bac1-
!#
pre$$*re ratio l
b
i$
M Cho1e) co"pre$$ib!e2 l
b
c l
ch
$et l l
ch
2c
2
N9l
s
:
M -*b$o#ic co"pre$$ib!e2 l
b
] l
ch
$et l l
b
M -*bcoo!e) !i5*i)2 a!way$ $*b$o#ic
bcql
$
91 q:9b
2
2ac:
P!
0
9l
2
: !
0
9l
$
:Q 923-70:
2c
2
F%G. 2303< ;"ega "etho) $o!*tio# +or ori+ice +!ow o+ +!a$hi#g !i5*i)$ a#) +or #o#co#)e#$ab!e ga$ p!*$ $*b-
coo!e) !i5*i)$&
0
s
F%G. 2303B ;"ega "etho) $o!*tio# +or +!a$hi#g !i5*i) horiKo#ta! pipe +!ow&
where
1
a (
2
q
2
l
2
923-71a:
%l
! 9l:
N9l:
2
\ s
1
!f - Q 7, F
!
Q 7, "pflow>
b (
2
2q 91 q:l 923-71b:
2
\ s
2
1
2cl b
1
c (
2
91 q:
2
F 923-71c:
!
0
9l: ta#

-


-
923-73a:
2
\ !
!f - R 7, F
!
R 7, %ownflow>
- 4ac b
2
923-71%:
N9l: a bl cl
2
923-72:
2cl b -
!
0
9l: !#
2cl b -
923-73b:
F%G. 2303D ;"ega "etho) .M $o!*tio# +or i#c!i#e) pipe +!ow at F
!
S 0&1&
&
t
M
a
s
s

*
l
u
+

-
k
'

m
.
s
/
M
a
s
s

*
l
u
+

-
k
'

m
.
s
/
l
!f - S 7, F
!
S 7, hori'ontal flow>
1
.3333
67333
!
0
9l:
91 q:nl
923-73c:
68333
69333
200 '*a
400 '*a
The o"ega "etho) .M $o!*tio# +or i#c!i#e) pipe +!ow i$ i!!*$trate)
i# 6ig& 23-38&
3oneFuili'riu/ =tension of ./e$a !etho# The o"ega
"etho) .M te#)$ to pro)*ce )i$charge rate$ that are !ow, partic*-
!ar!y +or $hort pipe$& To correct thi$ )e+icie#cy, Eie#er a#) -ch"i)t
propo$e) a "o)i+icatio# they ter" the none-"ilibri"m compressibil-
ity factor /, )e+i#e) by
6.333
63333
7333
8333
9333
.333
600 '*a
800 '*a
v(,0 1
a
/

)
0
C
P,0
T
0
P
0



!#




923-74:
3
with
2
(,0 C
3 345 6 645 . .45
Pipe =en't( -m/
0&6 +or ori+ice$, co#tro! (a!(e$, $hort #oKK!e$
a 0&4 +or pre$$*re re!ie+ (a!(e$, high O !i+t co#tro! (a!(e$
0 +or !o#g #oKK!e$, o++ice with !arge area ratio
The cho1e) pre$$*re ratio l
c
i$ +o*#) by *$i#g .5$& 923-68a: a#)
923-68b:& The #o#e5*i!ibri*" +actor / i$ *$e) to "o)i+y q 2
q ^
0
q
$
/ 923-75:
Differences 'etween Su'coole# an# Saturate# Dischar$e
for "ori,ontal Pi-es Eata by ,chai)a a#) Garai 91966: i# 6ig$&
23-39 a#) 23-40 i!!*$trate the $*b$ta#tia! )i++ere#ce$ betwee# $*b-
coo!e) a#) $at*rate)-!i5*i) )i$charge rate$& Ei$charge rate$ )ecrea$e
with i#crea$i#g pipe !e#gth i# both ca$e$, b*t the )rop i# )i$charge
rate i$ "*ch "ore pro#o*#ce) with $at*rate) !i5*i)$& Thi$ i$ $o,
beca*$e the +!a$he) (apor e++ecti(e!y cho1e$ the +!ow a#) )ecrea$e$
the two-pha$e )e#$ity&
Accuracy of Dischar$e &ate Pre#ictions Mo)e! (eri+icatio# i$
)i++ic*!t beca*$e agree"e#t with )ata (arie$ $*b$ta#tia!!y +ro" o#e $et
o+ e/peri"e#ta! )ata to a#other& The acc*racy o+ the .M a#) the
G.M correctio# i$ i!!*$trate) i# 6ig& 23-41 a#) co"pare) with )ata
+or $at*rate) water by ,chai)a a#) Garai 91966:& The G.M correc-
tio# *$i#g the power coe++icie#t a o+ 0&6 )ecrea$e$ o"ega a#)
i#crea$e$ the pre)icte) )i$charge rate$ $o that goo) pre)ictio#$ are
obtai#e) +or pipe !e#gth$ greater tha# 0&5 "&
The acc*racy o+ the e#ergy ba!a#ce "etho) +or )i$charge o+ +!a$h-
i#g !i5*i)$ thro*gh ori+ice$ a#) horiKo#ta! pipe$ i$ i!!*$trate) i# 6ig$&
23-42 a#) 23-43& The ratio o+ pre)icte) to ob$er(e) "a$$ +!*/ i$ p!ot-
te) +or $at*rate) water )ata by ,chai)a a#) Garai a#) by -oKKi a#)
.5333
.33 kPa
933 kPa
F%G. 2308E -at*rate) water )ata by ,chai)a a#) Garai&
-*ther!a#) 91975:& ;ri+ice +!ow rate$ are *#)erpre)icte) by abo*t the
$a"e +actor with the e#ergy ba!a#ce "etho) a#) with the G.M& Ei$-
charge pre)ictio#$ +or $hort 90&2-": pipe$ are o(erpre)icte) by the
e#ergy ba!a#ce "etho)& %# thi$ regio#, the a$$*"ptio# o+ ho"oge-
#eo*$ e5*i!ibri*" i$ #ot >*$ti+ie)& ' "o)e! that ta1e$ $!ip (e!ocity i#to
acco*#t "ay i"pro(e pre)ictio#$ +or $hort pipe$&
A)!.SP"&%C D%SP&S%.3
3o/enclature
ZC]
1
9.#$e"b!e: ti"e-a(erage) co#ce#tratio# +or a(eragi#g ti"e t
1
,
"a$$ per (o!*"e
%
0
Ei$p!ace"e#t height, !e#gth
E 'irbor#e co#ta"i#a#t "a$$ rate i# a p!*"e, "a$$ per ti"e
E
t
Tota! airbor#e co#ta"i#a#t "a$$ i# a p*++, "a$$
g 'cce!eratio# )*e to gra(ity, !e#gth $5*are) per ti"e
k Do# Bar"a#?$ co#$ta#t 9typica!!y 0&4:
, Mo#i#-;b*1ho( !e#gth, !e#gth
p %#)e/ re+!ecti#g )ecrea$e i# ti"e-a(erage) co#ce#tratio# with
a(eragi#g ti"e
t
%
'!o#g wi#) 9) )irectio#: )i$per$io# ti"e $ca!e, ti"e
t
h
Ti"e $ca!e +or co#ta"i#a#t to po$e a partic*!ar haKar), ti"e
t
s
-o*rce ti"e $ca!e, !e#gth o+ ti"e +or co#ta"i#a#t to beco"e
airbor#e, ti"e
t
t
Ti"e $ca!e +or a co#ta"i#a#t c!o*) to reach haKar) e#)poi#t
)i$ta#ce )
h
, ti"e
" 9Characteri$tic: wi#) $pee) at e!e(atio# ', !e#gth per ti"e
"
r
4i#) $pee) at re+ere#ce height '
r
, !e#gth per ti"e
"
T
6rictio# (e!ocity, !e#gth per ti"e
)
v
Dirt*a! $o*rce )i$ta#ce *pwi#) o+ rea! $o*rce, !e#gth
.3333

65333
63333

5333
3
833 kPa
733 kPa
) 9Eow#wi#): )i$ta#ce i# wi#) )irectio#, !e#gth
)
h
aKar) e#)poi#t )i$ta#ce, !e#gth
'
o
-*r+ace ro*gh#e$$, !e#gth
'
r
3e+ere#ce height, !e#gth
Gree1 $y"bo!$
^ Mo#i#-;b*1ho( !e#gth coe++icie#t
n eight o+ gro*#) co(eri#g, !e#gth
p 'ir-co#ta"i#a#t "i/t*re )e#$ity at co#ce#tratio# C, "i/t*re "a$$
per "i/t*re (o!*"e
p
a
'"bie#t air )e#$ity, "a$$ per (o!*"e
w
)
, w
y
, w
'
Ei$per$io# coe++icie#t$ i# ), y, ' )irectio#$, !e#gth
w
m
4i#) )irectio# $ta#)ar) )e(iatio#, a#g!e
3 345 6 645 . .45
Pipe =en't( -m/
F%G. 2303C -*bcoo!e) water )ata by ,chai)a a#) Garai&
) '!o#g wi#) )irectio#
y Fatera! )irectio#
' Dertica! )irectio#
-*b$cript$
<
p
r
e
d

<
o
b
s
<
p
r
e
d

<
o
b
s
64.
646
6
34;
347
34:
348
345
349
340
34.
3 345 6 645 . .45
Pipe =en't( -m/
+@M 200 '*a +@M 400 '*a +@M 600 '*a
@M 200 '*a @M 400 '*a @M 600 '*a
F%G. 23081 'cc*racy o+ ;"ega "etho) .M a#) G.M correctio# co"-
pare) with $at*rate) water )ata by ,chai)a a#) Garai&
G3&AL &F&3CS7 0ritter a#) McH*ai), Eorkbook on the 3ispersion
of 3ense (ases, ea!th a#) -a+ety ./ec*ti(e 3eport 17J1988, -he++ie!), ,&B&,
1988& Ma##a#, ,ees? ,oss Prevention in the Process !n%"stries, 3) e)&, Chap& 15,
.!$e(ier 0*tterworth-ei#e"a##, ;/+or), ,&B&, 2005& Ca#o+$1y a#) E*tto#,
tmospheric T"rb"lence, 4i!ey, Gew @or1, 1984& Ca$5*i!! a#) -"ith, tmos-
pheric 3iff"sion, 3) e)&, .!!i$ orwoo) Fi"ite), Chiche$ter, ,&B&, 1983& -ei#-
+e!), tmospheric Chemistry an% Physics of ir Poll"tion, Chap$& 12O15,
4i!ey, Gew @or1, 1986& T*r#er, Eorkbook of tmospheric 3ispersion
Estimates, ,&-& Eepart"e#t o+ ea!th, .)*catio#, a#) 4e!+are, 1970&
%ntro#uction 't"o$pheric )i$per$io# "o)e!$ pre)ict the )i!*-
tio# o+ a# airbor#e co#ta"i#a#t a+ter it$ re!ea$e 9a#) )epre$$*riKa-
tio#: to the at"o$phere& The )i$c*$$io# i# thi$ $ectio# +oc*$e$ o#
epi$o)ic re!ea$e$ repre$e#ti#g ac*te bio!ogica!, to/ic, or +!a""ab!e
haKar)$& Chy$ica! a#) "athe"atica! )i$per$io# "o)e!$ )i$c*$$e) here
are typica!!y *$e) +or 91: +ore#$ic p*rpo$e$ 9i# co"pari$o# with act*a!
e(e#t$ $*ch a$ e/peri"e#t$, +ie!) tria!$, or acci)e#t$:A 92: reg*!atory
p*rpo$e$, $*ch a$ e$ti"ati#g the co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ re!ea$e$ o+ to/ic or
+!a""ab!e "ateria!$ +or $iti#g re5*ire"e#t$A or 93: p!a##i#g p*r-
po$e$& 3e!ea$e co#$e5*e#ce$ "ay be *$e) to e$ti"ate the ri$1 to a
+aci!ity a#) wor1+orce or the $*rro*#)i#g pop*!atio#& '!! $*ch e$ti-
"ate$ ca# be *$e) to i)e#ti+y appropriate e"erge#cy re$po#$e or "it-
igatio# "ea$*re$ a#) the priority with which $*ch "ea$*re$ $ho*!) be
co#$i)ere)&
647
648
649
64.
6
347
348
3 345 6 645 . .45
Pipe =en't( -m/
200 '*a 400 '*a 600 '*a 800 '*a
F%G. 23082 'cc*racy o+ e#ergy ba!a#ce "etho) co"pare) with $at*rate)
water )ata by ,chai)a a#) Garai&
F%G. 23083 'cc*racy o+ e#ergy ba!a#ce "etho) +or +!a$hi#g !i5*i) )i$charge
thro*gh ori+ice$ a#) horiKo#ta! pipe$&
Para/eters Affectin$ At/os-heric Dis-ersion The para"e-
ter$ i"porta#t to at"o$pheric )i$per$io# ca# be )i(i)e) ro*gh!y i#to
three categorie$2 co#ta"i#a#t $o*rceA at"o$pheric a#) terrai# prop-
ertie$A a#) co#ta"i#a#t i#teractio# with the at"o$phere&
Contaminant (our&e The co#ta"i#a#t $o*rce i#c!*)e$ $*ch
+actor$ a$ the +o!!owi#g2
1& 4ate or total amo"nt of contaminant that becomes airborne0
6or a co#ti#*o*$ co#ta"i#a#t re!ea$e, the co#ta"i#a#t co#ce#tratio#
at a +i/e) )ow#wi#) )i$ta#ce i$ ro*gh!y proportio#a! to the rate at
which the co#ta"i#a#t beco"e$ airbor#e& Fi1ewi$e, the co#ta"i#a#t
co#ce#tratio# at a +i/e) )ow#wi#) )i$ta#ce i$ ro*gh!y proportio#a! to
the a"o*#t o+ co#ta"i#a#t re!ea$e) i+ the re!ea$e i$ i#$ta#ta#eo*$&
owe(er, "ateria!$ re!ea$e) +ro" co#tai#"e#t "ay #ot i""e)iate!y
beco"e airbor#e& 6or e/a"p!e, a !i5*i) be!ow it$ boi!i#g poi#t $tore)
at at"o$pheric pre$$*re wi!! +or" a !i5*i) poo! whe# re!ea$e)& The
rate at which the co#ta"i#a#t beco"e$ airbor#e wi!! )epe#) o# the
heat-tra#$+er rate to the !i5*i) poo! a#) the "a$$-tra#$+er rate +ro"
the !i5*i) poo! to air& owe(er, the $a"e !i5*i) $tore) at a higher pre$-
$*re "ay +or" a# aero$o! $o that the !i5*i) pha$e i$ airbor#e& %+ the
aero$o! )rop!et $iKe +or"e) i# the re!ea$e i$ too !arge to re"ai# $*$-
pe#)e), the !i5*i) pha$e wi!! +a!! to the gro*#) 9rai#o*t:, a#) the
re$*!ti#g !i5*i) poo! e(aporatio# wi!! agai# be )ictate) by heat- a#)
"a$$-tra#$+er co#$i)eratio#$&
2& 4elease moment"m0 6or >et re!ea$e$, the a"o*#t o+ air
e#trai#e) i# a# *#ob$tr*cte) >et i$ proportio#a! to the >et (e!ocity&
Eepe#)i#g o# the orie#tatio# o+ the >et re!ati(e to #earby ob$tr*ctio#$,
the "o"e#t*" o+ a >et ca# be )i$$ipate) witho*t $ig#i+ica#t air
e#trai#"e#t& The )egree o+ i#itia! air e#trai#"e#t ca# be a# i"porta#t
)eter"i#a#t o+ the haKar) e/te#t, partic*!ar!y +or +!a""ab!e haKar)$&
%t wo*!) be 9po$$ib!y o(er!y: co#$er(ati(e to a$$*"e the $o*rce
"o"e#t*" i$ )i$$ipate) witho*t air )i!*tio#& ./p!o$i(e re!ea$e$ are
high-"o"e#t*", i#$ta#ta#eo*$ re!ea$e$& 6or e/p!o$i(e re!ea$e$, a
ro*gh +ir$t appro/i"atio# i$ to a$$*"e that the "a$$ o+ co#ta"i#a#t i#
the e/p!o$io# i$ "i/e) with 10 ti"e$ that "a$$ o+ air&
3& 4elease b"oyancy0 Co#ta"i#a#t re!ea$e b*oya#cy i$ )eter-
"i#e) by the i#itia! co#ta"i#a#t te"perat*re a#) "o!ec*!ar weight,
a#) whether there i$ a $*$pe#)e) !i5*i) pha$e a$ i# a# aero$o!&
Fighter-tha#-air co#ta"i#a#t$ wi!! ri$e a#) be "ore rea)i!y )i$per$e)&
Ee#$er-tha#-air co#ta"i#a#t$ wi!! te#) to $tay #ear gro*#) !e(e!, a#)
the at"o$pheric )i$per$io# o+ $*ch "ateria!$ ca# be i"porta#t!y
)eter"i#e) by b*oya#cy e++ect$& The )egree o+ i"porta#ce i$
typica!!y 5*a#ti+ie) by a 3ichar)$o# #*"ber 9proportio#a! to the
)e#$ity )i+- +ere#ce with air a#) the 5*a#tity or rate o+ co#ta"i#a#t
re!ea$e a#) i#(er$e!y proportio#a! to the $5*are o+ the wi#) $pee):A
the higher the 3ichar)$o# #*"ber, the "ore i"porta#t the e++ect
o+ b*oya#cy o# the at"o$pheric )i$per$io# 9$ee Ee#$er-tha#-'ir
Ei$per$io# Mo)e!$ N 0ritter-McH*ai) be!ow:& Ee#$er-tha#-air
co#ta"i#a#t$ ca# act*a!!y )i$p!ace the at"o$pheric +!ow +ie!)& %#
co#tra$t, co#ta"i#a#t$ which )o #ot pert*rb the at"o$pheric +!ow
+ie!) a#) ca# be tho*ght o+ a$ $i"p!y +o!!owi#g the air+!ow are
ter"e) passive co#ta"i#a#t$&
4& Cther so"rce con%itions0 The $o*rce height a#) the $o*rce
area are a!$o i"porta#t $o*rce characteri$tic$& The greate$t i"pact i$
typica!!y a$$ociate) with gro*#)-!e(e! $o*rce$, $o e!e(ate) $o*rce$ are
#ot co#$i)ere) i# the "o)e! )i$c*$$io# be!ow&
Atmosp#eri& and Terrain $arameters %# a))itio# to terrai#
para"eter$, ba$ic at"o$pheric para"eter$ are !i$te) be!ow& There ca#
be "a#y other "eteoro!ogica! e++ect$ which ca# be i"porta#t i# $o"e
circ*"$ta#ce$ 9e&g&, i#(er$io# !ayer$: a#) are beyo#) the $cope o+ thi$
i#tro)*ctio#&
1& Ein% %irection0 4i#) )irectio# i$ the "o$t i"porta#t )eter"i-
#a#t o+ the !ocatio# o+ haKar) Ko#e$ with #otab!e e/ceptio#$ i#(o!(i#g
high-"o"e#t*" re!ea$e$ or re!ea$e$ where b*oya#cy i$ i"porta#t
9partic*!ar!y +or )e#$er-tha#-air co#ta"i#a#t$ i#(o!(i#g terrai# e++ect$
$*ch a$ (a!!ey$ a#) $!ope$ e$pecia!!y *#)er !ow-wi#)-$pee) co#)i-
tio#$:& Gear gro*#) !e(e!, !atera! wi#) )irectio# (ariabi!ity i$ "*ch
!arger tha# (ertica! (ariabi!ity 9typica! o+ +!at-p!ate bo*#)ary !ayer$:
a#) "ea$*re) with the $ta#)ar) )e(iatio# w
m
which i$ a +*#ctio# o+
at"o$pheric $tabi!ity&
2& tmospheric stability0 't"o$pheric $tabi!ity i$ o+te# character-
iKe) by Ca$5*i!! $tabi!ity c!a$$ 9ra#gi#g +ro" ' thro*gh 6:& 't"o$-
pheric $tabi!ity c!a$$e$ are broa) c!a$$i+icatio#$ which are *$e) to
characteriKe the co#ti#**" o+ at"o$pheric t*rb*!e#ce a(ai!ab!e to
the 9"i/i#g: )i$per$io# proce$$& Ge*tra! at"o$pheric $tabi!ity 9c!a$$
E: occ*r$ "o$t o+te# a#) i#)icate$ that the (ertica! "o"e#t*" +!*/ i$
#ot i#+!*e#ce) by the (ertica! heat +!*/ i# the !owe$t at"o$pheric !ay-
er$& ,#$tab!e at"o$pheric co#)itio#$ 9i#$tabi!ity i#crea$i#g +ro"
c!a$$e$ C thro*gh ': i#)icate the at"o$pheric (ertica! heat +!*/ i$
e#ha#ci#g the (ertica! "i/i#g o+ the at"o$phere, $*ch a$ whe#
gro*#) $*r+ace heati#g )*e to i#$o!atio# 9i#ci)e#t $o!ar ra)iatio#:
e#ha#ce$ (ertica! at"o$pheric "i/i#g 9t*rb*!e#ce:& -tab!e at"o$-
pheric co#)itio#$ 9$tabi!ity i#crea$i#g +ro" c!a$$e$ . thro*gh 6: i#)i-
cate the at"o$pheric (ertica! heat +!*/ i$ $*ppre$$i#g the (ertica!
"i/i#g o+ the at"o$phere, $*ch a$ whe# gro*#) $*r+ace coo!i#g at
#ight $*ppre$$e$ (ertica! "i/i#g 9t*rb*!e#ce:& '!! at"o$pheric )i$per-
$io# "o)e!$ re!y i# $o"e way o# "ea$*re) at"o$pheric para"eter$,
a#) the$e para"eter$ are 5*ite +re5*e#t!y corre!ate) o# the ba$i$ o+
Ca$5*i!! $tabi!ity c!a$$& Co#$e5*e#t!y, at"o$pheric )i$per$io# "o)e!
re$*!t$ $ho*!) be (iewe) a$ o#!y repre$e#tati(e o+ the at"o$pheric
co#)itio#$ pre$e#t i# a rea! or hypothetica! re!ea$e& 't"o$pheric $ta-
bi!ity c!a$$ i$ a# i"porta#t )eter"i#a#t o+ co#ce#tratio# at a +i/e)
)ow#wi#) )i$ta#ce i# )i$per$io# "o)e!$& 6or pa$$i(e co#ta"i#a#t$,
co#ce#tratio# at a +i/e) )ow#wi#) )i$ta#ce ca# be ro*gh!y a# or)er o+
"ag#it*)e higher +or 6 $tabi!ity i# co"pari$o# to E $tabi!ity& Tab!e 23-
24 i!!*$trate$ the re!atio#$hip betwee# at"o$pheric $tabi!ity c!a$$
a#) other "eteoro!ogica! co#)itio#$& Eeter"i#atio# o+ Ca$5*i!!
$tabi!ity c!a$$ $ho*!) be "a)e with )etai!e) "ea$*re"e#t$ $*ch a$
)i$c*$$e) by Go!)er 9<3e!atio#$ a"o#g -tabi!ity Cara"eter$ i# the
-*r+ace Fayer,= +o"n%ary ,ayer Meteorol0, 3, pp& 47O58, 1972:&
)ABL 23028 )y-ical At/os-heric Sta'ility Classes in )er/s
of Win# S-ee#, %nsolation, an# State of the Sky
-*r+ace
wi#) $pee)
"J$
%#$o!atio# Gight
-tro#g Mo)erate -!ight
Thi#!y o(erca$t or
v4 8 !ow c!o*) c3 8 c!o*)
Z2
2O3
3O5
5O6
]6
' 'O
0 0
C
C
'O0
0 0O
C CO
E E
0
C
C
E
E
N
.
E
E
E
N
6
.
E
E
6or 'O0, ta1e the a(erage o+ (a!*e$ +or ' a#) 0, etc& Ca$5*i!! a#) -"ith re!ate
i#$o!atio# to co#)itio#$ i# .#g!a#)& -ei#+e!) #tmospheric Chemistry an%
Physics of ir Poll"tion, 4i!ey, Gew @or1, 1986: c!a$$i+ie$ i#$o!atio# greater
tha#
700 4J"
2
a$ $tro#g, !e$$ tha# 350 4J"
2
a$ $!ight, a#) betwee# the$e !i"it$ a$
"o)erate& Gight re+er$ to the perio) +ro" 1 h be+ore $*#$et to 1 h a+ter )aw#&
The #e*tra! c!a$$ E $ho*!) be *$e), regar)!e$$ o+ wi#) $pee), +or o(erca$t co#-
)itio#$ )*ri#g )ay or #ight a#) +or a!! $1y co#)itio#$ )*ri#g the ho*r prece)i#g
or +o!!owi#g the #ight perio)&
-;,3C.2 Ca$5*i!! a#) -"ith, tmospheric 3iff"sion, 3) e)&, .!!i$ orwoo)
Fi"ite), Chiche$ter, ,&B&, 1983&
3& (eneral terrain characteristics0 Ge#era! terrai# characteri$tic$
are *$e) to )e$cribe +eat*re$ with !e#gth $ca!e$ "*ch $"a!!er tha# the
)epth o+ the co#ta"i#a#t c!o*) or the height o+ the characteri$tic wi#)
$pee)& Ge#era! terrai# characteri$tic$ i#+!*e#ci#g the $hape o+ the (er-
tica! wi#) $pee) pro+i!e are para"eteriKe) with the $*r+ace ro*gh#e$$
a#) )i$p!ace"e#t height& The $*r+ace ro*gh#e$$ '
0
i$ ro*gh!y propor-
tio#a! to the height o+ the gro*#) co(eri#g n 9a#) '
0
x 0&05n to 0&15n:
a#) ca# be *$e) to i#+er the a"o*#t o+ (ertica! t*rb*!e#ce 9"i/i#g: i#
the at"o$pheric +!ow 9higher ob$tac!e$ e#ha#ce (ertica! t*rb*!e#ce
abo(e the ob$tac!e height:& owe(er, ob$tac!e$ ca# a!$o )i$p!ace the
at"o$pheric +!owA the )i$p!ace"e#t height i$ the height at which the
9a(erage: a"bie#t wi#) $pee) i$ #eg!igib!e& %+ the )i$p!ace"e#t height
i$ #eg!igib!e 9+!ow b!oc1age i$ #ot i"porta#t:, co#ta"i#a#t co#ce#tra-
tio# at a +i/e) )ow#wi#) )i$ta#ce )ecrea$e$ with i#crea$e) $*r+ace
ro*gh#e$$ 9a# or)er-o+-"ag#it*)e i#crea$e i# $*r+ace ro*gh#e$$
)ecrea$e$ the co#ce#tratio# by ro*gh!y a +actor o+ 3:&
4& Ein% spee%0 0eca*$e wi#) $pee) (arie$ with height abo(e the
gro*#), the re+ere#ce wi#) $pee) "
r
"*$t be $peci+ie) at a partic*!ar
height '
r
9typica!!y 10 " pro(i)e) !oca! +!ow ob$tr*ctio#$ are #ot
i"porta#t at thi$ height:& 6or a co#ti#*o*$ co#ta"i#a#t re!ea$e, the
co#ta"i#a#t co#ce#tratio# at a +i/e) )ow#wi#) )i$ta#ce i$ ro*gh!y
i#(er$e!y proportio#a! to the wi#) $pee)& '$ i#)icate) abo(e, )e#$er-
tha#-air e++ect$ are !e$$ i"porta#t at higher wi#) $pee)$& The wi#)
$pee) pro+i!e i$ a++ecte) by at"o$pheric $tabi!ity, $*r+ace ro*gh#e$$ '
0
,
a#) )i$p!ace"e#t height %
0
9the height be!ow which the wi#) $pee) i$
#eg!igib!e:& The (ertica! pro+i!e o+ the wi#) $pee) i$ !ogarith"ic
"
"
\

!#

' %
0

^

'


923-76:

k ' ,
0
+or #e*tra! a#) $tab!e co#)itio#$ whe# ' ]] '
0
a#) %
0
A k i$ (o#
Bar"a#?$ co#$ta#t 9typica!!y 0&4:, "
\
i$ the +rictio# (e!ocity 9"
\
2
characteriKe$ the at"o$pheric (ertica! "i/i#g rate:, , i$ the Mo#i#-
;b*1ho( !e#gth 9a "ea$*re o+ $tabi!ity c!a$$:, a#) ^ i$ the Mo#i#-
;b*1ho( !e#gth coe++i- cie#t 9^ 5&2 +or $tab!e co#)itio#$:& 6or 3
$tabi!ity, , y $o 'J, 0, a#) the $eco#) ter" i# brac1et$ i$ Kero&
-i#ce .5& 923-76: "*$t a!$o ho!) +or "
r
a#) '
r
, "
T
i$ proportio#a! to "
r
9a!! other thi#g$ bei#g e5*a!:, $o re)*ctio# o+ the wi#) $pee) by a
+actor o+ 2 re)*ce$ the (ertica! at"o$pheric "i/i#g by a +actor o+ 4&
5& Flow obstr"ctions0 %# co#tra$t to ge#era! terrai# characteri$-
tic$, +!ow ob$tr*ctio#$ ha(e !e#gth $ca!e$ "*ch !arger tha# the )epth
or wi)th o+ the co#ta"i#a#t c!o*) or the height o+ the characteri$tic
wi#) $pee)& 6!ow ob$tr*ctio#$ ca# i#crea$e or )ecrea$e co#ta"i#a#t
co#ce#tratio# )epe#)i#g o# !ocatio#& 6!ow ob$tr*ctio#$ i#crea$e co#-
ce#tratio# by )e!ayi#g the )i$per$a! o+ the co#ta"i#a#t c!o*)A e&g&,
i#$i)e a )i1e, co#ce#tratio# i$ higher, b*t )ow#wi#) o+ the )i1e, co#-
ce#tratio#$ ca# be $"a!!erA a#) the )ow#wi#) $i)e o+ +!ow ob$tr*c-
tio#$ ca# te"porari!y trap higher co#ce#tratio#$& ;b$tr*ctio#$ a!$o
)i$tort the wi#) $pee) pro+i!e gi(e# abo(e&
Contaminant Intera&tion *it# t#e Atmosp#ere Co#ta"i#a#t
i#teractio# with the at"o$phere i$ i"porta#t +or $e(era! rea$o#$2
1& There are che"ica! reactio#$ betwee# the re!ea$e) co#ta"i#a#t
a#) a"bie#t air or $*r+ace$& %+ the re!ea$e) co#ta"i#a#t react$, a#y
reacte) "ateria! ca# #o !o#ger be co#$i)ere) airbor#e 9a!tho*gh the
reactio# pro)*ct$ "ay a!$o be haKar)o*$:, a#) $o che"ica! reactio#$
e++ecti(e!y re)*ce the rate or a"o*#t o+ airbor#e co#ta"i#a#t& -o"e
reactio#$ ca# be characteriKe) a$ )ry or wet )epo$itio#&
2& Cha$e cha#ge$ are typica!!y a$$ociate) with the e(aporatio# o+
a#y $*$pe#)e) !i5*i) pha$e i# a# aero$o! re!ea$e& '$ air i$ "i/e) with
a# aero$o!, e5*i!ibri*" co#$trai#t$ ca*$e a))itio#a! e(aporatio# o+ the
!i5*i) pha$e which re)*ce$ the te"perat*re o+ the !i5*i) pha$e 9a#)
the (apor pha$e i+ ther"a! e5*i!ibri*" i$ "ai#tai#e):&
3& Gro*#)-to-co#ta"i#a#t c!o*) heat tra#$+er act$ to war" the
co#ta"i#a#t c!o*) i+ the c!o*) te"perat*re i$ !ower tha# a"bie#t&
Gro*#)-to-c!o*) heat tra#$+er ca# be i"porta#t +or co!) c!o*)$ at
gro*#) !e(e! beca*$e the b*oya#cy o+ the co#ta"i#a#t c!o*) ca# be
$ig#i+ica#t!y re)*ce) +or co!) c!o*)$ with co#ta"i#a#t "o!ec*!ar
weight !e$$ tha# that o+ air& 't higher wi#) $pee)$, heat tra#$+er i$ by
+orce) co#(ectio#, a#) e(e# tho*gh $*ch co#)itio#$ pro)*ce higher
heat-tra#$+er coe++icie#t$ tha# )o !ow-wi#)-$pee) co#)itio#$, heat
tra#$+er i$ typica!!y "ore i"porta#t at !ow-wi#)-$pee) co#)itio#$
beca*$e o+ two e++ect$2 91: 't !ow wi#) $pee)$, the a"o*#t o+ air
e#trai#"e#t i$ re)*ce) $o that the heat-tra#$+er )ri(i#g +orce i$ !arger,
a#) 92: at !ow wi#) $pee)$, the co#tact ti"e betwee# the co#ta"i#a#t
c!o*) a#) the gro*#) i$ !o#ger&
At/os-heric Dis-ersion !o#els 't"o$pheric )i$per$io# "o)-
e!$ ge#era!!y +a!! i#to the categorie$ )i$c*$$e) be!ow& 3egar)!e$$ o+ the
"o)e!i#g approach, "o)e!$ $ho*!) be (eri+ie) that the appropriate
phy$ica! phe#o"e#a are bei#g "o)e!e) a#) (a!i)ate) by co"pari$o#
with re!e(a#t )ata 9at +ie!) a#) !aboratory $ca!e:& The choice o+ "o)-
e!i#g tech#i5*e$ "ay be i#+!*e#ce) by the e/pecte) )i$ta#ce to the
!e(e! o+ co#cer#&
1& Physical or win% t"nnel mo%els 4i#) t*##e! "o)e!$ ha(e
!o#g bee# *$e) to $t*)y the at"o$pheric +!ow aro*#) $tr*ct*re$ $*ch
a$ b*i!)i#g$ a#) bri)ge$ to pre)ict pre$$*re !oa)i#g a#) !oca! (e!oci-
tie$& 4i#) t*##e! "ea$*re"e#t o+ co#ta"i#a#t co#ce#tratio#$ +or
re!ea$e $ce#ario$ ca# be *$e) to e$ti"ate haKar) Ko#e$& owe(er,
wi#) t*##e! "o)e!$ are ge#era!!y co#$i)ere) to be i#capab!e o+
$i"*!ta#eo*$!y $ca!i#g "echa#ica! t*rb*!e#ce a#) ther"a!!y i#)*ce)
t*rb*!e#ce 9(eri+icatio# i$$*e:& 4i#) t*##e! e/peri"e#t$ ca# be (ery
*$e+*! whe# co#$i)eri#g (a!i)atio# o+ "athe"atica! "o)e!$& 4i#)
t*##e! "o)e!$ typica!!y )o #ot acco*#t +or the !atera! (ariatio# i#
wi#) )irectio#&
2& Empirical mo%els ."pirica! "o)e!$ re!y o# the corre!atio# o+
at"o$pheric )i$per$io# )ata +or characteri$tic re!ea$e type$& Two e/a"-
p!e$ o+ e"pirica!!y ba$e) "o)e!$ are the Ca$5*i!!-Gi++or) "o)e! 9+or
pa$$i(e co#ta"i#a#t$: a#) the 0ritter-McH*ai) "o)e! 9+or )e#$er-
tha#-air co#ta"i#a#t$: both o+ which are )e$cribe) be!ow& ."pirica!
"o)e!$ ca# be *$e+*! +or the (a!i)atio# o+ other "athe"atica! "o)e!$
b*t are !i"ite) to the characteri$tic re!ea$e $ce#ario$ co#$i)ere) i# the
corre!atio#& -e!ecte) e"pirica! "o)e!$ are )i$c*$$e) i# greater )etai!
be!ow beca*$e they ca# pro(i)e a rea$o#ab!e +ir$t appro/i"atio# o+
the haKar) e/te#t +or "a#y re!ea$e $ce#ario$ a#) ca# be *$e) a$
$cree#i#g too!$ to i#)icate which re!ea$e $ce#ario$ are "o$t i"porta#t
to co#$i)er&
3& First principle mathematical mo%els The$e "o)e!$ $o!(e the
ba$ic co#$er(atio# e5*atio#$ +or "a$$ a#) "o"e#t*" i# their +or" a$
partia! )i++ere#tia! e5*atio#$ 9CE.$: a!o#g with $o"e "etho) o+ t*r-
b*!e#ce c!o$*re a#) appropriate i#itia! a#) bo*#)ary co#)itio#$& -*ch
"o)e!$ ha(e beco"e "ore co""o# with the $tea)y i#crea$e i# co"-
p*ti#g power a#) $ophi$ticatio# o+ #*"erica! a!gorith"$& owe(er,
there are "a#y pote#tia! prob!e"$ that "*$t be a))re$$e)& %# the (er-
i+icatio# proce$$, the CE.$ bei#g $o!(e) "*$t a)e5*ate!y repre$e#t
the phy$ic$ o+ the )i$per$io# proce$$ e$pecia!!y +or proce$$e$ $*ch a$
gro*#)-to-c!o*) heat tra#$+er, pha$e cha#ge$ +or co#)e#$e) pha$e$,
a#) che"ica! reactio#$& '!$o, t*rb*!e#ce c!o$*re "etho)$ 9a#) a$$oci-
ate) bo*#)ary a#) i#itia! co#)itio#$: "*$t be appropriate +or the )i$-
per$io# proce$$e$ pre$e#t, e$pecia!!y +or )e#$er-tha#-air co#ta"i#a#t$&
3egar)!e$$ o+ the a!gorith" +or $o!(i#g the CE.$, a#y $o!*tio# "*$t
)e"o#$trate re$o!*tio# i#)epe#)e#ce 9i&e&, the #*"erica! $o!*tio#
"*$t be i#)epe#)e#t o+ gri) $paci#g or ti"e $tep:& 6i#a!!y, "o)e!$
$ho*!) be (a!i)ate) agai#$t re!e(a#t i#+or"atio# +or the $ce#ario co#-
$i)ere)& Ee$pite )ecrea$e) co"p*tatio#a! co$t$, $*ch "o)e!$ $ti!!
re5*ire a $ig#i+ica#t i#(e$t"e#t +or i#(e$tigati#g a re!ea$e $ce#ario&
4& $implifie% mathematical mo%els The$e "o)e!$ typica!!y begi#
with the ba$ic co#$er(atio# e5*atio#$ o+ the +ir$t pri#cip!e "o)e!$ b*t
"a1e $i"p!i+yi#g a$$*"ptio#$ 9typica!!y re!ate) to $i"i!arity theory: to
re)*ce the prob!e" to the $o!*tio# o+ 9$i"*!ta#eo*$: or)i#ary )i++er-
e#tia! e5*atio#$& %# the (eri+icatio# proce$$, $*ch "o)e!$ "*$t a!$o
a))re$$ the re!e(a#t phy$ica! phe#o"e#o# a$ we!! a$ be (a!i)ate) +or
the app!icatio# bei#g co#$i)ere)& -*ch "o)e!$ are typica!!y ea$i!y
$o!(e) o# a co"p*ter with typica!!y !e$$ *$er i#teractio# tha# re5*ire)
+or the $o!*tio# o+ CE.$& -i"p!i+ie) "athe"atica! "o)e!$ "ay a!$o be
*$e) a$ $cree#i#g too!$ to i)e#ti+y the "o$t i"porta#t re!ea$e $ce#ar-
io$A howe(er, other "o)e!i#g approache$ $ho*!) be co#$i)ere) o#!y i+
they a))re$$ a#) ha(e bee# (a!i)ate) +or the i"porta#t a$pect$ o+ the
$ce#ario *#)er co#$i)eratio#&
'!! "athe"atica! "o)e!$ pre)ict 9e#$e"b!e: ti"e-a(erage) c!o*)
beha(ior +or a partic*!ar $et o+ re!ea$e co#)itio#$& To i!!*$trate i# (ery
broa) ter"$, co#$i)er a $et o+ tria!$ 9+ie!) e/peri"e#t$: with co#ti#*o*$
co#ta"i#a#t re!ea$e$ 9a$ p!*"e$: that are co#)*cte) *#)er i)e#tica!
at"o$pheric co#)itio#$& -*ppo$e that yo* co*!) "ea$*re the co#ce#-
tratio# o# the p!*"e ce#ter!i#e at a gi(e# )ow#wi#) )i$ta#ce with a
rea$o#ab!y +a$t co#ce#tratio# $e#$or& ;wi#g to the t*rb*!e#t #at*re o+
the at"o$phere a#) )i$per$io# proce$$, the "ea$*re) co#ce#tratio#
o# the p!*"e ce#ter!i#e at a gi(e# )ow#wi#) !ocatio# ob$er(e) i# each
tria! wo*!) #ot be i)e#tica!& %+ the$e "ea$*re"e#t$ are a(erage) )*r-
i#g the perio) +or which the co#ta"i#a#t i$ pre$e#t, the a(erage o+
"ea$*re"e#t$ wi!! #ot cha#ge a+ter a $*++icie#t #*"ber o+ tria!$A thi$ i$
a# e#$e"b!e a(erage& Thi$ e#$e"b!e a(erage re+!ect$ the i#$ta#ta-
#eo*$ 9e#$e"b!e a(erage: co#ce#tratio# pro(i)e) the a(eragi#g ti"e
o+ the $e#$or i$ $*++icie#t!y +a$t& %+ o#e co#$i)er$ the )i++ere#ce
betwee# a#y o#e "ea$*re) )ata $et a#) thi$ e#$e"b!e a(erage, the
"ea$*re"e#t$ wi!! $how pea1 co#ce#tratio#$ higher tha# the a(erage
9"ea#:& Cea1-to-"ea# co#ce#tratio# (a!*e$ )epe#) o# "a#y +actor$,
b*t +or "a#y p*rpo$e$, a pea1-to-"ea# co#ce#tratio# ratio o+ 2 ca# be
a$$*"e)& 6or thi$ hypothetica! e/a"p!e, the co#ce#tratio#$ were
a$$*"e) to be "ea$*re) o# the p!*"e ce#ter!i#e& owe(er, the p!*"e
ce#ter!i#e o+ a pa$$i(e co#ta"i#a#t )oe$ #ot re"ai# at the $a"e
gro*#) !ocatio# )*e to (ariatio# i# the wi#) )irectio# re!ate) to !arge-
$ca!e at"o$pheric t*rb*!e#ce, a$ i!!*$trate) i# 6ig& 23-44 +or a gro*#)-
!e(e! re!ea$e o# +!at, *#ob$tr*cte) terrai#& Thi$ e++ect i$ ter"e) pl"me
mean%er0 9Gote that )e#$er-tha#-air co#ta"i#a#t p!*"e$ wo*!)
e/hibit !e$$ o+ thi$ e++ect beca*$e $*ch p!*"e$ "ay act*a!!y )i$p!ace
the
Source
Cross>ind
a?era'ed
concentration
.465 w
z
)ertical
concentration
distribution
940 w
y
@ind
<round
Concentration
Source
Plan ?ie>
)ertical section
alon' plume centerline
F%G. 23088 -che"atic repre$e#tatio# o+ ti"e-a(erage) )i$trib*tio# a#) $prea) +or a co#ti#*o*$ p!*"e& w
y
a#) w
'
are
the $tati$tica! "ea$*re$ o+ cro$$wi#) a#) (ertica! )i"e#$io#$A 4&3w
y
i$ the wi)th corre$po#)i#g to a co#ce#tratio# 0&1
o+ the ce#tra! (a!*e whe# the )i$trib*tio# i$ o+ ga*$$ia# +or" 9a corre$po#)i#g c!o*) height i$ 2&15w
'
:& 94e%rawn from
Pas-"ill an% $mith, 't"o$pheric Ei++*$io#, 6% e%0, Ellis &orwoo% ,imite%, Chichester, U010, @AB6:&
at"o$pheric +!ow +ie!)&: 6or a +i/e) gro*#) !ocatio#, the co#ce#tratio#
$e#$or wi!! be at (ario*$ !ocatio#$ i# the p!*"e 9e++ecti(e!y "o(i#g i#
a#) o*t o+ the p!*"e:& 6or a co#$ta#t a(erage wi#) )irectio#, co#ce#-
tratio#$ at a +i/e) gro*#) !ocatio# wi!! agai# approach a# 9e#$e"b!e:
a(erage o(er a $*++icie#t!y !o#g a(eragi#g ti"e 910-"i# a(eragi#g ti"e
ha$ pro(e) to be $ta#)ar):& %# thi$ ca$e, co#ce#tratio#$ are 9e#$e"b!e-
a(erage): 10-"i# co#ce#tratio#$& 9;ther propertie$ o+ the co#ce#tra-
tio# )i$trib*tio# are co#$i)ere) i# the !iterat*re&: 6or the e++ect o+
p!*"e "ea#)er, the re!atio#$hip betwee# co#ce#tratio#$ +or (ario*$
a(eragi#g ti"e$ +or gro*#)-!e(e! p!*"e$ ca# be appro/i"ate) a$
4& Eeter"i#e i+ the re$*!ti#g co#$e5*e#ce$ or ri$1 to peop!e a#)
property i$ acceptab!e& 6or *#acceptab!e $ce#ario$, "itigatio# "ea-
$*re$ $ho*!) be app!ie) $*ch a$ )i$c*$$e) by Cr*gh a#) Loh#$o#
9("i%elines for *apor 4elease Mitigation, '%Ch., Gew @or1, 1988:,
a#) a"e#)e) $ce#ario$ $ho*!) be rea$$e$$e)& %+ "itigatio# "ea$*re$
ca##ot $*++icie#t!y re)*ce the co#$e5*e#ce$ or ri$1, the appropriate
b*$i#e$$ a#) ethica! )eci$io# wo*!) be to )i$co#ti#*e $*ch operatio#$&
$assive Contaminant ($asquill-.ifford) ispersion %odels
The ga*$$ia# )i$per$io# "o)e! i$ ba$e) o# the a$$*"ptio# o+ a pa$$i(e
co#ta"i#a#t re!ea$e 9i&e&, the re!ea$e) co#ta"i#a#t )oe$ #ot cha#ge
the at"o$pheric +!ow +ie!):& 0a$e) o# the theoretica! "o)e! o+ a pa$-
C2
t1
p
$i(e co#ta"i#a#t, the $patia! )i$trib*tio# wo*!) ha(e a ga*$$ia# )i$tri-
S



923-77: b*tio# with characteri$tic !e#gth $ca!e$& ,$i#g e/te#$i(e ob$er(atio#$
C
1
t
2
where

1
a#)

2
are 9e#$e"b!e: ti"e-a(erage) co#ce#tratio#$ with
a(eragi#g ti"e$ t
1
a#) t
2
a#) p i$ a# i#)e/ typica!!y ta1e# to be aro*#)
0&2 +or pa$$i(e p!*"e$& %# a))itio# to other "ore $ophi$ticate)
approache$, $o"e )i$per$io# "o)e!$ a)>*$t the )i$per$io# coe++icie#t$
to acco*#t +or the e++ect o+ p!*"e "ea#)er& .5*atio# 923-77: $how$
that co#ce#tratio# )ecrea$e$ a$ a(eragi#g ti"e i#crea$e$& 0a$e) o#
co"pari$o# betwee# pa$$i(e p*++ a#) 910-"i#: p!*"e coe++icie#t$, the
a(eragi#g ti"e a$$ociate) with p*++ coe++icie#t$ i$ abo*t 20 $, which i$
the $"a!!e$t (a!*e that $ho*!) proper!y be *$e) i# .5& 923-77:& There
i$ #o correctio# to p*++ coe++icie#t$ or co#ce#tratio#$ a$$ociate) with
p!*"e "ea#)er& Gote that thi$ i$ o#!y a ro*gh i!!*$tratio# o+ the
proce$$e$ pre$e#t which are )i$c*$$e) i# "*ch greater )etai! i# the
!iterat*re&
Basi& (&enario Time (&ales There are $e(era! co"peti#g ti"e
$ca!e$ that are i"porta#t2
1& The $o*rce ti"e $ca!e t
s
)e$cribe$ the !e#gth o+ ti"e +or the co#-
o+ 9$tea)y-$tate: p!*"e$, the Ca$5*i!!-Gi++or) )i$per$io# "o)e! corre-
!ate$ characteri$tic (ertica! a#) !atera! !e#gth $ca!e$ 9or )i$per$io#
coe++icie#t$
'
a#)
y
, re$pecti(e!y: with at"o$pheric $tabi!ity c!a$$A
other corre!atio#$ ha(e a!$o bee# propo$e) +or the p!*"e )i$per$io#
coe++icie#t$ ta1i#g other e++ect$ i#to acco*#t $*ch a$ the e++ect o+ $*r-
+ace ro*gh#e$$ '
0
& Fe$$ e/te#$i(e ob$er(atio#$ o+ i#$ta#ta#eo*$!y
re!ea$e) p*++$ ha(e bee# *$e) to characteriKe the !e#gth $ca!e$ o+
p*++$ 9with the a))itio#a! !e#gth $ca!e
)
to characteriKe the a!o#g
wi#) )irectio#:A
)
i$ o+te# a$$*"e) to be appro/i"ate) by
y
i# p*++
"o)e!$& '!tho*gh the Ca$5*i!!-Gi++or) approach pro(i)e$ +or the pre-
)ictio# o+ the co#ce#tratio# )i$trib*tio#, the )i$c*$$io# be!ow i$ !i"-
ite) to the "a/i"*" pre)icte) co#ce#tratio# $i#ce thi$ i$ "o$t
i"porta#t +or haKar) a$$e$$"e#t p*rpo$e$&
Pas-"ill-(iffor% pl"me mo%el 't a gi(e# )ow#wi#) )i$ta#ce ),
the "a/i"*" 9a(erage: co#ce#tratio# +or a 9co#ti#*o*$: pa$$i(e
p!*"e +ro" a poi#t $o*rce i$
E
ta"i#a#t to beco"e airbor#eA the $o*rce ti"e $ca!e i$ a!$o !i"ite) by
the i#(e#tory o+ co#ta"i#a#t&
2& The haKar) e#)poi#t ti"e $ca!e t
h
)e$cribe$ the !e#gth o+ ti"e
C
1
S
z
y

'
"
923-78:
re5*ire) +or the co#ta"i#a#t to po$e a haKar)& There are "a#y )i++er-
e#t ti"e $ca!e$ a$$ociate) with (ario*$ to/icity !e(e!$ 9e&g&, TFD-C cei!-
i#g !i"it (a!*e$ are #e(er to be e/cee)e), TFD--T.F (a!*e$ are #ot to
be e/cee)e) i# a 15-"i# perio), etc&:& Ti"e $ca!e$ a$$ociate) with
+!a""abi!ity haKar)$ re+!ect the "a/i"*" !oca! co#ce#tratio# 9a#)
a!$o typica!!y i#c!*)i#g pea1-to-"ea# co#ce#tratio# ratio$: a#) +or
rea$o#$ )i$c*$$e) abo(e are co#$i)ere) repre$e#tati(e o+ )i$per$io#
"o)e! a(eragi#g ti"e$ o+ aro*#) 20 $&
3& The tra(e! ti"e t
t
i$ the ti"e re5*ire) +or a co#ta"i#a#t c!o*) to
reach the e#)poi#t )i$ta#ce )
e
& '$ a +ir$t appro/i"atio#, t
t
)
e
J9"
r
J2:
+or gro*#)-!e(e! c!o*)$A +or e!e(ate) re!ea$e$, t
t
)
h
J" where " i$ the
characteri$tic wi#) $pee)&
The $o*rce ti"e $ca!e t
s
"*$t be greater tha# the tra(e! ti"e t
t
+or a
$tea)y-$tate p!*"e to be po$$ib!e& ;ther ti"e $ca!e re$trictio#$ are
co#$i)ere) +or the "o)e!$ )i$c*$$e) here&
(&enario evelopment and (imulation The typica! proce)*re
+or a$$e$$i#g the co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ a# airbor#e co#ta"i#a#t re!ea$e i$
a$ +o!!ow$2
1& %)e#ti+y re!ea$e $ce#ario$ by which co#tai#"e#t ca# be !o$t
a!o#g with the haKar)$ o+ that $ce#ario& aKar)$ "ay )i++er )epe#)i#g
o# the phy$ica! $tate o+ the re!ea$e) co#ta"i#a#t a#) the circ*"-
$ta#ce$ o+ the $ce#ario& aKar)$ ari$e +ro" the propertie$ o+ the
re!ea$e) "ateria! $*ch a$ bio!ogica! age#t$, to/ic "ateria!$, or +!a""a-
b!e "ateria!$A +!a""ab!e or reacti(e "ateria!$ "ay po$e a# e/p!o$io#
haKar) )epe#)i#g o# their reacti(ity a#) the )egree to which the air-
co#ta"i#a#t "i/t*re i$ co#+i#e)& -ce#ario$ i#c!*)e a )e$criptio# o+
the app!icab!e at"o$pheric co#)itio#$ 9which "ay be )ictate) by reg-
where E i$ the "a$$ rate at which the co#ta"i#a#t beco"e$ airbor#e
a#) " i$ the characteri$tic wi#) $pee) 9typica!!y ta1e# to be "
r
:&
Ca$5*i!!-Gi++or) p!*"e )i$per$io# coe++icie#t$ a$ a +*#ctio# o+ )ow#-
wi#) )i$ta#ce a#) at"o$pheric $tabi!ity are a(ai!ab!e +ro" "a#y
$o*rce$ 9-ei#+e!), tmospheric Chemistry an% Physics of ir Poll"tion,
4i!ey, Gew @or1, 1986A Ma##a#, ,ees? ,oss Prevention in the
Process !n%"stries, 3) e)&, Chap& 15, .!$e(ier 0*tterworth-
ei#e"a##, ;/+or), ,&B&, 2005A Gri++ith$, <.rror$ i# the ,$e o+ the
0rigg$ Cara"e- teriKatio# +or 't"o$pheric Ei$per$io# Coe++icie#t$,=
tmospheric Environment, (o!& 28, #o& 17, pp& 2861O2865, 1994:&
Ca$$i(e )i$per$io# coe++icie#t$ are typica!!y #ot pro(i)e) +or )i$ta#ce$
!e$$ tha# 100 " or greater tha# a +ew 1i!o"eter$ beca*$e pre)icte)
co#ce#tratio#$ o*t$i)e thi$ ra#ge "*$t be (iewe) with $o"e ca*tio#
9e&g&, "eteoro!ogica! co#- )itio#$ "ay #ot per$i$t o(er $*ch !arge ti"e
$ca!e$, a#) at $*ch !o#g )i$- ta#ce$, !arge-$ca!e "eteoro!ogica! a#)
terrai# +eat*re$ "ay )ictate p!*"e beha(ior i# way$ #ot acco*#te)
+or by thi$ $i"p!e approach:&
Gote that the pre)icte) (a!*e$ o+
y
a#)
'
are $e#$iti(e to the spec-
ification of at"o$pheric $tabi!ity& 0etwee# E a#) 6 $tabi!ity c!a$$e$,

y
+or E $tabi!ity i$ ro*gh!y three ti"e$ greater tha# +or 6 $tabi!ity, a#)

'
i$ ro*gh!y two ti"e$ greater& -i#ce C
1
i$ i#(er$e!y proportio#a!
to
y

'
, the pre)icte) C
1
+or 6 $tabi!ity i$ ro*gh!y $i/ ti"e$ greater
tha# +or E $tabi!ity&
Pas-"ill-(iffor% p"ff mo%el 't a gi(e# )ow#wi#) )i$ta#ce ), the
"a/i"*" 9a(erage: co#ce#tratio# +or a 9i#$ta#ta#eo*$: pa$$i(e p*++
+ro" a poi#t $o*rce i$
2E
t
*!atory re5*ire"e#t$:&
2& Ee(e!op a# appropriate $o*rce "o)e! to )e+i#e the $o*rce
)e$criptio# 9$ee pre(io*$ $*b$ectio#: +or each $ce#ario&
C S
92z:
3 2

'
923-79:
3& ,$e a# appropriate at"o$pheric )i$per$io# "o)e! to a$$e$$ the
co#$e5*e#ce$ or ri$1 o+ each $ce#ario& 6or $cree#i#g p*rpo$e$, at"o$-
pheric )i$per$io# "o)e!$ which are !e$$ co$t!y "ay be *$e) to i)e#ti+y
the "o$t i"porta#t $ce#ario$A e/a"p!e$ are )i$c*$$e) i# the +o!!owi#g
$*b$ectio#& More e/pe#$i(e "o)e!i#g proce)*re$ ca# be app!ie) to
the "o$t i"porta#t $ce#ario$ pro(i)e) $*ch proce)*re$ are "ore
appropriate a#) acc*rate& -cree#i#g "etho)$ "ay a!$o be *$e+*! i#
co#$i)eri#g the (a!i)ity o+ "ore co"p!icate) "o)e!$&
where E
t
i$ the tota! co#ta"i#a#t "a$$ that beco"e$ airbor#e&
Ca$5*i!!-Gi++or) p*++ )i$per$io# coe++icie#t$ a$ +*#ctio# o+ )ow#wi#)
)i$ta#ce a#) at"o$pheric $tabi!ity are a(ai!ab!e +ro" "a#y $o*rce$
9e&g&, Ma##a#, ,ess? ,oss Prevention in the Process !n%"stries, 3) e)&,
Chap& 15, .!$e(ier 0*tterworth-ei#e"a##, ;/+or), ,&B&, 2005:& '$
i#)icate) abo(e,
)
i$ o+te# a$$*"e) to be appro/i"ate) by
y
i#
p*++ "o)e!$& '$ +or pa$$i(e p!*"e$, #ote that pa$$i(e p*++ )i$per$io#
coe++icie#t$ are #ot pro(i)e) +or )i$ta#ce$ o+ !e$$ tha# 100 " 9where
#ear $o*rce e++ect$ wi!! be i"porta#t:, a#) pre)icti#g co#ce#tratio#$
+or )i$ta#ce$ !o#ger tha# a +ew 1i!o"eter$ "*$t be (iewe) with $o"e
ca*tio# +or the $a"e rea$o#$ cite) abo(e&
Gote that the pre)icte) (a!*e$ o+
y
a#)
'
are $e#$iti(e to the spec-
ification of at"o$pheric $tabi!ity +or p*++$ a$ we!!& 0etwee# E a#) 6
$tabi!ity c!a$$e$,
y
+or E $tabi!ity i$ ro*gh!y three ti"e$ greater tha#
+or 6 $tabi!ity, a#)
'
i$ ro*gh!y 10 ti"e$ greater& -i#ce C i$
i#(er$e!y proportio#a! to
y
2

'
, the pre)icte) C +or 6 $tabi!ity i$
ro*gh!y 40 ti"e$ greater tha# +or 3 $tabi!ity&
*irt"al so"rces '$ i#)icate) abo(e, the ga*$$ia# "o)e! wa$ +or-
"*!ate) +or a# i)ea!iKe) poi#t $o*rce, a#) $*ch a# approach "ay be
*##ece$$ari!y co#$er(ati(e 9pre)ict a# *#rea!i$tica!!y !arge co#ce#tra-
tio#: +or a rea! re!ea$e& There are +or"*!atio#$ +or area $o*rce$, b*t
$*ch "o)e!$ are "ore c*"ber$o"e tha# the poi#t $o*rce "o)e!$
abo(e& 6or poi#t $o*rce "o)e!$, "etho)$ *$i#g a (irt*a! $o*rce ha(e
bee# propo$e) i# the pa$t which e$$e#tia!!y *$e the "a/i"*" co#-
ce#tratio# o+ the rea! $o*rce to )eter"i#e the !ocatio# o+ a# e5*i(a-
!e#t *pwi#) poi#t $o*rce that wo*!) gi(e the $a"e "a/i"*"
co#ce#tratio# at the rea! $o*rce& -*ch a# approach wi!! te#) to o(er-
co"pe#$ate a#) *#rea!i$tica!!y re)*ce the pre)icte) co#ce#tratio#
beca*$e a rea! $o*rce ha$ !atera! a#) a!o#g-wi#) e/te#t 9#ot a "a/i-
"*" co#ce#tratio# at a poi#t:& Co#$e5*e#t!y, the "o)e!e) co#ce#-
tratio# ca# be a$$*"e) to be bo*#)e) abo(e, *$i#g the poi#t $o*rce
+or"*!a$ i# .5& 923-78: or 923-79:, a#) bo*#)e) be!ow by co#ce#tra-
tio#$ pre)icte) by *$i#g a (irt*a! $o*rce approach&
'$$*"i#g the $o*rce co#ce#tratio# C
s
i$ 1#ow#, the (irt*a! )i$ta#ce
i$ +o*#) by *$i#g the 1#ow# $o*rce co#ce#tratio# to +i#) the (irt*a!
$o*rce )i$ta#ce& 6or a p!*"e, $o!(e .5& 923-78: +or the pro)*ct
y

'
,
the# )eter"i#e the (irt*a! $o*rce )i$ta#ce )
v
by iterati(e $o!*tio# 9or
tria! a#) error: *$i#g E a#) C
s
& 6or a p*++, $o!(e .5& 923-79: +or the
pro)*ct
)

'
9or
2
:A the# )eter"i#e the (irt*a! $o*rce
)i$ta#ce
0ritter a#) McH*ai) report that the a(eragi#g ti"e t
1
+or the
p!*"e corre!atio# i$ 10 "i#, a#) .5& 923-77: $ho*!) be *$e) with
p S 0&12 +or other a(eragi#g ti"e$ 9a#) !i"ite) to a(eragi#g ti"e$
#o $horter tha# abo*t 20 $ a$ +or re!a$e$:&
3enser-than-air p"ff or pl"me 0ritter a#) McH*ai) *$e the ratio
o+ the $o*rce )*ratio# to the tra(e! ti"e to )i$ti#g*i$h betwee#
p!*"e$ a#) p*++$ with a $!ight!y )i++ere#t )e+i#itio# o+ tra(e! ti"e2 t
t
)
e
J90&4"
r
:& The re!ea$e ca# be co#$i)ere) a p!*"e i+ t
s
] t
t
, where t
s
i$ the $o*rce ti"e $ca!e )e+i#e) abo(e, a#) the re!ea$e ca# be co#$i)-
ere) a p*++ i+ t
s
Z t
t
J4& 6or t
t
4 t
s
t
t
, #either p*++ #or p!*"e
"o)e!$ are e#tire!y appropriateA the pre)icte) co#ce#tratio# i$
co#$i)ere) the !arge$t o+ the p*++ a#) p!*"e pre)ictio#$&
-e&ommended $ro&edure for (&reening Estimates The rec-
o""e#)e) proce)*re +or "a1i#g co#ce#tratio# e$ti"ate$ at a $pec-
i+ie) )ow#wi#) )i$ta#ce with the $i"p!i+ie) "o)e!$ )i$c*$$e) here i$
a$ +o!!ow$2
1& 6or a gi(e# re!ea$e $ce#ario, e$ti"ate the $tate o+ the re!ea$e)
co#ta"i#a#t a+ter it ha$ )epre$$*riKe) a#) beco"e airbor#e
9i#c!*)i#g a#y i#itia! )i!*tio#:& The i#itia! "o!e +ractio# o+ haKar)o*$
co"po#e#t$ wi!! be app!ie) to the +i#a! reporte) co#ce#tratio#$ a#)
haKar)o*$ e#)poi#t co#ce#tratio#$ thro*gho*t the proce$$& %+
$o*rce "o"e#t*" i$ i"porta#t 9a$ i# a >et re!ea$e or +or p!*"e ri$e:,
other "o)e!$ are a(ai!ab!e that ca# a))re$$ the$e co#$i)eratio#$&
Ei$regar)i#g the )i!*tio# )*e to $o*rce "o"e#t*" wi!! !i1e!y re$*!t
i# higher co#ce#tratio#$ )ow#wi#), b*t #ot a!way$&
2& Co#$i)er the i"porta#t ti"e $ca!e$ i#(o!(e), a#) )eci)e
whether a p*++ or p!*"e "o)e! i$ i#)icate)& %+ thi$ choice i$ *#c!ear,
a$$*"e a p!*"e re!ea$e&
3& Eeter"i#e whether )e#$er-tha#-air beha(ior i$ i"porta#t&
4& 4he# )e#$er-tha#-air e++ect$ are i"porta#t, *$e the 0ritter-
McH*ai) 9p!*"e or p*++: "o)e!$& ;therwi$e, a$$*"e the re!ea$e i$
y '
)
v
by iterati(e $o!*tio# 9or tria! a#) error: *$i#g E
t
a#) C
s
& The )i$per-
$io# coe++icie#t$ at )i$ta#ce )
e
wi!! #ow repre$e#t a )i$ta#ce +ro" the
rea! $o*rce o+ )
e
X )
v
&
Passive p"ff or pl"me %# a))itio# to the re$trictio# o# p!*"e$ )i$-
c*$$e) abo(e, there i$ a# a!o#g-wi#) )i$per$io# ti"e $ca!e gi(e# by
t
%
S 2
)
"
r
where
)
i$ e(a!*ate) at the e#)poi#t )i$ta#ce )
e
& The
re!ea$e ca# *$*a!!y be co#$i)ere) a p!*"e i+ t
s
] 2&5 t
%
, where t
s
i$ the
$o*rce ti"e $ca!e )e+i#e) abo(e, a#) the re!ea$e ca# be co#$i)ere) a
p*++ i+ t
%
] t
s
& 6or t
%
t
s
2&5 t
%
, #either p*++ #or p!*"e "o)e!$
are e#tire!y appropriateA the pre)icte) co#ce#tratio# i$ co#$i)ere)
the !arge$t o+ the p*++ a#) p!*"e pre)ictio#$&
enser-t#an-Air Contaminant (Britter-%&6uaid) ispersion
%odels 0ritter a#) McH*ai) 9Eorkbook on the 3ispersion of
3ense (ases, ea!th a#) -a+ety ./ec*ti(e 3eport 17J1988, -he++ie!),
,&B&, 1988: propo$e) a corre!atio# +or e$ti"ati#g the )i$per$io# o+
)e#$er-tha#-air co#ta"i#a#t$ +ro" area $o*rce$ +or p!*"e a#) p*++
re!ea$e$& Their ob>ecti(e wa$ to pro)*ce corre!atio#$ which pre)icte)
the )i$ta#ce to a gi(e# co#ce#tratio# !e(e! withi# a +actor o+ 2& Their
a#a!y$i$ i)e#ti+ie) the )o"i#a#t i#)epe#)e#t (ariab!e$ a$ 91: )e#$ity
o+ re!ea$e) co#ta"i#a#t a+ter )epre$$*riKatio# to at"o$pheric pre$-
$*re p
s
; 92: (o!*"etric rate E p
s
9or tota! (o!*"e E
t
p
s
: o+ co#ta"i#a#t
re!ea$e)A 93: characteri$tic wi#) $pee) "
r
9typica!!y ta1e# to be at 10-
" e!e(atio# '
r
:A a#) 94: characteri$tic $o*rce )i"e#$io# 3
s
& 0a$e) at
!ea$t i# part o# the +act that pre$e#t!y a(ai!ab!e +ie!) te$t )ata +or
)e#$er-tha#-air co#ta"i#a#t$ )o #ot c!ear!y i#)icate the i"porta#ce
o+ the$e para"eter$, 0ritter a#) McH*ai) co#$i)ere) $o"e i#)epe#-
)e#t (ariab!e$ to be o+ !e$$er i"porta#ce, a#) the$e para"eter$
were #ot co#$i)ere) i# the corre!atio#, i#c!*)i#g $*r+ace ro*gh#e$$,
at"o$pheric $tabi!ity, a#) e/act $o*rce )i"e#$io#$& 9Ma#y "o)e!$ +or
)e#$er-tha#-air beha(ior i#)icate the$e para"eter$ to be i"porta#t&:
;ther e++ect$ were #ot i#c!*)e) i# the a#a!y$i$ i#c!*)i#g )i!*tio# )*e
to $o*rce "o"e#t*" a#) co#)e#$atio# o+ a"bie#t h*"i)ityA $*ch
e++ect$ "ay be o+ cr*cia! i"porta#ce +or co#ta"i#a#t$ that ha(e a "o!-
ec*!ar weight !e$$ tha# that o+ air i#c!*)i#g, e&g&, !i5*e+ie) #at*ra! ga$
9FGG:, a""o#ia, a#) hy)roge# +!*ori)e&
0ritter a#) McH*ai) pro(i)e corre!atio#$ +or )e#$er-tha#-air 9co#-
ti#*o*$: p!*"e$ a#) 9i#$ta#ta#eo*$: p*++$ re!ea$e) at a"bie#t te"-
perat*re& -i#ce "a#y "ateria!$ o+ practica! i#tere$t are re!ea$e) be!ow
a"bie#t te"perat*re, 0ritter a#) McH*ai) pro(i)e g*i)a#ce a$ to
how to pre)ict the !i"iti#g ca$e$ +or $*ch re!ea$e$&
pa$$i(e a#) *$e the Ca$5*i!!-Gi++or) 9p!*"e or p*++: "o)e!$& ')>*$t
(a!*e$ +or the (irt*a! $o*rce correctio#9$: a$ appropriate&
5& ')>*$t (a!*e$ +or the a(eragi#g ti"e correctio# +or p!*"e pre-
)ictio#$ with .5& 923-77:& Gote that the i#)e/ p +or *$e i# the a(er-
agi#g ti"e correctio# )epe#)$ o# the "o)e! *$e)& %+ the haKar)
ti"e $ca!e t
h
i$ )i++ere#t +ro" the "o)e! a(eragi#g ti"e $ca!e 910
"i# +or p!*"e$:, the# the pre)icte) co#ce#tratio# $ho*!) be
a)>*$te) to t
h
b*t o#!y i+ t
s
t
h
; i+ t
s
Z t
h
, the# a)>*$t the pre)icte)
co#ce#tratio# to t
s
&
6& 6or p!*"e pre)ictio#$, co#+ir" that p!*"e beha(ior app!ie$
by co#$i)eratio# o+ appropriate ti"e $ca!e$& %+ p!*"e beha(ior i$
#ot >*$ti+ie), re(i$e the ca!c*!atio#$ with the p*++ "o)e! a#)
rechec1 the )i$per$io# ti"e $ca!e& 3eport the appropriate co#ce#-
tratio# or )i$ta#ce&
S)%!A)%.3 .F DA!AG FFC)S
3o/enclature
Cro>ecte) area o+ +rag"e#t, breach area, or +rag"e#t cro$$-$ectio#a!
area
a
a
-o*#) (e!ocity i# at"o$phere
a
e
-o*#) (e!ocity i# high-pre$$*re ga$ prior to (e$$e! +ai!*re
+ 0atch e#ergy a(ai!abi!ity
% 6rag"e#t )ia"eter
E ./p!o$io# e#ergy a(ai!ab!e to ge#erate b!a$t a#) +rag"e#t 1i#etic
e#ergy, etc&
E
p
Critica! per+oratio# e#ergy 9
1
J
2
M*
f
2
:
E
y
@o*#g?$ "o)*!*$ o+ e!a$ticity
F Ei"e#$io#!e$$ i#itia! +rag"e#t acce!eratio#
F P
e
'3JMa
e
S P
e
4Jma
e
+or (e$$e! co"p!ete!y $hattere) i#to "a#y $"a!!
+rag"e#t$
g 'cce!eratio# )*e to gra(ity
h De$$e! wa!! thic1#e$$
k 3atio o+ (e$$e! o*t$i)e )ia"eter to i#ter#a! )ia"eter
, Fe#gth o+ cy!i#)rica! (e$$e!
M 6rag"e#t "a$$
m Ma$$ per *#it area o+ (e$$e! $he!!
/ Fe#gth o+ cy!i#)rica! (e$$e! +or"i#g roc1eti#g t*b +rag"e#t
GJ"
2
,#it o+ pre$$*re i# -% $y$te", GJ"
2
A a!$o ca!!e) pa$ca! 9Ca:& ;#e
p$i S 6&89476 d 10
3
Ca or 6&89476 1Ca&
P Fi5*i) pre$$*re
P
a
't"o$pheric pre$$*re
t

P

X1J o
3o/enclature 9Concl"%e%:
P
b
Ey#a"ic (e$$e! b*r$t pre$$*re
P
c
Cre$$*re at e/pa#)i#g ga$ co#tact $*r+ace
P
e
Cre$$*re at (e$$e! +ai!*re
P
i#c
%#ci)e#t 9$i)e-o#: b!a$t pre$$*re
P
r
Gor"a!!y re+!ecte) 9+ace-o#: b!a$t pre$$*re
4 De$$e! ra)i*$
r 6rag"e#t ra)i*$ S 9 z:
0&5
4
g
3a#ge o+ +rag"e#t
t -tee! target thic1#e$$
U U
f
Y U
m
" ,!ti"ate te#$i!e $tre#gth o+ target $tee!
U
f
6!*i) co"pre$$io# e#ergy
U
m
.!a$tic $trai# e#ergy i# (e$$e! wa!!$
* Do!*"e o+ ga$
*
f
6rag"e#t (e!ocity
*
,
Fi5*i) (o!*"e
E .5*i(a!e#t "a$$ o+ TGT
w ,#$*pporte) $pa# o+ $tee! target
N Ei$ta#ce +ro" wa!! o+ (e$$e! to target

Gree1 !etter$
{
T
6!*i) co"pre$$ibi!ity
o 3atio o+ $peci+ic heat$ o+ ga$ C
p
JC
v
r
0
-ta#)ar) $tea)y-$tate a(ai!abi!ity
|

Coi$$o#?$ ratio o+ (e$$e!
$tee!
-*b$cript$
0 3e+ere#ce $tate
1 %#itia! $tate
a .#(iro#"e#ta! $tate
1 a Ee#ote$ the path +ro" $tate 1 to the e#(iro#"e#ta! a"bie#t $tate a
G3&AL &F&3CS7 0a1er, Co/ et a!&, <./p!o$io# aKar)$ a#)
.(a!*atio#,=
F"n%amental $t"%ies in Engineering 8, .!$e(ier -cie#ce C*b!i$hi#g, Gew @or1,
1983& Bi##ey a#) Graha", E)plosive $hocks in ir, 2) e)&, -pri#ger-Der!ag,
Gew
@or1, 1985& Cete$, nnals, /ew Dork ca%emy of $ciences @A:B, (o!& 152,
pp&
283O316& o!)e#, ssessment of Missile &a'ar%s> 4eview of !nci%ent E)perience
4elevant to Ma5or &a'ar% Plant, ,B'.' -3EJ-.J3477, Go(e"ber 1988&
Fee$, ,oss Prevention in the Process !n%"stries, 0*tterworth$, Fo#)o#, 1996&
Fe$!ie a#) 0ir1, <-tate o+ the 'rt 3e(iew o+ Cre$$*riKe) Fi5*e+ie) Ga$
Co#tai#er
6ai!*re Mo)e$ a#) '$$ociate) Cro>ecti!e aKar)$,= Jo"rnal of &a'ar% Materials
2D, 1991, pp& 329O365& $CE $tr"ct"ral nalysis an% 3esign of /"clear
Plant
Facilities Man"al an% 4eports on Engineering Practice #o& 58, 1980& Critchar)
a#)
3obert$, <0!a$t .++ect$ +ro" Dapo*r C!o*) ./p!o$io#$2 ' Eeca)e o+ Crogre$$,=
$afety $cience, (o!& 16 93,4: 1993, pp& 527O548& <./p!o$io#$ i# the Croce$$
%#)*$-
trie$,= Ma>or aK& Mo#ograph -erie$, !0 Chem0 E0 9,&B&:, 1994&
The a(ai!abi!ity o+ e#ergy +ro" a# e/p!o$io# ca# be appro/i"ate!y ca!-
c*!ate) i# "o$t ca$e$ b*t the "etho) *$e) )epe#)$ *po# the #at*re
o+ the e/p!o$io#&
%nert, %#eal Gas0Fille# ;essels The e#ergy a(ai!ab!e +or e/ter-
#a! wor1 +o!!owi#g the rapi) )i$i#tegratio# o+ the (e$$e! i$ ca!c*!ate)
by a$$*"i#g that the ga$ withi# the (e$$e! e/pa#)$ a)iabatica!!y to
at"o$pheric pre$$*re&
Blast Characteristics 'cc*rate ca!c*!atio# o+ the "ag#it*)e o+
the b!a$t wa(e +ro" a# e/p!o)i#g pre$$*re (e$$e! i$ #ot po$$ib!e, b*t
it "ay be e$ti"ate) +ro" $e(era! appro/i"ate "etho)$ that are a(ai!-
ab!e&
;#e "etho) o+ e$ti"ati#g the b!a$t wa(e para"eter$ i$ to *$e the
TGT e5*i(a!e#t "etho), which a$$*"e$ that the )a"age pote#tia! o+
the b!a$t wa(e +ro" a +rag"e#ti#g pre$$*re (e$$e! ca# be appro/i-
"ate) by the b!a$t +ro" a# e5*i(a!e#t "a$$ o+ tri#itroto!*e#e 9TGT:&
The "etho) i$ #ot (a!i) +or the regio# withi# a +ew (e$$e! )ia"eter$
+ro" the (e$$e!& owe(er, a ro*gh appro/i"atio# ca# be "a)e o*t$i)e
thi$ regio# by ca!c*!ati#g a# e5*i(a!e#t "a$$ o+ TGT a#) *ti!iKi#g it$
we!!-1#ow# b!a$t propertie$& The ter" e-"ivalent mass "ea#$ the
"a$$ o+ TGT which wo*!) pro)*ce a $i"i!ar )a"age patter# to that o+
the b!a$t +ro" the r*pt*re) (e$$e!& The e#ergy o+ )eto#atio# o+ TGT
i$ 4&5 MLJ1g 91&5 d 10
X6
+t!bJ!b:, $o the TGT e5*i(a!e#t "a$$ E i$
gi(e# by E S 0&3.J4&5 1g& -ta#)ar) TGT )ata 9Eept& o+ the 'r"y,
Ga(y, a#) 'ir 6orce, <-tr*ct*re$ to re$i$t the e++ect$ o+ acci)e#ta!
e/p!o$io#$,= TM5-1300, G'D6'C C-397, '6M 88-22, ,&-& Go(&
Cri#ti#g ;++ice, (o!& 2, Go(e"ber 1990, 6ig$& 2-7 a#) 2-15A or Bi#gery
a#) Ca##i!!, Me"ora#)*" 3eport Go& 1518, 0a!!i$tic 3e$earch Fab-
oratorie$, 'ber)ee# Cro(i#g Gro*#), ,&-&, 'pri! 1964: ca# the# be
*$e) to )eter"i#e the b!a$t para"eter$ o+ i#tere$t 96ig& 23-45:& Thi$
"etho) ha$ !i"itatio#$ i# the +ar +ie!) where the pea1 i#ci)e#t o(er-
pre$$*re i$ !e$$ tha# 4 1GJ"
2
90&5 p$i:& %# thi$ regio#, !oca! terrai# a#)
weather e++ect$ beco"e $ig#i+ica#t&
The b!a$t para"eter$ a!$o )epe#) *po# the phy$ica! !ocatio# o+ the
(e$$e!& %+ the (e$$e! i$ !ocate) c!o$e to or o# the gro*#), the# s"rface-
b"rst )ata $ho*!) be *$e)& %# other circ*"$ta#ce$ where the (e$$e! i$
high i# the air, either free-air or air-b"rst b!a$t )ata "ay be *$e)&
The$e )ata are be$t pre$e#te) i# the +or" o+ height-of-b"rst c*r(e$
9Cete$, <0!a$t a#) 6rag"e#tatio# Characteri$tic$,= nn0 of /ew Dork
ca%0 of $ciences, (o!& 152, art& 1, +ig& 3, 1968, p& 287:& 6or i#ci)e#t
b!a$t pre$$*re$ o+ 3 d 10
5
GJ"
2
93 bar: or !e$$, *$i#g $*r+ace-b*r$t )ata
"ay o(ere$ti"ate the b!a$t pre$$*re by abo*t 33 perce#t& Ge#era!!y,
pre$$*re (e$$e! r*pt*re$ rare!y ca*$e gro*#) crater$, $o #o a!!owa#ce
+or crateri#g $ho*!) be "a)e&
Fra$/ent For/ation The way i# which a (e$$e! brea1$ *p i#to
$e(era! +rag"e#t$ a$ a co#$e5*e#ce o+ a# e/p!o$io# or "eta! +ai!*re i$
E S
P
e
*
9o X 1:Jo
1 X
a

Y 9o X 1:

P
a

1 X

P
a
u
923-80:

9o X 1: P
e

P
e
P
e
%# the ca$e o+ thic1-wa!!e) C (e$$e!$, the $trai# e#ergy i# the (e$-
$e! $he!! ca# co#trib*te to the a(ai!ab!e e#ergy, b*t +or (e$$e!$ be!ow
abo*t 20 MGJ"
2
9200 barg: it i$ #eg!igib!e a#) ca# be ig#ore)& %+ a
Mo!!ier chart +or the ga$ i$ a(ai!ab!e, the a)iabatic e#ergy ca# be "ea-
$*re) )irect!y& Thi$ i$ the pre+erre) "etho), b*t i# "a#y ca$e$ the re!-
e(a#t chart i$ #ot a(ai!ab!e&
The a(ai!ab!e e#ergy i$ )i$$ipate) i# $e(era! way$, e&g&, the $trai#
e#ergy to +ai!*re, p!a$tic $trai# e#ergy i# the +rag"e#t$, 1i#etic e#ergy
o+ the +rag"e#t$, b!a$t wa(e ge#eratio#, 1i#etic e#ergy o+ (e$$e! co#-
te#t$, heat e#ergy i# (e$$e! co#te#t$, etc& 6or )a"age e$ti"atio# p*r-
po$e$, the e#ergy )i$trib*tio# ca# be $i"p!i+ie) to2
E 9

p %v:
30T b!a$t 40T +rag"e#t 1i#etic e#ergy 30T other )i$$ipati(e "echa#i$"$
F%G. 23089 %#ci)e#t o(erpre$$*re ($& $ca!e) )i$ta#ce, $*r+ace b*r$t& 9The <Y=
points are from 1ingery an% Pannill, Memo 4eport @8@B +4,0 %apte% from
3epartment of rmy, /avy, an% ir Force TM8-@677, /*FC P-6A;, FM
BB-990:
1 0 1 a 1




P

a 91 X :

c
X 1

e

a

f
f
i"po$$ib!e to pre)ict& Co#$e5*e#t!y, i# "o$t ca$e$ it i$ #ece$$ary to
a$$*"e $e(era! +ai!*re geo"etrie$ a#) to a$$e$$ the e++ect o+ each& The
#*"ber o+ +rag"e#t$ +or"e) i$ $tro#g!y )epe#)e#t *po# the #at*re o+
the e/p!o$io# a#) the (e$$e! )e$ig#& 6or high-$pee) e/p!o$io#$Ne&g&,
)eto#atio#$ or co#)e#$e) pha$e e/p!o$io#$Nthe (e$$e! +re5*e#t!y
$hatter$ i#to "a#y +rag"e#t$, b*t +or $!ower-$pee) e/p!o$io#$Ne&g&,
)e+!agratio#$ a#) 0F.D.$Nge#era!!y +ewer tha# te# +rag"e#t$ are
+or"e), a#) +re5*e#t!y !e$$ tha# +i(e&
%nitial Fra$/ent ;elocity >V
f
? The proce$$ o+ e#ergy tra#$+er
+ro" the e/pa#)i#g ga$ to the (e$$e! +rag"e#t$ i$ #ot e++icie#t a#) $e!-
)o" e/cee)$ 40 perce#t o+ the a(ai!ab!e e#ergy& 'ccor)i#g to 0a*"
9<The De!ocity o+ Mi$$i!e$ Ge#erate) by the Ei$i#tegratio# o+ Ga$
Cre$$*riKe) De$$e!$ a#) Cipe$,= Jo"rnal of Press0 *essel Technology,
Tra#$& '-M., (o!& 106, Go(e"ber 1984, pp& 362O368:, there i$ a#
*pper !i"it to the +rag"e#t (e!ocity, which i$ ta1e# to be the (e!ocity
o+ the co#tact $*r+ace betwee# the e/pa#)i#g high-pre$$*re ga$ a#)
the $*rro*#)i#g at"o$pheric air& Thi$ i$ re+erre) to a$ the 'ero-mass
+rag"e#t (e!ocity a#), +or "o$t i#)*$tria! !ow- to "e)i*"-pre$$*re
(e$$e!$, i$ !e$$ tha# abo*t 1&3 Mach& %t i$ ca!c*!ate) *$i#g i)ea! ga$,
o#e-)i"e#$io#a! $hoc1 t*be theory a#) i$ gi(e# by the e5*atio# +or
the $hoc1 t*be co#tact $*r+ace (e!ocity 94right, $hock T"bes,
Meth*e# R Co&, Fo#)o#, 1961:&
rapi)!y, the ga$ "ay reach a "*ch higher pre$$*re tha# the e$ti"ate)
)y#a"ic b*r$t pre$$*re o+ the (e$$e!& Thi$ e++ect i$ $i"i!ar to the acc*-
"*!atio# o# a re!ie+ (a!(e& %t i$, there+ore, co#$er(ati(e to a$$*"e that
the ga$ reache$ the pre$$*re ca!c*!ate) o# the a$$*"ptio# o+ co"p!ete
reactio#& The reactio# i$ a$$*"e) to go to co"p!etio# be+ore the co#-
tai#i#g (e$$e! +ai!$& owe(er, there are reactio#$ where it i$ $i"p!er to
ca!c*!ate the e#ergy a(ai!abi!ity *$i#g ther"o)y#a"ic "etho)$& The
"a/i"*" e#ergy re!ea$e) i# a# e/p!o$io# ca# be a$$e$$e) +ro" the
cha#ge i# the e!"ho!K +ree e#ergy 9XV& S XVE Y TV$:, b*t i+
the re5*ire) )ata i$ #ot a(ai!ab!e, it "ay be #ece$$ary to *$e the Gibb$
+ree e#ergy 9VF S V& X TV$:, whichNe$pecia!!y i# the ca$e o+ reac-
tio#$ with !itt!e or #o "o!a! cha#ge, e&g&, hy)rocarbo#Jair o/i)atio#Ni$
$i"i!ar to the e!"ho!K e#ergy& %t "ay $o"eti"e$ be "ore co#(e#ie#t
to ca!c*!ate the batch e#ergy a(ai!abi!ity P+ S r
0
Y Vr
1 a
Y V9P*:
1 a
X
P
a
V*
1 a
Q 9Crow!, <Ca!c*!ati#g the .#ergy o+ ./p!o$io# ,$i#g Ther-
"o)y#a"ic '(ai!abi!ity,= J0 ,oss Prev0 Process !n%0, 9, #o& 2, 1992,
p& 109:, which +or a# i)ea! ga$ beco"e$
+ S f Y f Y n4T
P
a
X 1 923-84:
P
1
The e#ergy partitio# betwee# b!a$t wa(e e#ergy a#) +rag"e#t 1i#etic
e#ergy i$ a$ )e$cribe) i# paragraph 1&
*
f
S X
2
9o X 1:J2o
c
X 1

923-81:
;essels Co/-letely Fille# with an %nert "i$h0Pressure LiF0

a
0
9o X 1: P
e
ui#A ' typica! e/a"p!e i$ the pre$$*re te$ti#g o+ (e$$e!$ with water&
The e#ergy a(ai!ab!e to ca*$e )a"age i$ the $*" o+ the !i5*i) co"-
where P
c
i$ )eter"i#e) +ro" the re!atio#$hip2
P
a a
P
a 9o X 1:J2o
pre$$io# e#ergy a#) the $trai# e#ergy i# the (e$$e! $he!!& The $*))e#
re!ea$e o+ thi$ e#ergy o# (e$$e! +ai!*re ge#era!!y create$ +!yi#g +rag-
"e#t$ b*t rare!y a#y $ig#i+ica#t b!a$t e++ect$&
The +!*i) co"pre$$io# e#ergy *p to abo*t 150 MGJ"
2
922,000 p$ig:

S
2

1 X

P
a

P
c

923-82: ca# be e$ti"ate) +ro" U
f
S a{
T
P
2
*
,
, where {
T
i$ the !i5*i) b*!1 co"-
a 91 Y :

P
c
1J 2
Y
a

9o X 1:

P
e
P
a
pre$$ibi!ity, P i$ the !i5*i) pre$$*re, a#) *
,
i$ the !i5*i) (o!*"e& 't
P
a
o
a
X 1
higher pre$$*re, thi$ $i"p!e e5*atio# beco"e$ too co#$er(ati(e a#)
"ore co"p!e/ "etho)$ o+ ca!c*!ati#g the +!*i) co"pre$$io# e#ergy
are re5*ire)& The e!a$tic $trai# e#ergy +or cy!i#)rica! (e$$e!$, ig#ori#g
a#)
a
S
o
a
Y 1
where P
c
S pre$$*re at e/pa#)i#g ga$ co#tact $*r+ace
a
a
S $o*#) (e!ocity at a"bie#t co#)itio#$
a
e
S $o*#) (e!ocity i# ga$ prior to (e$$e! +ai!*re
923-83: e#) c!o$*re$, ca# be e$ti"ate) +ro"2
P
2
*
,
U
m
S P391 X 2|: Y 2k
2
91 Y |:Q 923-85:
2E9k
2
X 1:
where P S pre$$*re o+ !i5*i)
The (a!*e o+ a
e
"ay be appro/i"ate) *$i#g phy$ica! property )ata
+or the $peci+ic ga$ at the te"perat*re a#) pre$$*re at the $tart o+
the e/pa#$io#& .5*atio# 923-82: "*$t be $o!(e) *$i#g a tria!-a#)-
error "etho)& Mo$t +rag"e#t$ #e(er achie(e the Kero-"a$$ (e!ocity
a#) their (e!ocity ca# be a$$e$$e) *$i#g the corre!atio#$ o+ 0a*"
9<Ei$r*pti(e 6ai!*re o+ Cre$$*re De$$e!$2 Cre!i"i#ary Ee$ig#
G*i)e!i#e$ +or 6rag"e#t$ De!ocity a#) the ./te#t o+ the aKar)
Wo#e,= J0 Press"re *essel Technology, Tra#$& '-M., (o!& 110, May
1988, pp& 168O176A 0a*", <3*pt*re o+ a Ga$-Cre$$*riKe) Cy!i#)ri-
*
,
S (o!*"e o+ !i5*i)
E
y
S @o*#g?$ "o)*!*$ o+ e!a$ticity
| S Coi$$o#?$ ratio
.#ergy a(ai!ab!e U S U
f
Y U
m
&
;#!y a $"a!! +ractio# o+ U i$ a(ai!ab!e to pro(i)e 1i#etic e#ergy to
the +rag"e#t$& There are +ew )ata a(ai!ab!e, b*t i# +i(e i#ci)e#t$ a#a-
!yKe) by igh 9*#p*b!i$he) )ata:, #o +ractio# wa$ greater tha# 0&15&
The +rag"e#t i#itia! (e!ocity ca# be a$$e$$e) +ro" 0&15 U S a M*
2
&
ca! Cre$$*re De$$e!& The De!ocity o+ 3oc1eti#g 6rag"e#t$,= J0 ,oss
Distance )ra*ele# 'y Fra$/ents There i$ #o "etho) a(ai!ab!e
Prev0 Process !n%0, (o!& 4, La#*ary 1991, pp& 73O86A 0a*", <De!ocity
o+ a -i#g!e -"a!! Mi$$i!e .>ecte) +ro" a De$$e! Co#tai#i#g igh
Cre$$*re Ga$,= J0 ,oss Prev0 Process !n%0, (o!& 6, #o& 4, 1993, pp&
251O264:&
0a*" pro(i)e$ corre!atio#$ +or $e(era! (e$$e! +ai!*re "o)e$&
to e$ti"ate the )i$ta#ce tra(e!e) by a# irreg*!ar!y $hape), po$$ib!y
t*"b!i#g, $*b$o#ic +rag"e#t pro>ecte) at a# *#1#ow# a#g!e& ' co#-
$er(ati(e approach i$ to a$$*"e that a!! the +rag"e#t$ are pro>ecte) at
a# a#g!e o+ 45U to the horiKo#ta! a#) to ig#ore the aero)y#a"ic e++ect$
o+ )rag a#)Jor !i+t& The ra#ge 4
g
i$ the# gi(e# by 4
g
S *
2
Jg, where
;essel Fille# with &eacti*e Gas !i=tures Mo$t ca$e$ o+ )a"-
age ari$e #ot +ro" the (e$$e! +ai!i#g at it$ #or"a! operati#g pre$$*re b*t
beca*$e o+ a# *#e/pecte) e/other"ic reactio# occ*rri#g withi# the
(e$$e!& Thi$ *$*a!!y i$ a )eco"po$itio#, po!y"eriKatio#, )e+!agratio#,
r*#away reactio#, or o/i)atio# reactio#& %# a$$e$$i#g the )a"age
pote#tia! o+ $*ch i#ci)e#t$, the pea1 e/p!o$io# or reactio# pre$$*re ca#
o+te# be ca!c*!ate), a#) i+ thi$ pea1 pre$$*re P
e
i$ the# i#$erte) i#to
.5& 923-80:, the a(ai!ab!e e#ergy ca# be a$$e$$e) a#) the b!a$t a#)
+rag"e#t haKar) )eter"i#e)& 4here the e/pecte) pea1 e/p!o$io#
pre$$*re P
e
i$ great!y i# e/ce$$ o+ the (e$$e! )y#a"ic b*r$t pre$$*re, it
i$ $*++icie#t to i#crea$e the b*r$t pre$$*re to a!!ow +or the i#crea$e i#
(e$$e! pre$$*re )*ri#g the perio) #ece$$ary +or both the (e$$e! to
r*pt*re a#) the +rag"e#t$ to be re"o(e) +ro" the path o+ the e/pa#)-
i#g (e$$e! co#te#t$& 4here the ga$ pre$$*re i# the (e$$e! i$ ri$i#g
g S gra(itatio#a! acce!eratio#&
Thi$ i$ too co#$er(ati(e to pro(i)e a#ythi#g "ore tha# a# *pper
bo*#)& -o"e !i"ite) g*i)a#ce i$ gi(e# by -ci!!y a#) Crowther
9<Metho)o!ogy +or Cre)icti#g Eo"i#o .++ect$ +ro" Cre$$*re De$$e!
6rag"e#tatio#,= Proc0 &a'ar%s !%ent0 an% 4isk nal0, &"man Factors
an% &"man 4eliability in Process $afety, ;r!a#)o, 6!a&, 15 La# 1992, p&
5, $po#$ore) by '%Ch. a#) -.:, where the ra#ge, +or (e$$e!$ with
wa!!$ !e$$ tha# 20 "" 90&79 i#:, i$ 2&8 P
b
with the ra#ge i# "eter$ a#)
P
b
a$ the (e$$e! b*r$t pre$$*re i# bar$& ;ther $o*rce$ are 0a1er 9E)plo-
sion &a'ar%s an% Eval"ation, .!$e(ier, 1983, p& 492: a#) Che"ica!
\'# e/ce!!e#t re(iew o+ the #ece$$ary preca*tio#$ to be ta1e# i$ gi(e# by -a(-
i!!e, <Cre$$*re Te$t -a+ety,= -. Co#tract 3e$earch 3eport 168J1998, M-;,
,&B&, 1998&


42&7 Y

923-88:
Crop*!$io# %#+or"atio# 'ge#cy 9&a'ar%s of Chemical 4ockets an% Pro-
pellants &an%book, (o!& 1, GT%-, Dirgi#ia, May 1972, pp& 2-56, 2-60:&
Fra$/ent Strikin$ ;elocity %t i$ ge#era!!y i"po$$ib!e to a$$e$$
the +rag"e#t (e!ocity, tra>ectory, a#g!e o+ i#ci)e#ce, a#) +rag"e#t
attit*)e at the "o"e#t o+ $tri1i#g a targetA co#$e5*e#t!y, the co#$er-
(ati(e (iew i$ ta1e# that the +rag"e#t $tri1e$ the target at right a#g!e$,
i# the attit*)e to gi(e the greate$t pe#etratio#, with a (e!ocity e5*a! to
the i#itia! (e!ocity&
Da/a$e Potential of Fra$/ents %# )e$ig#i#g protectio# +or
+rag"e#t i"pact, there are two +ai!*re "o)e$ to be co#$i)ere)2 !oca!
re$po#$e a#) o(era!! re$po#$e& Foca! re$po#$e i#c!*)e$ pe#etra-
tio#Jper+oratio# i# the regio# o+ the i"pact& ;(era!! re$po#$e i#c!*)e$
the be#)i#g a#) $hear $tre$$e$ i# the tota! target e!e"e#tA i&e&, wi!! the
who!e target e!e"e#t +ai! regar)!e$$ o+ whether the e!e"e#t i$ pe#e-
trate) or per+orate)`
Local Failure The pe#etratio# or per+oratio# o+ "o$t i#)*$tria!
target$ ca##ot be a$$e$$e) *$i#g theoretica! a#a!y$i$ "etho)$, a#)
reco*r$e i$ "a)e to *$i#g o#e o+ the "a#y e"pirica! e5*atio#$& %#
*$i#g the e5*atio#$, it i$ e$$e#tia! that the para"eter$ o+ the e"pirica!
e5*atio# e"brace the co#)itio#$ o+ the act*a! +rag"e#t&
The pe#etrabi!ity o+ a +rag"e#t )epe#)$ o# it$ kinetic energy %en-
sity 9B.E:, gi(e# by
2
)ABL 23029 Da/a$e ffects
%#ci)e#t, Cre$$*re,
p$i 1Ca Ea"age e++ect$
10 70 Ea"age to "o$t re+i#erie$ wo*!) be $e(ere,
a!tho*gh $o"e p*"p$, co"pre$$or$, a#) heat
e/cha#ger$ co*!) be $a!(age)& '!! co#(e#tio#a!
bric1 b*i!)i#g$ wo*!) be tota!!y )e$troye)& 3ai!
wago#$ 9rai! car$: o(ert*r#e)& -torage ta#1$
r*pt*re)& 6ata!itie$ certai#&
5&0 34 0ric1 b*i!)i#g$ $e(ere!y )a"age), 75T e/ter#a!
wa!! co!!ap$e& 6ire) heater$ ba)!y )a"age)&
-torage ta#1$ !ea1 +ro" ba$e& Thre$ho!) +or
ear)r*" )a"age to peop!e& Eo"i#o or 1#oc1-
o# ra)i*$& Cipe bri)ge$ "ay "o(e&
2&0 14 Eoor$ a#) wi#)ow$ re"o(e)& -o"e +ra"e )i$tor-
tio# to $tee! +ra"e b*i!)i#g$ a#) c!a))i#g
re"o(e)& -o"e e!ectrica!Ji#$tr*"e#t cab!e$
bro1e#&\
1&0 7 Fetha! g!a$$ +rag"e#t$& Fi"it +or p*b!ic ho*$i#g,
$choo!$, etc&
0&3 2 'bo*t 50T )o"e$tic g!a$$ bro1e#&
\1T probabi!ity e!ectrica! cab!e$ bro1e# at 2&0 p$i i#c& 99T probabi!ity e!ec-
trica! cab!e$ bro1e# at 3&6 p$i i#c&
B.E S
1 M*
f
923-86:
2
where i$ the +rag"e#t cro$$-$ectio#a! area& The B.E i$ a *$e+*!
co"parati(e "ea$*re o+ a +rag"e#t?$ pe#etrabi!ity whe# co"pari#g
!i1e with !i1e& -e(era! e5*atio#$ are gi(e# i# the +o!!owi#g $ectio#$&
Ballistics &esearch La'oratory >B&L? Fuation for Steel )ar$ets
E
p
S 1&4 d 10
9
9%t:
1&5
923-87:
where % i$ the +rag"e#t )ia"eter, t i$ the $tee! target p!ate thic1#e$$,
a#) E
p
i$ the critica! per+oratio# e#ergy i# -% *#it$ 91g, ", "J$, L:,
whe# app!ie) to +rag"e#t$ betwee# 1 1g a#) 19&8 1g, i"pacti#g tar-
get$ 1 "" to 25 "" 91 i#: thic1 p!ate with (e!ocitie$ +ro" 10 "J$ to
100 "J$& Gei!$o# 9Proce%"res for the 3esign of !mpact Protection of
Cff-shore 4isers an% E$*?s, ,&B& '.' Pe)&Q, 1990: +o*#) a !arge $cat-
ter i# the re$*!t$, b*t "o$t were withi# 30 perce#t&
Stanfor# &esearch %nstitute >S&%? Fuation for Steel )ar$ets
%"t
2
w
E S
10&3 t
where w i$ the *#$*pporte) $pa# o+ the target p!ate 9": a#) " the *!ti-
"ate te#$i!e $tre#gth o+ the target $tee! 9GJ"
2
:& The para"eter$ +or
thi$ e5*atio# are gi(e# by 0row# 9<.#ergy 3e!ea$e Crotectio# +or
Cre$$*riKe) -y$te"$,= part %%, <3e(iew o+ -t*)ie$ i#to %"pactJTer"i-
#a! 0a!!i$tic$,= pplie% Mechanics 4eview, (o!& 39, #o& 2, 1986, pp&
177O201: a$ 0&05 c % c 0&25m, 414 c " c 482 MGJ"
2
+or a +rag"e#t
"a$$ betwee# 4&5 a#) 50 1g&
.*erall &es-onse The tra#$itio# +ro" !oca! to o(era!! re$po#$e
i$ )i++ic*!t to )e+i#e& igh-(e!ocity i"pact i"p!ie$ that the bo*#)ary
co#)itio#$ o+ the target ha(e !itt!e i#+!*e#ce o# the !oca! re$po#$e
9e/c!*)i#g re+!ecte) $hoc1 wa(e$:& %+ the +rag"e#t i$ $"a!! re!ati(e to
the target, !oca! re$po#$e wi!! )o"i#ate, b*t +rag"e#t$ that are o+ the
$a"e or)er o+ $iKe a$ the target wi!! pro)*ce a# o(era!! re$po#$e& %t i$
o+te# #ece$$ary to co#$i)er both o(era!! a#) !oca! re$po#$e& Fow (a!-
*e$ o+ B.E are a$$ociate) with o(era!! re$po#$e& Ee$ig# "etho)$ +or
)y#a"ica!!y app!ie) !oa)$ are gi(e# by Gewar1 9<'# .#gi#eeri#g
'pproach to 0!a$t 3e$i$ta#t Ee$ig#,= '-C. Gew @or1, 1953:, 0a1er
9$ee Ge#era! 3e+ere#ce$:, or '-C. 9Man"al an% 4eports on Engi-
neering Practice, #o& 58, 1980:&
&es-onse to Blast Wa*es The e++ect o+ b!a$t wa(e$ *po# e5*ip-
"e#t a#) peop!e i$ )i++ic*!t to a$$e$$ beca*$e there i$ #o $i#g!e b!a$t
wa(e para"eter which ca# +*!!y )e$cribe the )a"age pote#tia! o+ the
b!a$t& -o"e target$ re$po#) "ore $tro#g!y to the pea1 i#ci)e#t o(er-
pre$$*re a#) other$ to the i"p*!$e 9s p %t: o+ the b!a$t& The b!a$t pa-
ra"eter$ are *$*a!!y ba$e) o# the co#$er(ati(e a$$*"ptio# that the
b!a$t $tri1e$ the target #or"a! to it$ $*r+ace, $o that #or"a! re+!ectio#
para"eter$ are *$e)&
The pre$$*re e/erte) by the b!a$t wa(e o# the target )epe#)$
*po# the orie#tatio# o+ the target& %+ the target $*r+ace +ace$ the b!a$t,
the# the target wi!! e/perie#ce the re+!ecte) or +ace-o# b!a$t pre$$*re
P
r
, b*t i+ the target $*r+ace i$ $i)e-o# to the b!a$t, the# the target wi!!
e/perie#ce the i#ci)e#t or $i)e-o# b!a$t pre$$*re P
i#c
& The re+!ecte)
b!a$t pre$$*re i$ #e(er !e$$ tha# )o*b!e the i#ci)e#t pre$$*re a#) ca#,
+or i)ea! ga$e$, be a$ high a$ eight ti"e$ the i#ci)e#t pre$$*re& 6or
"o$t i#)*$tria! target$ where the i#ci)e#t pre$$*re i$ !e$$ tha# abo*t
17 1GJ"
2
925 p$i:, the re+!ecte) pre$$*re i$ #ot "ore tha# 2&5 ti"e$
the i#ci)e#t pre$$*re&
-esponse of Equipment The re$po#$e o+ e5*ip"e#t to b!a$t i$
*$*a!!y a co"bi#atio# o+ two e++ect$2 o#e i$ the )i$p!ace"e#t o+ the
e5*ip"e#t a$ a $i#g!e e#tity a#) the other i$ the +ai!*re o+ the e5*ip-
"e#t it$e!+& The )i$p!ace"e#t o+ the e5*ip"e#t i$ a# i"porta#t
co#$i)eratio# +or $"a!!, *#$ec*re) ite"$Ne&g&, e"pty )r*"$, ga$
cy!i#)er$, e"pty co#tai#er$& Mo$t )a"age re$*!t$ +ro" the +ai!*re i#
part or tota!!y o+ the e5*ip"e#t or co#tai#i#g $tr*ct*re it$e!+&
The b!a$t para"eter$ are *$*a!!y ba$e) o# the co#$er(ati(e a$$*"p-
tio# that the b!a$t $tri1e$ the target #or"a! to it$ $*r+ace, $o that #or-
"a! re+!ectio# para"eter$ "ay be *$e)&
The re$po#$e o+ a target i$ a +*#ctio# o+ the ratio o+ the b!a$t wa(e
)*ratio# a#) the #at*ra! perio) o+ (ibratio# o+ the target 9TJT
n
:& Gei-
ther o+ the$e para"eter$ ca# be c!o$e!y )e+i#e)&
Ca!c*!ati#g the $peci+ic re$po#$e o+ a $peci+ic target ca# ge#era!!y
be )o#e o#!y appro/i"ate!y& 'cc*racy i$ #ot >*$ti+ie) whe# the b!a$t
propertie$ are #ot we!! )e+i#e)& ' g*i)e to the )a"age pote#tia! o+
co#)e#$e) pha$e e/p!o$i(e b!a$t i$ gi(e# i# Tab!e 23-25 9-ci!!y a#)
igh, <The 0!a$t .++ect o+ ./p!o$io#$,= ,oss Prevention an% $afety
Promotion in the Process !n%"stries, .*ropea# 6e)& o+ Che"& .#g&,
337 .(e#t, 6ra#ce, -epte"ber 1986, tab!e 2:& G*c!ear )ata i$ a(ai!-
ab!e 9Tab!e 23-26: 94a!1er, <.$ti"ati#g Cro)*ctio# a#) 3epair
.++ort i# 0!a$t-)a"age) Cetro!e*" 3e+i#erie$,= $tanfor% 4esearch
!nst0, L*!y 1969, +ig& 5, p& 45:, which i$ ba$e) *po# !o#g po$iti(e-
)*ratio# b!a$t 9 6 $:& Thi$ $*gge$t$ that the 4a!1er )ata wi!! be co#-
$er(ati(e +or the "*ch $horter )*ratio# b!a$t +ro" acci)e#ta!
i#)*$tria! e/p!o$io#$&
' b!a$t i#ci)e#t o(erpre$$*re o+ 35 1GJ"
2
95 p$i: i$ o+te# *$e) to
)e+i#e the regio# beyo#) which the )a"age ca*$e) wi!! be "i#or a#)
#ot !ea) to $ig#i+ica#t i#(o!(e"e#t o+ p!a#t a#) e5*ip"e#t beyo#) the
35 1GJ"
2
bo*#)ary&
-esponse of $eople The greate$t haKar) to peop!e +ro" b!a$t i$
ge#era!!y +ro" the )ece!eratio# "echa#i$" a+ter peop!e ha(e bee#
b!ow# o++ their +eet a#) they beco"e "i$$i!e$& Thi$ occ*r$ at a# i#ci)e#t
o(erpre$$*re o+ abo*t 27 1GJ"
2
94&0 p$i: +or !o#g po$iti(e-)*ratio#
2
3
0
B
E
)ABL 2302< Blast .*er-ressure ffects on ;ulnera'le &efinery Parts
;(erpre$$*re 9p$i:
.5*ip"e#t 0&5 1&0 1&5 2&0 2&5 3&0 3&5 4&0 4&5 5&0 5&5 6&0 6&5 7&0 7&5 8&0 8&5 9&0 9&5 10&0 12&0 14&0 16&0 18&0 20&0 ]20&0
Co#tro! ho*$e2 a c % h
$tee! roo+
Co#tro! ho*$e2 a e p % n e
co#crete roo+
Coo!i#g tower
b f o
Ta#12 co#e roo+
% k "
%#$tr*"e#t c*bic!e
a i m t
6ire) heater
g i t
3eactor2 che"ica!
a i p t
6i!ter
h i v t
3ege#erator
i i p t
Ta#12 +!oati#g roo+
k " %
3eactor2 crac1i#g
i i
t
Cipe $*pport$
p s o
,ti!itie$2 ga$ "eter
-
,ti!itie$2 e!ectric h l t
tra#$+or"er
.!ectric "otor
h l v
0!ower
- t
6ractio#atio# co!*"#
r t
Cre$$*re (e$$e!2 p i t
horiKo#ta!
,ti!itie$2 ga$ reg*!ator
i m -
./tractio# co!*"#
i v t
-tea" t*rbi#e
l m s v
eat e/cha#ger
i t
Ta#12 $phere
i i t
Cre$$*re (e$$e!2 i t
(ertica!
C*"p
i v
C;E.2
a 4i#)ow$ a#) ga*ge$ brea1& h Eebri$-"i$$i!e )a"age occ*r$& p 6ra"e )e+or"$&
b Fo*(er$ +a!! at 0&3O0&5 p$i& i ,#it "o(e$ a#) pipe$ brea1& - Ca$e i$ )a"age)&
c -witchgear i$ )a"age) +ro" roo+ 5 0raci#g +ai!$& r 6ra"e crac1$&
co!!ap$e& k ,#it *p!i+t$ 9ha!+-+i!!e):& s Cipi#g brea1$&
% 3oo+ co!!ap$e$& l Cower !i#e$ are $e(ere)& t ,#it o(ert*r#$ or i$ )e$troye)&
e %#$tr*"e#t$ are )a"age)& m Co#tro!$ are )a"age)& " ,#it *p!i+t$ 90&9 +i!!e):&
f %##er part$ are )a"age)& n 0!oc1 wa!!$ +ai!& v ,#it "o(e$ o# +o*#)atio#&
g 0ric1 crac1$& o 6ra"e co!!ap$e$&
-;,3C.2 6& .& 4a!1er, <.$ti"ati#g Cro)*ctio# a#) 3epair .++ort i# 0!a$t Ea"age) Cetro!e*" 3e+i#erie$,= $4!, L*!y 1969&
P&.CSS SAF)2 A3AL2S%S 230B1
#*c!ear weapo# b!a$t$& Ceop!e ha(e "ore b!a$t re$i$ta#ce tha#
"o$t e5*ip"e#t a#) ca# $*r(i(e i#ci)e#t o(erpre$$*re$ o+
180 1GJ"
2
927 p$i: 90owe#, 6!etcher, a#) 3ich"o#), E'-'-2113,
4a$hi#gto#, E&C&, ;ctober 1968:, e(e# +or !o#g-)*ratio# b!a$t$&
P&.(C) &;%W A3D A4D%) P&.CSSS
G3&AL &F&3CS7 Ce#ter +or Che"ica! Croce$$ -a+ety 9CCC-:, ("i%e-
lines for &a'ar% Eval"ation Proce%"res, $econ% E%ition with Eorke% E)amples,
'%Ch., -epte"ber 1992& CCC-, ("i%elines for Technical Management of
Chemical Process $afety, '%Ch., 1989& CCC-, ("i%elines for "%iting Process
$afety Management $ystems, '%Ch., 1993&
%ntro#uction 3e(iew a#) a*)it proce$$e$ are *$e) i# the che"i-
ca! proce$$ i#)*$try to e(a!*ate, e/a"i#e, a#) (eri+y the )e$ig# o+
proce$$ e5*ip"e#t, operati#g proce)*re$, a#) "a#age"e#t $y$te"$&
The$e proce$$e$ a$$*re co"p!ia#ce with co"pa#y $ta#)ar)$ a#)
g*i)e!i#e$ a$ we!! a$ go(er#"e#t reg*!atio#$& 3e(iew$ a#) a*)it$ ca#
e#co"pa$$ the area$ o+ proce$$ a#) per$o##e! $a+ety, e#(iro#"e#ta!
a#) i#)*$tria! hygie#e protectio#, 5*a!ity a$$*ra#ce, "ai#te#a#ce
proce)*re$, a#) $o o#&
' re(iew i$ a critica! e/a"i#atio# or e(a!*atio# o+ a#y operatio#,
proce)*re, co#)itio#, e(e#t, or e5*ip"e#t ite"& 3e(iew$ ca# ta1e
"a#y +or"$ a#) be i)e#ti+ie) a$ pro>ect re(iew$, )e$ig# re(iew$,
$a+ety re(iew$, pre-$tart-*p re(iew$, a#) $o o#& The +o!!owi#g )i$c*$-
$io# o+ the re(iew proce$$ wi!! )ea! with pro>ect re(iew$ a$$ociate)
with capita! pro>ect$ a#) +oc*$ o# the area o+ proce$$ $a+ety&
'# a*)it i$ a +or"a!, "etho)ica! e/a"i#atio# a#) (eri+icatio# o+ a#
operatio#, proce)*re, co#)itio#, e(e#t, or $erie$ o+ tra#$actio#$& The
(eri+icatio# e!e"e#t o+ a# a*)it "a1e$ it )i$ti#cti(e +ro" a re(iew& '
pro>ect re(iew wi!! recommen% )e$ig#, proce)*ra!, "ai#te#a#ce, a#)
"a#age"e#t practice$ to "i#i"iKe haKar)$ a#) re)*ce ri$1 whi!e
"eeti#g co"pa#y $ta#)ar)$ a#) go(er#"e#t reg*!atio#$& '# a*)it
wi!! verify that the )e$ig#, the proce)*re$, a#) the "a#age"e#t $y$-
te"$ are act*a!!y i# p!ace, a#) are bei#g "ai#tai#e) a#) *$e) a$
i#te#)e)& %# +act, it i$ #ot *#co""o# +or a# a*)it to be )o#e o# a
re(iew proce$$, to (eri+y that the e!e"e#t$ o+ the re(iew proce$$ are
bei#g +o!!owe)&
Pro@ect &e*iew Process The $cope o+ capita! pro>ect$ ca# be
!arge, i#(o!(i#g the co#$tr*ctio# o+ #ew p!a#t$ with #ew tech#o!ogie$
a#) pro)*ct$, or $"a!!, i#(o!(i#g "i#or cha#ge$ to e/i$ti#g +aci!itie$&
%# either ca$e, pro>ect $a+ety re(iew$ ca# be *$e) to e(a!*ate a#)
e/a"i#e the proce$$ )e$ig#, operati#g proce)*re$, a#) proce$$ co#-
tro! $che"e +or proce$$ haKar)$, co#+or"a#ce to co"pa#y $ta#)ar)$
a#) g*i)e!i#e$, a#) co"p!ia#ce with go(er#"e#t reg*!atio#$& -o"e
ob>ecti(e$ o+ the re(iew proce$$ 9CCC-, 1992, p& 53: are2 91: i)e#ti+y
e5*ip"e#t or proce$$ cha#ge$ that co*!) i#tro)*ce haKar)$, 92: e(a!-
*ate the )e$ig# ba$i$ o+ co#tro! a#) $a+ety $y$te"$, 93: e(a!*ate oper-
ati#g proce)*re$ +or #ece$$ary re(i$io#$, 94: e(a!*ate the app!icatio#
o+ #ew tech#o!ogy a#) a#y $*b$e5*e#t haKar)$, 95: re(iew the a)e-
5*acy o+ "ai#te#a#ce a#) $a+ety i#$pectio#$, a#) 96: e(a!*ate the co#-
$e5*e#ce$ o+ proce$$ )e(iatio#$ a#) )eter"i#e i+ they are acceptab!e
9CCC-, 1989, p& 46:&
The pro>ect re(iew proce$$ $ho*!) be i#tegrate) with the )e(e!op-
"e#t o+ the pro>ect +ro" the co#cept*a! $tage to the $tart-*p $tage
9CCC-, 1989, p& 46:& 6ig*re 23-46 )epict$ the (ario*$ $tage$ o+ a cap-
ita! pro>ect& The $iKe a#) co"p!e/ity o+ a pro>ect wi!! )eter"i#e i+ the
pro>ect progre$$e$ thro*gh a!! the$e $tage$ a#), i# the $a"e "a##er,
)eter"i#e the #*"ber a#) type o+ re(iew$ that are #ee)e)& The ear-
!ier i# a pro>ect that a re(iew ca# be *$e) to i)e#ti+y re5*ire) cha#ge$,
the !e$$ co$t!y the cha#ge wi!! be to i"p!e"e#t&
'$ the pro>ect progre$$e$, "ore i#+or"atio# i$ a(ai!ab!eA there+ore,
the re(iew tech#i5*e *$e) ca# be )i++ere#t at each $tage o+ the pro>-
ect& The *$e o+ (ario*$ haKar) e(a!*atio# tech#i5*e$, $*ch a$ chec1!i$t
a#a!y$e$, re!ati(e ra#1i#g$, what-i+ a#a!y$e$, a#) haKar) a#) operabi!-
ity $t*)ie$, i$ )oc*"e#te) i# ("i%elines for &a'ar% Eval"ation Proce-
%"res> $econ% E%ition with Eorke% E)amples 9CCC-, 1992:& The
#ee) to *$e "ore 5*a#titati(e tech#i5*e$ +or haKar) e(a!*atio# "ay
be i)e#ti+ie) )*ri#g the$e re(iew$, a#) beco"e a# actio# ite" +or the
pro>ect tea"&
The pro>ect re(iew proce$$ i#(o!(e$ "*!tip!e $tep$ that $ho*!) be
)e+i#e) i# "a#age"e#t g*i)e!i#e$ 9CCC-, 1993, pp& 57O61:& The
$tep$ i#c!*)e2 91: re(iew po!icy, 92: re(iew $che)*!i#g, 93: re(iew
tech- #i5*e, 94: re(iew tea" repre$e#tatio#, 95: re(iew
)oc*"e#tatio#, 96: re(iew +o!!ow-*p, 97: re(iew +o!!ow-*p
(eri+icatio#, a#) 98: re(iew proce)*re$ cha#ge "a#age"e#t& The$e
$tep$ )e+i#e how a re(iew, whether it be a $a+ety re(iew,
e#(iro#"e#ta! re(iew, pre-$tart-*p re(iew, or whate(er, i$
co#)*cte) a#) how c!o$*re o+ re(iew actio# ite"$ i$ achie(e)&
-evie* $oli&" The re(iew po!icy $ho*!) e$tab!i$h whe# pro>ect
$a+ety re(iew$ $ho*!) be )o#e& '!! capita! pro>ect$, !arge or $"a!!,
$ho*!) ha(e o#e or "ore $a+ety re(iew$ )*ri#g the co*r$e o+ the pro>-
ect& The #*"ber a#) type$ o+ re(iew $ho*!) be $tate) i# a "a#age-
"e#t po!icy& '#y rea$o#$ +or e/ceptio#$ to the po!icy $ho*!) be
)oc*"e#te) a$ we!!& The po!icy $ho*!) a))re$$ #ot o#!y pro>ect$
i#ter#a! to a co"pa#y, b*t a!$o a#y >oi#t (e#t*re$ or t*r#1ey pro>ect$
by o*t$i)e +ir"$&
-evie* (&#eduling ' re(iew $che)*!i#g proce)*re $ho*!) be
e$tab!i$he) that )oc*"e#t$ who i$ re$po#$ib!e +or i#itiati#g the re(iew
a#) whe# the re(iew9$: $ho*!) occ*r )*ri#g the pro>ect& The $che)*!-
i#g #ee)$ to ba!a#ce a(ai!abi!ity o+ proce$$ i#+or"atio#, re(iew tech-
#i5*e *$e), a#) the i"pact o+ pote#tia! re(iew actio# ite"$ o# pro>ect
co$t$ 9i&e&, ear!y e#o*gh to "i#i"iKe the co$t o+ a#y pote#tia! cha#ge$
F%G. 2308< The pha$e$ o+ a capita! pro>ect& 9CCP$, @ABA, by permission of !ChE0:
to the proce$$:& The act*a! a"o*#t o+ ti"e #ee)e) +or the re(iew
$ho*!) a!$o be $tate) i# the proce)*re& ;# the ba$i$ o+ the #*"ber o+
pro>ect re(iew$ re5*ire) a#) the e$ti"ate) ti"e #ee)e) +or each
re(iew, the pro>ect co$t e$ti"ate $ho*!) i#c!*)e the co$t +or pro>ect
re(iew$ a$ part o+ the tota! co$t +or the pro>ect&
-evie* Team The pro>ect re(iew $ho*!) be co#)*cte) by a +*#c-
tio#a!!y )i(er$e tea"& The tea" $ho*!) co#$i$t o+ a tea" !ea)er to
orga#iKe a#) !ea) the tea" re(iew, a $cribe or $ecretary to recor) a#)
i$$*e a re(iew $*""ary with actio# ite"$, a#) +*#ctio#a! e/pert$ i#
+ie!)$ re!e(a#t to the pro>ect $*ch a$ $a+ety, e#(iro#"e#ta!, a#) i#)*$-
tria! hygie#e 9CCC-, 1993, p& 58:& The tea" !ea)er $ho*!) be e/peri-
e#ce) i# the *$e o+ the $e!ecte) re(iew tech#i5*e with !ea)er$hip
$1i!!$ a#) #o )irect i#(o!(e"e#t with the pro>ect *#)er re(iew& The
re(iew proce)*re $ho*!) a))re$$ the "i#i"*" re5*ire"e#t$ +or
tea" !ea)er$ a#) tea" "e"ber$& -o"e typica! re5*ire"e#t$ co*!) be
year$ o+ e/perie#ce, e)*catio#a! bac1gro*#), a#) trai#i#g i# the
re(iew tech#i5*e& 3e$po#$ibi!itie$ $ho*!) be c!ear!y )e+i#e) +or i#iti-
ati#g the re(iew, a$$ig#i#g the re(iew tea", recor)i#g the tea" +i#)-
i#g$, a#) "o#itori#g +o!!ow-*p o+ tea" reco""e#)atio#$&
-evie* Te&#niques The re(iew tech#i5*e$ *$e) at the (ario*$
$tage$ o+ a pro>ect $ho*!) be $e!ecte) ba$e) o# the a"o*#t o+ proce$$
i#+or"atio# a#) )etai! a(ai!ab!e& 6ig*re 23-47 )epict$ $o"e typica!
re(iew tech#i5*e$ at the (ario*$ $tage$ o+ a capita! pro>ect& ' )etai!e)
)e$criptio#, i#c!*)i#g the type a#) a"o*#t o+ proce$$ i#+or"atio#
re5*ire), +or each re(iew tech#i5*e ca# be +o*#) i# ("i%elines for
&a'ar% Eval"ation Proce%"res> $econ% E%ition with Eorke% E)am-
ples 9CCC-, 1992:& The proce$$ i#+or"atio# re5*ire) +or the re(iew
$ho*!) be )e+i#e) a#) )oc*"e#te) i# the re(iew g*i)e!i#e$& ,p-to-
)ate a#) acc*rate proce$$ i#+or"atio# i$ e$$e#tia! to co#)*cti#g a $*c-
ce$$+*! re(iew&
-evie* o&umentation The pro>ect re(iew tea" !ea)er ha$ the
*!ti"ate re$po#$ibi!ity +or )oc*"e#ti#g the re$*!t$ o+ the pro>ect
re(iew& Thi$ re$po#$ibi!ity "ay be )e!egate) to a tea" $cribe or $ec-
retary to recor) the re(iew "i#*te$ a#) i$$*e a $*""ary report with
!i$te) actio# ite"$& The actio# ite"$ co*!) a))re$$ e/ceptio#$ to
co"pa#y or i#)*$try $ta#)ar)$ a#) go(er#"e#t reg*!atio#$, re(iew
tea" reco""e#)atio#$ ba$e) o# e/perie#ce a#) 1#ow!e)ge, a#)
+*rther i$$*e$ +or $t*)y that co*!) #ot be re$o!(e) )*ri#g the re(iew
$e$$io#&
The $*""ary report $ho*!) ha(e a $ta#)ar) +or"at a#) co*!) co#-
tai# a $hort pro>ect $cope $*""ary, a !i$ti#g o+ re(iew tea" "e"ber$
by +*#ctio#, a !i$ti#g o+ pro>ect tea" "e"ber$ pre$e#t, a "eeti#g
age#)a or chec1!i$t o+ topic$ re(iewe) by the tea", a#) a !i$t o+ co#-
cer#$ a#) actio# ite"$ +or pro>ect tea" +o!!ow-*p& The )i$trib*tio# !i$t
+or the $*""ary report $ho*!) be e$tab!i$he) a#) i#c!*)e the re(iew
tea", pro>ect tea", a#) a#y per$o##e! o*t$i)e the pro>ect tea" who
ha(e +o!!ow-*p re$po#$ibi!itie$ +or a#y o+ the actio# ite"$& '!$o,
i#c!*)e o# the )i$trib*tio# !i$t a#y appropriate "a#age"e#t per$o#-
#e!, whether they be pro>ect tea" $*per(i$or$, "a#*+act*ri#g "a#-
ager$, or e#gi#eeri#g "a#ager$& The )oc*"e#tatio# +or the re(iew
$ho*!) be archi(e) i# a proce$$ p!a#t +i!e with the appropriate recor)$
rete#tio# ti"e 9e&g&, the !i+e o+ the p!a#t:&
-evie* !ollo*-up '# i"porta#t e!e"e#t 9"aybe the "o$t
i"porta#t: o+ the re(iew proce$$ i$ the +o!!ow-*p to actio# ite"$& The
pro>ect re(iew wi!! re$*!t i# a !i$t o+ pote#tia! co#cer#$ a#) actio#
ite"$, b*t, witho*t +o!!ow-*p, the i$$*e$ wi!! #e(er be re$o!(e) a#)
i"p!e"e#te)& ' per$o#9$: $ho*!) be a$$ig#e) to each actio# ite",
pre+erab!y at the ti"e o+ the pro>ect re(iew& The per$o#9$: a$$ig#e)
$ho*!) ha(e a co"bi#atio# o+ 1#ow!e)ge, re$o*rce$, a#) a*thority to
)o a proper >ob i# +o!!owi#g *p o# the actio# ite"$ 9CCC-, 1993, p&
59:& The tota! actio# ite" !i$t $ho*!) #ot be a$$ig#e) to o#e per$o#,
$i#ce it "ay o(erwhe!" o#e i#)i(i)*a!& Eepe#)i#g o# the #*"ber o+
actio# ite"$ ge#erate), prioritiKi#g the actio# ite" !i$t "ay be he!p-
+*! a#) a re$po#$ibi!ity the re(iew tea" ca# a$$*"e&
F%G. 2308B aKar) e(a!*atio# at (ario*$ pro>ect $tage$& 9CCP$, @AA6, by permission of !ChE0:
Crogre$$ o# the actio# ite"$ $ho*!) be )oc*"e#te) i# perio)ic
progre$$ report$ to the re(iew tea" !ea)er or other$ a$$ig#e) that
+*#ctio#a! re$po#$ibi!ity& %+ #o o#e i$ a$$ig#e) the re$po#$ibi!ity o+
trac1i#g thi$ progre$$, co"p!etio# o+ the actio# !i$t wi!! probab!y be
re!egate) to a !ower priority a#) #ot be )o#e&
Cha#ge$ "a)e to the proce$$ a$ a re$*!t o+ the pro>ect re(iew "ay
re5*ire a $i"i!ar re(iew be+ore i"p!e"e#tatio#, e$pecia!!y i+ the
cha#ge i$ $ig#i+ica#t&
-evie* !ollo*-up Verifi&ation 3e$po#$ibi!ity $ho*!) be
a$$ig#e) to (eri+y that a#y proce$$ cha#ge$ were act*a!!y "a)e i#
the +ie!)& Thi$ (eri+icatio# ca# be )o#e by a re(iew tea" a$ part o+ a
proce$$ pre-$tart-*p re(iew& %t co*!) a!$o be part o+ the pro>ect tea"
"a#age"e#t re$po#$ibi!ity or a$$ig#e) to a partic*!ar +*#ctio#a!
9i&e&, $a+ety a#) !o$$ pre(e#tio#: repre$e#tati(e& The c!o$*re o+ the
re(iew proce$$ i$ co"p!ete o#ce i"p!e"e#tatio# i$ (eri+ie)&
;# rare occa$io#$, the re$o!*tio# o+ pro>ect re(iew co#cer#$ or
actio# ite"$ i$ a poi#t o+ co#te#tio# betwee# re(iew tea" a#) pro>ect
tea" "e"ber$& %# $*ch a ca$e, a "a#age"e#t $tr*ct*re "*$t be i#
p!ace to arbitrate $*ch )i$p*te$&
-evie* $ro&edure C#ange %anagement The pro>ect re(iew
proce$$ ca# re5*ire cha#ge$ i# po!icy a#) proce)*re$ at certai# ti"e$&
There+ore, the proce)*re$ $ho*!) pro(i)e a "a#age"e#t-o+-cha#ge
"echa#i$" +or $*gge$ti#g cha#ge$ a#) a$$ig# a per$o# re$po#$ib!e +or
i#itiati#g a#) i"p!e"e#ti#g a#y #ece$$ary cha#ge$&
Au#it Process '*)it$ i# the che"ica! proce$$ i#)*$try ca# be
+oc*$e) o# proce$$ $a+ety, proce$$ $a+ety "a#age"e#t, e#(iro#"e#-
ta!, a#) hea!th area$& The )i$c*$$io# i# thi$ $ectio# wi!! +oc*$ o# the
proce$$ $a+ety a#) proce$$ $a+ety "a#age"e#t area, b*t it $ho*!) be
recog#iKe) that the proce$$ ca# be app!ie) to the other area$ a$ we!!&
<Croce$$ $a+ety a*)it$ are i#te#)e) to pro(i)e "a#age"e#t with
i#crea$e) a$$*ra#ce that operati#g +aci!itie$ a#) proce$$ *#it$ ha(e
bee# )e$ig#e), co#$tr*cte), operate), a#) "ai#tai#e) $*ch that the
$a+ety a#) hea!th o+ e"p!oyee$, c*$to"er$, co""*#itie$, a#) the
e#(iro#"e#t are bei#g proper!y protecte)= 9CCC-, 1989, p& 133:&
Croce$$ $a+ety "a#age"e#t $y$te" a*)it$ <pro(i)e i#crea$e) a$$*r-
a#ce that operati#g *#it$ ha(e appropriate $y$te"$ i# p!ace to "a#age
proce$$ ri$1= 9CCC-, 1989, p& 130:&
The 1ey $tep$ i# the a*)it proce$$ are o*t!i#e) accor)i#g to pre-
a*)it acti(itie$, a*)it acti(itie$, a#) po$ta*)it acti(itie$ i# 6ig& 23-48&
The$e acti(itie$ are )e$cribe) i# )etai! i# ("i%elines for "%iting
Process $afety Management $ystems 9CC-C, 1993: a#) wi!! be o#!y
brie+!y )i$c*$$e) i# thi$ $ectio#&
$reaudit $ro&ess Crior to the act*a! o#-$ite a*)it, $o"e pre!i"-
i#ary acti(itie$ $ho*!) ta1e p!ace& The$e acti(itie$ i#c!*)e $e!ecti#g
the +aci!itie$ to be a*)ite), $che)*!i#g the a*)it, $e!ecti#g the a*)it
tea", a#) p!a##i#g the a*)it& The $e!ectio# criteria "ay be ra#)o",
ba$e) o# pote#tia! haKar)$ o+ the +aci!itie$ or the (a!*e o+ the
+aci!itie$ +ro" a b*$i#e$$ $ta#)poi#t& '*)it $che)*!i#g "*$t acco*#t
+or the a(ai!abi!ity o+ 1ey +aci!ity per$o##e! a#) a*)it tea" "e"ber$,
opera- tio#a! "o)e o+ the +aci!ity 9i&e&, it $ho*!) be i# #or"a!
operatio#:, a#) the !ea) ti"e re5*ire) to obtai# bac1gro*#)
i#+or"atio# that "ay re5*ire a)(a#ce (i$it$ to the +aci!ity a#)
prea*)it i#ter(iew$& The a*)it tea" "e"ber$ $ho*!) po$$e$$ the
tech#ica! trai#i#g a#) e/pe- rie#ce to *#)er$ta#) the +aci!itie$
bei#g a*)ite)& They $ho*!) be 1#ow!e)geab!e i# the a*)iti#g
proce$$ a#) i# the appropriate reg*!a- tio#$ a#) $ta#)ar)$ that wi!!
app!y to the +aci!itie$& They $ho*!) a!$o be i"partia! a#) ob>ecti(e
abo*t a*)it +i#)i#g$& The a*)it p!a# $ho*!) )e+i#e the a*)it $cope
9what part$ o+ the +aci!ity wi!! be co(- ere), what topic$, who wi!! )o
it, etc&:, )e(e!op a# a*)it protoco! that i$ a $tep-by-$tep g*i)e to
how the a*)it i$ per+or"e), i)e#ti+y a#y priority topic$ +or
co(erage, a#) )e(e!op a# e"p!oyee i#ter(iew $che)*!e&
F%G. 2308D Typica! $tep$ i# the proce$$ $a+ety "a#age"e#t a*)it proce$$& 9CC$P, @AA6, by permission of !ChE0:
'n-(ite Audit $ro&ess '# ope#i#g "eeti#g with 1ey +aci!ity per-
$o##e! i$ he!) at which the a*)it tea" co(er$ the ob>ecti(e$ a#)
approach +or the a*)it, a#) the +aci!ity per$o##e! pro(i)e a# o(er(iew
o+ the $ite operatio#$ i#c!*)i#g $ite $a+ety r*!e$ a#) a $ite to*r& The
o#-$ite a*)it proce$$ $ho*!) the# +o!!ow +i(e ba$ic $tep$ that i#c!*)e2
91: *#)er$ta#)i#g "a#age"e#t $y$te"$, 92: e(a!*ati#g "a#age"e#t
$y$te"$, 93: gatheri#g a*)it i#+or"atio#, 94: e(a!*ati#g a*)it i#+or"a-
tio#, a#) 95: reporti#g a*)it +i#)i#g$ 9CC-C, 1993, p& 17:&
'# *#)er$ta#)i#g o+ the "a#age"e#t $y$te"$ i# p!ace to co#tro!
a#) )irect the proce$$ $a+ety o+ the +aci!ity ca# be obtai#e) +ro" rea)-
i#g e#gi#eeri#g a#) a)"i#i$trati(e $ta#)ar)$, g*i)e!i#e$, a#) proce-
)*re$ that $ho*!) be a(ai!ab!e i# the bac1gro*#) i#+or"atio# $*pp!ie)
prior to the o#-$ite a*)it& %#+or"a! proce)*re$ a#) g*i)e!i#e$ *$e) by
the +aci!ity "ay o#!y be )i$co(ere) i# i#ter(iew$ with $ta++ "a#age-
"e#t a#) operatio#$ "a#age"e#t& Thi$ *#)er$ta#)i#g o+ the +or"a!
a#) i#+or"a! "a#age"e#t $y$te"$ i$ a critica! $tep i# the a*)it proce$$&
The #e/t proce$$ $tep e(a!*ate$ the proce$$ $a+ety "a#age"e#t $y$-
te"$ to )eter"i#e i+ they are a)e5*ate to achie(e the )e$ire) re$*!t$,
a#) i+ they are *$e) a$ i#te#)e)& Thi$ e(a!*atio# i$ high!y $*b>ecti(e
o# the a*)itor?$ part& Thi$ $tep $et$ the $tage +or the re$t o+ the a*)it,
g*i)i#g the a*)itor?$ i#+or"atio# gatheri#g a#) +oc*$i#g atte#tio# o#
critica! area$&
Gatheri#g a*)it )ata ca# be acco"p!i$he) thro*gh ob$er(atio#$,
)oc*"e#t$, a#) i#ter(iew$& The )ata obtai#e) i$ *$e) to (eri+y a#)
(a!i)ate that the proce$$ $a+ety "a#age"e#t $y$te"$ are i"p!e"e#te)
a#) +*#ctio#i#g a$ )e$ig#e)& Eata gatheri#g ca# be ai)e) by the *$e
o+ a*)it $a"p!e$, where a repre$e#tati(e #*"ber o+ ite"$ are a*)ite)
to )raw a co#c!*$io#, a#) by *$i#g $e!+-e(a!*atio# 5*e$tio##aire$&
The a*)it )ata ca# #ow be e(a!*ate), re$*!ti#g i# a*)it +i#)i#g$
9i&e&, co#c!*$io#$ both po$iti(e a#) #egati(e:& The a*)it tea" $ho*!)
co#+ir" that $*++icie#t )ata ha$ bee# co!!ecte) to $*pport each +i#)-
i#g& '))itio#a! )ata "ay #ee) to be gathere) i+ the tea" )eci)e$ a
pre!i"i#ary +i#)i#g #ee)$ to be $tre#gthe#e)& The co#c!*$io#$ )raw#
+ro" the )ata e(a!*atio# $ho*!) be a tea" co#$e#$*$&
The reporti#g $tep o+ the o#-$ite a*)it $ho*!) be p!a##e) to a(oi)
a#y $*rpri$e$ to +aci!ity per$o##e!& 3eporti#g $e$$io#$ $ho*!) be he!)
at the e#) o+ each a*)it )ay to i#+or" +aci!ity per$o##e! o+ the +i#)-
i#g$, c!ear *p a#y "i$*#)er$ta#)i#g$ o+ the )ata, a#) he!p re)irect
the a*)it tea", i+ #ece$$ary& The o#-$ite a*)it $ho*!) e#) with a we!!-
p!a##e) e/it or c!o$eo*t "eeti#g betwee# the a*)it tea" a#) +aci!ity
per$o##e!& '!! the +i#)i#g$ o+ the a*)it tea" $ho*!) be pre$e#te) at
thi$ "eeti#g& Thi$ (erba! report i$ the opport*#ity +or c!ari+icatio# o+
a#y a"big*itie$ a#) )eter"i#atio# o+ the +i#a! )i$po$itio# o+ the +i#)-
i#g$ 9writte# a*)it report, +or !oca! atte#tio# o#!y, etc&:&
$ostaudit $ro&ess The po$ta*)it proce$$ co#$i$t$ o+ preparatio#
o+ a )ra+t report, preparatio# o+ a +i#a! report, )e(e!op"e#t o+ actio#
p!a#$, a#) +o!!ow-*p& ' )ra+t report o+ the a*)it +i#)i#g$ $ho*!) be
prepare) $hort!y a+ter the co"p!etio# o+ the o#-$ite a*)it& The )ra+t
report *$*a!!y *#)ergoe$ re(iew a#) co""e#t by +aci!ity per$o##e!
i#(o!(e) with the a*)it, e/perie#ce) a*)itor$ #ot i#(o!(e) with the
$*b>ect a*)it, +*#ctio#a! $pecia!i$t$, a#) attor#ey$& The re(iew o+ the
)ra+t report i$ )o#e to a$$*re that a c!ear, co#ci$e, a#) acc*rate report
i$ i$$*e), a#) #ot to "o)i+y or cha#ge the +i#)i#g$& ;#ce thi$ re(iew
proce)*re i$ co"p!ete), a +i#a! report ca# be i$$*e) a#) )i$trib*te)
ba$e) o# a )i$trib*tio# !i$t pro(i)e) by the +aci!ity per$o##e!& The
+i#a! a*)it report $ho*!) be i$$*e) i# a ti"e!y "a##er a#) "eet the
ti"e re5*ire"e#t $peci+ie) i# the a*)it p!a#&
'# actio# p!a# $ho*!) be )e(e!ope) by the appropriate per$o##e! o+
the a*)ite) +aci!ity to a))re$$ a#y )e+icie#cie$ $tate) i# the a*)it report&
'ctio# p!a#$ $ho*!) $tate what i$ to be )o#e, who i$ re$po#$ib!e +or get-
ti#g it )o#e, a#) whe# it i$ to be co"p!ete)& 3atio#a!e +or #ot ta1i#g a#y
actio# +or a#y o+ the $tate) )e+icie#cie$ $ho*!) a!$o be )oc*"e#te)& The
actio# p!a# i$ a# i"porta#t $tep i# c!o$i#g the a*)it proce$$&
%t wo*!) #ot be *#*$*a! +or $o"e actio# p!a#$ to ta1e a !o#g ti"e
to co"p!ete& 4he# e/te#)e) i"p!e"e#tatio# ti"e i$ #ece$$ary, a +o!-
!ow-*p "echa#i$" $ho*!) be *$e) to )oc*"e#t progre$$ a#) $how
that a# e++ort i$ bei#g "a)e to re$o!(e the i$$*e$& Cerio)ic 9i&e&, 5*ar-
ter!y, $e"ia##*a!!y: progre$$ report$ $ho*!) be *$e) a$ a +o!!ow-*p
"etho) to e#$*re i"p!e"e#tatio#& 6*t*re a*)it$ o+ the +aci!ity $ho*!)
i#c!*)e co#+ir"atio# o+ the i"p!e"e#tatio# o+ pre(io*$ a*)it actio#
p!a#$&
The +i#a! a*)it report, actio# p!a#$, progre$$ report$, a#) a#y c!o-
$*re report $ho*!) be retai#e) by the +aci!ity ba$e) o# the +aci!ity
recor) rete#tio# po!icy& Typica!!y, the$e ite"$ wi!! be retai#e) *#ti!
+*t*re a*)it )oc*"e#tatio# rep!ace$ the"& %# $o"e ca$e$, a*)it
recor)$ are retai#e) +or the !i+e o+ the p!a#t&
SAF)2 64%P!3), P&.CSS DS%G3, A3D .P&A)%.3
P&SS4& &L%F S2S)!S
G3&AL &F&3CS7 Ce#ter +or Che"ica! Croce$$ -a+ety 9CCC-:, ("i%e-
lines for Press"re 4elief an% Effl"ent &an%ling $ystems, '"erica# %#$tit*te o+
Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, Gew @or1, 1998& E%.3- Cro>ect Ma#*a!, Emergency
4elief $ystem 3esign Using 3!E4$ Technology, '"erica# %#$tit*te o+ Che"ica!
.#gi#eer$, Gew @or1, 1992& Fe*#g, <-i"p!i+ie) De#t -iKi#g .5*atio#$ +or
."erge#cy 3e!ie+ 3e5*ire"e#t$ i# 3eactor$ a#) -torage De$$e!$,= !ChE J0
69910:, pp& 1622O1634 91986a:& Fe*#g, <' Ge#era!iKe) Corre!atio# +or ;#e-
Co"po#e#t o"oge#eo*$ .5*i!ibri*" 6!a$hi#g Cho1e) 6!ow,= !ChE J0
69910:, pp& 1743O1746 91986b:& Fe*#g, <.a$i!y -iKe 3e!ie+ Ee(ice$ a#) Cipi#g
+or Two-Cha$e 6!ow,= Chem0 Eng0 Prog0 A9912:, pp& 28O50 91996:& -ee "ore re+-
ere#ce$ *#)er Co)e, -ta#)ar)$, a#) G*i)e!i#e$ $*b$ectio#&
%ntro#uction '!! proce$$ )e$ig#$ $ho*!) atte"pt to arri(e at a#
i#here#t!y $a+e +aci!ity& %#corporati#g $a+ety +eat*re$ that are i#tri#$ic
9b*i!t-i#: rather tha# e/tri#$ic 9a))e)-o#: to the ba$ic )e$ig#, together
with the *$e o+ high-i#tegrity e5*ip"e#t a#) pipi#g, pro(i)e$ the +ir$t
!i#e$ o+ )e+e#$e agai#$t the )ra"atic, o+te# cata$trophic e++ect$ o+ a#
o(erpre$$*re a#) $*b$e5*e#t r*pt*re& %# rece#t year$, "a#y co"pa-
#ie$ ha(e i#corporate) the pri#cip!e$ o+ )epre$$*riKi#g or i#$tr*"e#-
ta! $h*t)ow# o+ 1ey e5*ip"e#t a$ a "ea#$ to co#tro! a re!ea$e a#)
a(oi) the act*atio# o+ pre$$*re re!ie+ )e(ice$& Thi$ "i#i"iKe$ the
probabi!ity o+ +ai!*re o+ the )e(ice, beca*$e, o#ce *$e), the )e(ice
"ay #o !o#ger be )epe#)ab!e& -i#ce "ai#te#a#ce o+ re!ie+ )e(ice$ ca#
be $pora)ic, thi$ re)*#)a#cy pro(i)e$ yet a#other !ayer o+ $a+ety&
owe(er, regar)!e$$ o+ the #*"ber o+ !i#e$ o+ )e+e#$e a#) )epre$$*r-
iKi#g $y$te"$ i# p!ace, o(erpre$$*re protectio# "*$t $ti!! be pro(i)e)&
."erge#cy pre$$*re re!ie+ $y$te"$ are i#te#)e) to pro(i)e the !a$t
!i#e o+ protectio# a#) th*$ "*$t be )e$ig#e) +or high re!iabi!ity, e(e#
tho*gh they wi!! ha(e to +*#ctio# i#+re5*e#t!y&
-e!+-act*ate) pre$$*re re!ie+ $y$te"$ "*$t be )e$ig#e) to !i"it the
pre$$*re ri$e that ca# occ*r a$ a re$*!t o+ o(erco"pre$$i#g, o(er+i!!i#g,
or o(erheati#g either a# i#ert or a che"ica!!y reacti(e "e)i*" i# a
c!o$e) $y$te"& Cre$$*re ge#eratio# i$ *$*a!!y the re$*!t o+ either
e/pa#$io# o+ a $i#g!e-pha$e "e)i*" 9by "ateria! a))itio# a#)Jor
heati#g: or a $hi+t o+ the pha$e e5*i!ibri*" i# a "*!tipha$e "e)i*"
9a$ a re$*!t o+ co"po$itio# a#)Jor te"perat*re cha#ge$, partic*!ar!y i#
the ca$e o+ a reacti(e $y$te":& The$e "echa#i$"$ o+ pre$$*re ge#era-
tio# )i++er +ro" what i$ co""o#!y re+erre) to a$ e/p!o$io# (e#ti#g&
.(e#t$ $*ch a$ )*$t e/p!o$io#$ a#) +!a""ab!e (apor )e+!agratio#$
propagate #o#*#i+or"!y +ro" a poi#t o+ i#itiatio#, ge#erati#g pre$-
$*re or $hoc1 wa(e$& -*ch (e#ti#g prob!e"$ are #ot i#c!*)e) i# the$e
)i$c*$$io#$&
&elief Syste/ )er/inolo$y 3e+er to 'C%-3C520 Cart % +or
co"p!ete ter"i#o!ogy&
A&&umulation The ri$e o+ pre$$*re abo(e the M'4C o+ the pro-
tecte) $y$te", *$*a!!y e/pre$$e) a$ a perce#tage o+ the ga*ge M'4C&
Ma/i"*" a!!owab!e acc*"*!atio#$ are e$tab!i$he) by app!icab!e
co)e$ +or e"erge#cy operati#g a#) +ire co#ti#ge#cie$&
Ba&)pressure The pre$$*re e/i$ti#g at the o*t!et o+ a re!ie+
)e(ice& The (a!*e *#)er #o-+!ow co#)itio#$ i$ $*peri"po$e) bac1-
pre$$*re& The (a!*e *#)er +!owi#g co#)itio#$ co#$i$t$ o+ both
SAF)2 64%P!3), P&.CSS DS%G3, A3D .P&A)%.3 230B9
$*peri"po$e) bac1pre$$*re a#) b*i!t-*p pre$$*re )*e to pipi#g
pre$$*re )rop&
Blo*do*n The re)*ctio# i# +!owi#g pre$$*re be!ow the $et poi#t
re5*ire) +or a C3D to c!o$e&
esign pressure The )e$ig# pre$$*re *$e) to )eter"i#e the
"i#i"*" thic1#e$$ o+ a (e$$e! co"po#e#t a#) po$$ib!y *$e) i# p!ace
o+ M'4C where the !atter ha$ #ot bee# e$tab!i$he)& %t i$ e5*a! to or
!e$$ tha# the M'4C& %t i$ the pre$$*re $peci+ie) o# the e5*ip"e#t
p*rcha$e or)er&
%aximum allo*able *or)ing pressure (%A4$) The "a/i-
"*" a!!owe) pre$$*re at the top o+ the (e$$e! i# it$ #or"a! operati#g
po$itio# at the operati#g te"perat*re $peci+ie) +or that pre$$*re&
'verpressure ' pre$$*re i#crea$e abo(e the $et poi#t )*ri#g
re!ie+ +!ow, *$*a!!y e/pre$$e) a$ a perce#tage o+ the )i++ere#tia! $et
pre$$*re&
$ressure relief valve ($-V) ' pre$$*re re!ie+ )e(ice )e$ig#e) to
ope# a#) re!ie(e e/ce$$ pre$$*re a#) to rec!o$e a+ter #or"a! co#)i-
tio#$ ha(e bee# re$tore)& P4* i$ a ge#eric ter" app!ie) to relief valve
9$et *p +or !i5*i) +!ow:, safety valve 9$et *p +or ga$ or (apor +!ow:, a#)
safety relief valve 9$et *p +or either !i5*i) or co"pre$$ib!e +!ow:&
-elieving pressure -et pre$$*re p!*$ the o(erpre$$*re&
-upture dis) ' #o#-rec!o$i#g pre$$*re re!ie+ )e(ice act*ate) by
$tatic )i++ere#tia! pre$$*re a#) )e$ig#e) to +*#ctio# by the b*r$ti#g o+
a pre$$*re-co#tai#i#g )i$1&
(et pressure The i#!et ga*ge pre$$*re at which a C3D wi!! $tart
to ope# 9or a r*pt*re )i$1 wi!! b*r$t: *#)er $er(ice co#)itio#$ o+ te"-
perat*re a#) bac1pre$$*re&
Co#es, Stan#ar#s, an# Gui#elines %#)*$try practice i$ to co#-
+or" to the app!icab!e reg*!atio#$, co)e$, a#) reco""e#)e) practice$&
%# "a#y ca$e$, the$e wi!! pro(i)e )i++ere#t g*i)e!i#e$& ' $*gge$te)
approach wo*!) be to re(iew a!! app!icab!e co)e$, $ta#)ar)$, a#) rec-
o""e#)e) practice$ prior to choo$i#g a )e$ig# ba$i$& The Ee$ig#
%#$tit*te +or ."erge#cy 3e!ie+ -y$te"$ 9E%.3-: wa$ e$tab!i$he) by
'%Ch. to a))re$$ $iKi#g a$pect$ o+ re!ie+ $y$te" +or two-pha$e,
(apor-!i5*i) +!a$hi#g +!ow regi"e$& The E%.3- Cro>ect Ma#*a!
9Emergency 4elief $ystem 3esign Using 3!E4$ Technology, 1982:
a#) the CCC- G*i)e!i#e$ 9("i%elines for Press"re 4elief an% Effl"-
ent &an%ling $ystems, 1998: are the ge#era!!y accepte) i#)*$try
$ta#)ar) +or two-pha$e re!ie+ (e#ti#g&
G6C' 30 a#) 'C% -ta#)ar) 2000 pro(i)e g*i)a#ce +or )e$ig# o+
o(erpre$$*re protectio# i#(o!(i#g $torage ta#1$ that operate at or
#ear at"o$pheric pre$$*re& %# partic*!ar, G6C' 30 +oc*$e$ o# +!a"-
"abi!ity i$$*e$, whi!e 'C% 2000 a))re$$e$ both pre$$*re a#) (ac**"
re5*ire"e#t$& The '-M. co)e 9-ectio#$ % a#) D%%%: a#) 'C% 3C 520
are the pri"ary re+ere#ce$ +or pre$$*re re!ie+ )e(ice $iKi#g re5*ire-
"e#t$&
Ee$ig#er$ o+ e"erge#cy pre$$*re re!ie+ $y$te"$ $ho*!) be +a"i!iar
with the +o!!owi#g !i$t o+ reg*!atio#$, co)e$ o+ practice, a#) i#)*$try
$ta#)ar)$ a#) g*i)e!i#e$ i# the ,#ite) -tate$&
'C% 3C 520& $i'ing, $election, an% !nstallation of Press"re-4elieving
3evices in 4efineries& Cart %, $i'ing an% $election, 7th e)&, La#*ary
2000, a#) Cart %%, !nstallation, 4th e)&, Eece"ber 1994& '"erica#
Cetro!e*" %#$tit*te, 4a$hi#gto#&
'C% 3C 521, 1997& ("i%e for Press"re-4elieving an% 3epress"ring
$ystems, 4th e)& '"erica# Cetro!e*" %#$tit*te, 4a$hi#gto#&
'C% -TE 526, 1995& Flange% $teel Press"re 4elief *alves, 4th e)&
'"erica# Cetro!e*" %#$tit*te, 4a$hi#gto#&
'C% -TE 2000, 1998& *enting tmospheric an% ,ow-Press"re $tor-
age Tanks, /onrefrigerate% an% 4efrigerate%, 5th e)& '"erica#
Cetro!e*" %#$tit*te, 4a$hi#gto#&
'C% 3C 2001, 1984& Fire Protection in 4efineries& '"erica# Cetro-
!e*" %#$tit*te, 4a$hi#gto#&
'-M., 2001& +oiler an% Press"re *essel Co%e, -ectio# %, Power
+oilers, a#) -ectio# D%%%, Press"re *essels0 '"erica# -ociety o+
Mecha#ica! .#gi#eer$, Gew @or1&
'-M., 1988& Performance Test Co%e PTC-98, $afety an% 4elief
*alves& '"erica# -ociety o+ Mecha#ica! .#gi#eer$, Gew @or1&
CCC-, 1993& Engineering 3esign for Process $afety& '"erica#
%#$tit*te o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, Gew @or1&
CCC-, 1998& ("i%elines for Press"re 4elief an% Effl"ent &an%ling
$ystems, '"erica# %#$tit*te o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, Gew @or1&
E%.3-, 1992& Emergency 4elief $ystem 3esign Using 3!E4$
Technology, E%.3- Cro>ect Ma#*a!& '"erica# %#$tit*te o+
Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, Gew @or1&
Gatio#a! 0oar) o+ 0oi!er a#) Cre$$*re De$$e! %#$pector$, 2004&
Press"re 4elieving 3evice Certifications #4e% +ook /+-@B.&
Gatio#a! 0oar) o+ 0oi!er a#) Cre$$*re De$$e! %#$pector$, Co!*"-
b*$, ;hio&
G6C' 30, 2000& Flammable an% Comb"stible ,i-"i%s Co%e&
Gatio#a! 6ire Crotectio# '$$ociatio#, H*i#cy, Ma$$&
;-' 1910&106, 2005, Flammable an% Comb"stible ,i-"i%s,
4eg"lations #$tan%ar%s<9A CF4.0 ,&-& Eept& o+ Fabor, ;cc*-
patio#a! -a+ety a#) ea!th ')"i#i$tratio#, 4a$hi#gto#&
&elief Desi$n Scenarios The "o$t )i++ic*!t part o+ )e$ig#i#g a#
a)e5*ate e"erge#cy pre$$*re re!ie+ $y$te" !ie$ i# )eter"i#i#g the
e"erge#cy e(e#t$ 9cre)ib!e )e$ig# $ce#ario$: +or which to )e$ig#& The
)i++ic*!ty ari$e$ pri"ari!y beca*$e the i)e#ti+icatio# o+ cre)ib!e )e$ig#
$ce#ario$ *$*a!!y i#(o!(e$ high!y $*b>ecti(e >*)g"e#t$, which are
o+te# i#+!*e#ce) by eco#o"ic $it*atio#$& ,#+ort*#ate!y, there e/i$t$
#o *#i(er$a!!y accepte) !i$t o+ cre)ib!e )e$ig# $ce#ario$& 3e!ie+ $y$-
te"$ "*$t be )e$ig#e) +or the cre)ib!e chai# o+ e(e#t$ that re$*!t$ i#
the "o$t $e(ere (e#ti#g re5*ire"e#t$ 9wor$t cre)ib!e $ce#ario:&
Cre)ibi!ity i$ >*)ge) pri"ari!y by the #*"ber a#) the ti"e +ra"e o+
ca*$ati(e +ai!*re$ re5*ire) to ge#erate the po$t*!ate) e"erge#cy&
;#!y tota!!y i#)epe#)e#t e5*ip"e#t or h*"a# +ai!*re$ $ho*!) be co#-
$i)ere) whe# >*)gi#g cre)ibi!ity& ' +ai!*re re$*!ti#g +ro" a#other +ai!-
*re i$ a# e++ect, rather tha# a# i#)epe#)e#t ca*$ati(e +actor& '
$*gge$te) g*i)e!i#e +or a$$e$$i#g cre)ibi!ity a$ a +*#ctio# o+ the #*"-
ber a#) ti"e +ra"e$ o+ i#)epe#)e#t ca*$ati(e e(e#t$ i$ a$ +o!!ow$2
M '#y $i#g!e +ai!*re i$ cre%ible0
M Two or "ore $i"*!ta#eo*$ +ai!*re$ are not cre%ible&
M Two e(e#t$ i# $e5*e#ce are cre%ible&
M Three or "ore e(e#t$ i# $e5*e#ce are not cre%ible&
The +ir$t $tep i# $ce#ario $e!ectio# i$ to i)e#ti+y a!! the cre)ib!e
e"erge#cie$ by *$i#g the prece)i#g g*i)e!i#e$ 9or a $i"i!ar $et:& Thi$
i$ perhap$ be$t acco"p!i$he) by i)e#ti+yi#g a!! the po$$ib!e $o*rce$ o+
pre$$*re a#) (ac**"& Tab!e 23-27 !i$t$ a #*"ber o+ co""o#!y e/i$t-
i#g pre$$*re a#) (ac**" $o*rce$&
!ire The "ai# co#$e5*e#ce o+ +ire e/po$*re i$ heat i#p*t ca*$-
i#g ther"a! e/pa#$io#, (aporiKatio#, or ther"a!!y i#)*ce) r*#away
reactio# a#) )eco"po$itio# re$*!ti#g i# a pre$$*re ri$e& '# a))itio#a!
re$*!t o+ +ire e/po$*re i$ the po$$ibi!ity o+ o(erheati#g the wa!! o+ the
e5*ip"e#t i# the (apor $pace where the wa!! i$ #ot coo!e) by the !i5-
*i)& %# thi$ ca$e, the (e$$e! wa!! "ay +ai! )*e to the high te"perat*re,
e(e# tho*gh the re!ie+ $y$te" i$ operati#g& e#ce 'C% 3C-521 rec-
o""e#)$ (apor )epre$$*riKi#g +aci!itie$ +or high-pre$$*re $er(ice$
9greater tha# 17 bar or 250 p$ig:& G*i)e!i#e$ +or e$ti"ati#g the heat
i#p*t +ro" a +ire are +o*#) i# 'C% 3eco""e#)e) Cractice$, G6C' 30
9+or b*!1 $torage ta#1$:, ;-' 1910&106, a#) corporate e#gi#eeri#g
$ta#)ar)$& %# )eter"i#i#g the heat i#p*t +ro" +ire e/po$*re, G6C'
a!!ow$ cre)it +or app!icatio# o+ water $pray to a (e$$e!A 'C% a!!ow$ #o
$*ch cre)it&
Cre$$*re (e$$e!$ 9i#c!*)i#g heat e/cha#ger$ a#) air coo!er$: i# a
p!a#t ha#)!i#g +!a""ab!e +!*i)$ are $*b>ect to pote#tia! e/po$*re to
e/ter#a! +ire& ' (e$$e! or gro*p o+ (e$$e!$ which co*!) be e/po$e) to a
)ABL 2302B Co//on Sources of Pressure an# ;acuu/
eat 3e!ate)
M 6ire
M ;*t-o+-co#tro! heater$ a#) coo!er$
M '"bie#t te"perat*re cha#ge$
M 3*#away che"ica! reactio#$
.5*ip"e#t a#) -y$te"$
M C*"p$ a#) co"pre$$or$
M eater$ a#) coo!er$
M DaporiKer$ a#) co#)e#$er$
M De#t "a#i+o!) i#terco##ectio#$
M ,ti!ity hea)er$ 9$tea", air, water, etc&:
Chy$ica! Cha#ge$
M Ga$ ab$orptio# 9e&g&, C! i# water:
M Ther"a! e/pa#$io#
M Dapor co#)e#$atio#
poo! +ire "*$t be protecte) by pre$$*re re!ie+ )e(ice9$:& '))itio#a!
protectio# to re)*ce the )e(ice re!ie+ !oa) ca# be pro(i)e) by i#$*!a-
tio#, water $pray, )rai#age, or re"ote-co#tro!!e) )epre$$*riKi#g
)e(ice$& C!a#t !ayo*t $ho*!) co#$i)er $paci#g re5*ire"e#t$, $*ch a$
tho$e $et +orth by G6C', 'C%, %#)*$tria! 3i$1 %#$*rer$, or 6actory
M*t*a!, a#) "*$t i#c!*)e acce$$ibi!ity +or +ire+ighti#g per$o##e! a#)
e5*ip"e#t& -e(era! piece$ o+ e5*ip"e#t !ocate) a)>ace#t to each
other that ca##ot be i$o!ate) by $h*to++ (a!(e$ ca# be protecte) by a
co""o# re!ie+ )e(ice, pro(i)i#g the i#terco##ecti#g pipi#g i$ !arge
e#o*gh to ha#)!e the re5*ire) re!ie+ !oa) a#) the re!ie+ $et pre$$*re i$
#o higher tha# the "i#i"*" M'4C o+ the$e piece$ o+ e5*ip"e#t&
'perational !ailures ' #*"ber o+ $ce#ario$ o+ (ario*$ opera-
tio#a! +ai!*re$ "ay re$*!t i# the ge#eratio# o+ o(erpre$$*re co#)itio#$2
M +locke% o"tlet ;peratio# or "ai#te#a#ce error$ 9e$pecia!!y +o!-
!owi#g a p!a#t t*r#aro*#): ca# b!oc1 the o*t!et o+ a !i5*i) or (apor
$trea" +ro" a piece o+ proce$$ e5*ip"e#t, re$*!ti#g i# a# o(er-
pre$$*re co#)itio#&
M Cpening a man"al valve Ma#*a! (a!(e$ which are #or"a!!y c!o$e)
to i$o!ate two or "ore piece$ o+ e5*ip"e#t or proce$$ $trea"$ ca#
be i#a)(erte#t!y ope#e), ca*$i#g the re!ea$e o+ a high-pre$$*re
$trea" or re$*!ti#g i# (ac**" co#)itio#$&
M Cooling water fail"re The !o$$ o+ coo!i#g water i$ o#e o+ the
"ore co""o#!y e#co*#tere) ca*$e$ o+ o(erpre$$*riKatio#&
Ei++ere#t $ce- #ario$ $ho*!) be co#$i)ere) +or thi$ e(e#t,
)epe#)i#g o# whether the +ai!*re a++ect$ a $i#g!e piece o+
e5*ip"e#t 9or proce$$ *#it: or i$ p!a#twi)e&
M Power fail"re The !o$$ o+ power wi!! $h*t )ow# a!! "otor-)ri(e#
rotati#g e5*ip"e#t, i#c!*)i#g p*"p$, co"pre$$or$, air coo!er$, a#)
(e$$e! agitator$&
M !nstr"ment air fail"re The co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ the !o$$ o+ i#$tr*"e#t
air $ho*!) be e(a!*ate) i# co#>*#ctio# with the +ai!*re "o)e o+ the
co#tro! (a!(e act*ator$& %t $ho*!) #ot be a$$*"e) that the correct air
+ai!*re re$po#$e wi!! occ*r o# the$e co#tro! (a!(e$, a$ $o"e (a!(e$
"ay $tic1 i# their !a$t operati#g po$itio#&
M Thermal e)pansion .5*ip"e#t a#) pipe!i#e$ that are !i5*i)-+*!!
*#)er #or"a! operati#g co#)itio#$ are $*b>ect to hy)ra*!ic e/pa#-
$io# i+ the te"perat*re i#crea$e$& Co""o# $o*rce$ o+ heat that ca#
re$*!t i# high pre$$*re$ )*e to ther"a! e/pa#$io# i#c!*)e $o!ar ra)i-
atio#, $tea" or other heate) traci#g, heati#g coi!$, a#) heat tra#$+er
+ro" other piece$ o+ e5*ip"e#t&
M *ac""m Dac**" co#)itio#$ i# proce$$ e5*ip"e#t ca# )e(e!op
)*e to a wi)e (ariety o+ $it*atio#$, i#c!*)i#g i#$tr*"e#t "a!+*#c-
tio#, )rai#i#g or re"o(i#g !i5*i) with (e#ti#g, $h*tti#g o++ p*rge
$tea" witho*t pre$$*riKi#g with #o#co#)e#$ab!e (apor$, e/tre"e
co!) a"bie#t te"perat*re$ re$*!ti#g i# $*bat"o$pheric (apor pre$-
$*re$, a#) water a))itio# to (e$$e!$ that ha(e bee# $tea"-p*rge)& %+
(ac**" co#)itio#$ ca# )e(e!op, the# either the e5*ip"e#t "*$t be
)e$ig#e) +or (ac**" co#)itio#$ or a (ac**" re!ie+ $y$te" "*$t be
i#$ta!!e)&
Equipment !ailure Mo$t e5*ip"e#t +ai!*re$ that ca# !ea) to
o(erpre$$*re $it*atio#$ i#(o!(e the r*pt*re or brea1 o+ i#ter#a! t*be$
i#$i)e heat e/cha#ger$ a#) other (e$$e!$ a#) the +ai!*re o+ (a!(e$ a#)
reg*!ator$& eat e/cha#ger$ a#) other (e$$e!$ $ho*!) be protecte)
with a re!ie+ $y$te" o+ $*++icie#t capacity to a(oi) o(erpre$$*re i# ca$e
o+ i#ter#a! +ai!*re& 'C% 3C 521 pre$e#t$ g*i)a#ce i# )eter"i#i#g
the$e re5*ire"e#t$, i#c!*)i#g criteria +or )eci)i#g whe# a +*!! t*be
r*pt*re i$ !i1e!y& %# ca$e$ i#(o!(i#g the +ai!*re o+ co#tro! (a!(e$
a#) reg*!ator$, it i$ i"porta#t to e(a!*ate both the +ai!-ope# a#)
+ai!- c!o$e) po$itio#$&
-una*a" -ea&tions 3*#away te"perat*re a#) pre$$*re i#
proce$$ (e$$e!$ ca# occ*r a$ a re$*!t o+ "a#y +actor$, i#c!*)i#g !o$$ o+
coo!i#g, +ee) or 5*e#ch +ai!*re, e/ce$$i(e +ee) rate$ or te"perat*re$,
co#ta"i#a#t$, cata!y$t prob!e"$, a#) agitatio# +ai!*re& ;+ "a>or co#-
cer# i$ the high rate o+ e#ergy re!ea$e i# r*#away reactio#$ a#)Jor
+or"atio# o+ ga$eo*$ pro)*ct$, which ge#era!!y ca*$e a rapi) pre$$*re
ri$e i# the e5*ip"e#t& To proper!y a$$e$$ the$e e++ect$, the reactio#
1i#etic$ "*$t be either 1#ow# or obtai#e) e/peri"e#ta!!y 9$ee <3eac-
ti(ity Te$ti#g= i# the ear!ier <Che"ica! 3eacti(ity= $*b$ectio# +or a
)e$criptio# o+ a)iabatic ca!ori"eter$ +or r*#away reactio#$:& %# ge#-
era!, a !ower re!ie+ $et pre$$*re 9"*ch be!ow the e5*ip"e#t M'4C:
i$ )e$irab!e +or the$e r*#away reactio# $y$te"$ i# or)er to re!ie(e the
)ABL 2302D Su//ary of De*ice Characteristics
3ec!o$i#g )e(ice$
Go#rec!o$i#g
)e(ice$
3e!ie+
(a!(e$
Ei$1-(a!(e
co"bi#atio#$ 3*pt*re )i$1$
6!*i) abo(e #or"a! boi!i#g poi#t
To/ic +!*i)$
Corro$i(e +!*i)$
Co$t
Mi#i"*" pipe $iKe
Te$ti#g a#) "ai#te#a#ce
4o#?t +atig*e a#) +ai! !ow
;pe#$ 5*ic1!y a#) +*!!y
Y
Y
X
X
X
X
Y
X
Y
Y
Y
X
X
X
Y
X
X
X
Y
Y
Y
Y
X
Y
G;T.2 Y i#)icate$ a)(a#tageo*$
O i#)icate$ )i$a)(a#tageo*$
$y$te" at a !ower reactio# rate, $i#ce "o$t reactio#$ are 'rrhe#i*$ i#
beha(ior&
Pressure &elief De*ices The "o$t co""o# "etho) o+ o(er-
pre$$*re protectio# i$ thro*gh the *$e o+ $a+ety re!ie+ (a!(e$ a#)Jor
r*pt*re )i$1$ which )i$charge i#to a co#tai#"e#t (e$$e!, a )i$po$a!
$y$te", or )irect!y to the at"o$phere& Tab!e 23-28 $*""ariKe$ $o"e
o+ the )e(ice characteri$tic$ a#) the a)(a#tage$&
(afet" -elief Valves ((-Vs) Co#(e#tio#a! $a+ety re!ie+ (a!(e$
are *$e) i# $y$te"$ where b*i!t-*p bac1pre$$*re$ typica!!y )o #ot
e/cee) 10 perce#t o+ the $et pre$$*re& The $pri#g $etti#g o+ the (a!(e
i$ re)*ce) by the a"o*#t o+ $*peri"po$e) bac1pre$$*re e/pecte)&
igher b*i!t-*p bac1pre$$*re$ ca# re$*!t i# a co"p!ete !o$$ o+ co#ti#-
*o*$ (a!(e re!ie+ capacity& The )e$ig#er "*$t e/a"i#e the e++ect$ o+
other re!ie(i#g )e(ice$ co##ecte) to a co""o# hea)er o# the per+or-
"a#ce o+ each (a!(e& -o"e "echa#ica! co#$i)eratio#$ o+ co#(e#tio#a!
re!ie+ (a!(e$ are pre$e#te) i# the '-M. co)eA howe(er, the "a#*+ac-
t*rer $ho*!) be co#$*!te) +or $peci+ic )etai!$&
0a!a#ce) $a+ety re!ie+ (a!(e$ "ay be *$e) i# $y$te"$ where b*i!t-*p
a#)Jor $*peri"po$e) bac1pre$$*re i$ high or (ariab!e& %# ge#era!, the
capacity o+ a ba!a#ce) (a!(e i$ #ot $ig#i+ica#t!y a++ecte) by bac1pre$-
$*re$ be!ow 30 perce#t o+ the $et pre$$*re& Mo$t "a#*+act*rer$ rec-
o""e#) 1eepi#g the bac1pre$$*re o# ba!a#ce) (a!(e$ be!ow 45 to 50
perce#t o+ the $et pre$$*re& Co#$*!t 'C%-526 a#) (a!(e "a#*+act*rer$
+or the "a/i"*" o*t!et pre$$*re !i"it +or be!!ow$-type -3D$&
6or both co#(e#tio#a! a#) ba!a#ce) -3D$, the i#!et pre$$*re
!o$$, i#c!*)i#g the "o*#ti#g #oKK!e e#tra#ce !o$$, r*pt*re )i$1 +!ow
re$i$ta#ce, a#) i#!et pipe +rictio#, i$ reco""e#)e) to $tay be!ow 3
perce#t o+ the )i++ere#tia! $et pre$$*re, or e!$e (a!(e i#$tabi!ity "ay
occ*r, re$*!ti#g i# )egra)e) re!ie+ capacity&
$ilot-'perated -elief Valves %# a pi!ot-operate) re!ie+ (a!(e,
the "ai# (a!(e i$ co"bi#e) with a#) co#tro!!e) by a $"a!!er, $e!+-act*-
ati#g pre$$*re re!ie+ (a!(e& The pi!ot i$ a $pri#g-!oa)e) (a!(e that
$e#$e$ the proce$$ pre$$*re a#) ope#$ the "ai# (a!(e by !oweri#g the
pre$$*re o# the top o+ a# *#ba!a#ce) pi$to#, )iaphrag", or be!!ow$ o+
the "ai# (a!(e& ;#ce the proce$$ pre$$*re i$ !owere) to the b!ow)ow#
pre$$*re, the pi!ot c!o$e$ the "ai# (a!(e by per"itti#g the pre$$*re i#
the top o+ the "ai# (a!(e to i#crea$e& Ci!ot-operate) re!ie+ (a!(e$ are
co""o#!y *$e) i# c!ea#, !ow-pre$$*re $er(ice$ a#) i# $er(ice$ where
a !arge re!ie(i#g area at high $et pre$$*re$ i$ re5*ire)& The $et pre$-
$*re o+ thi$ type o+ (a!(e ca# be c!o$e to the operati#g pre$$*re& Ci!ot-
operate) (a!(e$ are +re5*e#t!y cho$e# whe# operati#g pre$$*re$ are
withi# 5 perce#t o+ $et pre$$*re$ a#) a c!o$e to!era#ce (a!(e i$
re5*ire)&
-upture is)s ' r*pt*re )i$1 i$ a #o#-rec!o$i#g )e(ice )e$ig#e)
to +*#ctio# by the b*r$ti#g o+ a pre$$*re-retai#i#g )i$1& Thi$ a$$e"b!y
co#$i$t$ o+ a thi#, circ*!ar "e"bra#e *$*a!!y "a)e o+ "eta!, p!a$tic, or
graphite that i$ +ir"!y c!a"pe) i# a )i$1 ho!)er& 4he# the proce$$
reache$ the b*r$ti#g pre$$*re o+ the )i$1, the )i$1 r*pt*re$ a#)
re!ea$e$ the pre$$*re& 3*pt*re )i$1$ ca# be i#$ta!!e) a!o#e or i# co"-
bi#atio# with other type$ o+ )e(ice$& ;#ce b!ow#, r*pt*re )i$1$ )o #ot
re$eatA th*$, the e#tire co#te#t$ o+ the *p$trea" proce$$ e5*ip"e#t
wi!! be (e#te)& 3*pt*re )i$1$ o+ #o#+rag"e#te) type are co""o#!y
*$e) i# $erie$ 9*p$trea": with a $a+ety re!ie+ (a!(e to pre(e#t corro$i(e
E S
i#
+!*i)$ +ro" co#tacti#g the "eta! part$ o+ the (a!(e& %# a))itio#, thi$
co"bi#atio# i$ a rec!o$i#g $y$te"&
the# yie!)$ the re5*ire) (e#t rate2
E
The b*r$t to!era#ce$ o+ r*pt*re )i$1$ are typica!!y abo*t 5 perce#t
+or $et pre$$*re$ abo(e 2&76 barg 940 p$ig:& Co#$*!t 'C%-520-% 9-ectio#
E
re5
S
p
p
o*t
923-90:
2&3&6&1: o# the proper $e!ectio# a#) b*r$t $etti#g o+ the r*pt*re )i$1$&
$ressure Va&uum -elief Valves 6or app!icatio#$ i#(o!(i#g
at"o$pheric a#) !ow-pre$$*re $torage ta#1$, pre$$*re-(ac**" re!ie+
(a!(e$ 9CD3D$: are *$e) to pro(i)e pre$$*re re!ie+& -*ch )e(ice$ are
#ot i#c!*)e) i# the $cope o+ '-M. -ectio# D%%% a#) th*$ are #ot
i#
Consi#er constant heat in-ut into -rotecte# eFui-/ent. %+ the
a))itio# o+ heat to the e5*ip"e#t )oe$ #ot ca*$e the +!*i) to boi!, the#
the (o!*"e ge#eratio# rate i$ the ther"a! e/pa#$io# rate o+ the +!*i)2
-{
Co)e-certi+ie)A he#ce they are *$e) "o$t!y i# #o#-Co)e) (e$$e!$
9Z1&03-barg or 15-p$ig )e$ig#:& The$e *#it$ co"bi#e both a pre$$*re
E
re5
S
C
p
923-91:
a#) a (ac**" re!ie+ (a!(e i#to a $i#g!e a$$e"b!y that "o*#t$ o# a #oK-
K!e o# top o+ the ta#1 a#) are *$*a!!y $iKe) to ha#)!e the #or"a! i#-
breathi#g a#) o*t-breathi#g re5*ire"e#t$&
Si,in$ of Pressure &elief Syste/s ' critica! poi#t i# )e$ig# i$
to )eter"i#e whether the re!ie+ $y$te" "*$t be $iKe) +or $i#g!e-pha$e
or two-pha$e re!ie+ +!ow& Two-pha$e +!ow +re5*e#t!y occ*r$ )*ri#g a
r*#away, b*t it ca# a!$o occ*r i# #o#reacti(e $y$te"$ $*ch a$ (e$$e!$
with ga$ $parger$, (e$$e!$ e/perie#ci#g high heat i#p*t rate$, or $y$te"$
where - i$ the heat i#p*t rate 9LJ$:, { i$ the coe++icie#t o+ (o!*"etric
e/pa#$io# at co#$ta#t pre$$*re 9UC
X1
:, a#) C
p
i$ the co#$ta#t-pre$$*re
$peci+ic heat PL 91gUC:Q&
The propertie$ are e(a!*ate) at "a/i"*" a!!owe) pre$$*re co#)i-
tio#$& 6or !i5*i)$, { ca# typica!!y be e(a!*ate) +ro" the $peci+ic (o!-
*"e cha#ge o(er a 5UC te"perat*re i#cre"e#t& 6or i)ea! ga$e$, .5&
923-91: beco"e$
-
co#tai#i#g 1#ow# +oa"i#g age#t$ $*ch a$ !ate/& The %rift fl") "etho)-
o!ogy 9W*ber a#) 6i#)!ay, <'(erage Do!*"etric Co#ce#tratio# i#
Two-Cha$e 6!ow -y$te"$,= Trans0 $ME J0 &eat Transfer, pp&
453O468, Go(e"ber 1965A 4a!!i$, Cne-3imensional Two-Phase Flow,
E
re5
S
C
p
T
where T i$ the ab$o!*te te"perat*re 9B:&
923-92:
McGraw-i!!, Gew @or1, 1969: ha$ bee# e/te#)e) a#) app!ie) to
both the (o!*"etric heati#g ca$e 9*#i+or" (apor ge#eratio# thro*gh-
o*t the !i5*i): a#) wa!! heati#g ca$e 9(aporiKatio# occ*rri#g o#!y at
(e$$e! wa!!: i# the E%.3- 9Ee$ig# %#$tit*te +or ."erge#cy 3e!ie+
-y$te"$: $t*)y 9E%.3-, 1992:& The E%.3- "etho)o!ogy i$ i"por-
ta#t a$ a "ea#$ o+ a))re$$i#g $it*atio#$, $*ch a$ two-pha$e +!ow, #ot
co(ere) a)e5*ate!y by c*rre#t '-M. a#) 'C% "etho)$& The rece#t
%+ the +!*i) i$ at it$ boi!i#g poi#t, the# (o!*"e i$ ge#erate) thro*gh
the pha$e cha#ge that occ*r$ *po# (aporiKatio#& 6or nonfoamy fl"i%s,
(e#t$ $iKe) +or a!!-(apor re!ie+ are a)e5*ate, e(e# i+ $o"e i#itia! two-
pha$e (e#ti#g i$ pre)icte)& The re5*ire) (e#t rate ba$e) o# the (o!*-
"etric rate ba!a#ce criterio# o+ .5& 923-89: i$ gi(e# +or a
$i#g!e-co"po#e#t +!*i) a$ 9Fe*#g, 1986a:
- v
fg
CCC- G*i)e!i#e$ 9CCC-, 1998: i$ the be$t $o*rce o+ *p)ate) i#+or-
"atio# o# the$e "etho)$& 6or a top-(e#te) (e$$e!, the i"porta#t
"echa#i$" +or the !i5*i) carryo(er re$*!ti#g i# two-pha$e re!ie+ i$
boilover0 The (e$$e! hy)ro)y#a"ic "o)e! ba$e) o# )ri+t +!*/ +or"*!a-
tio# i$ *$e) to e$ti"ate the 5*a!ity 9i&e&, (apor "a$$ +ractio#: e#teri#g
the (e#t $y$te"& The ch*r#-t*rb*!e#t regi"e (e$$e! "o)e! i$ ge#er-
a!!y re$er(e) +or #o#+oa"i#g a#) #o#(i$co*$ !i5*i)$& Thi$ regi"e
wo*!) yie!) the highe$t )egree o+ (apor-!i5*i) )i$e#gage"e#t& The
b*bb!y regi"e (e$$e! "o)e! i$ ge#era!!y app!ie) to +oa"y !i5*i)$ a#)
(i$co*$ $y$te"$& The b*bb!y regi"e wo*!) yie!) o#!y !i"ite) )i$e#-
gage"e#t i# the (e$$e!& 6i#a!!y, a co#$er(ati(e b*t o+te# rea!i$tic
ca$e +or r*#away reacti(e $y$te"$ i$ the ho"oge#eo*$ 9or *#i+or"
+roth: (e$$e! "o)e!& Thi$ "o)e! a$$*"e$ #o (apor-!i5*i) )i$e#gage-
"e#t i#$i)e the (e$$e!, a# i)ea!iKe) a$$*"ptio#, b*t it !ea)$ to "*ch
$i"p!er $iKi#g e5*atio#$&
-equired -elief -ate The re5*ire) re!ie+ rate i$ the (e#t rate E
E
re5
S



923-93:
h
fg
v
g
where h
fg
i$ the !ate#t heat o+ (aporiKatio# 9LJ1g:, v
g
i$ the (apor $pe-
ci+ic (o!*"e 9"
3
J1g:, v
fg
i$ the $peci+ic (o!*"e i#crea$e *po# (apor-
iKatio# S v
g
X v
f
9"
3
J1g:, a#) v
f
i$ the !i5*i) $peci+ic (o!*"e 9"
3
J1g:&
Gear the critica! regio#, the property ratio h
fg
Jv
fg
ca# be rep!ace) by
T9%PJ%T:
$at
(ia the C!apeyro# re!atio# $i#ce both h
fg
a#) v
fg
are
approachi#g Kero& ere 9%PJ%T:
$at
i$ the $!ope o+ the (apor-pre$$*re
c*r(e a#) ha$ *#it$ o+ CaJB& 6or "*!tico"po#e#t +!*i)$, .5& 923O93:
i$ e(a!*ate) +or each "a>or co"po#e#t 9] 10 T wt:, a#) the !arge$t
$i#g!e-co"po#e#t (e#ti#g re5*ire"e#t i$ *$e)& 3e+er to CCC-
G*i)e!i#e$ 91998: +or "ore co"p!e/ $che"e$&
6or foamy fl"i%s, the ho"oge#eo*$ (e$$e! "o)e! with (o!*"etric
heati#g a$$*"ptio# i$ *$e) 9Fe*#g, 1986a:2
- m
o
-v
fg
E*h
fg
91g: re5*ire) to re"o(e the (o!*"e bei#g ge#erate) withi# the
E9T
p
X T
s
: S

!# X 1

Y 923-94:
protecte) e5*ip"e#t whe# the e5*ip"e#t i$ at it$ highe$t a!!owe)
pre$$*re2
C
p
E*h
fg
m
0
C
p
v
fg
#et (o!*"e ge#eratio# rate
re5
$peci+ic (o!*"e o+ (e#t $trea"
923-89:
where E i$ the (e#t rate 91gJ$:, T
p
i$ the te"perat*re at pea1 pre$$*re
9UC:, T
s
i$ the te"perat*re at $et pre$$*re 9UC:, m
0
i$ the i#itia! "a$$
i# $y$te" 91g:, * i$ the e5*ip"e#t 9(e$$e!: (o!*"e 9"
3
:, - i$ the heat
i#p*t rate 9LJ$:, a#) C
p
i$ the co#$ta#t-pre$$*re !i5*i) $peci+ic heat
PL 91gUC:&
6or $tea)y-$tate )e$ig# $ce#ario$, the re5*ire) (e#t rate, o#ce )eter-
"i#e), pro(i)e$ the capacity i#+or"atio# #ee)e) to proper!y $iKe the
re!ie+ )e(ice a#) a$$ociate) pipi#g& 6or $it*atio#$ that are tra#$ie#t
9e&g&, two-pha$e (e#ti#g o+ a r*#away reactor:, the re5*ire) (e#t rate
wo*!) re5*ire the $i"*!ta#eo*$ $o!*tio# o+ the app!icab!e "ateria!
a#) e#ergy ba!a#ce$ o# the e5*ip"e#t together with the i#-(e$$e!
hy)ro)y#a"ic "o)e!& -pecia! ca$e$ yie!)i#g $i"p!i+ie) $o!*tio#$ are
gi(e# be!ow& 6or c!arity, #o#reacti(e $y$te"$ a#) reacti(e $y$te"$ are
pre$e#te) $eparate!y&
>onrea&tive ("stems
Consi#er constant flow into -rotecte# eFui-/ent >'locke#
outlet?. 6or the $tea)y-$tate )e$ig# $ce#ario with a co#$ta#t +!ow o+
+!*i) E
i#
91gJ$: +ro" a pre$$*re $o*rce that i$ abo(e the "a/i"*"
a!!owe) pre$$*re i# the protecte) e5*ip"e#t, (o!*"e i$ bei#g ge#er-
ate) withi# the e5*ip"e#t at a rate o+ E
i#
p
i#
, where p
i#
91g "
3
: i$ the
i#co"i#g +!*i) )e#$ity e(a!*ate) at the "a/i"*" a!!owe) pre$$*re&
Ee#oti#g p
o*t
91g "
3
: a$ the (e#t $trea" +!*i) )e#$ity, .5& 923-89:
Gote that .5& 923-94: i$ i"p!icit i# E; a tria!-a#)-error $o!*tio#
"etho) i$ re5*ire)& Thi$ e5*atio# i$ app!icab!e +or $i#g!e-co"po#e#t
or p$e*)o-o#e-co"po#e#t $y$te"$& 6or the !atter, h
fg
i$ )e+i#e) to be
the e#tha!py 9heat: re5*ire) to (aporiKe a *#it "a$$ o+ !i5*i) at e5*i-
!ibri*" (apor co"po$itio#&
'#a!ytica! e5*atio#$ ha(e bee# pre$e#te) +or both the b*bb!y regi"e
a#) ch*r#-t*rb*!e#t regi"eA $ee Fe*#g 9Fe*#g, <;(erpre$$*re E*ri#g
."erge#cy 3e!ie+ De#ti#g i# 0*bb!y a#) Ch*r#-T*rb*!e#t 6!ow,=
!ChE J0 6696:, pp& 952O958, 1987: a#) Ea!e$$a#)ro 9Ea!e$$a#)ro,
<."erge#cy De#ti#g 3e5*ire"e#t$ +or Te"pere) -y$te"$ Co#$i)er-
i#g Cartia! Dapor-Fi5*i) -eparatio# with Ei$e#gage"e#t Cara"eter$
Greater tha# ,#ity, Cart %2 Mo)e! Ee(e!op"e#t, Cart %%2 'pp!icatio#,=
Process $afety Prog0 96, pp& 1O15 a#) 86O98, 2004:&
-ea&tive ("stems ./other"ic r*#away 9*#co#tro!!e) che"ica!:
reactio#$ a)) co#$i)erab!e co"p!e/ity& Gote that e/ter#a! heati#g
9$*ch a$ a +ire: o# a (e$$e! co#tai#i#g *#$tab!e co"po*#)$ wo*!) +a!!
i#to thi$ category& The a))e) co"p!icatio#$ are )*e to the +o!!owi#g2

1& 3eactio# rate (arie$ e/po#e#tia!!y with te"perat*re&
2& ./other"ic heat re!ea$e rate$ are ti"e-(aryi#g&
3& Do!ati!e or #o#co#)e#$ab!e ga$ ca# be ge#erate) 9i# )eco"po$i-
tio#:&
4& Co"po$itio# cha#ge ca*$e$ $hi+t i# boi!i#g poi#t c*r(e&
5& Di$co$ity i#crea$e$ )*e to po!y"eriKatio#&
%# )ea!i#g with $*ch co"p!e/ity, E%.3- ha$ )e(e!ope) a $pecia!
be#ch-$ca!e apparat*$ co""ercia!iKe) by 6a*$1e R '$$ociate$, FFC, a$
the De#t -iKi#g Cac1age 2 9D-C2
TM
:& The )e$ig# a#) operatio# are
)e$cribe) i# $e(era! re+ere#ce$ P6a*$1e a#) Fe*#g, <Gew ./peri"e#ta!
Tech#i5*e +or CharacteriKi#g 3*#away Che"ica! 3eactio#$,= Chem0
Eng0 Prog0, DE98:, pp& 39O46, 1985A Fe*#g, 6a*$1e, a#) 6i$her, <Ther-
"a! 3*#away 3eactio#$ i# a Fow Ther"a! %#ertia 'pparat*$,= Ther-
mochimica cta, 1E8, pp& 13O29, 1986A E%.3-, 1992A CCC-, 1998Q&
Thi$ a)iabatic ca!ori"eter ha$ bee# e/te#$i(e!y *$e) to obtai# the abo(e
1ey i#+or"atio# +or pre$$*re re!ie+ )e$ig#& ,p$et $ce#ario$ $*ch a$ e/ter-
#a! heati#g, o(ercharge o+ reacta#t$, or !o$$ o+ coo!i#g ca# be )irect!y
$i"*!ate) i# thi$ apparat*$& Two $pecia!-ca$e $o!*tio#$ are gi(e# here&
For 'oilin$ liFui# reacti*e syste/s, a# a#a!ytica! "etho) yie!)i#g
c!o$e)-+or" i#tegra! e5*atio#$ +or ho"oge#eo*$ (e$$e! two-pha$e re!ie+
ha$ bee# *$e) +or $o"e ti"e 9Fe*#g, 1986a:& -i"p!i+yi#g a$$*"ptio#$
are that 91: the (e#t rate i$ ta1e# a$ co#$ta#t with ti"e, 92: a(erage (a!-
*e$ o+ heat re!ea$e rate per *#it "a$$ a#) phy$ica! propertie$ ca# be
*$e), 93: there i$ co#$ta#t or )ecrea$i#g $y$te" (o!ati!ity, a#) 94: a
p$e*)o-o#e-co"po#e#t approach i$ ta1e#& The re5*ire) (e#t rate i$
m
0
C
p
9%TG%t:
a(
owe(er, thi$ (e#t rate a$$*"e$ ho"oge#eo*$ (e$$e! (e#ti#g at the
pea1 a!!owe) pre$$*re with #o prior !o$$ o+ "a$$& ' !e$$ co#$er(ati(e
)e$ig# wo*!) co#$i)er the "a$$ !o$$ )*ri#g the o(erpre$$*re (e#ti#g
i#ter(a! PFe*#g, <De#ti#g o+ 3*#away 3eactio#$ with Ga$ Ge#era-
tio#,= !chE J0, 3D95:, pp& 723O732, 1992Q&
-elief ("stem !lo* Capa&it" Thi$ $*b$ectio# e$tab!i$he$ the
re!atio# betwee# re!ie+ $y$te" co#+ig*ratio# a#) +!ow capacity i#
or)er to )eter"i#e the $iKe re5*ire) +or a gi(e# (e#t rate& The "a$$
+!ow rate E thro*gh a gi(e# re!ie+ $y$te" geo"etry, i# ge#era!,
re5*ire$ a tria!-a#)-error approach whe# the $y$te" co#+ig*ratio#
co#tai#$ "ore tha# a $i#g!e )ia"eter& The ge#era!iKe) approach i$ to
a$$*"e a +!ow rate ENthi$ i$ *$*a!!y go(er#e) by the !i"iti#g area
$*ch a$ the ori+ice or #oKK!e i# a pre$$*re re!ie+ (a!(e 9C3D: or the
r*p- t*re )i$1 93E:Na#) ca!c*!ate the re$*!ti#g pre$$*re pro+i!e$
)ow# the $y$te" *#ti! the +i#a! )i$charge pre$$*re "atche$ the
$peci+ie) (a!*e& %+ cho1e) +!ow i$ e#co*#tere) at a#y area e#!arge"e#t
!ocatio# i# the (e#t $y$te", the# the pre$$*re >*$t a+ter the cho1i#g
!ocatio# i$ )eter"i#e) by ca!c*!ati#g bac1 *p the !arger pipe +ro" a
)ow#$trea" poi#t o+ $peci+ie) pre$$*re&
The treat"e#t o+ (e#t +!ow ca!c*!atio#$ i# "o$t typica! re!ie+ $y$te"
co#+ig*ratio#$ i#(o!(e$ two c!a$$e$ o+ co"p*tatio#a! "o)e!$2 +!ow
thro*gh #oKK!e$ a#) +rictio#a! +!ow i# pipe$&
The +!ow path i# we!!-+or"e) #oKK!e$ Pi)ea! 9fri&tionless: +!owQ +o!-
!ow$ $"ooth!y a!o#g the #oKK!e co#to*r witho*t +!ow $eparatio#& The
e++ect$ o+ $"a!! i"per+ectio#$ a#) $"a!! +rictio#a! !o$$e$ are acco*#te)
+or by correcti#g the i)ea! #oKK!e +!ow by a# e"pirica!!y )eter"i#e)
coe++icie#t o+ )i$charge 1
%
& Thi$ app!ie$ to C3D geo"etry& The acce!-
E
re-
S
tP9*Gm
0
:J9h
fg
Gv
fg
:Q
1 2
Y9C
p
VT:
1 2
u
2 923-95:
eratio# o+ a +!*i) i#itia!!y at re$t to +!owi#g co#)itio#$ i# a# i)ea! #oK-
K!e i$ gi(e# by
where VT S T
p
X T
s
i$ the <o(erte"perat*re= 9UC: corre$po#)i#g to
X
( v
S

v %P 923-98:
the o(erpre$$*re VP $e!ecte), a#) 9%TJ%t:
a(
i$ the a(erage te"perat*re
ri$e rate 9UC $:&
The a(erage %TG%t i$ typica!!y a# arith"etic a(erage betwee# the
(a!*e at $et pre$$*re a#) the (a!*e at pea1 a!!owe) pre$$*re& The
propertie$ C
p
, h
fg
, v
fg
either ca# be e(a!*ate) at the $et co#)itio#$ or
ca# be ta1e# a$ the a(erage (a!*e$ betwee# the $et co#)itio# a#) the
pea1 a!!owe) pre$$*re co#)itio#& '!ter#ati(e!y, the ter" h
fg
Jv
fg
i# .5&
923-95: ca# be rep!ace) by T9%PJ%T:
$at
(ia the C!apeyro# re!atio#& Thi$
ho!)$ rea$o#ab!y we!! +or a "*!tico"po#e#t $y$te" o+ #ear co#$ta#t
(o!ati!ity& -*ch a# app!icatio# per"it$ )irect *$e o+ the e/peri"e#ta!
pre$$*re-te"perat*re )ata obtai#e) +ro" a c!o$e)-$y$te" r*#away
D-C2 te$t& Thi$ +or" o+ .5& 923-95: ha$ bee# *$e) to )e"o#$trate the
2 P
1

2 P
0
where P
0
i$ the $tag#atio# pre$$*re o+ the +!*i), P
1
i$ the $tatic pre$$*re
at the "i#i"*" +!ow area ca!!e) the throat, ( i$ the "a$$ +!*/ P1g
9"
2
$:Q, a#) v i$ the +!*i) $peci+ic (o!*"e 9"
3
J1g:& %+ the +!*i) i$ co"-
pre$$ib!e, the +!ow wi!! i#crea$e to a "a/i"*" (a!*e a$ the )ow#-
$trea" pre$$*re i$ re)*ce), a#) a#y +*rther )ecrea$e i# the
)ow#$trea" pre$$*re wi!! #ot a++ect the +!ow& Thi$ "a/i"*" +!ow co#-
)itio# i$ re+erre) to a$ the critical 9or choke%: co#)itio#& The +!ow a#)
pre$$*re at thi$ co#)itio# are re!ate) by
X1
a)(a#tageo*$ re)*ctio# i# both (e#t rate a#) (e#t area with a!!owab!e
o(erpre$$*re 9Fe*#g, 1986a:&
6or partia! )i$e#gage"e#t (e#ti#g "o)e!$ 9i# b*bb!y a#) ch*r#-
(
c
S
9%v %P:
s
923-99:
t*rb*!e#t regi"e$:, re+er to p*b!icatio#$ by Fe*#g 91987: a#) Ea!e$$a#-
)ro 92004:&
The $pecia! ca$e o+ $as $eneratin$ reacti*e syste/s i$ +or a
)eco"po$itio# reactio# with #eg!igib!e ga$ $o!*bi!ity i# the !i5*i) a#)
#o $ig#i+ica#t !ate#t heat e++ect$& -*ch a reactio# wi!! procee) to the
The $*b$cript s )e#ote$ a# i$e#tropic path +or i)ea! #oKK!e +!ow& 6or
i%eal gas with Pv
k
S co#$ta#t, $*b$tit*tio# o+ thi$ i$e#tropic e/pa#$io#
!aw i#to .5& 923-98: yie!)$ the +o!!owi#g critica! pre$$*re ratio P
c
JP
0
a#) critica! +!ow rate (
c
2
"a/i"*" rate whether (e#te) or #ot& The "ai# p*rpo$e o+ (e#ti#g i$
Pc 2
k 9kX1:
to !i"it the pre$$*re ri$e i# the$e <ga$$y= $y$te"$& The "a/i"*" ga$
S



923-100:
ge#eratio# rate i$ *$*a!!y obtai#e) +ro" the pre$$*re ri$e rate )ata i#
the E%.3--type apparat*$& 't the pea1 a!!owe) pre$$*re P
m
, the (o!-
*"etric ga$ ge#eratio# rate +or the protecte) e5*ip"e#t i$ gi(e# by
P
0
k Y 1
m
0
*
t
%P
(
c
S

k



923-101:
=
g,"a/
S



923-96:
2
k Y 1
9kY1: 9kX1: 1 2
P
0
v
0
m
t
P
m
%t "a/
where k i$ the i$e#tropic e/pa#$io# e/po#e#t +or i)ea! ga$ 9k S
where m
0
i$ the "a$$ i# protecte) e5*ip"e#t 91g:, m
t
i$ the $a"p!e
"a$$ i# te$t apparat*$ 91g:, *
t
i$ the (o!*"e occ*pie) by ga$ i# te$t
apparat*$ 9"
3
:, P
m
i$ the pea1 a!!owe) pre$$*re i# e5*ip"e#t 9Ca,
p$ia:, a#) 9%PJ%t:
"a/
i$ the "a/i"*" pre$$*re ri$e rate "ea$*re) i#
te$t apparat*$ 9CaJ$, p$iJ$:& Gote that co#$i$te#t pre$$*re *#it$ ca# be
*$e) +or P
m
a#) %PJ%t here& The re5*ire) (e#t rate ba$e) o# the (o!*-
"etric rate ba!a#ce criterio# o+ .5& 923-89: i$ gi(e# by
C
p
JC
v
:, P
c
i$ the cho1i#g pre$$*re at throat 9Ca:, P
0
i$ the $tag#atio#
i#!et pre$$*re 9Ca:, a#) (
0
i$ the i)ea! ga$ $peci+ic (o!*"e at P
0
9"
3
J1g:&
Th*$ +or a C3D $y$te", the +o!!owi#g re!ie+ rate +or"*!a 9+or cho1e)
+!ow: i$ gi(e# i# -% *#it$ 91gJ$, "
2
, GJ"
2
, B: i# 'C%-520-% 92000:2
Mw
1 2
2
9kY1: 9kX1: 1 2
re5
S 923-97:
4T P


k Y 1

E
0
=
g,"a/
* m
0
E S 1
%
1
b
P
0 k
0
923-102:







where 1
%
i$ the )i$charge coe++icie#t o+ C3D #oKK!e 9ori+ice:, 1
b
i$ the
capacity correctio# +actor )*e to bac1pre$$*re 9co#$*!t 'C%-520-%:,
i$ the C3D ori+ice area 9"
2
:, M
w
i$ the "o!ec*!ar weight, 4 i$ the ga$
The "a/i"*" 9critica!: or cho1e) +!ow co#)itio# occ*r$ at the critica!
pre$$*re ratio P
c
JP
0
+ro" $o!(i#g 9Fe*#g, 1986a:
co#$ta#t, T
0
i$ the ab$o!*te te"perat*re at i#!et 9B:, a#) P i$ the co"- P
c
2
P
c
Y 9q
2
X 2q: 1 X
2
P
c
P
c
Y 2q
2
!# Y 2q
2
pre$$ibi!ity& 6or noni%eal gas at #ear ther"o)y#a"ic critica! or $*per-

critica! regio#, $pecia! treat"e#t$ other tha# $i"p!y app!yi#g the P
P
0

P
0
P
0
1 X S 0 923-109:
P
0
+actor a$ i# .5& 923-102: are #ece$$ary P$ee Fe*#g a#) .ptei#, <'
Ge#era!iKe) Critica! 6!ow Mo)e! +or Go#-i)ea! Ga$e$,= !ChE J0
6I99:, pp& 1568O1572, 1988A a#) CCC-, 1998Q&
The critica! "a$$ +!*/ (
c
i$ gi(e# by the )i"e#$io#!e$$ +or"
(
c
P
c
P
0
The treat"e#t +or two-pha$e re!ie+ i$ "ore i#(o!(e) )*e to the S 923-110:
pre$e#ce o+ $!ip a#) ther"o)y#a"ic #o#e5*i!ibri*" betwee# the
two pha$e$& owe(er, +or +!ow capacity e(a!*atio#, the tra)itio#a!
P
0
v
0
ho"oge#eo*$ 9#o $!ip: e5*i!ibri*" "o)e! 9.M: i$ reco""e#)e)
9E%.3-, 1992A CCC-, 1998:& 6or a two-pha$e +!a$hi#g $y$te" 9both
$i#g!e-co"po#e#t a#) "*!tico"po#e#t:, the P-v re!atio# ca# be
obtai#e) +ro" a)iabatic +!a$h ca!c*!atio#$N$trict!y $pea1i#g *#)er
co#$ta#t-e#tropy, b*t co#$ta#t-e#tha!py +!a$h co"p*tatio#$ are a)e-
5*ate +or *$e i# #*"erica! i#tegratio# o+ .5& 923-98:& ' partic*!ar!y
*$e+*! $i"p!i+icatio# i$ the omega "etho) by Fe*#g 91986bA $ee the
ear!ier $*b$ectio# <Ei$charge 3ate$ +ro" C*#ct*re) Fi#e$ a#) De$-
$e!$= +or "ore )i$c*$$io#:, where a P-v re!atio# +or a two-pha$e +!*i)
e/pa#$io# i$ writte# a$
v P
0
S q

X 1

Y 1 923-103:
v
0
P
6or a $i#g!e-co"po#e#t or a p$e*)o-o#e-co"po#e#t +!*i), the
)i"e#$io#!e$$ para"eter q i$ e(a!*ate) at the i#!et co#)itio#$ 9$*b-
$cript 0: +ro" 9Fe*#g, 1996:
%+ P
c
] P
b
, the bac1pre$$*re, the +!ow i$ cho1e), a#) .5& 923-110:
yie!)$ the critica! "a$$ +!*/& ;therwi$e, P
c
Z P
b
, +!ow i$ #ot cho1e),
a#) P i$ e5*ate) to P
b
i# .5& 923-108: to obtai# the *#cho1e) "a$$
+!*/&
' re!ie+ rate +or"*!a +or two-pha$e +!ow $i"i!ar to .5& 923-102: +or
ga$ ca# be writte# a$
E S 1
%
1
b
( 923-111:
6or the boi!i#g-!i5*i) $y$te", q i$ ca!c*!ate) +ro" .5& 923-104: or .5&
923-105:, whi!e +or a ga$-ge#erati#g $y$te", q i$ e(a!*ate) +ro" .5&
923-106:&
6or -i-e flow, .M re5*ire$ $o!*tio# o+ the e5*atio#$ o+ co#$er-
(atio# o+ "a$$, e#ergy, a#) "o"e#t*"& The "o"e#t*" e5*atio# i$
i# )i++ere#tia! +or", which re5*ire$ partitio#i#g the pipe i#to $eg-
"e#t$ a#) carryi#g o*t #*"erica! i#tegratio#& 6or co#$ta#t-)ia"eter
pipe, the$e co#$er(atio# e5*atio#$ are a$ +o!!ow$2
Ma$$2
P0vfg0 Cp0T0P0 vfg0
2 ( S co#$ta#t 923-112:
q S ^
0

1 X 2

Y



923-104:
h
fg0
v
0
h
fg0
.#ergy2
(
2
v
2
6or "*!tico"po#e#t $y$te"$ with boi!i#g ra#ge greater tha# 80UC,
a $i#g!e a)iabatic +!a$h ca!c*!atio# to 80 to 90 perce#t o+ the i#!et pre$-
$*re P
0
yie!)$ the two-pha$e $peci+ic (o!*"e v
1
at pre$$*re P
1
, a#) q i$
ca!c*!ate) +ro" 9GaKario a#) Fe*#g, <-iKi#g Cre$$*re 3e!ie+ Da!(e$ i#
6!a$hi#g a#) Two-Cha$e -er(ice2 '# '!ter#ati(e Croce)*re,= J0 ,oss
Mo"e#t*"2
v %P Y (
2
h
0
S h Y
2
4fv
2
%,
923-113:
Prev0 Process !n%0 895:, pp& 263O269, 1992:
q S
v
1
Jv
0
X 1
P
0
JP X 1
923-105:
v %v Y Y g co$ m %, S 0 923-114:
23
where h
0
i$ e#tha!py at $tag#atio# 9LJ1g:, h i$ e#tha!py 9LJ1g:, v i$ +!*i)
$peci+ic (o!*"e, f i$ 6a##i#g +rictio# +actor, , i$ +!ow !e#gth 9":, g i$
acce!eratio# )*e to gra(ity, a#) m i$ a#g!e o+ i#c!i#atio# +ro" (ertica!&
.5*atio# 923-114:, the "o"e#t*" e5*atio#, ca# be $o!(e) "ore
6or the ca$e o+ a #o#co#)e#$ab!e ga$ a#) a #o#+!a$hi#g !i5*i) 9a #o#-
+!a$hi#g two-pha$e +!*i):, q i$ $i"p!y )e+i#e) by 9Fe*#g, 1996:
co#(e#ie#t!y by rewriti#g it a#) $o!(i#g it #*"erica!!y

v VP Y (
2
v
Vv
q S
^
0
}
923-106:
V, S X

92f G3:(
2
v
2
Y g co$ m
923-115:
where the two-pha$e i$e#tropic e/pa#$io# e/po#e#t +or a ther"a!
e5*i!ibri*" proce$$ i$ gi(e# by
where

v i$ the a(erage $peci+ic (o!*"e i# the pre$$*re i#cre"e#t VP


a#) Vv i$ the i#cre"e#ta! $peci+ic (o!*"e o(er VP&
%# the #*"erica! i#tegratio# o+ .5& 923-115: +or a gi(e# pipe !e#gth
} S
)C
pg
Y 91 X ):C
pf
)C
vg
Y 91 X ):C
pf
923-107:
,, the +o!!owi#g $tep$ are $*gge$te) 9#ote that )etai!e) ther"o)y-
#a"ic propertie$ are re5*ire) a!$o:2
1& .ither ( i$ 1#ow# or g*e$$e)&
Gote that +or "o$t ca$e$ o+ i#tere$t, } i$ c!o$e to *#ity $i#ce the +!ow-
i#g ga$ "a$$ +ractio# ) ZZ 1& 6or the ca$e o+ +roKe# +!ow 9i&e&, #o heat
tra#$+er betwee# the two pha$e$:, } wo*!) be rep!ace) by k 9or
C
pg
JC
vg
: i# .5& 923-106:& owe(er, the )i++ere#ce betwee# the two
!i"iti#g ca$e$ i$ $"a!! 9Z 10 perce#t: i# ter"$ o+ the +!ow capacity
PFe*#g a#) .p$tei#, <' Ge#era!iKe) Corre!atio# +or Two-Cha$e Go#-
+!a$hi#g o"oge#eo*$ Cho1e) 6!ow,= Trans0 $ME J0 &eat
Transfer
112 9May:, pp& 528O530, 1990Q&
4ith the P-v re!atio# gi(e# by .5& 923-103:, .5& 923-98: ca# be i#te-
grate) to gi(e a ge#era!iKe) e5*atio# +or +!ow thro*gh a# i)ea! #oKK!e
0&5
2& %#cre"e#t$ o+ pre$$*re are ta1e# +ro" the i#itia! to the +i#a!
pre$$*re&

3& 0oth v a#) Vv are obtai#e) +or each i#cre"e#t +or a co#$ta#t
$tag#atio# e#tha!py proce$$ $ati$+yi#g .5& 923-113:&
4& 6or each VP ta1e#, V, i$ co"p*te) +ro" .5& 923-115:&
5& Tota! !e#gth o+ pipe , i$ ~V,&
6& %+ V, i$ #egati(e, the# VP i$ too !arge&
7& ' critica! +!ow co#)itio# corre$po#)$ to V, S 0, a#) the +i#a!
pre$$*re corre$po#)$ to cho1e) pre$$*re&
8& %+ ~V, ] ,, the# ( wa$ g*e$$e) too $"a!!, a#) $tep$ 1 thro*gh 7
are repeate) with a !arger (0 %+ ~V, Z ,, the# ( wa$ g*e$$e) too
!argeA $tep$ 1 thro*gh 7 are repeate) with a $"a!!er (0
(

P
0
v
0 tX2Pq
!#
9PJP :Q Y 9q X 1:91 X PJP :Qu

S
0 0
q
9
P
0
J
P

X

1
:

Y

1
923-108:
9& '
co#(er
ge)
$o!*tio
# i$
obtai#e
) whe#
~V, S
, to
withi#
a gi(e#
to!era#
ce&
\
The abo(e ca!c*!atio#$ ca# be $i"p!i+ie) $o"ewhat by ig#ori#g
the 1i#etic e#ergy ter" i# the e#ergy e5*atio#, .5& 923-113:, a#)
$i"p!y ba$i#g ca!c*!atio#$ o# a# i$e#tha!pic +!a$h& Th*$ a P-v re!a-
tio# ca# be obtai#e) +ro" $*ch +!a$h ca!c*!atio#$ prior to per+or"-
i#g the abo(e iteratio# $tep$& %# the $pecia! ca$e o+ t*rb*!e#t pipe
+!ow horiKo#ta! )i$charge 9co$ m S 0:, .5& 923-114: ca# be i#te-
grate) ba$e) o# the o"ega P-v re!atio# to yie!) PFe*#g a#)
Gro!"e$, <The Ei$charge o+ Two-Cha$e 6!a$hi#g 6!ow i# a ori-
Ko#ta! E*ct,= !ChE J0 3393:, pp& 524O527, 1987A a!$o errata, 3496:,
p& 1030, 1988Q
%ntro#uction %# )eter"i#i#g the )i$po$a! o+ a# e++!*e#t (e#t
$trea" +ro" a# e"erge#cy re!ie+ )e(ice 9$a+ety (a!(e or r*pt*re )i$1:,
a #*"ber o+ +actor$ "*$t be co#$i)ere), $*ch a$
1& %$ the $trea" $i#g!e-pha$e 9ga$ or (apor: or "*!tipha$e 9(apor-
!i5*i) or (apor-!i5*i)-$o!i):`
2& %$ the $trea" +!a""ab!e or pro#e to )e+!agratio#`
3& %$ the $trea" to/ic`
4& %$ the $trea" corro$i(e to e5*ip"e#t or per$o##e!`
-o"e (e#t $trea"$, $*ch a$ !ight hy)rocarbo#$, ca# be )i$charge)
)irect!y to the at"o$phere e(e# tho*gh they are +!a""ab!e a#) e/p!o-
$i(e& Thi$ ca# be )o#e beca*$e the high-(e!ocity )i$charge e#trai#$
, 2 l1 X l2 q 91 X q:l2 Y q $*++icie#t air to !ower the hy)rocarbo# co#ce#tratio# be!ow the !ower
4f S

Y !#
e/p!o$i(e !i"it 9'C% 3C 521, 2007:& To/ic (apor$ "*$t be $e#t to a
3 (
\2
1 X q 91 X q:
2
91 X q:l
1
Y q
+!are or $cr*bber to re#)er the" har"!e$$& M*!tipha$e $trea"$, $*ch
X 2 !#

91 X q:l
2
Y q

l
1

923-116:
91 X q:l
1
Y q l
2
where l
1
P
1
P
0
, l
2
P
2
P
0
, (
\
( P
0
v
0
, P
1
i$ the ab$o!*te
$tatic pre$$*re at the i#!et o+ the pipe 9GJ"
2
:, P
2
i$ the ab$o!*te $tatic
pre$- $*re at the o*t!et o+ the pipe 9GJ"
2
:, a#) P
0
i$ the re+ere#ce
pre$$*re typica!!y a$$ociate) with the $tag#atio# pre$$*re i# the
*p$trea" e5*ip"e#t& The cho1i#g criterio# at pipe e/it ta1e$ the
+or"
l
2c
a$ tho$e )i$charge) a$ a re$*!t o+ a r*#away reactio#, e&g&, "*$t +ir$t be
ro*te) to $eparatio# or co#tai#"e#t e5*ip"e#t be+ore +i#a! )i$charge
to a +!are, a $cr*bber, or a 5*e#ch poo! ta#1&
Thi$ )i$c*$$io# i$ orga#iKe) i#to three "a>or area$2 type$ o+ e5*ip-
"e#t, criteria e"p!oye) i# the $e!ectio# o+ e5*ip"e#t, a#) $iKi#g a#)
)e$ig# o+ the e5*ip"e#t&
)y-es of Fui-/ent .5*ip"e#t +or ha#)!i#g e"erge#cy re!ie+
)i$charge $trea"$ ca# be )i(i)e) i#to two c!a$$e$2
1& DaporJga$J$o!i)-!i5*i) $eparator$
2& 6i#a! (aporJga$ co#tro! or )e$tr*ctio# e5*ip"e#t
(
c
S
923-117:
The two "o$t co""o#!y *$e) type$ o+ (aporJga$-!i5*i) $eparator$

q
where $*b$cript c )e#ote$ cho1i#g& The i#tegrate) "o"e#t*" e5*a-
tio#, .5& 923-116:, yie!)$ the pre$$*re )rop P
1
X P
2
i# the pipe i"p!ic-
it!y a$ a +*#ctio# o+ q, If,J3, a#) (0 6or the ca$e o+ a pipe )i$charge
+ro" a (e$$e!, the i#!et acce!eratio# pre$$*re )rop P
0
X P
1
i$ gi(e# by
.5& 923-108: abo(e with PJP
0
bei#g P
1
JP
0
or l
1
& .$$e#tia!!y the i#!et
pipe $ectio# i$ treate) a$ a# i)ea! #oKK!e, a#) a#y irre(er$ib!e !o$$ )*e
to $harp e#tra#ce e++ect i$ i#c!*)e) i# the o(era!! 4f,J3 ter"& Fi1e-
wi$e, the (e!ocity hea) !o$$ a$$ociate) with be#)$ 9e!bow$: i$ to be
i#c!*)e) i# the 4f,J3 ter" a$ we!!& 6or high-(e!ocity, two-pha$e )i$-
charge, a# a(erage f (a!*e o+ 0&005 ha$ bee# *$e) i# "o$t app!icatio#$
94a!!i$, 1969:&
Cho1e) pipe e/it2 l
2c
]l
b
or P
2c
] P
b
& .5*atio#$ 923-109:, 923-
116:, a#) 923-117: are *$e) to $o!(e +or (
\
, l , a#) l 9!i1ewi$e, +or ( ,
are
M Gra(ity $eparator$NhoriKo#ta! a#) (ertica! 9a!$o ca!!e) b!ow)ow#
)r*"$, 1#oc1o*t )r*"$, or catch ta#1$:
M ."erge#cy cyc!o#e $eparator$
The "o$t co""o#!y *$e) type$ o+ +i#a! (aporJga$ co#tro! or
)e$tr*ctio# e5*ip"e#t are
M H*e#ch poo!$Jcatch ta#1$ a#) 5*e#ch tower$
M ."erge#cy +!are $y$te"$
M ."erge#cy $cr*bber$ 9ab$orber$:
.ravit" (eparators Three type$ o+ gra(ity $eparator$ are co"-
"o#!y *$e) i# the che"ica! proce$$ i#)*$trie$ 9CC%:2 horiKo#ta! b!ow-
)ow# )r*"Jcatch ta#1, (ertica! b!ow)ow# )r*"Jcatch ta#1, a#)
"*!tireactor 1#oc1o*t )r*"Jcatch ta#1&
&ori'ontal blow%own %r"mGcatch tank Thi$ type o+ )r*", $how#
c 1 2
P
1,
a#) P
2
: +or a gi(e# 4f,J3 a#) q (a!*e&
c i# 6ig& 23-49, co"bi#e$ both the (apor-!i5*i) $eparatio# a#) ho!)*p
+*#ctio#$ i# o#e (e$$e!& oriKo#ta! )r*"$ are co""o#!y *$e) where
,#cho1e) pipe e/it2 l
2c
Z l
b
or P
2c
Z P
b
& .5*atio# 923-116: )oe$ #ot
app!y& 4ith l
2
S l
b
9or P
2
S P
b
: +or a# *#cho1e) e/it, o#!y .5$&
923-108: a#) 923-116: are #ee)e) to $o!(e +or (
\
a#) l
1
9!i1ewi$e, +or
( a#) P
1
:& ,#)er "o$t $it*atio#$, it $*++ice$ to $et l
1
S 1 a#) to $o!(e
+or (
\
rea)i!y by rearra#gi#g .5& 923-116:&
Thi$ "etho) ha$ bee# e/te#)e) to i#c!i#e) pipe )i$charge PFe*#g
a#) .p$tei#, <The Ei$charge o+ Two-Cha$e 6!a$hi#g 6!ow +ro" a#
%#c!i#e) E*ct,= Trans0 $ME J0 &eat Transfer @@9 9May:, pp&
524O528, 1990Q, which together with $o"e *$e+*! )e$ig# chart$ i$ pre-
$e#te) i# the ear!ier $*b$ectio# <Ei$charge 3ate$ +ro" C*#ct*re)
Fi#e$ a#) De$$e!$&=
!&G3C2 &L%F D;%C FFL43) C.LLC)%.3
A3D "A3DL%3G
G3&AL &F&3CS7 'C% 3C 521, ("i%e for Press"re 4elieving an%
3epress"ri'ing $ystems, 5th e)&, '"erica# Cetro!e*" %#$tit*te, 4a$hi#gto#,
2007& 'C% -TE 537, Flare 3etails for (eneral 4efinery an% Petrochemical $er-
vice, '"erica# Cetro!e*" %#$tit*te, 4a$hi#gto#, -epte"ber 2003& '%Ch.-
CCC-, ("i%elines for Press"re 4elief an% Effl"ent &an%ling $ystems, '%Ch.,
Gew @or1, 1998& E%.3-, Emergency 4elief $ystem 3esign Using 3!E4$ Tech-
nology, '%Ch., Gew @or1, 1992& 6the#a1i$, Prevention an% Control of cci%en-
tal 4eleases of &a'ar%o"s (ases, Da# Go$tra#)-3ei#ho!), Gew @or1, 1993&
Gro$$e! a#) Crow!, &an%book of &ighly To)ic Materials &an%ling an% Manage-
ment, Marce! Ee11er, Gew @or1, 1995& Gro$$e!, Jo"rnal of ,oss Prevention in
the Process !n%"stries 391:2 112O124, 1990& Gro$$e!, PlantGCperations Progress
593:2 129O135, 1986& Beiter, PlantGCperations Progress 1193:2 157O163, 1992&
Mc%#to$h a#) Go!a#, Jo"rnal of ,oss Prevention in the Process !n%"stries 1491:2
17O26& 2001& Mc%#to$h a#) Go!a#, Jo"rnal of ,oss Prevention in the Process
!n%"stries 1491:2 27O42, 2001& -ch"i)t a#) Gie$brecht, Process $afety Progress
2091:2 6-16/ 2001&
$pace i$ p!e#ti+*!& The two-pha$e "i/t*re *$*a!!y e#ter$ at o#e e#),
a#) the (apor e/it$ at the other e#)& To o(erco"e ree#trai#"e#t o+
!i5*i) )rop!et$, )*e to high i#!et (e!ocitie$, (ario*$ )e(ice$ a#) pipi#g
arra#ge"e#t$ are *$e) to pro(i)e a "ore *#i+or" )i$trib*tio# o+
(apor-!i5*i) "i/t*re$ i#to the $eparator, a$ $how# i# 6ig& 23-50& 6or
two-pha$e $trea"$ with (ery high (apor +!ow rate$, i#!et$ "ay be pro-
(i)e) at each e#), with the (apor o*t!et at the ce#ter o+ the )r*", th*$
"i#i"iKi#g (apor (e!ocitie$ at the i#!et a#) ai)i#g (apor-!i5*i) $epa-
ratio#&
F%G. 2308C oriKo#ta! b!ow)ow# )r*"Jcatch ta#1&
-
?
a
p
o
r
-
9
i
1
)
i
-
A
e
e
-
9
%#!et
?apor-
9i1)i- Aee- ?apor 3)t
@#- *!ate
1&5 2
p
%#!et
1:2 2
p
Mi#i")"
3pe#i#g
@#- ? iew
9i1)i- 9e,e!
2
p
22
p
4i-e ? iew
@!bow 2i$trib)tor
9i1)i-
2rai#
.!ter#ati,e %#!et ;a ((!e
?apor-9i1)i-
Aee-
9i1)i- 9e,e!
*er(orate- -i$trib)tor pipe
(aci#g (ee- e#- o(
$eparatorD "ay )$e $!ot$
i#$tea- o( ho!e$&
9i1)i- 9e,e!
*er(orate- *ipe 2i$trib)tor
*er(orate- *ipe 2i$trib)tor
.!ter#ati,e Co#(ig)ratio#
?apor 3)t
*er(orate- ;a ((!e *!ate 2etai!
?apor-9i1)i-
Aee-
*er(orate-
;a((!e *!ate
2
%#!et 2
p
*er(orate- *!ate
Aree .rea H ./
9
b
H 0&42
p 9i1)i- 9e,e!
2
-
2
-
H 1&152
p
h
(
./ H 52 :27
2
b
9i1)i- 2rai#
F%G. 2309E 6ee) )i$trib*tor )e(ice$ +or horiKo#ta! b!ow)ow# )r*"$Jcatch ta#1$& 9G*i)e!i#e$ +or Cre$$*re
3e!ie+ a#) .++!*e#t a#)!i#g -y$te"$, Center for Chemical Process $afely #CCP$. of the merican !nstit"te of
Chemical Engineers #!ChE.; copyright @ABB !ChE an% repro%"ce% with permission&:&
*ertical blow%own %r"mGcatch tank Thi$ type o+ )r*", $how# i#
6ig& 23-51, per+or"$ the $a"e +*#ctio# a#) operate$ o# $i"i!ar pri#ci-
p!e$ a$ horiKo#ta! $eparator$& The$e $eparator$ are *$*a!!y *$e) where
horiKo#ta! $pace i$ !i"ite)& The two-pha$e "i/t*re e#ter$ the (e$$e!
(ia a #oKK!e o# the (ertica! $he!! a#) i$ )i$trib*te) by a# i#!et ba++!e
cha"ber&
M"ltireactor knocko"t %r"mGcatch tank Thi$ i#tere$ti#g $y$te" i$
$o"eti"e$ *$e) a$ the co#tai#"e#t (e$$e! +or a $erie$ o+ c!o$e!y
$pace) reactor$ 9-peech!y et a!&, <Cri#cip!e$ o+ Tota! Co#tai#"e#t -y$-
te" Ee$ig#,= pre$e#te) at %&Che"&.& Gorth 4e$t 0ra#ch Meeti#g,
1979:&
Emergen&" C"&lone (eparators Two type$ o+ e"erge#cy
cyc!o#e $eparator$ are co""o#!y *$e), tho$e with a $eparate catch
ta#1 a#) tho$e with a catch ta#1 i#tegra! with the cyc!o#e $ectio#&
Cyclone separator with separate catch tank Thi$ type o+ b!ow-
)ow# $y$te", $how# i# 6ig$& 23-52 a#) 23-53, i$ +re5*e#t!y *$e) i#
che"ica! p!a#t$ where p!ot p!a# $pace i$ !i"ite)& The cyc!o#e per-
+or"$ the (apor-!i5*i) $eparatio#, whi!e the catch ta#1 acc*"*!ate$
the !i5*i) +ro" the cyc!o#e& Thi$ arra#ge"e#t a!!ow$ !ocatio# o+ the
cyc!o#e 1#oc1o*t )r*" c!o$e to the reactor $o that the !e#gth o+ the
re!ie+ )e(ice )i$charge !i#e ca# be "i#i"iKe)& The cyc!o#e ha$ i#ter-
#a!$, (ita! to it$ proper operatio#, which are )i$c*$$e) i# the +o!!owi#g
$*b$ectio#$&
Cyclone separator with integral catch tank Thi$ type o+ co#tai#-
"e#t $y$te", )epicte) i# 6ig& 23-54, i$ $i"i!ar to the a+ore"e#tio#e)
type, e/cept that the 1#oc1o*t )r*" a#) catch ta#1 are co"bi#e) i#
o#e (e$$e! $he!!& Thi$ )e$ig# i$ *$e) whe# the (apor rate i$ 5*ite high
$o that the 1#oc1o*t )r*" )ia"eter i$ !arge&
?apor 3)t
2ia"eter
2i$e#gage"e#t
Top a"- ;otto" ?iew
1:2 -
#
Mi#i")"
%#!et +o88!e
2ia"eter H -
#
?apor-9i1)i-
Aee-

)
+o88!e
Ce#ter!i#e
1(t Y -
#
eight
;a((!e *!ate
9e#gth 9
b
H 1&5 ti"e$ -
#
%#!et ;a((!e *!ateD
18 %#ch Mi#&

(
4ee 2etai! Ma0 9i1)i- 9e,e!
Co,er *!ate Top a#- ;otto"D
4i-e$ 3pe#
?orte0 ;rea'er
9i1)i- 3)t
;a((!e *!ate
eight
b
H 2 ti"e$ -
#
1:2 -
#
Mi#i")"
4i-e ?iew
F%G. 23091 Dertica! b!ow)ow# )r*"Jcatch ta#1& 9G*i)e!i#e$ +or Cre$$*re 3e!ie+ a#) .++!*e#t a#)!i#g -y$te"$, Center for
Chemical Process $afely #CCP$. of the merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers #!ChE.; copyright @ABB !ChE an% repro%"ce%
with permission0:&
F%G. 23092 Cyc!o#e $eparator with $eparate !i5*i) catch ta#1&
?apor 3)t!et
2
@
2
*

$
H 0&82
$
2
*
4'irt 2ia"eter 2
4
2
?
H 2
4
Y 22
*
9ege#-E
2
*
H %#!et 2ia"eter
2
4
H 4'irt 2ia"eter
2
?
H ?e$$e! 2ia"eter

4
H 4'irt eight

?
H ?e$$e! eight
2
@
H ?apor @0it 2ia"eter
2
2
H 9i1)i- 2rai# 2ia"eter
2
;
H Aa!$e ;otto" 2ia"eter

?
H 2&5
4
2
;
; ;
2
2
9i1)i- 3)t!et
%#!et
4ectio# ..
2
*
2
;
H 2
?
X 2
*
32
2
2
2
.
.
Aa!$e ;otto" J 4wir! ;rea'er
?iew ;;
F%G. 23093 Cyc!o#e $eparator )e$ig# )etai!$& 9G*i)e!i#e$ +or Cre$$*re 3e!ie+ a#) .++!*e#t a#)!i#g -y$te"$, Cen-
ter for Chemical Process $afely #CCP$. of the merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers #!ChE.; copyright @ABB
!ChE an% repro%"ce% with permission0:&
6uen&# $ools0Cat&# Tan)s and 6uen&# To*ers Two type$ o+
5*e#ch $y$te"$ are co""o#!y *$e)2 the 5*e#ch poo!Jcatch ta#1 9a!$o
ca!!e) pa$$i(e $cr*bber: a#) 5*e#ch tower&
="ench poolGcatch tank Thi$ type o+ $y$te", a$ $how# i# 6ig& 23-
55, i$ *$e) to co#)e#$e, coo!, react with, a#)Jor co!!ect a "i/t*re o+
!i5*i) a#) (apor$ )i$chargi#g +ro" a re!ie+ )e(ice by pa$$i#g the"
thro*gh a poo! o+ !i5*i) i# a (e$$e!& 6ee) (apor a#) !i5*i) 9i+
pre$e#t: are $parge) i#to the poo! o+ coo! !i5*i), where the (apor$
are co#)e#$e) a#) the !i5*i) i$ coo!e)& %+ the +ee) "ateria!$ are
"i$cib!e with the poo! !i5*i), they "i/ with a#) are )i!*te) by the
poo! !i5*i)A i+ #ot, the co#)e#$ate, +ee) !i5*i), a#) poo! !i5*i)
$eparate i#to !ayer$ a+ter the e"erge#cy re!ie+ e(e#t i$ o(er& The
co#)e#$e) (apor$, +ee) !i5*i), a#) 5*e#ch !i5*i) are co#tai#e) i#
the (e$$e! *#ti! they are $e#t to +i#a! )i$po$a!&
H*e#ch poo!$ ca# be *$e) +or the #e*tra!iKatio# or 1i!!i#g o+ reac-
ti(e "ateria!$& ' che"ica! reactio# ca# be 5*e#che) by the coo!i#g
e++ect i# the poo!, by the )i!*tio# e++ect i+ the reactio# "a$$ i$ "i$ci-
b!e with the poo! !i5*i), or by a 1i!!i#g or #e*tra!iKi#g age#t a))e) to
the 5*e#ch !i5*i)& 6or e/a"p!e, )i$charge o+ ch!ori#e or aci) "i/-
t*re$ ca# be #e*tra!iKe) by a))i#g $o)i*" hy)ro/i)e to the 5*e#ch
!i5*i)& owe(er, $y$te"$ i#(o!(i#g $!ow to "o)erate reactio# rate$
*$*a!!y re5*ire "ore tha# o#e co#tacti#g $tage, a#) a 5*e#ch poo!
9e5*a! to o#e $tage o#!y: "ay #ot be a)e5*ate to co"p!ete!y #e*-
tra!iKe or 1i!! the reacta#t i# the e#teri#g re!ie+ )e(ice e++!*e#t
$trea"& %# thi$ ca$e, a "*!tip!e-$tage e"erge#cy $cr*bber wi!! be
#ee)e)&
Eepe#)i#g o# the re!ie+ $trea" co"po#e#t$ 9with or witho*t #o#-
co#)e#$ab!e ga$e$: a#) 5*e#chi#g e++icie#cy, thi$ arra#ge"e#t o+te#
ob(iate$ the #ee) +or a $*b$e5*e#t $cr*bber a#)Jor +!are $tac1& The
)e$ig# o+ the 5*e#cher ar" i$ critica! to e++icie#t co#)e#$atio# a#)
a(oi)a#ce o+ water ha""er& 6ig*re 23-55 i$ the "ore co#(e#tio#a!
pa$$i(e type 5*e#ch poo! *$e) i# the che"ica! a#) #*c!ear i#)*$try&
F%G. 23098 Cyc!o#e $eparator with i#tegra! catch ta#1&
="ench tower The type $how# i# 6ig& 23-56, with a $*peri"po$e)
ba++!e p!ate $ectio#, i$ o+te# *$e) whe# co"p!ete co#)e#$atio# o+ the
i#co"i#g (apor$ i$ #ot re5*ire)& The e/iti#g (apor$ are *$*a!!y coo!e)
to 150 to 200U6 i# the ba++!e p!ate $ectio#& Thi$ type i$ o+te# *$e) i#
petro!e*" re+i#erie$&
Emergen&" !lare ("stems -i#g!e-pha$e e++!*e#t $trea"$ 9ga$e$
or (apor$: +ro" pre$$*re re!ie+ )e(ice$ are o+te# $e#t )irect!y to e"er-
ge#cy +!are$& The (aporJga$ $trea"$ +ro" ga$-!i5*i) $eparator$ are a!$o
o+te# $e#t to e"erge#cy +!are$& ."erge#cy +!are$ are $i"i!ar i# )e$ig#
to #or"a! proce$$ +!are$ 9co#ti#*o*$ +!ari#g:, b*t they are o#!y *$e) to
ha#)!e e"erge#cy re!ea$e$ 9i#ter"itte#t operatio#:&
6!are$ ca# be gro*pe) i#to two "a>or categorie$, i&e&, (ertica! a#)
horiKo#ta!&
*ertical flares The$e are $i#g!e-b*r#er co"b*$ter$ ge#era!!y ori-
e#te) to +ire *pwar)& The )i$charge poi#t i$ i# a# e!e(ate) po$itio#
re!ati(e to the $*rro*#)i#g gra)e a#)Jor #earby e5*ip"e#t& Three
type$ o+ $*pport "etho)$ are *$e) +or (ertica! +!are$2
U $elf-s"pporte%& ' "echa#ica!!y a#) $tr*ct*ra!!y )e$ig#e) ri$er
$*pport$ the +!a"e b*r#er&
U ("ye%& '# e!e(ate) +!are with the ri$er i$ $*pporte) by cab!e$&
Cab!e$ are attache) to the +!are ri$er at o#e or "ore e!e(atio#$ to
!i"it the )e+!ectio# o+ the $tr*ct*re& The cab!e$ 9g*y-wire$: are typ-
ica!!y po$itio#e) i# a tria#g*!ar p!a# to pro(i)e $tro#g $*pport&
U 3errick s"pporte%& -*pport i$ pro(i)e) by a $tee! tr*$$e) $tr*c-
t*re that $*pport$ o#e or "ore +!are ri$er$&
The "ai# co"po#e#t$ o+ a# e!e(ate) +!are $y$te" are the +!are
b*r#er with or witho*t $"o1e $*ppre$$io# capabi!ity, pi!ot9$:, pi!ot
ig#iter9$:, $*pport $tr*ct*re, a#) pipi#g& ' #*"ber o+ optio#a! +ea-
t*re$ are a(ai!ab!e, $*ch a$ pi!ot +!a"e )etector$A air $ea!$ 9b*oya#cy or
(e!ocity type:A 1#oc1o*t )r*"A +!a"eJ)eto#atio# arre$terA !i5*i) $ea!A
$"o1e $*ppre$$io# co#tro! $y$te"A b!ower9$:A +!ow, co"po$itio#, heat
co#te#t, or (i)eo "o#itori#gA !a))er$ 9cage) or with $a+ety-c!i"bi#g
$y$te": a#) p!at+or"$A )a(it +or tip re"o(a!A aircra+t war#i#g !ight$
a#) pai#ti#gA ra)iatio# heat $hie!)$A a#) rai# $hie!)$& Eetai!e) i#+or-
"atio# abo*t the$e co"po#e#t$ ca# be +o*#) i# 'C% -TE 537&
-"o1e!e$$ +!ari#g i$ re5*ire) by !aw i# the ,#ite) -tate$ 940 C63
60&18, Chap& 1: +or #or"a! proce$$ +!are$ 9co#ti#*o*$ +!ari#g:& ow-
e(er, $"o1e!e$$ +!ari#g i$ #ot re5*ire) by the .C' +or e"erge#cy +!ar-
i#g, b*t !oca! co#)itio#$ a#) reg*!atio#$ "ay re5*ire $"o1e!e$$ +!ari#g&
'ir $ea!$ 9a!$o ca!!e) p*rge re)*ctio# or ga$ $ea!$: are o+te# reco"-
"e#)e) to pre(e#t air +ro" e#teri#g the $tac1, which co*!) po$$ib!y
ca*$e +!a$hbac1$ a#) e/p!o$io#$& More i#+or"atio# abo*t air $ea!$ ca#
be +o*#) i# 'C% 3C 521 92007: a#) the '%Ch.-CCC- boo1 ("i%e-
lines for Press"re 4elief an% Effl"ent &an%ling $ystems0
&ori'ontal flares ' horiKo#ta! +!are ca# be either a# e#c!o$e)
gro*#) +!are or a# ope# +ie!) gro*#) +!are 9a!$o ca!!e) a "atri/ +!are:&
nclose# $roun# flares are "o$t co""o#!y *$e) a$ a $*pp!e"e#t
to a# e!e(ate) +!are o# the $a"e re!ie+ $y$te"& The pri"ary rea$o# +or
a# e#c!o$e) gro*#) +!are i$ to re)*ce the (i$*a! i"pact o+ +!are) ga$
co"b*$tio# o# a #earby co""*#ity& They are o+te# *$e) whe# it i$
)e$irab!e that a!! or part o+ a +!are !oa) be )i$po$e) o+ i# a way that
ca*$e$ the "i#i"*" o+ )i$t*rba#ce to the i""e)iate !oca!ity& They
o++er "a#y a)(a#tage$ i# co"pari$o# to e!e(ate) +!are$A there i$ #o
$"o1e, #o (i$ib!e +!a"e, #o o)or, #o ob>ectio#ab!e #oi$e, a#) #o ther-
"a! ra)iatio# 9heat $hie!): prob!e"$& .#c!o$e) gro*#) +!are$ are typi-
ca!!y *$e) +or #or"a! proce$$ +!ow 9co#ti#*o*$: +!ari#g, b*t with rece#t
tech#ica! a)(a#ce$ they are #ow a!$o *$e) +or e"erge#cy +!ari#g
9'%Ch.-CCC-, 1998:&
F%G. 23099 H*e#ch ta#1Jcatch ta#1&
.#c!o$e) gro*#) +!are$ b*r# the e++!*e#t ga$ i# "*!tip!e $pecia!!y
)e$ig#e) "*!titip b*r#er$ p!ace) a$ #ear to the gro*#) a$ practicab!e
to e#$*re goo) operatio#& The re$*!ti#g +!a"e$ are hi))e# +ro" $ight
by a $*rro*#)i#g wa!! or cha"ber& The top o+ the cha"ber i$ ope# to
the at"o$phere, a#) a!!owa#ce i$ "a)e i# the botto" o+ the cha"ber
to per"it i#gre$$ o+ air +or co"b*$tio#& ;(era!! height$ ca# (ary
accor)i#g to the #ee)$ o+ the $peci+ic !ocatio#& %# $o"e !ocatio#$, a
!ow pro+i!e o+ perhap$ 10 " "ay be "a#)ate), whi!e i# other$ a# e!e-
(ate) )i$charge "ay be #ee)e) to e#$*re a $ati$+actory )ow#wi#) tra-
>ectory +or the +!*e ga$e$& %t i$ co""o# +or the cha"ber to be
$*rro*#)e) by a wi#) +e#ce to "o)i+y the e++ect o+ cro$$wi#)$ o# the
co"b*$tio# proce$$ a#) to pre(e#t *#a*thoriKe) acce$$&
'# e#c!o$e) gro*#) +!are $y$te" ha$ a #*"ber o+ 1ey co"po#e#t$2
co"b*$tio# cha"ber, b*r#er$, pipi#g $y$te", wi#) +e#ce, a#) opera-
tio#a! a#) $a+ety co#tro!$& More )etai!$ abo*t e#c!o$e) gro*#) +!are
$y$te" co"po#e#t$ are gi(e# i# 'C% -TE 537&
.#c!o$e) gro*#) +!are$ ca# be *$e) to b*r# to/ic ga$e$, b*t $i#ce
a#y #o#co"b*$te) re!ea$e wo*!) be #ear the gro*#), $pecia! $a+ety
)i$per$io# $y$te"$ a#) "ore $tri#ge#t "o#itori#g a#) co#tro! i#$tr*-
"e#tatio# are *$*a!!y pro(i)e) i# thi$ app!icatio#&
There i$ a practica! eco#o"ica! !i"it to the $iKe o+ e#c!o$e) gro*#)
+!are$& %+ the "a/i"*" e++!*e#t re!ie+ rate e/cee)$ 100 to#$Jh, the +ea-
$ibi!ity o+ a# e#c!o$e) gro*#) +!are beco"e$ 5*e$tio#ab!e, a#) at 500
to#$Jh, it i$ i"practica! 9'%Ch.-CCC-, 1998:&
.-en fiel# $roun# flares 9a!$o ca!!e) /atri= flares: are $o"e-
ti"e$ *$e) i# !ie* o+ e!e(ate) +!are$, "o$t co""o#!y, a!tho*gh #ot
e/c!*$i(e!y, i# re"ote !ocatio#$ with re!ati(e!y !ow pop*!atio# )e#$ity&
' pri"ary rea$o# +or *$e o+ a# ope# +ie!) gro*#) 9"atri/: +!are i$ to
re)*ce the (i$*a! i"pact o+ +!are) ga$ co"b*$tio# i# the "a##er o+ a#
e#c!o$e) gro*#) +!are& The ope# +ie!) gro*#) 9"atri/: +!are, howe(er,
ha$ a $ig#i+ica#t!y !arger capacity tha# co*!) be practica!!y ha#)!e) i#
a +*r#ace!i1e $tr*ct*re, a#) the (i$*a! $hie!)i#g i$ pro(i)e) by ta!!
+e#ci#g !ocate) $o"e )i$ta#ce away +ro" the b*r#er$ the"$e!(e$ $o
that the +e#ce e#c!o$e$ a $"a!! <+ie!)&=
'# ope# +ie!) 9"atri/: gro*#) +!are co#$i$t$ o+ a #*"ber o+ $tage)
"*!tib*r#er$ "o*#te) o# a $erie$ o+ horiKo#ta! pipe$, arra#ge) i#
"a#i+o!)$, i# a !arge +ie!) or pit& -"o1e!e$$ or #o#$"o1e!e$$ +!ari#g ca#
be pro(i)e)& The "ai# $tr*ct*ra! a#) phy$ica! )e$ig# i$$*e$ are co#-
cer#e) with protecti#g the pipi#g a#) "a#i+o!)$ i#$i)e the +!are +ie!)
+ro" the e++ect$ o+ high ra)ia#t heat !oa)$, whi!e $ti!! per"itti#g #or-
"a! ther"a! e/pa#$io#$& More i#+or"atio# abo*t gro*#) +!are co"po-
#e#t$ i$ gi(e# i# 'C% -TE 537&
Emergen&" (&rubbers (Absorbers) ."erge#cy re!ie+ e++!*e#t
$trea"$ are o+te# $e#t to $cr*bber$ 9a!$o ca!!e) ab$orber$, co!*"#$, or
tower$: +or +i#a! )i$po$a! by ab$orptio# o+ the ga$ i#to a $o!(e#t& -o"e
ga$e$ or (apor$ ca# be re"o(e) by phy$ica! ab$orptio#& ;ther ga$e$ or
(apor$ ca# be re"o(e) by che"ica! ab$orptio# 9reactio# o+ the (e#t
ga$J(apor i#to a !i5*i) that react$ with it:&
' typica! e"erge#cy $cr*bber $y$te" co#$i$t$ o+ a $cr*bbi#g co!-
*"# 9o+te# +i!!e) with pac1i#g:, recirc*!ati#g !i5*i) p*"p$, $o!(e#t
coo!er, a#) i# $o"e ca$e$ 9where the e#teri#g e++!*e#t ga$J(apor i$ at
a !ow pre$$*re: e/ha*$t b!ower$ 9$ee 6ig& 23-57:& 3e)*#)a#t e5*ip-
"e#t a#) i#$tr*"e#tatio# i$ *$*a!!y pro(i)e) to e#$*re re!iab!e $cr*b-
ber operatio# at a!! ti"e$&
F%G. 2309< H*e#ch ta#1 with )irect-co#tact ba++!e tray $ectio#&
Fui-/ent Selection Criteria an# Gui#elines ' #*"ber o+
+actor$ $ho*!) be co#$i)ere) to )eter"i#e whe# to $e!ect which type
o+ (aporJga$J$o!i)-!i5*i) $eparator 9b!ow)ow# )r*" or cyc!o#e $epa-
rator: to ha#)!e a "*!tipha$e $trea" +ro" a re!ie+ )e(ice, a#) which
+i#a! co#tro! or )e$tr*ctio# e5*ip"e#t 9e"erge#cy +!are, e"erge#cy
$cr*bber, or 5*e#ch poo!Jcatch ta#1: $ho*!) be $e!ecte)& The$e +ac-
tor$ i#c!*)e the p!ot p!a# $pace a(ai!ab!e, the operati#g !i"itatio#$ o+
each type, a#) the phy$icoche"ica! propertie$ o+ the $trea"&
The $e!ectio# o+ (aporJga$J$o!i)-!i5*i) $eparator$ a#) +i#a! co#tro!
a#) )e$tr*ctio# e5*ip"e#t ca# be he!pe) by co#$i)eri#g the a)(a#-
tage$ a#) )i$a)(a#tage$ o+ each, a$ gi(e# be!ow&
.ravit" (eparators (1ori,ontal and Verti&al rums0Cat&#
Tan)s)
')(a#tage$2
M i$tory o+ goo) per+or"a#ce&
M Ca$$i(e&
M ./ce!!e#t t*r#)ow# *p to the "a/i"*" )e$ig# +!owA !ower (apor
+!ow i"pro(e$ $eparatio# e++ecti(e#e$$&
M Fow pre$$*re )rop&
M Ca# ha#)!e high !i5*i) !oa)i#g a#) pro(i)e !arge ho!)*p o+ !i5*i)&
M Ca# be co"bi#e) with $eco#)ary (apor-!i5*i) $eparator $*ch a$
(a#e i"pi#ge"e#t type&
M Ca# ha#)!e high-(i$co$ity !i5*i)$&
M Mo)erate co$t&
Ei$a)(a#tage$2
M May be !arge&
M Ca##ot eco#o"ica!!y re"o(e !ow-)e#$ity 9e&g&, !ight hy)rocarbo#:
)rop!et$ $"a!!er tha# abo*t 150 h"&
M Ca##ot ha#)!e $tab!e +oa"$&
M 3eacti#g !i5*i)$ "ay co#ti#*e to react i# $eparator&
C"&lones
')(a#tage$2
M Ca# re"o(e o(er 99 perce#t abo(e 20-h" )rop!et )ia"eter i# high
!i5*i)-!oa)i#g $it*atio#$&
M -o"e )e$ig#$ ab!e to ha#)!e +oa"y !i5*i)$ *#)er $o"e co#)i-
tio#$&
M Ca$$i(e&
M May be ab!e to ha#)!e $trea"$ co#tai#i#g $o!i)$ or with +o*!i#g te#-
)e#cie$&
M 3e!ati(e!y !ow capita! co$t&
Ei$a)(a#tage$2
M Cer+or"a#ce #ot a$ we!! )e+i#e) +or e"erge#cy $er(ice$ a$ #or"a!
proce$$ cyc!o#e$&
M Fitt!e )ata o# ha#)!i#g +oa"y or high-(i$co$ity "i/t*re$&
M May re5*ire higher pre$$*re )rop tha# gra(ity $eparator$&
6uen&# $ool Tan)s0Cat&# Tan)s
')(a#tage$2
M Ca$$i(e, b*t "*$t ha(e $y$te" to (eri+y proper !i5*i) !e(e!, a#)
co"po$itio# i+ poo! !i5*i) i$ *$e) a$ a #e*tra!iKi#g or 1i!! !i5*i)&
M Ca# ha#)!e two-pha$e, +oa"y, a#) high-(i$co$ity !i5*i)$&
M Ca# ha#)!e high-+!ow-rate )i$charge$&
M Ca# ha#)!e high !i5*i) !oa)i#g with $pecia! $parger )e$ig#&
M Ca# co#tai# reactio#-$toppi#g or -#e*tra!iKi#g che"ica!$ a#)
a#ti+oa" age#t$&
M Co"p!ete co#tai#"e#t po$$ib!e at !ow !e(e!$ o+ #o#co#)e#$ab!e$&
M Ca# *$e (ariety o+ 5*e#ch !i5*i)$&
Ei$a)(a#tage$2
M Ci!ot-p!a#t )e"o#$tratio# or $ca!e-*p te$t po$$ib!y #ee)e)&
M 3e5*ire$ $*++icie#t )i$charge pre$$*re to pro(i)e a)e5*ate pre$-
$*re )rop 9at !ea$t 10 p$ig: acro$$ $parger a#) to o(erco"e $tatic
hea) o+ !i5*i) i# poo!&
M -parger pipi#g to be $*pporte) to co#tro! (ibratio# a#) the $*)-
)e#!y app!ie) !oa) +ro" the re!ie+ )i$charge&
M -o"e pro(e# $parger )e$ig#$ are proprietary&
M May #ot be $*itab!e +or $y$te"$ with $!ow to "o)erate reactio#
rate$ whe# *$e) a$ a# ab$orber&
M %+ (e#te), e#trai#"e#t a#) (apor "ay be carrie) o*t o+ the
(e$$e!&
To .t"o$phere
or A!are 4y$te"
3((-Ga$ .#a!y8er
M
@0ha)$t ;!ower$ or Aa#$
5optio#a!D )$e o#!y (or !ow-pre$$)re app!icatio#$7
>#i#terr)ptab!e *ower 4)pp!y
M
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4o!,e#t Circ)!atio#
*)"p$
M
>#i#terr)ptab!e *ower 4)pp!y
F%G. 2309B -che"atic o+ a# e"erge#cy $cr*bber 9ab$orber: $y$te"& 9G*i)e!i#e$ +or Cre$$*re 3e!ie+ a#) .++!*e#t a#)!i#g -y$te"$, Center for
Chemical Process $afely #CCP$. of the merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers #!ChE.; copyright @ABB !ChE an% repro%"ce% with permission0:&
M Go#co#)e#$ab!e$ i# the +ee) wi!! !ower reco(ery e++icie#cy, a#)
#ee) to be (e#te)&
M May re5*ire !arge poo! to ha#)!e !ower-boi!i#g "ateria!$&
Emergen&" !lares
')(a#tage$2
M Ca# )e$troy o(er 98 perce#t o+ co"b*$tib!e$&
M ./peri"e#ta! te$t$ #ot re5*ire) +or "o$t che"ica!$&
M Co""ercia!!y pro(e# tech#o!ogy&
M Dery re!iab!eNo#$trea" o(er 99 perce#t&
M Goo) t*r#)ow# ratio&
M -"o1e!e$$ operatio# #ot #ee)e) +or e"erge#cy +!are$ 9o#!y
re5*ire) +or co#ti#*o*$ +!are$:&
M Go ge#eratio# o+ appreciab!e !i5*i) wa$te a$ wo*!) be the ca$e
+or a 5*e#ch poo! or a# e"erge#cy $cr*bber, b*t 1#oc1o*t )r*"
re5*ire) *p$trea" o+ the +!are to re"o(e !i5*i)$ a#) a#y co#-
)e#$ate&
M May be *$e) a$ +i#a! $tep a+ter other co#tro! e5*ip"e#t, e&g&, e"er-
ge#cy $cr*bber or 5*e#ch poo!&
Ei$a)(a#tage$2
M May #ot be $*itab!e +or $o"e corro$i(e che"ica!$ 9e&g&, "o$t ch!o-
ri#e-co#tai#i#g co"po*#)$:&
M May be $*b>ect to +!a"eo*t&
M 3e5*ire) "i#i"*" heati#g (a!*e o+ 300 0t*J-C6 +or #o#a$$i$te)
+!are$, or 200 0t*J-C6 +or a$$i$te) +!are$&
M Got pa$$i(eA re5*ire co#ti#*o*$ pi!ot +*e!, e!ectricity, o/yge# a#a-
!yKer$ +or co!!ectio# hea)er$, a#) i#$tr*"e#tatio#&
M 3e5*ire bac1*p $y$te"$ to "o#itor +!a"e a#) pro(i)e pi!ot b*r#i#g&
M Care #ee)e) #ot to +ee) +oa"$ or !i5*i)$ i#to the +!are $tac1&
M 0eca*$e o+ "ai#te#a#ce o+ +!are tip o# e!e(ate) +!are$ 9a#) e(e#
$o"e ope# gro*#) a#) e#c!o$e) gro*#) +!are$:, cra#e or he!i-
copter re5*ire) po$$ib!y +or acce$$& Co##ectio# o+te# #ee)e) +or
bac1*p +!are $y$te", i&e&, portab!e trai!er +!are or other te"porary
+!are&
M .!e(ate) +!are$ with e/ce$$i(e !ight, #oi$e, or o)or$ a po$$ib!e p*b-
!ic #*i$a#ce i# $o"e $it*atio#$ a#) !oca!e$&
Emergen&" (&rubbers
')(a#tage$2
M -o*#) ba$i$ +or tech#o!ogy&
M igh t*r#)ow# ratio at co#$ta#t $cr*bbi#g !i5*i) +!ow rate&
M Co*#terc*rre#t operatio# that ca# attai# high ab$orptio# 9re"o(a!:
e++icie#cy a#) !ow o*t!et co#ce#tratio# o+ $o!*te&
M Ca# ha#)!e two-pha$e "i/t*re$&
M May be ab!e to ha#)!e *#$tab!e +oa"$ 9to be co#+ir"e) by
te$ti#g:&
M -o"e type$ o+ $cr*bber$ that ca# ha#)!e +o*!i#g $trea"$, a#) ba++!e
tray$ that ca# ha#)!e +o*!i#g a#) $o!i)$-co#tai#i#g $trea"$&
M Ca# be *$e) +or #e*tra!iKatio# o+ reacti(e "ateria!$&
M Ge#era!!y *$e) o#!y +or ga$J(apor +ee), b*t ca# ha#)!e !i5*i) by *$e
o+ a $eparator $ectio# i# the botto" o+ the tower&
Ei$a)(a#tage$2
M Co$$ib!e #ee) +or $pe#t $o!(e#t to be treate) or )i$po$e) o+ a+ter the
e"erge#cy re!ea$e&
M Got pa$$i(e& ,ti!itie$ a#) proce$$ co#tro! i#$tr*"e#tatio# "*$t be
a(ai!ab!e at a!! ti"e$, a#) "*$t ha(e a $*++icie#t a#) re!iab!e $*pp!y
o+ +re$h $o!(e#t +or the e/pecte) )*ratio# o+ the e"erge#cy&
M May #ee) !arge )ia"eter to a(oi) +!oo)i#g&
M Co$$ib!e re$trictio# o+ tray tower$ to #o#+o*!i#g "ateria!$ that are
+ree o+ $*$pe#)e) $o!i)$&
M May #ee) co#ti#*o*$ +!ow o+ $cr*bbi#g $o!(e#t +or the $cr*bber to
be e++ecti(e at the $tart o+ the e++!*e#t +!ow&
M ("i%elines for Press"re 4elief an% Effl"ent &an%ling $ystems
9'%Ch.-CCC-, 1998: co#tai#$ "ore i#+or"atio# abo*t $e!ectio#
criteria a#) +actor$ that a++ect the"&
Si,in$ an# Desi$n of Fui-/ent Thi$ $*b$ectio# pre$e#t$
$iKi#g "etho)$ a#) )e$ig# criteria +or the )e$ig# o+ (aporJga$J$o!i)-
!i5*i) $eparator$ +or #or"a! (apor-!i5*i) $y$te"$ 9!ow-(i$co$ity a#)
#o#+oa"y or *#$tab!e +oa"$:& They are #ot app!icab!e *$*a!!y to
high-(i$co$ity 9#ewto#ia# a#) #o##ewto#ia#: !i5*i)$ a#)Jor $y$te"$
that e/hibit $*r+ace-acti(e +oa"i#g beha(ior, a$ i#$*++icie#t i#+or"a-
tio# i$ a(ai!ab!e at pre$e#t re!ati#g to the $eparatio# e++icie#cy +or
the$e type$ o+ e5*ip"e#t& Ee$ig# i#+or"atio# i$ a!$o pre$e#te) +or
5*e#ch poo! ta#1$ which *$*a!!y ca# ha#)!e high-(i$co$ity !i5*i)$ a$
we!! a$ $tab!e +oa"$, a#) +or +i#a! (aporJga$ co#tro! or )e$tr*ctio#
e5*ip"e#t&
Vapor-Liquid .ravit" (eparator esign !undamentals The
critica! +actor$ i# the per+or"a#ce o+ a horiKo#ta! $eparator are the
(apor re$i)e#ce ti"e a#) the $ett!i#g rate o+ the !i5*i) )rop!et$& ow-
e(er, two other +actor$ e#ter i#to the )e$ig#Nthe (apor (e!ocity "*$t
be !i"ite) to a(oi) !i5*i) e#trai#"e#t, a#) there "*$t be $*++icie#t
+reeboar) withi# the (e$$e! to a!!ow +or a +ee) )i$trib*tor& 6or (ertica!
$eparator$, the )e$ig# i$ ba$e) o# a (apor (e!ocity that "*$t be !e$$
tha# the $ett!i#g (e!ocity o+ the $"a!!e$t )rop!et that i$ to be co!!ecte),
with )*e a!!owa#ce +or t*rb*!e#ce a#) "a!)i$trib*tio# o+ the +ee)&
The (apor re$i)e#ce ti"e i$ a +*#ctio# o+ the (apor +!ow rate 9"a$$:,
(apor )e#$ity, a#) (o!*"e o+ (apor $pace i# the $eparator, ba$e) o#
the +o!!owi#g2
M The (apor +!ow rate 9"a$$: i$ the $*" o+ the (apor +ee) to the $ep-
arator a#) a#y (apor ge#erate) by +!a$hi#g o+ the !i5*i) a$ the +ee)
e#ter$ the $eparator&
M The (apor )e#$ity )epe#)$ o# the co"po$itio#$ o+ the (apor +e)
a#) the (apor ge#erate), a#) the pre$$*re a#) te"perat*re withi#
the $eparator& The pre$$*re i# the $eparator i$ e$$e#tia!!y the $*" o+
the pre$$*re )rop +ro" the o*t!et o+ the $eparator to the *!ti"ate
)i$po$a! poi#t o+ the e++!*e#t a#) the pre$$*re at the )ow#$trea"
)i$charge !ocatio# 9e&g&, the at"o$phere:&
M The (apor (o!*"e i$ the tota! (o!*"e o+ the $eparator "i#*$ the
(o!*"e o+ the !i5*i) co!!ecte)A a#) the (o!*"e o+ !i5*i) i$ the (o!-
*"e co!!ecte) 9$eparate): +ro" the +ee) "i#*$ the (o!*"e o+ !i5-
*i) +!a$he) whe# the $tatic pre$$*re )ecrea$e$ a$ the +!ow rate
)ec!i#e$& The "a/i"*" (o!*"e o+ !i5*i) co!!ecte) i$ a!$o a +*#c-
tio# o+ pre$$*reNa greater (o!*"e i$ co!!ecte) at higher pre$$*re,
a#) ti"e&
1ori,ontal Blo*do*n rum0Cat&# Tan) 9-ee 6ig& 23-49&:
The two "ai# criteria *$e) i# $iKi#g horiKo#ta! b!ow)ow# )r*"$ or
catch ta#1$ are a$ +o!!ow$2
1& The )ia"eter "*$t be $*++icie#t to pro(i)e goo) (apor-!i5*i)
$eparatio#&
2& The tota! (o!*"e "*$t be $*++icie#t to ho!) the e$ti"ate)
a"o*#t o+ !i5*i) carryo(er +ro" the reactor or proce$$ (e$$e!& 6or a
+oa"y )i$charge, the ho!)i#g (o!*"e $ho*!) be greater tha# the reac-
tor or proce$$ (e$$e! (o!*"e 9to be )i$c*$$e) be!ow:&
The reco""e#)e) "etho) i$ +ro" ("i%elines for Press"re 4elief
an% Effl"ent &an%ling $ystems 9'%Ch.-CCC-, 1998:& %t i$ a#
i"pro(e"e#t o(er the "etho) pre$e#te) i# the 7th e)itio# o+ thi$
a#)boo1& The proce)*re i#(o!(e$ ca!c*!ati#g a ter"i#a! (e!ocity
+or a $e!ecte) )rop!et $iKe, the# pro(i)i#g e#o*gh re$i)e#ce ti"e i#
the (apor $pace to a!!ow the )rop!et$ to +a!! +ro" the top o+ the (e$-
$e! to the !e(e! o+ !i5*i) co!!ecte)& '!$o, the (apor (e!ocity i# the $ep-
arator "*$t #ot e/cee) the (a!*e abo(e which !i5*i) "ay be
e#trai#e) +ro" the !i5*i) $*r+ace i# the $eparator& The ta#1 i$ treate)
a$ a $i"p!e horiKo#ta! cy!i#)er, #eg!ecti#g the (o!*"e o+ !i5*i) i# the
hea)$&
;ther approache$ +or $iKi#g a horiKo#ta! $eparator 9b!ow)ow#
)r*": are gi(e# i# ("i%elines for Press"re 4elief an% Effl"ent &an%ling
$ystems 9'%Ch.-CCC-, 1998: a#) 'C% 3C 521 92007:&
Verti&al Blo*do*n rum0Cat&# Tan) 9-ee 6ig& 23-51&: -o"e
o+ the ba$ic e5*atio#$ *$e) +or $iKi#g horiKo#ta! $eparator$ ca# be
app!ie) to (ertica! $eparator$A howe(er, the $*per+icia! (apor (e!ocity
+or (ertica! $eparator$ i$ ba$e) o# the tota! (e$$e! cro$$-$ectio#a! area,
a#) the (apor (e!ocity "*$t be !e$$ tha# the ter"i#a! $ett!i#g (e!ocity
+or the )rop!et $iKe $e!ecte) a$ the ba$i$ o+ )e$ig#&
The reco""e#)e) )e$ig# proce)*re i$ a!$o +ro" ("i%elines for
Press"re 4elief an% Effl"ent &an%ling $ystems 9'%Ch.-CCC-, 1998:&
'$ with a horiKo#ta! $eparator, the a$$*"e) (a!*e o+ 1 i$ e/pecte) to
be $*itab!e +or "o$t (ertica! $eparator$ i# e"erge#cy re!ie+ $er(ice$&
owe(er, i+ it i$ #ece$$ary to re"o(e )rop!et$ $"a!!er tha# 300 to 600
h", the# !ower (a!*e$ o+ 1 $ho*!) be *$e)&
%ultirea&tor ?no&)out rum0Cat&# Tan) The area #ee)e)
+or (apor )i$e#gagi#g i$ ca!c*!ate) by the e5*atio#$ gi(e# ear!ier i#
the $ectio# o# horiKo#ta! b!ow)ow# )r*"$& The )ia"eter a#) !e#gth
9or height: are )eter"i#e) by co#$i)eri#g a #*"ber o+ +actor$2
1& The !e#gth $ho*!) be $*++icie#t to e/te#) beyo#) the !ocatio#$ o+
the reactor$ )i$chargi#g i#to the (e$$e! $o a$ to $i"p!i+y )i$charge pipe
r*#$ 9+or a horiKo#ta! (e$$e!:&
2& The height $ho*!) #ot great!y e/cee) the height o+ the b*i!)i#g
9+or (ertica! (e$$e!$:&
3& The )ia"eter $ho*!) be $*++icie#t to a!!ow atte#*atio# o+ the
$hoc1 wa(e !ea(i#g the )e+!ector p!ate&
4& The )ia"eter $ho*!) be $*++icie#t to a!!ow i#$ta!!atio# o+ the
pipe$ a#) )e+!ector p!ate$ i# $*ch a way a$ #ot to i#ter+ere )irect!y
with o#e a#other 9partic*!ar!y i"porta#t +or (ertica! (e$$e!$:&
5& The co$t o+ pre$$*re (e$$e!$ i#crea$e$ a$ the )ia"eter i#crea$e$&
6& '# *pper !i"it to the )ia"eter i$ $et by the #ee) to tra#$port
co"p!ete cy!i#)rica! $ectio#$ +ro" the "a#*+act*rer to the $ite&
7& The (o!*"e o+ !i5*i) i# the reactor or reactor$ 9a$$*"i#g "ore
tha# o#e (e#t$ at the $a"e ti"e: "*$t be )eter"i#e)&
%e&#ani&al esign Considerations The paper by -peech!y
et a!& 9<Cri#cip!e$ o+ Tota! Co#tai#"e#t -y$te" Ee$ig#,= pre$e#te) at
%& Che"& .& Gorthwe$ter# 0ra#ch Meeti#g, 1979: )i$c*$$e$ a #*"ber
o+ perti#e#t )e$ig# +eat*re$2
1& .ach (e#t )e(ice )i$charge pipe i$ e/te#)e) i#to the (e$$e!, a#)
it$ e#) i$ +itte) with a )e+!ector )e(ice& Thi$ )i$per$e$ the >et $trea" o+
$o!i)$ 9cata!y$t: a#) !i5*i)$ )i$charge) a#) )i$$ipate$ thi$ +orce, which
$ho*!) otherwi$e be e/erte) o# the (e$$e! wa!! i""e)iate!y oppo$ite&
2& The )e+!ector )e(ice 9ba++!e p!ate: "*$t be care+*!!y )e$ig#e) a$
)e$cribe) by 4oo)$ 9Proc0 !nst0 Mech0 Engrs0 180, Cart 3L2 245O259,
1965O1966:&
3& %$o!ate the catch ta#1 +ro" both reactio# !oa)$ a#) +orce$ ge#er-
ate) by ther"a! e/pa#$io# o+ the pipe$A the pipe$ ca# be )e$ig#e) to
e#ter the (e$$e! thro*gh a $!i)i#g g!a#)& Eepe#)i#g o# !ayo*t, (e$$e!$
that te#) to ha(e $horter, $ti++er pipe$ betwee# the b*i!)i#g a#) the
(e$$e! "ay a!$o re5*ire +!e/ib!e be!!ow$ to be i#corporate) i# the pipe$&
4& There are *$*a!!y $e(era! reactor$ !i#1e) to a $i#g!e catch ta#1&
To e#$*re that r*pt*re o+ a )i$1 o# o#e reactor )oe$ #ot a++ect the
other$, each reactor i$ +itte) with a )o*b!e-r*pt*re )i$1 a$$e"b!y& The
*$e o+ )o*b!e-r*pt*re )i$1$ i# thi$ app!icatio# re5*ire$ i#$ta!!atio# o+
a !ea1 )etectio# )e(ice i# the $pace betwee# the two )i$1$&
.ravit" (eparator (afet" Considerations and !eatures '
pre$$*re re!ie+ )e(ice "ay be re5*ire) o# (apor-!i5*i) gra(ity $epara-
tor$, ba$e) o# the +o!!owi#g a$$*"ptio#$2
M ./ter#a! +ire e/po$*re, i+ the (apor o*t!et i$ i#a)e5*ate!y $iKe) +or
+ire re!ie+&
M The (e$$e! o*t!et$ co*!) be c!o$e)&
M ' che"ica! reactio# co*!) co#ti#*e i# the 1#oc1o*t )r*"Jcatch ta#1&
The pre$$*re re!ie+ )e(ice $ho*!) be e(a!*ate) a#) $iKe) i# accor-
)a#ce with the !ate$t i#)*$try $ta#)ar)$ 9i&e&, E%.3-, 'C%, G6C':&
'# ope# pa$$age 9#oKK!e or !i#e: +ro" the $eparator to the at"o$phere
"ay be co#$i)ere) a$ the pre$$*re re!ie+ )e(ice pro(i)e) that it "eet$
the re!ie(i#g capacity re5*ire"e#t$ o+ the '-M. 0oi!er a#) Cre$$*re
De$$e! Co)e 90CDC:&
6reeKe protectio# i$ #ot #or"a!!y pro(i)e) i# $eparator$ i#te#)e)
$o!e!y +or e"erge#cy re!ea$e $er(iceA howe(er, occa$io#a!!y, coi!$ or a
>ac1et are *$e) to 1eep high-(i$co$ity !i5*i)$ +!owab!e, or to boi! o++
(o!ati!e co"po#e#t$& %+ i#ter#a! coi!$ or a heati#g >ac1et i$ *$e), it
$ho*!) be recog#iKe) that the $o*rce o+ heat "ight i#itiate a che"ica!
reactio# or i#crea$e it$ rate& %#ter#a! heati#g coi!$ $ho*!) be
M Ee$ig#e) +or co"p!ete )rai#age&
M Cro(i)e) with b!oc1 (a!(e$ to $h*t o++ the $o*rce o+ heat&
M Ee$ig#e) with a ge#ero*$ corro$io# a!!owa#ce&
M 0race) to with$ta#) i"pi#ge"e#t by the re!ie+ e++!*e#t $trea"&
'!$o the ca!c*!ate) !i5*i) !e(e! i# the $eparator $ho*!) be correcte)
+or the (o!*"e o+ the i#ter#a! coi!$, a#) a hee! o+ $o!(e#t "ight be
retai#e) i# the $eparator to pre(e#t +reeKi#g or to )i$$o!(e a#y co"-
po#e#t$ that ca# $o!i)i+y or +reeKe&
.ravit" (eparator Vessel esign and Instrumentation -o"e
o+ or a!! the +o!!owi#g +eat*re$ "ight be appropriate i# $e!ecte) $it*a-
tio#$ Pa!$o $ee 'C% 3C 52192007:Q2
M Fi5*i) !e(e! i#)icator&
M igh a#) !ow !e(e! a!ar"$&
M Te"perat*re i#)icator 9with high-te"perat*re a!ar" i+ )ee"e)
#ece$$ary:&
M Cre$$*re ga*ge&
M Cre$$*re re!ie+ )e(ice&
M Ma#ho!e9$: +or ta#1 e#try a#) c!ea#i#g&
M C*"p +or tra#$+erri#g the acc*"*!ate) !i5*i) to $*b$e5*e#t
rewor1, reco(ery, or )i$po$a!&
M '#ti(orte/ ba++!e abo(e the !i5*i) o*t!et to the p*"p&
M 0raci#g o+ wa!! $ti++e#er$ to a!!ow +or po$$ib!e <>et +orce= i"pi#ge-
"e#t o# the (e$$e! wa!!, a#) +or i#ter"itte#t b*++eti#g a#) (ibratio#
i+ two-pha$e $!*g +!ow ca# occ*r&
6or $eparator$ that #or"a!!y operate at abo*t at"o$pheric pre$-
$*re, co#$i)er )e$ig#i#g the (e$$e! +or 50 or 75 p$ig "i#i"*" M'4C
to a(oi) (e$$e! )a"age by a# i#ter#a! )e+!agratio#& 6or higher #or"a!
operati#g pre$$*re$, the )e$ig# ba$i$ $ho*!) be a)>*$te) accor)i#g!y,
co#$i$te#t with the '-M. 0CDC, G6C' 68, a#) G6C' 69&
%t $ho*!) be rea!iKe) that the $eparator "ay #ot be *$e) +or !o#g
perio)$, a#) the proce$$ co#tro! i#$tr*"e#tatio# a#) a*/i!iarie$ "*$t
recei(e reg*!ar i#$pectio#, te$ti#g, a#) "ai#te#a#ce&
Emergen&" C"&lone (eparators -iKi#g o+ cyc!o#e $eparator$ to
ha#)!e *#$tea)y-$tate )i$charge +ro" e"erge#cy pre$$*re re!ie+
)e(ice$ i$ $o"ewhat )i++ere#t +ro" #or"a! $tea)y-$tate $er(ice
9proce$$ cyc!o#e$:& ."erge#cy cyc!o#e$ are )e$ig#e) *$*a!!y +or
higher i#!et (e!ocity a#) pre$$*re )rop& %#!et (e!ocity a#) cyc!o#e pre$-
$*re )rop are !i"ite) o#!y by the a!!owab!e bac1pre$$*re o# the pre$-
$*re re!ie+ )e(ice& ."erge#cy cyc!o#e $eparator )e$ig#$ "ay a!!ow
$o"e e#trai#e) "i$t or $"a!! )rop!et$ to !ea(e the cyc!o#e& Thi$ ca# be
acceptab!e i+ the co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ the re!ea$e o+ the )rop!et$ are #ot
$ig#i+ica#t&
."erge#cy cyc!o#e$ o+te# ha#)!e +!a$hi#g (apor-!i5*i) "i/t*re$,
a#) "ore (apor "ay be ge#erate) +ro" +!a$hi#g !i5*i) beca*$e o+ the
pre$$*re )rop i# the cyc!o#eA th*$ the "a$$ +!ow rate o+ (apor !ea(i#g
the cyc!o#e i$ o+te# greater tha# that e#teri#g& The cyc!o#e $iKe i$
)eter"i#e) by the o*t!et (apor (o!*"etric +!ow rate& -i#ce the )i$-
charge +!ow rate a#) ratio o+ (apor to !i5*i) o+te# (ary, the cyc!o#e
)e$ig# ca!c*!atio#$ $ho*!) be "a)e +or co#)itio#$ occ*rri#g at (ario*$
ti"e$ )*ri#g the o(erpre$$*re e(e#t&
Cyclone separator with separate catch tank 9-ee 6ig$& 23-52 a#)
23-53&: The $iKi#g o+ a cyc!o#e 1#oc1o*t )r*" +or e"erge#cy re!ie+
$y$te"$ i$ $o"ewhat )i++ere#t +ro" that o+ a cyc!o#e $eparator +or #or-
"a! proce$$ $er(ice +or the +o!!owi#g rea$o#$2
1& %# #or"a! proce$$ $er(ice, the $*per+icia! (apor (e!ocity at the
i#!et o+ ta#ge#tia!-e#try (apor-!i5*i) $eparator$ i$ !i"ite) to abo*t 120
to 150 +tJ$& igher (e!ocitie$ "ay !ea) to
a0 ./ce$$i(e pre$$*re )rop i# the $eparator a#) i# the i#!et pipi#g&
b0 Ge#eratio# o+ +i#e "i$t i# the i#!et pipi#g, which e$cape$ co!!ec-
tio# i# the $eparator&
2& %#!et (e!ocity re$trictio#$ )o #ot app!y i# the )e$ig# o+ $eparator$
+or e"erge#cy re!ie+ $y$te"$ beca*$e
a0 Cre$$*re )rop i$ *$*a!!y #ot a pe#a!ty&
b0 .$cape o+ +i#e "i$t ca# *$*a!!y be to!erate)&
$i'ing proce%"re The cyc!o#e i$ $iKe) by choo$i#g a $*per+icia! F
+actor +or the $1irt i# the ra#ge o+ 8&0 to 5&0 i# ,-C- *#it$ 910 to 6 i#
-% *#it$:& The higher (a!*e "ay be *$e) +or water!i1e !i5*i)$A the
!ower (a!*e +or !i5*i)$ $*ch a$ "o!a$$e$& %+ )e$ig# F +actor$ e/cee) the
ra#ge o+ 5 to 8, the !i5*i) )rai#i#g )ow# the $1irt i$ e#trai#e) a#)
e$cape$ with the (apor& The$e F +actor$ were )eter"i#e) i# $"a!!-
$ca!e !ab e/peri"e#t$ *$i#g water a#) a high-po!y"er $o!*tio# a$ the
te$t !i5*i)$& The high-po!y"er $o!*tio# ha) a (i$co$ity that wa$
"o!a$$e$!i1e, probab!y i# the ra#ge o+ 1500 cC& There were #o !i5*i)$
o+ i#ter"e)iate (i$co$ity *$e) i# the te$t$&
The F +actor$ o+ 5&0 a#) 8&0 are co#$er(ati(e i# the opi#io# o+ the
re$earcher who per+or"e) the e/peri"e#t$ 9pri(ate co""*#icatio#
+ro" .& %& )*Co#t )e Ge"o*r$ Co&, %#c&, to the E%.3- Cro>ect:&
The $iKi#g proce)*re i$ pre$e#te) i# ("i%elines for Press"re 4elief
an% Effl"ent &an%ling $ystems 9'%Ch.-CCC-, 1998:& 6ig*re 23-53
$how$ the )i"e#$io#$ o+ a cyc!o#e $eparator )e$ig#e) i# accor)a#ce
with thi$ proce)*re& %+ !i5*i) i$ co#ti#*o*$!y )rai#e) +ro" the cyc!o#e
to a $eparate acc*"*!ator, a (orte/ brea1er a#) +a!$e botto" $ho*!) be
*$e) 96ig& 23-53, (iew 00:&
%+ the !i5*i) co#te#t$ o+ the (e#te) (e$$e! are to be retai#e) i# the
$eparator +or $*b$e5*e#t )i$po$itio#, the ho!)*p capacity "ay be
i#crea$e) by i#crea$i#g the height o+ the (e$$e! to i#crea$e the tota!
(o!*"e by a# a"o*#t e5*a! to the (e#te) !i5*i) (o!*"e&
%+ the pre$$*re )rop i$ too high, it "ay be #ece$$ary to i#crea$e the
i#!et !i#e $iKe +or a )i$ta#ce o+ abo*t 3 to 5 )ia"eter$ *p$trea" o+ the
cyc!o#e&
' $iKi#g "etho) $i"i!ar to the o#e reco""e#)e) abo(e i$ propo$e)
by -ch"i)t a#) Gie$brecht 92001:, ba$e) o# e/peri"e#ta! wor1 )o#e
at 0'-6 i# Ger"a#y&
Cyclone separator with integral catch tank 9-ee 6ig& 23-54&: The
)ia"eter o+ the 1#oc1o*t )r*" i$ ca!c*!ate) by the criteria gi(e# i#
the prece)i#g $*b$ectio# a#) 6ig& 23-53& -i#ce the !i5*i) i$ a!$o to be
retai#e) i# the (e$$e!, e/te#) the $he!! height be!ow the #or"a! bot-
to" ta#ge#t !i#e to i#crea$e the tota! (o!*"e by a# a"o*#t e5*a! to
the (o!*"e o+ the !i5*i) carrie) o(er&
6uen&# Tan) 9-ee 6ig$& 23-55 a#) 23-56&: There i$ (ery !itt!e
i#+or"atio# i# the ope# tech#ica! !iterat*re o# the )e$ig# o+ 5*e#ch
ta#1$ i# the che"ica! i#)*$try& Mo$t o+ the i#+or"atio# a(ai!ab!e )ea!$
with the )e$ig# o+ 5*e#ch ta#1$ 9a!$o ca!!e) $*ppre$$io# poo!$: +or
co#)e#$atio# o+ $tea" or $tea"-water "i/t*re$ +ro" #*c!ear reactor
$a+ety (a!(e$& %#+or"atio# a#) criteria +ro" 5*e#ch ta#1$ i# the
#*c!ear i#)*$try o+te# ca# be *$e) +or the )e$ig# o+ 5*e#ch ta#1$ i#
the che"ica! i#)*$try& ("i%elines for Press"re 4elief an% Effl"ent
&an%ling $ystems 9'%Ch.-CCC-, 1998: pro(i)e$ "ore i#+or"atio#
+or che"ica! i#)*$try 5*e#ch ta#1 )e$ig#& The +o!!owi#g $*b$ectio#$
$*""ariKe $o"e o+ thi$ i#+or"atio#& Certi#e#t criteria +or 5*e#ch
ta#1 $iKi#g a#) )e$ig# are pre$e#te) be!ow2
Cperating press"re There are three "o)e$ o+ operatio# o+ a
5*e#ch ta#12 at"o$pheric pre$$*re operatio#, #o#(e#te) operatio#,
a#) co#tro!!e) (e#ti#g operatio#& 't"o$pheric operatio# i$ *$*a!!y
+ea$ib!e whe# the e++!*e#t bei#g e"itte) ha$ a b*bb!e poi#t we!! abo(e
the "a/i"*" a"bie#t te"perat*re& ' (ery $"a!! 5*a#tity o+ (apor
e$cape$ with the air that i$ )i$p!ace) a$ the ta#1 +i!!$ with the e"er-
ge#cy )i$charge 9typica!!y abo*t 0&2 perce#t o+ the reactor co#te#t$:&
Eepe#)i#g o# the to/ic or +!a""ab!e propertie$ o+ the (apor, the (e#t
+ro" the 5*e#ch ta#1 ca# be ro*te) to the at"o$phere or "*$t be $e#t
to a $cr*bber or +!are&
%# #o#(e#te) operatio#, #o "ateria! i$ (e#te) to the at"o$phere,
a#) thi$ )e$ig# i$ *$e) whe# co"p!ete co#tai#"e#t o+ the
)i$charge i$ re5*ire)& %t i$ a!$o *$e) whe# the )i$charge "i/t*re b*bb!e
poi#t i$ c!o$e to or be!ow the "a/i"*" a"bie#t te"perat*re a#) the
co#ce#tratio# o+ #o#co#)e#$ab!e ga$ i# the +ee) $trea" i$ (ery !ow& The
ta#1 )e$ig# pre$- $*re i$ re!ati(e!y high $i#ce the i#itia! air i# the ta#1 i$
co"pre$$e) by the ri$i#g !i5*i) !e(e!, a))i#g to the (apor pre$$*re& The
)e$ig#er "*$t ta1e i#to co#$i)eratio# that the 5*e#ch ta#1 bac1pre$$*re
"*$t be !i"ite) $o a$ #ot to a)(er$e!y a++ect the reactor re!ie+ $y$te"&
%# co#tro!!e) (e#ti#g operatio#, the 5*e#ch ta#1 pre$$*re i$ "ai#-
tai#e) at a )e$ire) !e(e! by a pre$$*re co#tro!!erJco#tro! (a!(e $y$te"
or pre$$*re re!ie+ (a!(e& Thi$ "o)e o+ operatio# i$ *$e) whe# the )i$-
charge "i/t*re b*bb!e poi#t i$ c!o$e to or be!ow the "a/i"*" a"bi-
e#t te"perat*re a#) it i$ )e$ire) to !i"it the "a/i"*" 5*e#ch ta#1
pre$$*re&
="ench li-"i% selection The choice o+ the appropriate 5*e#ch !i5-
*i) )epe#)$ o# a #*"ber o+ +actor$& 4ater i$ *$*a!!y the +ir$t 5*e#ch
!i5*i) to co#$i)er& %+ water i$ $e!ecte) a$ the 5*e#ch !i5*i), the ta#1
$ho*!) be !ocate) i#)oor$, i+ po$$ib!e, to a(oi) +reeKi#g prob!e"$ i+ the
+aci!ity i$ i# a co!) c!i"ate& %+ the ta#1 ha$ to be !ocate) o*t)oor$ i# a
co!) c!i"ate, the a))itio# o+ a#ti+reeKe i$ pre+erab!e to heat-traci#g the
ta#1, $i#ce o(erheati#g o+ the ta#1 ca# re$*!t +ro" traci#g, th*$ re)*c-
i#g it$ e++ecti(e#e$$&
%+ other 5*e#ch !i5*i)$ are re5*ire), the !i5*i) $ho*!) ha(e a$ "a#y
o+ the +o!!owi#g propertie$ a$ po$$ib!e2 co"patibi!ity with the )i$charge
e++!*e#t, !ow (apor pre$$*re, high $peci+ic heat, !ow (i$co$ity, !ow
+!a"- "abi!ity, !ow +reeKi#g poi#t, high ther"a! co#)*cti(ity,
i""i$cibi!ity with the )i$charge e++!*e#t, !ow co$t, a#) rea)y
a(ai!abi!ity&
="ench li-"i% -"antity ' goo) )i$c*$$io# o+ the +actor$ )eter-
"i#i#g the 5*a#tity o+ 5*e#ch !i5*i) re5*ire) i$ pre$e#te) by CCC-
9'%Ch.-CCC-, 1998:&
4he# water i$ *$e) a$ the 5*e#ch "e)i*" a#) the e++!*e#t $trea" i$
a hy)rocarbo# or orga#ic, $eparate !i5*i) pha$e$ are o+te# +or"e)& %#
thi$ ca$e, heat tra#$+er i$ the pre)o"i#ati#g "echa#i$" )*ri#g the
5*e#ch& To achie(e e++ecti(e heat tra#$+er, there "*$t be a $*++icie#t
)i++ere#ce betwee# the 5*e#ch !i5*i) te"perat*re a#) the b*bb!e
poi#t o+ the i#co"i#g e++!*e#t $trea"& The "i#i"*" te"perat*re )i+-
+ere#ce occ*r$ at the e#) o+ the )i$charge, whe# the 5*e#ch poo! te"-
perat*re i$ highe$t& ' r*!e o+ th*"b, +ro" i#)*$try practice, i$ to a!!ow
a 10 to 20UC 918 to 36U6: VT& 6or at"o$pheric ta#1 operatio#, the +i#a!
5*e#ch !i5*i) te"perat*re i$ the# $et 10 to 20UC 918 to 36U6: be!ow
the #or"a! boi!i#g poi#t o+ the +i#a! 5*e#ch poo! "i/t*re& 6or
#o#(e#te) or co#tro!!e) (e#ti#g operatio#, the +i#a! boi!i#g poi#t i$
e!e(ate), per"it- ti#g a greater )e$ig# te"perat*re ri$e a#) the *$e o+
!e$$ 5*e#ch !i5*i)& There+ore, the 5*e#ch poo! +i#a! te"perat*re "*$t
be $et 10 to 20UC 918 to 36U6: !ower tha# the $at*rate) te"perat*re
o+ the )i$charge e++!*e#t at the )e$ig# "a/i"*" 5*e#ch ta#1
pre$$*re&
The "i#i"*" capacity o+ 5*e#ch !i5*i) ca# be e$ti"ate) by a heat
ba!a#ce, gi(e# the +i#a! 5*e#ch poo! te"perat*re, *$i#g a# e5*atio#
gi(e# by '%Ch.-CCC- 91998:& '# e5*atio# i$ a!$o pre$e#te) there
that i#c!*)e$ the heat o+ reactio#& %# $o"e ca$e$, a# e/peri"e#t i$
#ece$$ary to co#+ir" that the reactio# i#)ee) $top$ i# the 5*e#ch poo!&
'# e5*atio# i$ a!$o pre$e#te) +or the heat ba!a#ce #ee)e) to ca!c*!ate
the "i#i"*" a"o*#t o+ 5*e#ch !i5*i) whe# the +ee) co#tai#$
#o#co#)e#$ab!e ga$e$& %t i$ goo) practice to pro(i)e 10 to 20 perce#t
"ore 5*e#ch !i5*i)
tha# the "i#i"*" a"o*#t ca!c*!ate)&
="ench tank vol"me The tota! (o!*"e o+ the 5*e#ch ta#1 $ho*!)
be e5*a! to the $*" o+ the +o!!owi#g (o!*"e$2
M H*e#ch !i5*i) re5*ire)
M Fi5*i) e#teri#g i# the "*!tipha$e e++!*e#t $trea"
M Fi5*i) co#)e#$e) +ro" (apor$ i# e#teri#g e++!*e#t $trea"
M 6reeboar) +or #o#co#)e#$ab!e$ 9a "i#i"*" o+ 10 perce#t i$ rec-
o""e#)e):
="ench tank geometry H*e#ch ta#1$ ca# ha(e a#y o+ the +o!!ow-
i#g three type$ o+ geo"etry2
M oriKo#ta! cy!i#)rica! (e$$e!
M Dertica! cy!i#)rica! (e$$e!
M Co#crete pit 9*$*a!!y recta#g*!ar:
,$*a!!y, the geo"etry i$ )eter"i#e) by $pace !i"itatio#$& 0oth hori-
Ko#ta! a#) (ertica! cy!i#)rica! (e$$e!$ are )e$ig#e) a$ pre$$*re (e$$e!$
a#) +or pre$$*re$ *p to 50 to 75 p$ig& '# ,J3 ratio o+ 2 to 3 re$*!t$ i#
a# eco#o"ic )e$ig#&
$parger %esign The e++!*e#t $trea" $ho*!) be )i$charge) i#to the
5*e#ch !i5*i) by "ea#$ o+ a $parger, which brea1$ it *p i#to $"a!! >et$
to pro(i)e goo) heat a#) "a$$ tra#$+er& The $parger )e$ig# "*$t a!$o
i#corporate the +o!!owi#g capabi!itie$2
M Ma/i"iKe "o"e#t*"-i#)*ce) recirc*!atio# i# the 5*e#ch poo!&
M Cro(i)e a)e5*ate +!ow area 9cro$$ $ectio# +or pre$$*re re!ie+ with-
o*t i"po$i#g high bac1pre$$*re:&
M Mi#i"iKe $hoc1 )*e to (apor b*bb!e co!!ap$e&
M Mi#i"iKe *#ba!a#ce) "o"e#t*" +orce$&
6ig*re 23-55 $how$ co#(e#tio#a! 5*e#ch ta#1 $parger arra#ge"e#t$&
'$ ca# be $ee# i# thi$ +ig*re, the $parger ca# be o+ the +o!!owi#g type$2
M Dertica! $traight-pipe $parger
M Tee $parger
M 6o*r-ar"e) cro$$-$parger
'!ter#ati(e $parger )e$ig#$ are $how# i# '%Ch.-CCC- 91998:&
The +o!!owi#g )e$ig# criteria are reco""e#)e)2
1& The +!ow area o+ the "a#i+o!) a#)Jor )i$trib*tor pipi#g $ho*!)
be at !ea$t 2 ti"e$ the tota! area o+ the $parger ho!e$& Thi$ ge#era!!y
e#$*re$ that +!ow thro*gh the $parger ho!e$ wi!! be *#i+or"&
2& The #*"ber o+ ho!e$ $ho*!) pro(i)e at !ea$t 0&2 ho!e per $5*are
+oot 92&2 ho!e$ per $5*are "eter: o+ poo! cro$$-$ectio#a! area, )i$trib-
*te) e(e#!y o(er the cro$$ $ectio# o+ the poo!&
3& o!e$ $ho*!) be *#i+or"!y $pace) i# the )i$trib*tor pipeNa)>a-
ce#t ho!e$ $ho*!) be $pace) at !ea$t 2 to 3 ho!e )ia"eter$ apart, ce#-
ter to ce#ter&
4& o!e$ $ho*!) )i$charge +ro" the botto" or botto" ha!+ o+ the
)i$trib*tor pipe $o that they ca# $er(e a!$o a$ )rai#$ +or !i5*i)& -epa-
rate )rai# ho!e$ "ay be #ee)e) +or the "a#i+o!) pipe a#) i# each )i$-
trib*tor pipe&
5& o!e$ $ho*!) be a$ $"a!! a$ po$$ib!e co#$i$te#t with co#$i)era-
tio# o+ po$$ib!e p!*ggi#g or +o*!i#g whe# ha#)!i#g !i5*i)$ that co#tai#
po!y"er$ or $*$pe#)e) $o!i)$& 6or e++!*e#t $trea"$ co#$i$ti#g o+ o#!y
!i5*i) a#) (apor, ho!e )ia"eter$ ra#gi#g +ro"
1
b8 to
1
b2 i# 93 to 13 "":
are typica!& Farger ho!e )ia"eter$ 9*p to 2 i#: "ay be re5*ire) i+ the
b!ow)ow# $trea" co#tai#$ $o!i)$ 9po!y"er$ a#)Jor cata!y$t:& -"a!!er
ho!e$ te#) to "i#i"iKe (ibratio# a#) water ha""er&
6& -o#ic ho!e (e!ocity i$ )e$irab!e i# $"a!!er ho!e$ a#) i$ e$$e#tia! i#
1
b2- to 2-i# ho!e$& ' "i#i"*" $parger pre$$*re )rop o+ 10 p$i $ho*!)
be *$e)&
7& The 5*e#cher ar" $ho*!) be a#chore) to pre(e#t pipe whip& %t
$ho*!) a!$o e/te#) to the !e#gth 9+or horiKo#ta! (e$$e!$: or the height
9+or (ertica! (e$$e!$: o+ the (e$$e! to e(e#!y )i$trib*te the (apor$ i# the
poo!&
4he# 5*e#chi#g e++!*e#t$ )i$charge) by $a+ety (a!(e$, it i$ pre+er-
ab!e to *$e a $traight, (ertica! $parger with ho!e$ i# the e#) cap a$ we!!
a$ i# the pipe $i)ewa!!$& Thi$ i$ reco""e#)e) to "i#i"iKe the po$$i-
bi!ity o+ !i5*i) ha""er, which ca# occ*r "ore rea)i!y i# horiKo#ta!
$parger$& The !i5*i) ha""er *$*a!!y occ*r$ +or the +o!!owi#g rea$o#$2
'$ the re!ie+ (a!(e ope#$ +or the +ir$t ti"e, the pre$$*re $pi1e i$ c*$h-
io#e) by the air trappe) i# the (e#t !i#e& Thi$ air i$ b!ow# o*t& %+ the
(a!(e rec!o$e$, the !i#e "ay coo!, ca*$i#g $!*g$ o+ co#)e#$ate to acc*-
"*!ate& 4he# the (a!(e reope#$, the $!*g$ wi!! acce!erate to (ery high
(e!ocitie$ a#) i"pact a#y e!bow$ a#) e#) cap$ o+ the $parger& %#
$e(ere ca$e$, the $parger-ar" e#) cap$ ca# be 1#oc1e) o++& The pre-
ce)i#g reco""e#)atio# a(oi)$ t*r#$, a#) the ho!e$ i# the e#) cap
pro(i)e $o"e re!ie+ +ro" the pre$$*re $pi1e&
Ma#y a$pect$ o+ 5*e#ch poo! )e$ig# 9(e$$e!, $parger$, "echa#ica!
)e$ig# !oa)$, etc&: a#) operatio# are co(ere) i# ("i%elines for Pres-
s"re 4elief an% Effl"ent &an%ling $ystems 9'%Ch.-CCC-, 1998:, a#)
it $ho*!) be co#$*!te) whe# a 5*e#ch poo! ha$ to be )e$ig#e)&
%ass-Transfer Conta&t (e&tion 4here there i$ a $tro#g po$$i-
bi!ity that #ot a!! the i#co"i#g (apor$ wi!! be co#)e#$e) i# the poo!
9the +ee) $trea" co#tai#$ a !arge a"o*#t o+ #o#co#)e#$ab!e ga$e$:, a
)irect-co#tact "a$$-tra#$+er $ectio# i$ $*peri"po$e) o# the 5*e#ch
ta#1& Thi$ ca# be a ba++!e tray $ectio# 9a$ $how# i# 6ig& 23-56: or a
pac1e) co!*"# $ectio#&
The )e$ig# o+ )irect-co#tact "a$$-tra#$+er co!*"#$ i$ )i$c*$$e) i#
)etai! by -chei"a# PPetro Chemical Engr0 3793:2 29O33, 1965A ibi)&
3794:2 75, 78O79Q a#) 6air 9Chem0 Eng0, L*#e 12, 1972:&
Emergen&" !lare ("stems ' )i$c*$$io# o+ )e$ig# criteria, pri#-
cip!e$, a#) practice$ +or a #*"ber o+ +!are $y$te" co"po#e#t$ i$ pre-
$e#te) be!ow&
Flare tip %iameter The +!are tip )ia"eter i$ $iKe) o# a (e!ocity
ba$i$, b*t the pre$$*re )rop "*$t a!$o be chec1e)& 6!are tip (e!ocitie$
ca# be cho$e# o# the ba$i$ o+ .C' re5*ire"e#t$ or 'C% reco""e#-
)atio#$& .C' reco""e#)atio#$ are gi(e# i# the '%Ch.-CCC- boo1
91998:& 'C% 3C 521 $tate$ that tip$ "ay be ba$e) o# (e!ocitie$ o+ 0&5
Mach #*"ber or higher, i+ pre$$*re )rop, #oi$e, a#) other +actor$
per"it&
Flare height an% thermal ra%iation The height o+ a# e!e(ate)
+!are i$ ba$e) o# the "i#i"*" )i$ta#ce +ro" the +!are +!a"e to a#
ob>ect who$e e/po$*re to ther"a! ra)iatio# "*$t be !i"ite)& %#)*$tria!
+!are$ are #or"a!!y )e$ig#e) $o that per$o##e! i# the (ici#ity are #ot
e/po$e) to a heat i#te#$ity greater tha# 1500 to 2000 0t* 9h+t
2
:
whe# +!ari#g at the "a/i"*" )e$ig# rate$&
4
e
e

+
o
t
e
'# e5*atio# by a>e1 a#) F*)wig 9PetroGChem0 Eng0 pp& C31O38,
L*#e 1960A pp& C44O51, L*!y 1960: "ay be *$e) to )eter"i#e the )i$-
ta#ce re5*ire) betwee# a +!are +!a"e a#) a poi#t o+ e/po$*re where
ther"a! ra)iatio# "*$t be !i"ite)& P-ee 'C% 3C 521 92007:&Q
' +!a"e *#)er the i#+!*e#ce o+ wi#) wi!! ti!t i# the )irectio# that the
wi#) i$ b!owi#g a#) wi!! cha#ge the !ocatio# o+ the +!a"e ce#ter& 'C%
3C 521 92007: pre$e#t$ two "etho)$ +or e$ti"ati#g the re5*ire) +!are
height whe# the +!a"e i$ ti!te)&
;ther "etho)$ +or e$ti"ati#g the re5*ire) +!are height are pre-
$e#te) i# ("i%elines for Press"re 4elief an% Effl"ent &an%ling $ys-
tems 9'%Ch.-CCC-, 1998:&
P"rge gas re-"irements C*rgi#g i$ *$e) to pre(e#t the +or"atio#
o+ e/p!o$i(e "i/t*re$ i# +!are $y$te"$ by pre(e#ti#g the a)"i$$io# o+
air i#to the $y$te" thro*gh !ea1$, bac1+!ow o+ air at the +!are tip at
(ery !ow +!ow$, a#) bac1 )i++*$io# o+ air i#to the +!are tip& Co"-
b*$tib!e ga$e$ $*ch a$ "etha#e or #at*ra! ga$, or i#ert ga$e$ $*ch a$
#itroge# or carbo# )io/i)e, are +re5*e#t!y *$e) +or p*rgi#g +!are $y$-
te"$& 'C% 3C 521 9$ectio# 7&3&3&3: pre$e#t$ e5*atio#$ +or ca!c*!ati#g
the p*rge rate a$ a +*#ctio# o+ the $tac1 )ia"eter, the )e$ire) o/yge#
!e(e!, a#) the type o+ p*rge ga$&
ir #p"rge re%"ction. seals 'ir $ea!$ 9a!$o ca!!e) p*rge re)*ctio#
or ga$ $ea!$: are o+te# i#$ta!!e) #ear the top o+ +!are $tac1$& ;ther$ are
!ocate) #ear the ba$e o+ the +!are& They are *$e) to pre(e#t air +ro"
e#teri#g the $tac1 a#) are o+te# reco""e#)e) to pre(e#t +!a$hbac1$
a#) e/p!o$io#$& They a!$o great!y re)*ce the a"o*#t o+ p*rge ga$
re5*ire)& There are two ba$ic type$ o+ air $ea!$ pri"ari!y *$e)2 )i++*-
$io# 9$o"eti"e$ ca!!e) "o!ec*!ar or !abyri#th $ea!$: a#) (e!ocity
type$&
The )i++*$io# $ea! co#$i$t$ o+ a ba++!e) co#ce#tric cy!i#)er
arra#ge"e#t, which *$e$ the )i++ere#ce i# "o!ec*!ar weight o+ the
+!are ga$ a#) a"bie#t air to pre(e#t air +ro" e#teri#g the $tac1& Ei+-
+*$io# $ea!$, co"bi#e) with the p*rge ga$ +!ow rate, are i#te#)e) to
+or" a $eco#)ary !i#e o+ )e+e#$e agai#$t the e#try o+ air i#to the +!are
$tac1& %# a (ertica! +!are $tac1, gra(ity e/ert$ a )ri(i#g +orce to
i#crea$e the )i++*$io# o+ air i#to the $tac1& Ei++*$io# $ea!$ create a#
i#(erte) +!ow +ie!) to re(er$e the gra(itatio#a! e++ect a#) re)*ce air
e#try& ,$e o+ !ighter-tha#-air p*rge ga$ 9e&g&, "etha#e or #at*ra! ga$:
create$ a poc1et o+ !ight ga$ at the top o+ the air e#try path& ,$e o+
)i++*$io# $ea! a#) !ighter-tha#-air p*rge ga$ a!!ow$ a "*ch !ower
p*rge ga$ rate& %#$ta!!atio# o+ a )i++*$io# $ea! at the top o+ the +!are,
a#) i""e)iate!y be!ow the b*r#er tip, re)*ce$ the p*rge ga$
re5*ire) to 1J50 o+ the (o!*"e re5*ire) i+ the )i++*$io# $ea! i$ #ot
*$e) 9Gie"eyer a#) Fi(i#g$to#, Chem0 Eng0 Prog0, pp& 39O44,
Eece"ber 1993:&
De!ocity $ea!$ are "ore rece#t )e(e!op"e#t$ i# air $ea! )e$ig#&
They *$e co#ica! ba++!e$ to re)irect a#) +oc*$ the p*rge ga$ +!ow
+ie!) >*$t be!ow the +!are tip to $weep air +ro" the +!are $tac1& -o"e
(e!ocity $ea! )e$ig#$ ca# re)*ce the p*rge ga$ +!ow rate re5*ire"e#t
to abo*t 1J10 o+ the rate #ee)e) witho*t the $ea!& '!$o, $o"e (e!oc-
ity $ea! )e$ig#$ reporte)!y re5*ire o#!y abo*t 25 to 33 perce#t o+ the
p*rge ga$ *$e) i# )i++*$io# $ea!$ 9'%Ch.-CCC-, 1998:& More )etai!$
abo*t air 9p*rge re)*ctio#: $ea!$ "ay be +o*#) i# 'C% 3C 521
92007:&
,i-"i% seal %r"ms ."erge#cy (e#t $trea"$ are *$*a!!y pa$$e)
thro*gh a !i5*i) $ea!, co""o#!y water, be+ore goi#g to the +!are
$tac1& The !i5*i) $ea! )r*" i$ *$*a!!y !ocate) )ow#$trea" o+ the
1#oc1o*t )r*", a#) $o"e (e#)or$? )e$ig#$ i#c!*)e the" i# the ba$e
o+ the +!are $tac1& ' !i5*i) $ea! )r*" i$ *$e) to "ai#tai# a po$iti(e
pre$$*re i# the (e#t hea)er $y$te" a#) *p$trea" $y$te"& %t a!$o
re)*ce$ the po$$ibi!ity o+ +!a"e +!a$hbac1$, ca*$e) whe# air i$ i#a)-
(erte#t!y i#tro)*ce) i#to the +!are $y$te" a#) the +!a"e +ro#t p*!!$
)ow# i#to the $tac1A it a!$o act$ a$ a "echa#ica! )a"per o# a#y
e/p!o$i(e $hoc1 wa(e i# the +!are $tac1& 6ig*re 23-58 i$ a $che"atic
o+ a typica! +!are $tac1 !i5*i) $ea! )r*", )e$ig#e) per 'C% 3C 521
criteria&
' proper!y )e$ig#e) a#) operate) !i5*i) $ea! )r*" $ho*!) a!!ow
ga$ to pa$$ thro*gh the $ea! with "i#i"*" $*rgi#g i# ga$ +!ow
a#)Jor *p$trea" ga$ pre$$*re& The )e$ig# o+ the !i5*i) $ea!
i#ter#a!$ a#) the )e$ig# o+ the (e$$e! ca# ha(e a $ig#i+ica#t i"pact
o# the abi!ity o+ the $ea! to "eet the per+or"a#ce ob>ecti(e& 6or
e/a"p!e, a co""o# )e$ig# +or the e#) o+ a )ip!eg pipe *$e$ D
#otche$ c*t i#to the e#) o+ the pipe wa!!& Thi$ )e$ig# i$ !e$$
e++ecti(e tha# the proprietary )e$ig#$ )e(e!ope) by (e#)or$ o+
!i5*i) $ea! )r*"$& The$e propri- etary )e$ig#$, which *$e
a!ter#ati(e )e$ig# g*i)e!i#e$, "ay o++er
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operati#g pre$$)re&
F%G. 2309D -che"atic +or typica! +!are $tac1 $ea! )r*"& 9%apte% from P! 4P 89@0: 9G*i)e!i#e$ +or Cre$$*re 3e!ie+ a#) .++!*e#t
a#)!i#g -y$te"$, Center for Chemical Process $afely #CCP$. of the merican !nstit"te of Chemical Engineers #!ChE.; copyright
@ABB !ChE an% repro%"ce% with permission0.0
eco#o"ic or operatio#a! a)(a#tage$& Eetai!$ abo*t $e(era! type$ o+
proprietary )e$ig#$ +or !i5*i) $ea! )r*"$ are pre$e#te) by Gro$$e!
93eflagration an% 3etonation Flame rresters, '%Ch.-CCC-, Gew
@or1, 2002:&
More )etai!e) )i$c*$$io#$ o+ +!are $y$te"$ a#) their co"po#e#t$
are pre$e#te) i# 'C% 3C 521 92007:, 'C% -TE 537 92003:, a#)
'%Ch.-CCC- 91998:&
Emergen&" (&rubbers (Absorbers) ."erge#cy re!ie+ )i$-
charge$ are o+te# pa$$e) thro*gh $cr*bber$ 9a!$o ca!!e) ab$orber$, or
ab$orptio# co!*"#$ or tower$: +or re"o(a! o+ +!a""ab!e, corro$i(e, or
to/ic che"ica!$& The re"o(a! "echa#i$" i# $o"e $cr*bber$ i#(o!(e$
phy$ica! ab$orptio# i# a $o!(e#t, wherea$ i# other$ che"ica! ab$orp-
tio# 9reacti(e $cr*bbi#g: i$ re5*ire)&
,#!i1e 5*e#ch poo!$ +or treat"e#t o+ e"erge#cy re!ie+ e++!*e#t,
$cr*bber$ are #ot pa$$i(e& 6or re!iab!e per+or"a#ce, a!! critica! co"-
po#e#t$, i#c!*)i#g i#$tr*"e#t$, "*$t be wor1i#g correct!y& There
"*$t be a re!iab!e a#) $*++icie#t $*pp!y o+ $o!(e#t a#) *ti!itie$ 9coo!i#g
water, e!ectricity, etc&:, with a!! proce$$ (ariab!e$ "ai#tai#e) *#)er
)e$ig# co#)itio#$ at a!! ti"e$& Thi$ i#c!*)e$ proper !i5*i) !e(e!$, !i5*i)
co#ce#tratio#$, +!ow rate$, a#) re!iab!e operatio# o+ a#ci!!ary e5*ip-
"e#t 9e&g&, p*"p$, b!ower$, etc&:& Ge#era! practice i$ to pro(i)e
re)*#)a#cy i# p*"p$ a#) b!ower$ a#) *ti!itie$ to e#$*re re!iab!e
$cr*bber operatio# 9$ee 6ig& 23-57:& %# the pre+erre) "o)e o+ opera-
tio# +or haKar)o*$ "ateria!$, e$pecia!!y to/ic ga$e$, the $cr*bber i$ i# a
$ta#)by "o)e, with $o!(e#t +!ow "ai#tai#e) at a!! ti"e$& '# a!ter#ate
"o)e i$ to ha(e the $cr*bber $h*t )ow# 9$o!(e#t #ot circ*!ati#g: a#)
the# $tarte) *p a+ter )etecti#g a re!ea$e +ro" the pre$$*re re!ie(i#g
$y$te"& The co#$e5*e#ce$ o+ the )e!ay i# $tarti#g the $cr*bber *p
a+ter it ha$ bee# $h*t )ow# "*$t be co#$i)ere) be+ore accepti#g thi$
"o)e o+ operatio#&
' )i$c*$$io# o+ e"erge#cy $cr*bber )e$ig# a#) operati#g criteria
a#) practice$ i$ gi(e# i# ("i%elines for Press"re 4elief an% Effl"ent
&an%ling $ystems 9'%Ch.-CCC-, 1998:&
FLA! A&&S)&S
G3&AL &F&3CS7 P1Q owar), 4& 0&, Creca*tio#$ i# -e!ectio#, %#$ta!!a-
tio# a#) ,$e o+ 6!a"e 'rre$ter$, Chem0 Eng0 Prog0, 'pri! 1992& P2Q Ciotrow$1i,
T&, -peci+icatio# o+ 6!a"e 'rre$ti#g Ee(ice$ +or Ma#i+o!)e) Fow Cre$$*re
-torage Ta#1$, PlantGCperations Progress, (o!& 10, #o& 2, 'pri! 1991& P3Q
3o*$$a1i$ a#) Fapp, ' Co"prehe#$i(e Te$t Metho) +or %#-Fi#e 6!a"e
'rre$ter$, PlantGCpera- tions Progress, (o!& 10, #o& 2, 'pri! 1991& P4Q Ee+!agratio#
a#) Eeto#atio# 6!a"e 'rre$ter$, Chapter 13, ("i%elines for Engineering 3esign
for Process $afety, Ce#- ter +or Che"ica! Croce$$ -a+ety, '"erica# %#$tit*te o+
Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, 1993& P5Q %bi)& Chapter 15, .++!*e#t Ei$po$a! -y$te"$&
P6Q owar), 4& 0&, 6!a"e 'rre$ter$ a#) 6!a$hbac1 Cre(e#ter$,
PlantGCperations Progress, (o!& 1, #o& 4,
1982& P7Q Thiba*!t, C&, 0ritto#, F&, a#) Wha#g, 6&, Ee+!agratio# a#) Eeto#atio#
o+ .thy!e#e ;/i)e Dapor i# Cipe!i#e$, Process $afety Progress, (o!& 19, #o& 3,
2000& P8Q Gro$$e!, -& -&, 3eflagration an% 3etonation Flame rresters, '%Ch.-
CCC- Co#cept 0oo1, 2002& P9Q 0ritto#, F& G&, ,$i#g Ma/i"*" ./peri"e#ta!
-a+e Gap to -e!ect 6!a"e 'rre$ter$, Process $afety Progress, (o!& 19, #o& 3, 2000&
P10Q 0rit- to#, F& G&, ,$i#g eat$ o+ ;/i)atio# to .(a!*ate 6!a""abi!ity
aKar)$, Process $afety Progress, (o!& 21, #o& 1, 2002& P11Q Ea(ie$, M&, a#)
ei)er"a##, T&, %#(e$- tigatio# o+ Co""o# 'pp!icatio# 6ai!*re$ Cro(e# by
Fi+e 6ie!) Te$ti#g o+ .#)*ra#ce 0*r#i#g Te$te) .#)-o+-Fi#e 6!a"e 'rre$ter$,
'"erica# %#$tit*te o+ Che"ica! .#gi#eer$, 37th Fo$$ Cre(e#tio# -y"po$i*",
2003& P12Q 0ra#)e$, .&, a#) 3e)e1er, T&, Ma/i"*" ./peri"e#ta! -a+e Gap o+
0i#ary a#) Ter#ary Mi/- t*re$, 6o*rth %#ter#atio#a! -y"po$i*" o# aKar)$,
Cre(e#tio# a#) Mitigatio# o+ %#)*$tria! ./p!o$io#$, %D %-CM%. ;ctober 2002,
pp& 207O213& P13Q 6r$ter, &, a#) Ber$te#, C&, %#(e$tigatio# o+ Ee+!agratio#$
a#) Eeto#atio#$ i# Cipe$ a#) 6!a"e 'rre$ter$ by igh -pee) 6ra"i#g, 4th
%#ter#atio#a! -y"po$i*" o# aK- ar)$, Cre(e#tio# a#) Mitigatio# o+ %#)*$tria!
./p!o$io#$ 9%-CM%.:, 0o*rge$, 6ra#ce, ;ctober 21O25, 2002& P14Q F*##, G&
'&, The Ma/i"*" ./peri"e#ta! -a+e Gap2 The .++ect o+ ;/yge# .#rich"e#t
a#) the %#+!*e#ce o+ 3eactio# Bi#et- ic$, Jo"rnal of &a'ar%o"s Materials, 8
91984:, pp& 261O270, .!$e(ier -cie#ce C*b- !i$her 0&D& '"$ter)a"& P15Q
.*ropea# -ta#)ar) .G 12874, Flame rrester Performance 4e-"irements,
Test Metho%s an% ,imits of Use, .*ropea# Co""it- tee +or -ta#)ar)iKatio#,
0r*$$e!$, 2001&
General Consi#erations %# 2002, the Ce#ter +or Che"ica!
Croce$$ -a+ety 9CCC-: o+ the '"erica# %#$tit*te o+ Che"ica! .#gi-
#eer$ 9'%Ch.: p*b!i$he) a Co#cept 0oo1 o# thi$ topic P8Q& The boo1
wa$ i#te#)e) to e/pa#) a#) *p)ate the co(erage gi(e# i# P4Q, pro(i)i#g
e/te#$i(e i#+or"atio# o# the hi$tory, tech#o!ogy, practice, a#) reg*!a-
tory a$pect$ o+ )e+!agratio# a#) )eto#atio# +!a"e arre$ter$&
6!a"e arre$ter$ are pa$$i(e )e(ice$ )e$ig#e) to pre(e#t propagatio#
o+ ga$ +!a"e$ thro*gh pipe!i#e$& Typica! app!icatio#$ are to pre(e#t
+!a"e$ e#teri#g a $y$te" +ro" o*t$i)e 9$*ch a$ (ia a ta#1 (e#t: or prop-
agati#g withi# a $y$te" 9$*ch a$ +ro" o#e ta#1 to a#other:& 6!a"e
arre$t"e#t i$ achie(e) by a per"eab!e barrier, *$*a!!y a "eta!!ic "atri/
co#tai#i#g #arrow cha##e!$, which re"o(e$ heat a#) +ree ra)ica!$
+ro" the +!a"e +a$t e#o*gh to both 5*e#ch it withi# the "atri/ a#)
pre(e#t reig#itio# o+ the hot ga$ o# the protecte) $i)e o+ the arre$ter&
The$e "eta!!ic "atrice$ are 1#ow# a$ elements0 -o"e pre!i"i#ary co#-
$i)eratio#$ +or arre$ter $e!ectio# a#) p!ace"e#t are a$ +o!!ow$2
1& %)e#ti+y the at-ri$1 e5*ip"e#t a#) the pote#tia! ig#itio# $o*rce$
i# the pipi#g $y$te" to )eter"i#e where arre$ter$ $ho*!) be p!ace)
a#) what ge#era! type 9)e+!agratio# or )eto#atio#, *#i)irectio#a! or
bi)irectio#a!: i$ #ee)e)&
2& Eeter"i#e the wor$t-ca$e ga$ "i/t*re co"b*$tio# characteri$-
tic$, $y$te" pre$$*re, a#) per"i$$ib!e pre$$*re )rop acro$$ the
arre$ter, to he!p $e!ect the "o$t appropriate e!e"e#t )e$ig#& Got o#!y
)oe$ e!e"e#t )e$ig# i"pact pre$$*re )rop, b*t a!$o the rate o+ b!oc1-
age )*e to partic!e i"pact, !i5*i) co#)e#$atio#, a#) che"ica! reactio#
9$*ch a$ "o#o"er po!y"eriKatio#: ca# "a1e $o"e )e$ig#$ i"practi-
ca! e(e# i+ i#-$er(ice a#) o*t-o+-$er(ice arre$ter$ are pro(i)e) i# par-
a!!e!&
3& The po$$ibi!ity o+ a $tatio#ary +!a"e re$i)i#g o# the arre$ter e!e-
"e#t $*r+ace $ho*!) be e(a!*ate), a#) the #ee) +or a))itio#a! $a+e-
g*ar)$, $ho*!) $*ch a# e(e#t occ*r, $ho*!) be e(a!*ate) 9$ee the
$*b$ectio# .#)*ra#ce 0*r#:
4& Co#$i)er a#y "ateria! o+ co#$tr*ctio# !i"itatio#$ )*e to reacti(e
or corro$i(e $trea" co"po#e#t$, p!*$ the i"pact o+ e!e(ate) te"per-
at*re a#) pre$$*re )*ri#g +!a"e e(e#t$&
5& Co#$i)er *p$et co#)itio#$ that co*!) e/cee) the te$t co#)itio#$
at which the arre$ter wa$ certi+ie)& The$e i#c!*)e the ga$ co"po$itio#
with regar) to co#ce#tratio# o+ $e#$iti(e co#$tit*e#t$ $*ch a$ ethy!e#e
or hy)roge#, "a/i"*" $y$te" pre$$*re )*ri#g a# e"erge#cy $h*t-
)ow#, p!*$ the "a/i"*" te"perat*re a#) o/yge# co#ce#tratio#&
,#)er certai# *p$et co#)itio#$ $*ch a$ a high-pre$$*re e/c*r$io#
a#)Jor e!e(ate) o/yge# co#ce#tratio# P14Q, there "ay be #o +!a"e
arre$ter a(ai!ab!e +or the ta$1&
6& Co#$i)er the type a#) !ocatio# o+ the arre$ter with re$pect to
ea$e o+ "ai#te#a#ce, partic*!ar!y +or !arge i#-!i#e arre$ter$&
The$e 5*e$tio#$ a))re$$ the type o+ arre$ter #ee)e), the appropri-
ate !ocatio#, a#) the be$t )e$ig# with re$pect to +!ow re$i$ta#ce, "ai#-
tai#abi!ity, a#) co$t& %t $ho*!) be recog#iKe) that whi!e +!a"e arre$ter
e++ecti(e#e$$ i$ high, it i$ #ot 100 perce#t& To "a/i"iKe e++ecti(e#e$$,
atte#tio# $ho*!) be gi(e# to proper $e!ectio#, app!icatio#, a#) "ai#-
te#a#ce o+ the )e(ice& -i#ce arre$ter$ "ay +ai! o# )e"a#), it i$ goo)
e#gi#eeri#g practice to co#)*ct !ayer$ o+ protectio# a#a!y$i$ to )eter-
"i#e what a))itio#a! "itigatio# "ay be re5*ire) 96r$ter, &, 6!a"e
'rre$ter$NThe Gew -ta#)ar) a#) %t$ Co#$e5*e#ce$, Procee%ings of
the !nternational E$M( $ymposi"m, Part 9> !n%"strial E)plosion
Protection, G_r#berg, Ger"a#y, March 27O29, 2001:& 6or "ari#e
(apor co#tro! $y$te"$ i# the ,#ite) -tate$, +!a"e arre$ter app!icatio#$
are reg*!ate) by the ,&-& Coa$t G*ar)& 6or other app!icatio#$, a!ter-
#ati(e te$t protoco!$ a#) proce)*re$ ha(e bee# )e(e!ope) by )i++ere#t
age#cie$& -o"e arre$ter$, $*ch a$ hy)ra*!ic arre$ter$ a#) i#-!i#e type$
*$e) to $top )eco"po$itio# +!a"e$, ha(e $pecia!iKe) app!icatio#$ +or
which ge#era! )e$ig# a#) te$ti#g i#+or"atio# i$ $carce& 4here +!a"e
arre$ter$ are i"practica!, a!ter#ati(e $trategie$ $*ch a$ +a$t-acti#g
(a!(e$, (apor $*ppre$$io#, a#) +!a""ab!e "i/t*re co#tro! $ho*!) be
co#$i)ere)& Ey#a"ic $y$te"$ $*ch a$ +a$t-acti#g (a!(e$ a#) $*ppre$-
$io# $ho*!) be te$te) a#) certi+ie) a$ $*itab!e +or the re5*ire) ta$1&
Combustion@ eflagrations and etonations ' )e+!agratio# i$
a co"b*$tio# wa(e propagati#g at !e$$ tha# the $pee) o+ $o*#) a$
"ea$*re) i# the *#b*r#e) ga$ i""e)iate!y ahea) o+ the +!a"e +ro#t&
6!a"e $pee) re!ati(e to the *#b*r#e) ga$ i$ typica!!y 10 to 100 "J$
a!tho*gh owi#g to e/pa#$io# o+ hot ga$ behi#) the +!a"e, $e(era! h*#-
)re) "eter$ per $eco#) "ay be achie(e) re!ati(e to the pipe wa!!& The
co"b*$tio# wa(e propagate$ (ia a proce$$ o+ heat tra#$+er a#) $pecie$
)i++*$io# acro$$ the +!a"e +ro#t, a#) there i$ #o co*p!i#g i# ti"e or
$pace with the wea1 $hoc1 +ro#t ge#erate) ahea) o+ it& Ee+!agratio#$
typica!!y ge#erate "a/i"*" pre$$*re$ i# the ra#ge o+ 8 to 12 ti"e$
the i#itia! pre$$*re& The pre$$*re pea1 coi#ci)e$ with the +!a"e +ro#t
a!tho*gh a "ar1e) pre$$*re ri$e prece)e$ itA th*$ the *#b*r#e) ga$ i$
co"pre$$e) a$ the )e+!agratio# procee)$, )epe#)i#g o# the +!a"e
$pee) a#) (e#t path$ a(ai!ab!e& The preco"pre$$io# o+ ga$ ahea) o+
the +!a"e +ro#t 9a!$o 1#ow# a$ casca%ing or press"re piling: e$tab-
!i$he$ the ga$ co#)itio#$ i# the arre$ter whe# the +!a"e e#ter$ it, a#)
he#ce a++ect$ both the arre$t"e#t proce$$ a#) the "a/i"*" pre$$*re
ge#erate) i# the arre$ter bo)y& ' $e(ere )e+!agratio# arre$t"e#t te$t
i#(o!(e$ p!aci#g a re$tricti#g ori+ice behi#) the arre$ter, which
i#crea$e$ the )egree o+ preco"pre$$io#& Thi$ i$ 1#ow# a$ restricte%-
en% )e+!agratio# te$ti#g& '$ )i$c*$$e) !ater, the ma)im"m e)perimen-
tal safe gap 9M.-G: o+ the ga$ "i/t*re "ay *#)ere$ti"ate it$
te#)e#cy to )e+eat the arre$ter *#)er $*ch co#)itio#$& Thi$ i$ $o
beca*$e the c*rre#t M.-G te$t "etho) "i#i"iKe$ preco"pre$$io#
e++ect$ a#) he#ce the !i1e!ihoo) o+ a*toig#itio# o# the <protecte)
$i)e= o+ the arre$ter& %t i$ "o$t i"porta#t to co#$i)er the i#+!*e#ce$ o+
pre$$*re, te"perat*re, a#) o/yge# co#ce#tratio# o# the $a+e gap& %#
a))itio# the $a+e gap o+ "i/t*re$ i$ i#+!*e#ce) by the che"ica! i#ter-
actio# o+ the )i++ere#t ga$e$ P12, 14Q&
'$ the )e+!agratio# +!a"e tra(e!$ thro*gh pipi#g, it$ $pee) i#crea$e$
)*e to +!ow-i#)*ce) t*rb*!e#ce a#) co"pre$$i(e heati#g o+ the
*#b*r#e) ga$ ahea) o+ the +!a"e +ro#t& T*rb*!e#ce i$ e$pecia!!y
e#ha#ce) by +!ow ob$tr*ctio#$ $*ch a$ (a!(e$, e!bow$, a#) tee$& ;#ce
the +!a"e $pee) ha$ attai#e) the or)er o+ 100 "J$, a %eflagration-to-
%etonation transition 9EET: ca# occ*r, pro(i)e) that the ga$ co"po-
$itio# i$ withi# the )eto#ab!e !i"it$, which !ie i#$i)e the +!a""ab!e
!i"it$& The tra(e! )i$ta#ce +or thi$ to occ*r i$ re+erre) to a$ the r"n-"p
)i$ta#ce +or )eto#atio#& Thi$ )i$ta#ce (arie$ with the ga$ "i/t*re $e#-
$iti(ity a#) i#crea$e$ with pipe )ia"eter& %t i$ o+te# )i++ic*!t to e$ti-
"ate the r*#-*p )i$ta#ce at which a EET "ay occ*r i# a pipi#g
$y$te", a#) whe# to $peci+y either a )e+!agratio# or a )eto#atio#
+!a"e arre$ter& owe(er, $o"e i#)icatio# o+ thi$ ca# be obtai#e) +ro"
P13Q& %+ the act*a! p!a#t pipi#g i#$ta!!atio# i$ )i++ere#t +ro" that o+ the
e/peri"e#ta! co#+ig*ratio#$, the# it i$ reco""e#)e) that te$t$ be
co#)*cte) $i"*!ati#g the act*a! p!a#t pipi#g co#+ig*ratio#$ to e$tab-
!i$h the EET r*#-*p !e#gth& The .*ropea# -ta#)ar) .G12 874 P15Q
!i"it$ the *$e o+ i#-!i#e )e+!agratio# arre$ter$ to ,J3 S 50 +or gro*p E
a#) C app!icatio#$ a#) ,J3 S 30 +or gro*p 0& Tab*!ate) r*#-*p )i$-
ta#ce$ are ge#era!!y +or $traight pipe r*#$, a#) EET ca# occ*r +or
"*ch $"a!!er )i$ta#ce$ i# pipe $y$te"$ co#tai#i#g +!ow ob$tr*ctio#$&
't the i#$ta#t o+ tra#$itio#, a tra#$ie#t $tate o+ over%riven %etonation
i$ achie(e) a#) per$i$t$ +or a )i$ta#ce o+ a +ew pipe )ia"eter$& ;(er-
)ri(e# )eto#atio#$ propagate at $pee)$ greater tha# the $pee) o+
$o*#) 9a$ "ea$*re) i# the b*r#e) ga$ i""e)iate!y behi#) the +!a"e
+ro#t:, a#) $i)e-o# pre$$*re ratio$ 9at the pipe wa!!: i# the ra#ge o+ 50
to 100 ha(e bee# "ea$*re)& The pea1 pre$$*re i$ (ariab!e )epe#)i#g
o# the a"o*#t o+ preco"pre$$io# )*ri#g )e+!agratio#& ' $e(ere te$t
+or )eto#atio#-type +!a"e arre$ter$ i$ to arra#ge +or the arre$ter to
e#co*#ter a $erie$ o+ o(er)ri(e# )eto#atio#$&
'+ter the ab#or"a!!y high (e!ocitie$ a#) pre$$*re$ a$$ociate) with
EET ha(e )ecaye), a $tate o+ $tab!e )eto#atio# i$ attai#e)& ' )eto#a-
tio# i$ a co"b*$tio#-)ri(e# $hoc1 wa(e propagati#g at the $pee) o+
$o*#) a$ "ea$*re) i# the b*r#e) ga$ i""e)iate!y behi#) the +!a"e
+ro#t& -i#ce the $pee) o+ $o*#) i# thi$ hot ga$ i$ "*ch !arger tha# that
i# the *#b*r#e) ga$ or the a"bie#t air, a#) the +!a"e +ro#t $pee) i$
a*g"e#te) by the b*r#e) ga$ (e!ocity, $tab!e )eto#atio#$ propagate at
$*per$o#ic (e!ocitie$ re!ati(e to a# e/ter#a! +i/e) poi#t& ' typica!
(e!ocity +or a $toichio"etric ga$ "i/t*re i$ 1800 "J$& The wa(e i$ $*$-
tai#e) by che"ica! e#ergy re!ea$e) by $hoc1 co"pre$$io# a#) ig#itio#
o+ the *#reacte) ga$& The +!a"e +ro#t i$ co*p!e) i# $pace a#) ti"e
with the $hoc1 +ro#t with #o $ig#i+ica#t pre$$*re ri$e ahea) o+ the
$hoc1 +ro#t& The high (e!ocitie$ a#) pre$$*re$ a$$ociate) with )eto#a-
tio#$ re5*ire $pecia! e!e"e#t )e$ig# to 5*e#ch the high-(e!ocity
+!a"e$ p!*$ $*perior arre$ter co#$tr*ctio# to with$ta#) the a$$ociate)
i"p*!$e !oa)i#g& -i#ce thi$ e#tai!$ #arrower a#)Jor !o#ger e!e"e#t
cha##e!$ p!*$ braci#g o+ the e!e"e#t +aci#g, both i#here#t pre$$*re
)rop a#) the po$$ibi!ity o+ +o*!i#g o+ )eto#atio# arre$ter$ $ho*!) be
co#$i)ere)&
The prob!e" o+ +!a"e arre$t"e#t, o+ either )e+!agratio#$ or )eto-
#atio#$, )epe#)$ o# the propertie$ o+ the ga$ "i/t*re i#(o!(e) p!*$
the i#itia! te"perat*re, pre$$*re, a#) o/yge# co#ce#tratio#& Ga$ "i/-
t*re co"b*$tio# propertie$ ca##ot be 5*a#ti+ie) +or )irect *$e i#
+!a"e arre$ter $e!ectio#, a#) o#!y ge#era! characteri$tic$ ca# be
a$$ig#e)& 6or thi$ rea$o# +!a"e arre$ter per+or"a#ce "*$t be )e"o#-
$trate) by rea!i$tic te$ti#g& -*ch te$ti#g ha$ )e"o#$trate) that
arre$ter$ capab!e o+ $toppi#g e(e# o(er)ri(e# )eto#atio#$ "ay +ai!
*#)er re$tricte) e#) )e+!agratio# te$t co#)itio#$& %t i$ i"porta#t to
*#)er$ta#) the $ig#i+ica#ce o+ the te$t co#)itio#$ a))re$$e) a#) their
po$$ib!e !i"itatio#$& %t i$ reco""e#)e) that *$er$ re5*e$t a )etai!e)
te$t report +ro" the +!a"e arre$ter "a#*+act*rer a#) o#!y a#
appro(e) arre$ter te$te) to a recog#iKe) te$t $ta#)ar) be i#$ta!!e)&
Combustion@ .as C#ara&teristi&s and (ensitivit" Co"b*$-
tio# ther"o)y#a"ic ca!c*!atio#$ a!!ow )eter"i#atio# o+ pea1 )e+!a-
gratio# a#) )eto#atio# pre$$*re$, p!*$ $tab!e )eto#atio# (e!ocity& The
pea1 pre$$*re ca!c*!atio# "ay be *$e) to )eter"i#e co"b*$tio#
pro)*ct (e#ti#g re5*ire"e#t$ a!tho*gh a co#$er(ati(e (o!*"e
i#crea$e o+ 921 "ay be *$e) +or e$$e#tia!!y c!o$e) $y$te"$& ;ther re!e-
(a#t ga$ characteri$tic$ are e#tire!y e/peri"e#ta!& The $e#$iti(ity to
)eto#atio# )epe#)$ o# the )eto#ab!e ra#ge a#) +*#)a"e#ta! b*r#i#g
(e!ocity, a!tho*gh #o $peci+ic corre!atio#$ or "ea$*re$ o+ $e#$iti(ity
e/i$t ba$e) o# +*#)a"e#ta! propertie$& Gatio#a! .!ectrica! Co)e
9G.C: gro*p$ are co""o#!y *$e) to ra#1 ga$e$ +or the p*rpo$e$ o+
+!a"e arre$ter $e!ectio#& 0y thi$ "etho), gro*p ' ga$e$ 9acety!e#e: are
co#$i)ere) "o$t $e#$iti(e to )eto#atio# 9a#) "o$t )i++ic*!t to arre$t:
whi!e gro*p E ga$e$ 9$*ch a$ $at*rate) hy)rocarbo#$: are co#$i)ere)
!ea$t $e#$iti(e a#) ea$ie$t to arre$t& '$ +or"er!y app!ie), $*cce$$+*!
te$ti#g o+ a# arre$ter *$i#g o#e ga$ i# a G.C .!ectrica! Gro*p wa$
a$$*"e) to "ea# that the arre$ter wo*!) be $*itab!e +or a!! other ga$e$
i# that gro*p& '$ pre$e#t!y app!ie) i# (ario*$ co)e$, a repre$e#tati(e
te$t ga$ +ro" each gro*p 9$*ch a$ hy)roge# i# gro*p 0, ethy!e#e i#
gro*p C, or propa#e i# gro*p E: i$ typica!!y *$e) +or arre$ter certi+i-
catio#, a#) it$ abi!ity to arre$t a )i++ere#t ga$ or ga$ "i/t*re i$ )e)*ce)
by co"pari#g the re$pecti(e "a/i"*" e/peri"e#ta! $a+e gap$& The
arre$ter i$ a$$*"e) to be $*itab!e +or a#y $i#g!e ga$ or "i/t*re ha(i#g
a# M.-G greater tha# or e5*a! to that o+ the repre$e#tati(e te$t ga$&
'!tho*gh the arre$ter "ay be )irect!y te$te) *$i#g the ga$ or ga$ "i/-
t*re o+ i#tere$t, thi$ i$ rare!y carrie) o*t owi#g to co$t& The M.-G
co"pari$o# proce)*re i$ c*rre#t!y app!ie) to both )e+!agratio# a#)
)eto#atio# arre$ter$& -peci+ic te$ti#g protoco!$ are $peci+ie) by the
co)e$ *$e)& -i#ce M.-G$ pro(i)e a# i#)epe#)e#t ra#1i#g +or
arre$ter $e!ectio#, re+ere#ce to G.C gro*p$ i$ #ot e$$e#tia!& Ge(er-
the!e$$, arre$ter$ co#ti#*e to be )e$cribe) i# ter"$ o+ the G.C gro*p
o+ the repre$e#tati(e te$t ga$ *$e) +or certi+icatio#& 6or e/a"p!e, a#
arre$ter "ight be )e$cribe) a$ a <gro*p C 9ethy!e#e:= type& ' )etai!e)
)i$c*$$io# o+ the *$e o+ M.-G$ i$ gi(e# i# P9Q&
%t i$ ca*tio#e) that there ha(e bee# #o $y$te"atic $t*)ie$ pro(i#g
that arre$ter per+or"a#ce ca# be )irect!y corre!ate) with M.-G,
e$pecia!!y i+ the M.-G +or a "i/t*re i$ e$ti"ate) by *$i#g the Fe
Chate!ier r*!e& '# a!ter#ati(e way +or ca!c*!ati#g the M.-G a#) $a+e
gap o+ "i/t*re$ i$ gi(e# i# P12Q& 6*rther"ore, "a>or re(i$io#$ to the
M.-G te$t "etho) ha(e ca*$e) "a#y <hi$toric= M.-G (a!*e$ to
i#crea$e $ig#i+ica#t!yA the c*rre#t te$t "etho) "i#i"iKe$ co"pre$$io#
o+ the *#b*r#e) ga$ "i/t*re a#) "ay there+ore *#)ere$ti"ate the
!i1e!ihoo) o+ arre$ter +ai!*re (ia a*toig#itio#&
Corrosion Co#$i)eratio# $ho*!) be gi(e# to po$$ib!e corro$io# o+
both the e!e"e#t "ateria! a#) the arre$ter ho*$i#g, $i#ce corro$io#
"ay wea1e# the $tr*ct*re, i#crea$e the pre$$*re )rop, a#) )ecrea$e
the e++ecti(e#e$$ o+ the e!e"e#t& 4hi!e the ho*$i#g "ight be
)e$ig#e) to ha(e a corro$io# a!!owa#ce, corro$io# o+ the e!e"e#t "*$t
be a(oi)e) by proper "ateria! $peci+icatio#& Co""o# "ateria!$ o+
co#$tr*ctio# i#c!*)e a!*"i#*", carbo# $tee!, )*cti!e iro# a#) 316
$tai#!e$$ $tee! ho*$i#g$, a#) a!*"i#*" or 316 $tai#!e$$ $tee! e!e"e#t$&
4hi!e $pecia! "ateria!$ $*ch a$ a$te!!oy "ight be *$e) +or $it*atio#$
$*ch a$ high C! co#ce#tratio#$, it "ay be "ore co$t-e++ecti(e to *$e
a hy)ra*!ic arre$ter "a)e o+ carbo# $tee! a#) !i#e) with a $*itab!e
po!y"eric !i#i#g i# $*ch app!icatio#$& '!$o, at !ea$t o#e +!a"e arre$ter
"a#*+act*rer ca# pro(i)e +!a"e arre$ter$ with CT6. 9Te+!o#: arre$t-
i#g e!e"e#t$ a#) !i#e) ho*$i#g$ *p to a #o"i#a! $iKe o+ 4 i# +or (ery
corro$i(e $er(ice P8Q&
ire&tionalit" To $e!ect a# arre$ter +or a#y $er(ice, the pote#tia!
$o*rce$ o+ ig#itio# "*$t be e$tab!i$he) i# re!atio# to the pipe $y$te"
a#) the e5*ip"e#t to be protecte)& The pipe co##ecti#g a# arre$ter
with a# i)e#ti+ie) ig#itio# $o*rce i$ the "nprotecte% si%e o+ the arre$ter&
The pipe co##ecti#g the arre$ter with at-ri$1 e5*ip"e#t i$ the pro-
tecte% si%e0 %+ the arre$ter wi!! e#co*#ter a +!a"e arri(i#g o#!y +ro" o#e
)irectio#, a "ni%irectional arre$ter ca# be *$e)& %+ a +!a"e "ay arri(e
+ro" either )irectio# a bi%irectional arre$ter i$ #ee)e)& The !atter
either are $y""etrica!!y co#$tr*cte) or are certi+ie) by te$ti#g& 0ac1-
to-bac1 *$e o+ *#i)irectio#a! arre$ter$ wi!! #ot *$*a!!y be co$t-e++ecti(e
*#!e$$ te$ti#g re(ea!$ a $peci+ic a)(a#tage $*ch a$ i#crea$e) a!!owab!e
operati#g pre$$*re )*ri#g re$tricte) e#) )e+!agratio# te$ti#g&
Enduran&e Burn ,#)er certai# co#)itio#$ a $*cce$$+*!!y arre$te)
+!a"e "ay $tabi!iKe o# the *#protecte) $i)e o+ a# arre$ter e!e"e#t&
-ho*!) thi$ co#)itio# #ot be correcte), the +!a"e wi!! e(e#t*a!!y pe#-
etrate the arre$ter a$ the cha##e!$ beco"e hot& '# e#)*ra#ce b*r#
ti"e ca# be )eter"i#e) by te$ti#g, which $peci+ie$ that the arre$ter
ha$ with$too) a $tabi!iKe) +!a"e witho*t pe#etratio# +or a gi(e#
perio)& The te$t $ho*!) a))re$$ either the act*a! or the wor$t-ca$e
geo"etry $i#ce heat tra#$+er to the e!e"e#t wi!! )epe#) o# whether
the +!a"e $tabi!iKe$ o# the top, botto", or horiKo#ta! +ace& %# ge#era!
the e#)*ra#ce b*r# ti"e i)e#ti+ie) by te$t $ho*!) #ot be regar)e) a$
a# acc*rate "ea$*re o+ the ti"e a(ai!ab!e to ta1e re"e)ia! actio#,
$i#ce te$t co#)itio#$ wi!! #ot #ece$$ari!y appro/i"ate the wor$t po$$i-
b!e practica! ca$e& Te"perat*re $e#$or$ "ay be i#corporate) at the
arre$ter to i#)icate a $tabi!iKe) +!a"e co#)itio# a#) either a!ar" or
i#itiate appropriate actio#, $*ch a$ (a!(e c!o$*re& %t i$ (ery i"porta#t
to i#$ta!! a# e#)*ra#ce b*r#i#g +!a"e arre$ter i# the $a"e way a$
te$te) to a(oi) "a!+*#ctio# P11Q&
Installation .#)-o+-!i#e arre$ter$ $ho*!) be protecte) by *$i#g
appropriate weather hoo)$ or cow!$& %#-!i#e arre$ter$ 9#otab!y )eto#a-
tio# arre$ter$ a#) i#-!i#e )e+!agratio# arre$ter$: "*$t be )e$ig#e) to
with$ta#) the highe$t !i#e pre$$*re that "ight be $ee#, i#c!*)i#g
*p$et co#)itio#$& The )e$ig# $ho*!) be (eri+ie) by hy)ro$tatic a#)
p#e*"atic pre$$*re te$t$& The pipi#g $y$te" $ho*!) be )e$ig#e) with
a)e5*ate $*pport$ a#) $ho*!) a!!ow ro*ti#e acce$$ to the arre$ter +or
i#$pectio# a#) "ai#te#a#ce&
%aintenan&e %t i$ i"porta#t to pro(i)e +or arre$ter "ai#te#a#ce
by both $e!ectio# o+ the "o$t $*itab!e arre$ter type a#) >*)icio*$ !oca-
tio#& %#$pectio# a#) "ai#te#a#ce $ho*!) be per+or"e) o# a reg*!ar
ba$i$ )epe#)i#g o# e/perie#ce with the partic*!ar arre$ter i# the $er-
(ice i#(o!(e)& %t $ho*!) a!$o be carrie) o*t a+ter $*cce$$+*! +*#ctio# o+
the arre$ter& -o"e i#-!i#e )e$ig#$ a!!ow re"o(a!, i#$pectio#, a#)
c!ea#i#g o+ the e!e"e#t witho*t the #ee) to e/pa#) the !i#e& ,#it
)e$ig#$ +eat*ri#g "*!tip!e e!e"e#t$ i# para!!e! ca# re)*ce )ow#ti"e
by e/te#)i#g the perio) betwee# c!ea#i#g& 6or $y$te"$ that ca##ot be
$h*t )ow# )*ri#g "ai#te#a#ce, para!!e! arre$ter$ i#corporati#g a
three-way (a!(e "ay be *$e)& Eeto#atio# arre$ter e!e"e#t$ are e$pe-
cia!!y pro#e to )a"age )*ri#g )i$"a#t!i#g, c!ea#i#g, a#) rea$$e"b!y&
Mai#te#a#ce "*$t be care+*!!y )o#e, a(oi)i#g $harp ob>ect$ that
co*!) )i$ab!e the )e!icate cha##e!$ i# the e!e"e#t& -pare e!e"e#t$
$ho*!) be a(ai!ab!e to re)*ce )ow#ti"e a#) pro(i$io#$ "a)e +or $tor-
i#g, tra#$porti#g, a#) c!ea#i#g the e!e"e#t$ witho*t )a"age&
%onitoring The )i++ere#tia! pre$$*re acro$$ the arre$ter e!e"e#t
ca# be "o#itore) to )eter"i#e the po$$ib!e #ee) +or c!ea#i#g& The
pre$$*re tap$ "*$t #ot create a +!a"e path aro*#) the arre$ter& %t ca#
be i"porta#t to pro(i)e te"perat*re $e#$or$ $*ch a$ ther"oco*p!e$
at the arre$ter to )etect +!a"e arri(a! a#) $tabi!iKatio#& -i#ce arre$ter
+*#ctio# "ay i#(o!(e )a"age to the arre$ter, the e(e#t o+ $*cce$$+*!
+*#ctio# 9+!a"e arri(a!: "ay be *$e) to i#itiate i#$pectio# o+ the
e!e"e#t +or )a"age& %+ the pipi#g i$ $*ch that +!a"e $tabi!iKatio# o#
the e!e"e#t i$ a rea!i$tic co#cer#, actio# "*$t be ta1e# i""e)iate!y
*po# i#)icatio# o+ $*ch $tabi!iKatio# 9$ee a!$o .#)*ra#ce 0*r#:&
-*ch actio# "ay i#(o!(e (a!(e c!o$*re to $h*t o++ ga$ +!ow or i#ert ga$
p*rgi#g&
'perating Temperature and $ressure 'rre$ter$ are certi+ie)
$*b>ect to "a/i"*" operati#g te"perat*re$ a#) ab$o!*te pre$$*re$
#or"a!!y $ee# at the arre$ter !ocatio#& 'rre$ter p!ace"e#t i# re!atio# to
heat $o*rce$ $*ch a$ i#ci#erator$ "*$t be $e!ecte) $o that the a!!owab!e
te"perat*re i$ #ot e/cee)e), with )*e co#$i)eratio# +or the )eto#a-
tio# pote#tia! a$ r*#-*p )i$ta#ce i$ i#crea$e)& 6!a"e arre$ter "a#*+ac-
t*rer$ ca# pro(i)e reco""e#)e) )i$ta#ce$ +ro" heat $o*rce$, $*ch a$
ope# +!a"e$, to a(oi) ther"a! )a"age to a +!a"e arre$ter e!e"e#t& %+
heat traci#g i$ *$e) to pre(e#t co#)e#$atio# o+ !i5*i)$, the $a"e te"-
perat*re co#$trai#t app!ie$& %# the ca$e o+ i#-!i#e arre$ter$, there "ay
be certai# *p$et co#)itio#$ that pro)*ce *#*$*a!!y !arge $y$te" pre$-
$*re$ o*t$i)e the $tip*!ate) operati#g ra#ge o+ the arre$ter& -i#ce the
"a/i"*" operati#g pre$$*re +or a )eto#atio# arre$ter "ay be i# the
ra#ge o+ 16 to 26 p$ia, )epe#)i#g o# the ga$ $e#$iti(ity a#) arre$ter
)e$ig#, it "ay be i"po$$ib!e to +i#) a $*itab!e arre$ter to operate )*r-
i#g $*ch a# *p$et& The $it*atio# "ay be e/acerbate) by pre$$*re )rop
acro$$ the )e(ice ca*$e) by high +!ow a#)Jor +o*!i#g&
$ressure rop 6!ow re$i$ta#ce )epe#)$ o# +!a"e arre$ter cha#-
#e! arra#ge"e#t a#) o# a ti"e-)epe#)e#t +o*!i#g +actor )*e to cor-
ro$io#, or acc*"*!atio# o+ !i5*i)$, partic!e$ or po!y"er$, )epe#)i#g
o# the $y$te" i#(o!(e)& Mo#o"er co#)e#$atio# i$ a )i++ic*!t prob!e"
$i#ce i#hibitor$ wi!! *$*a!!y be re"o(e) )*ri#g "o#o"er e(aporatio#
a#) cata!y$i$ "ight occ*r o(er partic*!ate$ trappe) i# the e!e"e#t&
Cre$$*re )rop ca# be a critica! +actor i# operabi!ity, a#) c!ea#i#g "ay
repre$e#t a !arge hi))e# co$t& -iKi#g +or pre$$*re )rop "*$t be ba$e)
o# wor$t-cre)ib!e-ca$e operati#g co#)itio#$ rather tha# #or"a! oper-
ati#g co#)itio#$&
6o*!i#g "ay be "itigate) i# a #*"ber o+ way$& 6ir$t, the !ea$t $e#-
$iti(e e!e"e#t )e$ig# ca# be $e!ecte), a#) i# the ca$e o+ e#)-o+-!i#e
arre$ter$, weather hoo)$ or cow!$ ca# be *$e) to protect agai#$t water
or ice acc*"*!atio#& -eco#), a +o*!i#g +actor 920 perce#t or greater:
"ight be e$ti"ate) a#) a# e!e"e#t with a greater te$te) +!ow capacity
$e!ecte) to re)*ce the pre$$*re )rop& Thi$ $ho*!) be +*rther i#crea$e)
i+ !i5*i) co#)e#$atio# "ight occ*r& %t i$ i"porta#t that certi+ie) +!ow
c*r(e$ +or the arre$ter be *$e) rather tha# ca!c*!ate) c*r(e$ $i#ce the
!atter ca# be high!y opti"i$tic& Co#)e#$atio# a#) po!y"eriKatio# "ay
be "itigate) by geo"etry 9"i#i"iKi#g !i5*i) acc*"*!atio# i# co#tact
with the e!e"e#t: a#) pro(i$io# +or )rai#age& '!ter#ati(e!y, the
arre$ter "ay be i#$*!ate) a#) po$$ib!y heat-trace)& Erai#$ $ho*!) #ot
pro(i)e +!a"e path$ aro*#) the arre$ter or !ea1 i# either )irectio#
whe# c!o$e)& %+ heat traci#g i$ *$e), the te"perat*re "*$t be !i"ite)
to the certi+ie) operati#g ra#ge o+ the arre$ter&
%# a))itio# to *$i#g a# arre$ter e!e"e#t with greater +!ow capacity, it
i$ co""o# to *$e two arre$ter$ i# para!!e! where +re5*e#t c!ea#i#g i$
re5*ire), with o#e arre$ter i# $ta#)by& ' three-way (a!(e ca# be *$e) to
a!!ow *#i#terr*pte) operatio# )*ri#g cha#geo(er& 4here e!e"e#t$
ha(e a# i#tri#$ica!!y high pre$$*re )rop, $*ch a$ $i#tere) "eta! e!e-
"e#t$ *$e) i# acety!e#e $er(ice, "*!tip!e para!!e! e!e"e#t$ ca# be *$e)&
Defla$ration Arresters The two type$ o+ )e+!agratio# arre$ter
#or"a!!y e#co*#tere) are the en%-of-line arrester 96ig$& 23-59 a#)
23-60: a#) the tank vent %eflagration arrester, which i$ "o*#te) c!o$e
to the e#) o+ the !i#e goi#g )irect to the at"o$phere& Geither type o+
arre$ter i$ )e$ig#e) to $top i#-!i#e )e+!agratio#$ or )eto#atio#$& %+
"o*#te) $*++icie#t!y +ar +ro" the at"o$pheric o*t!et o+ a pipi#g $y$-
te", which co#$tit*te$ the *#protecte) $i)e o+ the arre$ter, the +!a"e
ca# acce!erate $*++icie#t!y to ca*$e the$e arre$ter$ to +ai!& 6ai!*re ca#
occ*r at high +!a"e $pee)$ e(e# witho*t a r*#-*p to )eto#atio#&
%+ at"o$pheric ta#1$ are e5*ippe) with +!a"e arre$ter$ o# the
(e#t$, +o*!i#g or b!oc1age by e/tra#eo*$ "ateria! ca# i#hibit ga$ +!ow
to the )egree that the ta#1 ca# be )a"age) by *#)erpre$$*re& 'C%
$ta#)ar)$ a!!ow the *$e o+ pre$$*re (ac**" 9CJD: (a!(e$ witho*t +!a"e
arre$ter$ +or +ree-(e#ti#g ta#1$ o# the ba$i$ that the high (apor (e!oc-
ity i# the #arrow gap betwee# pre$$*re pa!!et 9p!atter: a#) (a!(e bo)y
wi!! pre(e#t +!a$hbac1& owe(er, it i$ i"porta#t to e#$*re the pa!!et i$
#ot "i$$i#g or $t*c1 ope# $i#ce thi$ wi!! re"o(e the protectio#&
'b$e#ce o+ the pa!!et wa$ a !i$te) +actor i# the 1991 Coo)e %$!a#) +ire
9-tate Coro#er Dictoria, Ca$e Go& 2755J91, %#5*e$t i#to 6ire at Coo)e
%$!a#) o# '*g*$t 21 a#) 22, 1991, 6i#)i#g:& 4hether or #ot +!a"e
arre$ter$ are *$e), proper i#$pectio# a#) "ai#te#a#ce o+ the$e (e#t
$y$te"$ i$ re5*ire)&
n#0of0line arresters are "o*#te) at the o*t!et o+ a pipe $y$-
te" a#) go )irect!y to the at"o$phere, $o there i$ #o pote#tia! +or
$ig#i+ica#t +!a"e acce!eratio# i# the pipe& )ank *ent #efla$ration
arresters are $trict!y !i"ite) by the appro(a! age#cy, b*t +or gro*p
E ga$e$ they are typica!!y "o*#te) #o "ore tha# 20 +t +ro" the
e#) o+ a $traight pipe that (e#t$ )irect!y to the at"o$phere& The
a!!owe) )i$ta#ce "*$t be e$tab!i$he) by proper te$ti#g with the
appropriate ga$ "i/t*re a#) the pipe )ia"eter i#(o!(e)& T*rb*-
!e#ce-pro"oti#g irreg*!aritie$ i# the +!ow 9be#)$, tee$, e!bow$,
(a!(e$, etc&: ca##ot be *$e) *#!e$$ te$ti#g ha$ a))re$$e) the e/act
geo"etry& %t i$ e$$e#tia! that r*#-*p to )eto#atio# #ot occ*r i# the
F%G. 2309C Typica! e#)-o+-!i#e )e+!agratio# arre$ter i#$ta!!atio#$& 9Co"rtesy of P4CTE(C
V
&:
a(ai!ab!e pipi#g $y$te", a#) r*#-*p )i$ta#ce ca# be !e$$ tha# 2 +t
+or $o"e +a$t-b*r#i#g ga$e$ $*ch a$ hy)roge# i# air 9gro*p 0:&
Th*$ the G.C gro*pi#g o+ the ga$ "i/t*re "*$t be co#$i)ere)&
More i"porta#t!y, it "*$t be e"pha$iKe) that e(e# i+ r*#-*p to
)eto#atio# )oe$ #ot occ*r, a )e+!agratio# arre$ter ca# +ai! i+ the
+!a"e $pee) i$ great e#o*gh& Th*$ the r*#-*p )i$ta#ce i$ #ot a#
a)e5*ate criterio# +or acceptab!e !ocatio#, a#) thi$ !i"itatio# ca#
be )eter"i#e) o#!y by rea!i$tic te$ti#g& ' #*"ber o+ e/p!o$io#$
ha(e occ*rre) )*e to "i$app!icatio# o+ e#)-o+-!i#e or ta#1 (e#t
)e+!agratio# arre$ter$ where )eto#atio# arre$ter$ or i#-!i#e )e+!a-
gratio# arre$ter$ $ho*!) ha(e bee# *$e)& The !atter are )e$cribe)
i# the #e/t $*b$ectio#&
Detonation an# .ther %n0Line Arresters %+ the poi#t o+ ig#i-
tio# i$ re"ote +ro" the arre$ter !ocatio#, the arre$ter i$ a# i#-!i#e
type $*ch a$ "ight be $it*ate) i# a (apor co!!ectio# $y$te" co##ect-
i#g $e(era! ta#1$& E*e to the po$$ibi!ity o+ EET, "o$t i#-!i#e
arre$ter$ are )e$ig#e) to $top both )e+!agratio#$ a#) )eto#atio#$
9i#c!*)i#g o(er)ri(e# )eto#atio#$: o+ the $peci+ie) ga$ "i/t*re&
The$e are 1#ow# a$ #etonation arresters& 6ig*re 23-61 $how$ a
typica! )e$ig#& Eeto#atio# arre$ter$ "ay be +*rther )e!i#eate) i#to
tho$e type$ that wi!! arre$t o#!y $tab!e )eto#atio#$ a#) tho$e that wi!!
arre$t both $tab!e a#) *#$tab!e )eto#atio#$ 9i&e&, o(er)ri(e# )eto#a-
tio#$ or EET e(e#t$:&
%# $o"e ca$e$, i#-!i#e arre$ter$ #ee) to $top )e+!agratio#$ o#!y&
owe(er, i# $*ch ca$e$ it "*$t be )e"o#$trate) that )eto#atio#$
F%G. 230<E Typica! e#)-o+-!i#e )e+!agratio# arre$ter )e$ig#& 9Co"rtesy of
P4CTE(C
V
&:
ca##ot occ*r i# the act*a! pipewor1 $y$te"A *#!e$$ the ga$ "i/t*re i$
i#tri#$ica!!y #ot capab!e o+ )eto#atio#, thi$ re5*ire$ +*!!-$ca!e te$ti#g
*$i#g the e/act pipe geo"etry to be *$e) i# practice, which "*$t #ot
be cha#ge) a+ter i#$ta!!atio#& %# certai# e/ceptio#a! ca$e$, a# i#-!i#e
)e+!agratio# arre$ter "ay be "o*#te) witho*t regar) to r*#-*p )i$-
ta#ce& Thi$ ca# be )o#e o#!y where the $y$te" i$ 1#ow# to be i#ca-
pab!e o+ )eto#atio#& ./a"p!e$ are the )eco"po$itio# +!a"e$ o+
ethy!e#e a#) ethy!e#e o/i)e, which are brie+!y )i$c*$$e) *#)er -pe-
cia! 'rre$ter Type$ a#) '!ter#ati(e$&
Eeto#atio# arre$ter$ are typica!!y *$e) i# co#>*#ctio# with other
"ea$*re$ to )ecrea$e the ri$1 o+ +!a"e propagatio#& 6or e/a"p!e, i#
(apor co#tro! $y$te"$ the (apor i$ o+te# e#riche), )i!*te), or i#erte),
with appropriate i#$tr*"e#tatio# a#) co#tro! P5Q& %# ca$e$ where
ig#itio# $o*rce$ are pre$e#t or pre)ictab!e 9$*ch a$ "o$t (apor
)e$tr*ct $y$te"$:, the )eto#atio# arre$ter i$ *$e) a$ a !a$t-re$ort
"etho) a#ticipati#g po$$ib!e +ai!*re o+ (apor co"po$itio# co#tro!&
4here (e#t co!!ectio# $y$te"$ ha(e $e(era! (aporJo/i)a#t $o*rce$,
$trea" co"po$itio#$ ca# be high!y (ariab!e a#) thi$ ca# be a))itio#-
a!!y co"p!icate) whe# *p$et co#)itio#$ are co#$i)ere)& %t i$ o+te#
co$t-e++ecti(e to per+or" haKar) a#a!y$e$ $*ch a$ 'W;C or +a*!t
F%G. 230<1 Typica! )eto#atio# arre$ter )e$ig# 9cri"pe) ribbo# type:& 9Co"r-
tesy of P4CTE(C
V
&:
tree a#a!y$i$ to )eter"i#e whether $*ch (e#t $trea"$ ca# e#ter the
+!a""ab!e regio# a#), i+ $o, what co"po$itio# corre$po#)$ to the
wor$t cre)ib!e ca$e& -*ch a# a#a!y$i$ i$ a!$o $*itab!e to a$$e$$ a!ter#a-
ti(e$ to arre$ter$&
Effe&t of $ipe iameter C#anges 'rre$ter per+or"a#ce ca# be
i"paire) by !oca! cha#ge$ i# pipe )ia"eter& %t wa$ $how# that a "i#i-
"*" )i$ta#ce o+ 120 pipe )ia"eter$ $ho*!) be a!!owe) betwee# the
arre$ter a#) a#y i#crea$e i# pipe )ia"eterA otherwi$e, a "ar1e)
re)*ctio# i# "a/i"*" a!!owab!e operati#g pre$$*re wo*!) occ*r&
Thi$ i"pair"e#t wa$ ob$er(e) )*ri#g )eto#atio# te$ti#g b*t wa$ "o$t
pro#o*#ce) )*ri#g re$tricte)-e#) )e+!agratio# te$ti#g 9Fapp a#)
Dic1er$, !nt0 3ata E)change $ymp0 on Flame rresters an% rrest-
ment Technology, 0a#++, '!berta, ;ctober 1992:& '$ a r*!e, arre$ter$
$ho*!) be "o*#te) i# pipi#g either e5*a! to or $"a!!er tha# the #o"-
i#a! $iKe o+ the arre$ter&
Venting of Combustion $rodu&ts '$ ga$ )e+!agrate$ or )eto-
#ate$ i# the pipi#g $y$te", there i$ a (o!*"e e/pa#$io# o+ the pro)*ct$
a#) a# a$$ociate) pre$$*re i#crea$e& %# $o"e i#$ta#ce$ where the pipe
$y$te" (o!*"e i#(o!(e) i$ re!ati(e!y !arge, a $ig#i+ica#t o(erpre$$*re
"ight be )e(e!ope) i# the (apor $pace$ o+ co##ecte) ta#1$, e$pecia!!y
whe# (apor $pace i$ "i#i"a! )*e to high !i5*i) !e(e!& %t ca# be
a$$*"e) that a!! the ga$ o# the *#protecte) $i)e o+ the arre$ter i$ co#-
(erte) to e5*i!ibri*" pro)*ct$A the pre$$*re i$ re!ie(e) (ia ga$ e/pa#-
$io# i#to the e#tire $y$te" (o!*"e a#) to the at"o$phere (ia a#y (e#t
path$ pre$e#t& %+ heat !o$$e$ are #eg!ecte) by the a$$*"ptio# o+ high
+!a"e $pee)$ or )eto#atio#, a#) at"o$pheric (e#ti#g path$ are
#eg!ecte), a co#$er(ati(e approach i$ that $torage (e$$e!$ be )e$ig#e)
with a capacity to ha#)!e 9 ti"e$ the pipe (o!*"e o# the *#protecte)
$i)e o+ the arre$ter& 4ith regar) to the high pre$$*re$ a$$ociate) with
)eto#atio#$, it ha$ bee# $how# 9Fapp, %#)epe#)e#t Fi5*i) Ter"i#a!
'$$ociatio# Co#+ere#ce, o*$to#, L*#e 23, 1992: that )eto#atio#
arre$ter$ atte#*ate the pea1 )eto#atio# pre$$*re by *p to 96 perce#t
)epe#)i#g o# the arre$ter )e$ig#, a#) there+ore protect +ro" "*ch o+
the pre$$*re p*!$e& To +*rther re)*ce the pre$$*re p*!$e, re!ie+
)e(ice$ "ay be pro(i)e) at the arre$ter&
Arrester )estin$ an# Stan#ar#s 3eg*!atory a#) appro(a!
age#cie$ a#) i#$*rer$ i"po$e acceptance testing re5*ire"e#t$, $o"e-
ti"e$ a$ part o+ certi+icatio# $ta#)ar)$& The *$er "ay a!$o re5*e$t te$t-
i#g to )e"o#$trate $peci+ic per+or"a#ce #ee)$ >*$t a$ the
"a#*+act*rer ca# he!p )e(e!op $ta#)ar)$& The$e i#terre!atio#$hip$
ha(e re$*!te) i# $e(era! #ew a#) *p)ate) per+or"a#ce te$t proce-
)*re$& ,isting o+ a# arre$ter by a te$ti#g !aboratory re+er$ o#!y to per-
+or"a#ce *#)er a )e+i#e) $et o+ te$t co#)itio#$& The +!a"e arre$ter
*$er $ho*!) )e(e!op $peci+ic app!icatio# re5*ire"e#t$ ba$e) o# the
$er(ice i#(o!(e) a#) the $a+ety a#) ri$1 criteria a)opte)&
'$ )i$c*$$e) i# P8Q, a (ariety o+ te$t proce)*re$ a#) *$