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Country --- Name of parliaments

Pakistan Majlis-e-shoora
India Lower house ----- Lok Sabha
Upper House ----- Rajya Sabha
Britain Lower House ----- House of commons
Upper House ------House of Lords
USA Lower House ----- House of Representative
Upper House ------Senate
Germany Lower House ------Bundesra
Upper House ------Budesta
Malaysia Lower House ----- !ewan Rakyat
Upper House ----- !ewan "eara
Russia !umas
Iceland #lthin $Worlds oldest parliament%
Spain &ortes
!olland States 'eneral
Israel (nesset
Iran Majlis
"apan !iet
S#eden Ricksda
Nor#ay Stortin
$enmark )olketin
Poland Sejm
C%ina "ational *eople+s &onress
Nepal "ational *anchayat
B%uttan ,sondu
Some &acts a'out (art%
$istance of t%e eart% from t%e sun --------- )*+,,,+,,, miles
$istance of moon from eart% ----------------- -*.+./0 miles
$iameter of t%e sun ------------------------------ .12+,,, miles
$iameter of t%e eart% ---------------------------- .+,,, miles
$iameter of t%e moon --------------------------- -3), miles
Circumference of t%e eart% -------------------- -/+,,, miles
4ime taken 'y eart% 2 one rotation -------- -2 %ours
4ime taken 'y eart% 2 one re5ol5e --------- *1/-362
7on8est day in Nort%ern9 !emisp%ere ---- -3st "une
S%ortest day in Nort%ern9 !emisp%ere --- --nd $ec
(:ual days and ni8%ts ------------------------- -3st Marc% and -*rd Sep
(:ual days and ni8%ts round t%e year --- (:uator
Popular Names999999999999999999999 4itles
&lorence Ni8%tin8ale -------------- 7ady of t%e lamp
$uke of Wellin8ton ---------------- Iron $uke
(n8land and (n8lis% people --- "o%n Bull
(arl of War#ick --------------------- ;in8 Maker
Napolean ------------------------------ 7ittle Corporal
Napolean ------------------------------ Man of $estiny
<ueen (li=a'et% I ------------------ Maiden <ueen
"oan of Arc ---------------------------- Maid of >rleans
In%a'itants of USA ----------------- ?ankee
S%akespeare ------------------------- Bard of A5on
Prince of Bismarck ----------------- Man of Blood and Iron
;itc%ener of ;%artoum ------------ ; of ;
Ric%ard Co'den --------------------- Apostle of &ree 4rade
Gen Rommel @GermanyA --------- $esert &oB
Geoffrey C%aucer ------------------- &at%er of (n8lis% Poetry
!itler ------------------------------------ &eu%rer
Gen9 (isen%o#er @USAA --------- Ike
(n8lis% Soldier ---------------------- 4ommy Atkins
&renc% Soldier ----------------------- Poolu
American Soldier ------------------- G9 I9
Sir Walter Scott --------------------- Wi=ard of t%e Nort%
Si8mand &reud ---------------------- &at%er of Psyc%olo8y
>fficial Books
Blue Books ---------------------- >fficial reports of t%e Britis% Go5ernment
?ello# Books ------------------- &renc% official 'ooks
W%ite Books -------------------- >fficial Pu'lications of Portu8al and C%ina9
W%ite Paper --------------------- S%ort Pamp%let formerly issued 'y Britis% Parliament
Grey Books ---------------------- >fficial reports of "apan and Bel8iam Go5ernments
Green Books -------------------- >fficial Italian and Persian Pu'lications
>ran8e Books ------------------ Net%erland Pu'lications
Se5en Wonders of t%e Medie5al World
Closseum of Rome
Great Wall of C%ina @Cisi'le from moon alsoA
Porcelain 4o#er of Nankin8
Stone%en8e of (n8land
Mos:ue at St9 Sop%ia @CostantinopoleA
Catacom's of AleBandria
7eanin8 4o#er of Pisa
Se5en Wonders of Ancient World
!an8nin8 Gardens of Ba'ylion
4emple of $iana at (p%eus @RomeA
Statue of "upiter at >lympia
Mausoleum of Mausolus @Ruler of !alicarnassusA
Pyramids of (8ypt
7i8%t !ouse at AleBandria
Colossus at R%odes )3-ft statue of !elos+ 4%e Sun God+ stands at one side of t%e
Geo8rap%ical Surnames
Ben8alDs Sorro# 9999999999999999999999999 $amodar Ri5er
Blue Mountains 99999999999999999999999999 Nil8iri !ills
City of Palaces 99999999999999999999999999 Calcutta
C%inaDs Sorro# 999999999999999999999999999 !#an8 !o
City of (ternal Sprin8s 99999999999999999 <uito @Sout% AmericaA
City of Se5ern !ills 999999999999999999999 Rome
(ternal City 99999999999999999999999999999999Rome
City of Skyscrapers 999999999999999999999 Ne# ?ork
(mrald Isle 999999999999999999999999999999999 Ireland
&or'idden City 999999999999999999999999999997%asa
Gift of t%e Nile 9999999999999999999999999999 (8ypt
Gate#ay of India 9999999999999999999999999 Mum'ai
Gate#ay of 4ears 9999999999999999999999999Strait of Ba'-el-Manded @"erusalem+ PalestineA
Geor8e Cross Island 999999999999999999999 Malta
Granite City 999999999999999999999999999999999 A'erdeen
!oly 7and 99999999999999999999999999999999999 "erusalem
!ermit ;in8dom 9999999999999999999999999999 ;orea
Island of Clo5es 999999999999999999999999999 Ean=i'ar
;ey to Mediterranean 99999999999999999999 Gi'raltar
Pillars of !ercules 9999999999999999999999999 Straits of Gi'raltar
Manc%ester of t%e >rient 999999999999999 >saka @"apanA
Play8round of (urope 99999999999999999999 S#it=erland
<ueen of Adriatic 9999999999999999999999999 Cenice
Rose - Pink City 999999999999999999999999999 "aipur
Roof of t%e World 9999999999999999999999999 Pamirs in Central Asia
Sickman of t%e (urope 999999999999999999 4urkey
Cenice of Nort% 999999999999999999999999999 Stock%olm
Windy City 9999999999999999999999999999999999 C%ica8o
W%itemanDs Grace 9999999999999999999999999 Guinea @West Coast of AfricaA
WorldDs 7onliest Island 9999999999999999999 4ristan $e Cun%a @Mid - AtlanticA
7and of midni8%t Sun 999999999999999999999 Nor#ay
7and of risin8 Sun 9999999999999999999999999 "apan
7and of 4%ousand 7akes 99999999999999999 &inland
7and of Golden &leece 99999999999999999999 Austrailia
7and of Mornin8 Calm 999999999999999999999 ;orea
7and of Maple 7eaf 999999999999999999999999 Canada
7and of W%ite (lep%ants 99999999999999999 Siam @4%ialandA
7and of 4%under'olts 9999999999999999999999 B%utan
7and of fi5er ri5ers 999999999999999999999999 PunFa'
C%an8ed Geo8rap%ical Names
>ld Names GGGGGGGGGGG9 Ne# Names
A'yssinia GGGGGGGGGGGG9 (t%iopia
Antioc% GGGGGGGGGGGGG9 Antakya
At%inai GGGGGGGGGGGGG99 At%ens
Banaras GGGGGGGGGGGGG9Caranasi
Basutoland GGGGGGGGGGG9997esot%o
Bec%auanaland GGGGGGGGGGBots#ana
Ceylon GGGGGGGGGGGGG99Sri 7anka
C%ristiania GGGGGGGGGGGG>slo
Constantinopole GGGGGGGGG99Istan'ul
!olland GGGGGGGGGGGGG9 Net%erland
;ampuc%ea GGGGGGGGGGG9 Com'odia
;ru8n 4%ep GGGGGGGGGGG99 Bankok
7enin8rad GGGGGGGGGGGG9 St9 Petes'ur8
7yallpur GGGGGGGGGGGGG9 &aisala'ad
Mesopotamia GGGGGGGGGG999 Ira:
Monto8omery GGGGGGGGGG999Sa%i#al
Nort%ern R%odesia GGGGGGGG99Eam'ia
Mysore GGGGGGGGGGGGG99 ;amataka
R%odesia GGGGGGGGGGGG999Eim'a'#e
Sout% West Africa GGGGGGGGGNami'ia
Salis'ury GGGGGGGGGGGGG!arare
4ripoli GGGGGGGGGGGGGG997i'ya
United Pro5inces GGGGGGGGG99Utter Pardes%
Ci=a8apatam GGGGGGGGGGG9Cisak%apatnam
Important Cities and Ri5ers of t%e World
Burma @MyanmarA
City GGGGGGGG99 Ri5er
Ran8oon GGGGGG9 Irra#ady
Akya' GGGGGGG99 Irra#ady
Moulmein GGGGGG Sal#een
City GGGGGGGG99 Ri5er
S%an8%ai GGGGGG ?an8-tse-kian8
Nankin8 GGGGGG99 ?an8-tse-kian8
C%unkin8 GGGGG9999 ?an8-tse-kian8
Canton GGGGGGG Si-;ian8
Africa and West Asia
City GGGGGGGG99 Ri5er
;a'ul @Af8%anistanA G99 ;a'ul
Cairo @(8yptA GGGG99 Nile
Basra @Ira:A GGGGG9 (up%rates and 4i8ris
Ba8%dad @Ira:A GGG999 4i8ris
Ankara @4urkeyA GG99999 ;i=il
;%artoum @SudanA GG99 Confluence of Blue and W%ite Nile
City GGGGGGGG99 Ri5er
7is'on @Portu8alA GG999 4a8us
Colo8ne @GermanyA G99 R%ine
Berlin @GermanyA GGG Spree
!am'ur8 @GermanyA G9 (l'e
$resden @GermanyA 99G9(l'e
$an=in8 @GermanyA G999 Cistula
Cienna @AustriaA GGG9 $anu'e
$udapest @!un8aryA G999$anu'e
Bel8rade @?u8osla5iaAG Cistual
Paris @&ranceA GGGG9 Seine
Rome @ItlayA GGGGG994i'er
Sout% America
Sout% America
Countries of Middle (ast
Ara' Repu'lic of Syria
Saudi Ara'ia
United Ara' (mirates
Sout% Asia
Sout% Asia
Sri 7anka
San Marino
United ;in8dom
Catican City State
Central Asia
Central Asia
Benin @$a%omeyA
Cape Cerde
Central African Repu'lic
Comoro Islands
(:uatorial Guinea
I5ory Coast
Repu'lic of Sout% Africa
Sao 4ome and Principe
Sierra 7eone
Upper Colta
Central America
Costa Rica
(l Sal5ador
Sout% (ast Asia
Ri5ers in Asia
&han .ian $/ant0e%1 &hinese 2lon river2
!onjian1 &hinese 2east river2
Huan He1 &hinese 2yellow river2
Sefid-rud1 *ersian1 23hite river2
#ravand-rud1 *ersian1 2)ast river2-
Brahmaputra1 Hindi1 2Son of Brahma2-
Some 'i8 Ri5ers of World
4%e Ri5er 4IGRIS
$4nlish 2wa-,ers25 hydro-%
4%e Ri5er (UP!RA4(S
@(n8lis% Hflood+ flat+ Platte Ri5erHA
American Indian name meanin8 HBIG muddyHA
4%e Ri5er WINNIP(G
alle8edly Indian Cree #in nipee Hlittle muddy #ater+H which does not fit the 3innipe
river at all since the 3innipe river is not 2weany2 but is
a 2rapid river2 on which 2numerous falls and rapids hinder naviation2 and which is used
today to produce Manitoba6s electric power supply- *ossibly
Ri5er Information
Nile -
,he "ile is the lonest river in the world- ,he Blue "ile and 3hite "ile join just north of
(hartoum5 the capital of Sudan- ,he river flows on throuh 4ypt5 into the
Mediterranean Sea- #lmost all 4yptians live clustered close to the "ile6s banks- ,he
#swan Hih !am5 one of the larest dams in the world5 is a mi7ed blessin- 8t has
ensured dependable water supplies for ariculture5 but these are often used for thirsty
e7port crops like cotton- Silt is trapped behind the dam5 and not deposited on the fertile
delta at the end of the river5 so the delta is bein eroded away by the sea- 9:; of the
river6s natural flow is used by irriation or lost throuh evaporation - only <:; reaches
the sea-
?an8t=e -
,he /ant0e is the lonest river in #sia- 8t rises in the ,anlha mountains5 very near
,ibet5 and enters the /ellow Sea near Shanhai- 8t has over =:: tributaries5 and the
drainae basin $area drained by the river% covers >:; of &hina6s total land area- ,he
,hree 'ores !am on the /ant0e will be the world6s biest dam when it is completed-
8t is intended to control floodin and provide enery- However5 it will also flood < million
people from their homes and ?::5::: farmers will lose their land $because of the lakes
that will form behind the dams%- *eople are concerned about the lon term social and
ecoloical costs-
Gan8es -
,he 'anes rises in the Himalayan laciers in the north 8ndian state of Uttar *radesh5 and
ends at the Bay of Benal where it forms one of the world6s larest deltas- ,he waters of
the 'anes are considered sacred in Hindu mytholoy- ,he river provides water and
drainae for ?@: million people- ,he waters are heavily polluted5 partly from the A:5:::
people cremated each year at Benares $and their ashes scattered in the river%5 but mainly
from the distilleries5 refineries5 chemical factories and fertiliser comple7es alon the
river6s banks- Lare scale irriation projects have displaced millions of poor farmers5 and
altered the volume5 speed and silt load of the river6s flow- ,he river flow is so depleted
that the Sundarban wetlands and manrove forests of Banladesh are seriously
Bambe0i - Risin in northwestern Bambia5 the Bambe0i runs for appro7imately ?5:::
kilometres to the 8ndian Ccean- 8t includes Dictoria )alls $named after the Eueen of
4nland at the time%- ,here are many demands upon the waters of the Bambe0i-
Hydroelectric power $H4*% is enerated from the two larest human-made lakes5 (aribaF
and &abora Basa- ,he "ational *arks around the river are a lare attraction for tourists5
which brin in valuable income5 but the area needs to retain its wildness and beauty to
keep attractin tourists- However domestic and industrial pollution from nearby towns is
becomin more of a problem5 and dams prevent the river from flushin itself out-
*opulation rowth and recent drouht have increased the demand for the waters of the
Bambe0i for aricultural5 domestic5 and industrial uses-
Col8a -
,he Dola is the lonest river in 4urope5 risin in the Daldai Hills and flowin throuh
western Russia- ,he river is known in Russian folklore as Mother Dola5 and plays a lare
part in the life of the Russian people- #round half of Russia6s population live near the
Dola6s banks and its tributaries- 8t is an important trade route5 with 9:: ports and @@@:
industrial docks linin its banks- ,he river ends in the &aspian sea5 near #strakhan5 and is
an important source of water for the sea and its famous stureon fishery5 which produces
es for caviar- 4iht hue comple7es combinin dams5 reservoirs5 and hydroelectric
facilities operate on the river5 convertin the free-flowin river to a chain of man-made
lakes- 8t is seriously polluted from industrial wastes and runoff from cities and farmland5
because it cannot flush itself out- 8rriation for nearby farmlands has also lowered the
Dola6s flow and limited its ability to reenerate- Cnly ?; of water in the whole Dola
river basin is safe to drink-
"ordan -
&ompared to the si0e of many of the world6s major rivers5 the .ordan is insinificant -
more water flows down the #ma0on in one hour than flows down the .ordan in a year-
However5 it is very important within the Middle 4ast5 and is a holy site for &hristians5
.ews and Muslims- ,he source of the river is in .ordan5 and it is joined by streams from
Lebanon and Syria5 before enterin the Sea of 'alillee- ,he .ordan is under threat of
dryin up altoether durin summer5 and reduced to a meare flow durin winter- More
than 9:; of the river6s water is bein diverted by 8srael5 Syria and .ordan- ,he river is
also heavily polluted5 and now contains >:; untreated sewae5 plus run off from
ariculture and industry- *ollution flows into the !ead Sea5 which has shrunk by ?:; in
the last @: years and is slowly disappearin- 8f present rates of population rowth and
aricultural and industrial development continue5 within the ne7t >: to ?: years all of
8srael6s and .ordan6s freshwater will be needed for drinkin water demands alone-
#riculture will receive only reclaimed sewae5 and industry will have available only
costly desalinated seawater-
Mohammad #li .innah <@ #u <9A= - << Sep <9AH
(hwaja "a0imaddin <A Sep <9AH - <= Cct <9@<
Malik 'hulam Mohammad <= Cct <9@< - @ Cct <9@@
Maj- 'eneral 8skander #li Mir0a I Cct <9@@ - >> Mar <9@I
Military rulers
)ield Marshal Mohammad #yub (han >= Cct <9@H - >@ Mar <9I9
'eneral Mohammad /ahya (han >@ Mar <9I9 - >: !ec <9=<
'eneral Mohammad Bia ul-HaJ @ .ul <9== - <= #u <9HH
'eneral *erve0 Musharraf <> Cct <999 K till today
Presidents of t%e Repu'lic
Maj- 'eneral 8skander #li Mir0a >? Mar <9@I - >= Cct <9@H
)ield Marshal Mohammad #yub (han >= Cct <9@H - >@ Mar <9I9
'eneral Mohammad /ahya (han >@ Mar <9I9 - >: !ec <9=<
BulfiJar #li Bhutto >: !ec <9=< - <? #u <9=?
)a0al 4lahi &haudhry <A #u <9=? - <I Sep <9=H
'eneral Mohammad Bia ul-HaJ <I Sep <9=H - <= #u <9HH
'hulam 8shaJ (han <= #u <9HH - <H .ul <99?
3asim Sajjad $#ctin% <H .ul <99? - <A "ov <99?
)arooJ #hmed (han Lehari <A "ov <99? - > !ec <99=
3asim Sajjad $#ctin% > !ec <99= - < .an <99H
.ustice $Retd% Mohammad RafiJ ,arar < .an <99H - >: .un >::<
'eneral *erve0 Musharraf >: .un >::< Ktill today
Prime Ministers
"awab0ada LiaJuat #li (han <9 .ul <9A= - <I Cct <9@<
(hwaja "a0imaddin <= Cct <9@< - <= #pr <9@?
Mohammad #li Bora <= #pr <9@? - <> #u <9@@
&hauhdry Mohammad #li <> #u <9@@ - <> Sep <9@I
Husain Shaheed Suhrawardy <> Sep <9@I - <= Cct <9@=
8smail 8brahim &hundriar <= Cct <9@= - <I !ec <9@=
Malik )iroo0 (han "oon <I !ec <9@= - >= Cct <9@H
"urul #min = !ec <9=< - >: !ec <9=<
BulfiJar #li Bhutto <A #u <9=? - @ .ul <9==
Mohammad (han .unejo >? Mar <9H@ - >9 May <9HH
Bena0ir Bhutto > !ec <9HH - I #u <99:
'hulam Mustapha .atoi $caretaker% I #u <99: - I "ov <99:
Mian Mohammad "awa0 Sharif I "ov <99: - <H #pr <99?
Balakh Sher Ma0ari $caretaker% <H #pr <99? - >I May <99?
Mian Mohammad "awa0 Sharif >I May <99? - <H .ul <99?
Moeen Eureshi $caretaker% <H .ul <99? - <9 Cct <99?
Bena0ir Bhutto <9 Cct <99? - @ "ov <99I
Malik Miraj (halid $caretaker% @ "ov <99I - <= )eb <99=
Mian Mohammad "awa0 Sharif <= )eb <99= - <> Cct <999
Mir Bafarullah (han .amali >? "ov >::> K >I .une >::A
&h- Shujaat Hussain .une >::A->= #uust >::A
Shaukat #0i0 >H #uust >::A- <@-"ov->::=
Mian Muhammad Soomro $caretaker% <@-"ov->::= to date
Speakers6Presidents of t%e National Assem'ly
Mohammad #li .innah << #u <9A= - << Sep <9AH
Moulvi ,ami0addin (han <A !ec <9AH - >A Cct <9@A
#bdul 3ahab (han <> #u <9@@ - = Cct <9@H
Moulvi ,ami0addin (han << .un <9I> - <9 #u <9I?
)a0alul Euader &haudhry >9 "ov <9I? - <> .un <9I@
#bdul .abbar (han <> .un <9I@ - >@ Mar <9I9
BulfiJar #li Bhutto <A #pr <9=> K <> #pr <9=?
)a0al 4lahi &haudhry <@ #u <9=> - = #u <9=?
Sahib0ada )arooJ #li 9 #u <9=? - >= Mar <9==
Malik Miraj (halid >= Mar <9== - @ .ul <9==
Syed )akhar 8mam >> Mar <9H@ - >I May <9HI
Hamid "asir &hattha ?< May <9HI - ? !ec <9HH
Malik Miraj (halid ? !ec <9HH - A "ov <99:
'ohar #yub (han A "ov <99: - <= Cct <99?
/ousaf Ra0a 'illani <= Cct <99? - <I )eb <99=
8llahi Bukhsh Soomro <I )eb <99= - <@ Cct <999
&h- #mir Hussain <9 "ov >::> K
G(o8rap%ical Surnames
3-Ben8alDs Sorro#
!amodar River
--Blue Mountains
"iliri Hills
*-City of Sky-scrapers
"ew /ork
2-City of Se5en !ills
/-City of $reamin8 Spires
1-City of Palaces
0-City of Golden Gate
San )rancisco
.-City of Ma8nificent Buildin8s
3ashinton !-&-
)-City of (ternal Sprin8s
Euito $S- #merica%
3,-C%inaDs Sorro#
Hwan Ho
33-Cockpit of (urope
3--$ark Continent
3*-(merald Isle
32-(ternal City
3/-(mpire City
"ew /ork
31-&or'idden City
30-Garden City
3.-Gate of 4ears
Strait of Bab-elGMandeb
3)-Gate@8iftA of t%e Nile
>:-'ranite &ity
#berdeen $Scotland%
-3-!ermit ;in8dom
---;ey to t%e Mediterranean
-*-7and of Cakes
-2-7and of Golden &leece
-/-7and of Maple 7eaf
-1-7and of Mornin8 Calm
-0-7and of Midni8%t Sun
-.-7and of t%e 4%ousand 7akes
-)-7and of t%e 4%under'olt
*,-7and of W%ite (lep%ant
*3-7and of &i5e ?ears
*--7and of 4%ousand (lep%ants
**-7and of Risin8 Sun
*2-7oneliest Island
,ristan !e 'unha $Mid-#tlantic%
*/-Manc%ester of "apan
*1-Pillars of !ercules
Strait of 'ibraltar
*0-Pearl of t%e Antilles
*.-Play8round of (urope
*)-<uaker City
2,-<ueen of t%e Adriatic
23-Roof of t%e World
,he *amirs5 &entral #sia
2--Rose Pink City
2*-Su8ar 'o#l of t%e #orld
22-!errin8 Pond
#tlantic Ccean
2/-!oly 7and
21-Island Continent
20-Island of Clo5es
2.-Isle of Pearls
Bahrein $*ersian 'ulf%
2)-Cenice of t%e Nort%
/,-Windy City
/3-W%itemanDs 8ra5e
'uinea &oast of #frica
/--?ello# Ri5er
Huan Ho $&hina%
/*-7and of Golden Pa8oda
Scientific studies of 5arious fields
acarolo8y-- study of mites
accidence-- rammar bookF science of inflections in rammar
aceolo8y-- therapeutics
acolo8y -- study of medical remedies
acoustics -- science of sound
adenolo8y -- study of lands
aedoeolo8y -- science of enerative orans
aero'iolo8y -- study of airborne oranisms
aerodonetics-- science or study of lidin
aerodynamics -- dynamics of asesF science of movement in a flow of air or as
'acteriolo8y -- study of bacteria
'alneolo8y -- the science of the therapeutic use of baths
'arodynamics-- science of the support and mechanics of brides
'arolo8y-- study of ravitation
'atolo8y-- the study of brambles
'i'liolo8y-- study of books
'i'liotics-- study of documents to determine authenticity
'ioecolo8y-- study of interaction of life in the environment
'iolo8y -- study of life
'iometrics-- study of bioloical measurement
'ionomics-- study of oranisms interactin in their environments
'otany-- study of plants
'romatolo8y -- study of food
'rontolo8y -- scientific study of thunder
campanolo8y-- the art of bell rinin
carcinolo8y-- study of crabs and other crustaceans
cardiolo8y-- study of the heart
caricolo8y-- study of sedes
carpolo8y -- study of fruit
carto8rap%y -- the science of makin maps and lobes
cartop%ily-- the hobby of collectin ciarette cards
castrametation -- the art of desinin a camp
catacoustics--science of echoes or reflected sounds
catalactics-- science of commercial e7chane
catec%ectics -- the art of teachin by Juestion and answer
cetolo8y -- study of whales and dolphins
c%alco8rap%y-- the art of enravin on copper or brass
c%alcotriptics-- art of takin rubbins from ornamental brasses
c%aolo8y -- the study of chaos or chaos theory
c%aracterolo8y -- study of development of character
c%emistry-- study of properties of substances
c%irocosmetics-- beautifyin the handsF art of manicure
dia'olo8y-- study of devils
dia8rap%ics-- art of makin diarams or drawins
dialectolo8y -- study of dialects
dioptrics -- study of liht refraction
diplomatics -- science of decipherin ancient writins and te7ts
diplomatolo8y-- study of diplomats
docimolo8y-- the art of assayin
dosiolo8y-- the study of doses
dramatur8y -- art of producin and stain dramatic works
( to I
(8yptolo8y-- study of ancient 4ypt
ekistics-- study of human settlement
electroc%emistry-- study of relations between electricity and chemicals
electrolo8y -- study of electricity
electrostatics-- study of static electricity
em'ryolo8y-- study of embryos
emetolo8y -- study of vomitin
emmenolo8y -- the study of menstruation
endemiolo8y-- study of local diseases
endocrinolo8y-- study of lands
eni8matolo8y-- study of enimas
entomolo8y-- study of insects
ento=oolo8y-- study of parasites that live inside larer oranisms
en=ymolo8y-- study of en0ymes
ep%e'iatrics-- branch of medicine dealin with adolescence
epidemiolo8y-- study of diseasesF epidemics
flu5iolo8y -- study of watercourses
folkloristics-- study of folklore and fables
futurolo8y-- study of future
8ar'olo8y-- study of arbae
8astroenterolo8y -- study of stomachF intestines
8astronomy-- study of fine dinin
8emmolo8y-- study of ems and jewels
8enealo8y-- study of descent of families
8enesiolo8y-- study of reproduction and heredity
8enet%lialo8y-- the art of castin horoscopes
8eoc%emistry-- study of chemistry of the earth6s crust
8eoc%ronolo8y--- study of measurin eoloical time
8eo8eny-- science of the formation of the earth6s crust
8eo8ony-- study of formation of the earth
8eo8rap%y-- study of surface of the earth and its inhabitants
8eolo8y -- study of earth6s crust
8eomorp%o8eny-- study of the oriins of land forms
8eoponics-- study of #riculture
%ydro8rap%y-- study of investiatin bodies of water
%ydrokinetics-- study of motion of fluids
%ydrolo8y-- study of water resources
%ydrometeorolo8y-- study of atmospheric moisture
%ydropat%y -- study of treatin diseases with water
%yetolo8y-- science of rainfall
%y8iastics -- science of health and hyiene
%y8ienics-- study of sanitationF health
%y8iolo8y-- hyienicsF study of cleanliness
%y8rolo8y-- study of humidity
%y8rometry -- science of humidity
%ymno8rap%y-- study of writin hymns
%ymnolo8y -- study of hymns
%ypnolo8y-- study of sleepF study of hypnosis
%ypso8rap%y-- science of measurin heihts
iamatolo8y -- study of remedies
iatrolo8y-- treatise or te7t on medical topicsF study of medicine
iatromat%ematics-- archaic practice of medicine in conjunction with astroloy
ic%no8rap%y-- art of drawin round plansF a round plan
ic%nolo8y-- science of fossili0ed footprints
ic%t%yolo8y-- study of )ish
icono8rap%y-- study of drawin symbols
iconolo8y-- study of iconsF symbols
ideo8eny-- study of oriins of ideas
ideolo8y -- science of ideasF system of ideas used to justify behaviour
idiomolo8y-- study of idiom5 jaron or dialect
idiopsyc%olo8y-- psycholoy of one6s own mind
immuno8enetics-- study of enetic characteristics of immunity
immunolo8y-- study of immunity
immunopat%olo8y-- study of immunity to disease
insectolo8y -- study of insects
irenolo8y -- the study of peace
; to >
koniolo8y -- study of atmospheric pollutants and dust
ktenolo8y -- science of puttin people to death
kymatolo8y -- study of wave motion
la'eorp%ily-- collection and study of beer bottle labels
larit%mics-- study of population statistics
laryn8olo8y -- study of laryn7
lepidopterolo8y -- study of butterflies and moths
leprolo8y-- study of leprosy
leBicolo8y -- study of words and their meanins
leBi8rap%y-- art of definition of words
lic%enolo8y -- study of lichens
limacolo8y-- study of slus
limno'iolo8y-- study of freshwater ecosystems
limnolo8y -- study of bodies of fresh water
lin8uistics -- study of lanuae
lit%olo8y-- malarioloy study of malaria
mammalo8y-- study of mammals
manIJ8e-- the art of horsemanship
Mariolo8y-- study of the Dirin Mary
martyrolo8y-- study of martyrs
mastolo8y-- study of mammals
mat%ematics-- study of manitude5 number5 and forms
ma=olo8y-- mammaloyF study of mammals
mec%anics -- study of action of force on bodies
meconolo8y-- study of or treatise concernin opium
melittolo8y -- study of bees
mereolo8y-- study of part-whole relationships
mesolo8y -- ecoloy
metallo8eny-- study of the oriin and distribution of metal deposits
metallo8rap%y-- study of the structure and constitution of metals
metallur8y-- study of alloyin and treatin metals
nidolo8y -- study of nests
nomolo8y-- the science of the lawsF especially of the mind
noolo8y-- science of the intellect
nosolo8y -- study of diseases
nostolo8y-- study of senility
notap%ily-- collectin of bank-notes and cheJues
numerolo8y -- study of numbers
numismatics-- study of coins
nymp%olo8y-- study of nymphs
o'stetrics-- study of midwifery
oceano8rap%y-- study of oceans
oceanolo8y -- study of oceans
odolo8y -- science of the hypothetical mystical force of od
odontolo8y-- study of teeth
oenolo8y-- study of wines
oikolo8y -- science of housekeepin
olfactolo8y-- study of the sense of smell
om'rolo8y -- study of rain
oncolo8y -- study of tumours
oneirolo8y -- study of dreams
ort%o8rap%y-- study of spellin
ort%opterolo8y-- study of cockroaches
oryctolo8y -- mineraloy or paleontoloy
osmics-- scientific study of smells
osmolo8y-- study of smells and olfactory processes
osp%resiolo8y-- study of the sense of smell
osteolo8y -- study of bones
otolo8y -- study of the ear
otor%inolaryn8olo8y-- study of ear5 nose and throat
P to 4
paedolo8y-- study of children
paedotrop%y-- art of rearin children
paidonosolo8y-- study of children6s diseasesF pediatrics
palaeoant%ropolo8y-- study of early humans
palaeo'iolo8y -- study of fossil plants and animals
palaeoclimatolo8y-- study of ancient climates
palaeolimnolo8y-- study of ancient )ish
palaeolimnolo8y-- study of ancient lakes
palaeontolo8y-- study of fossils
p%ilately-- study of postae stamps
p%ilematolo8y -- the act or study of kissin
p%illumeny-- collectin of matchbo7 labels
p%ilolo8y -- study of ancient te7tsF historical linuistics
p%ilosop%y-- science of knowlede or wisdom
p%oniatrics -- study and correction of speech defects
p%onolo8y -- study of speech sounds
psyc%olo8y-- study of mind
psyc%opat%olo8y-- study of mental illness
psyc%op%ysics-- study of link between mental and physical processes
pteridolo8y -- study of ferns
pterylolo8y -- study of distribution of feathers on birds
pyretolo8y -- study of fevers
pyr8olo8y -- study of towers
pyro'allo8y-- study of artillery
pyro8rap%y-- study of woodburnin
:uinolo8y -- study of Juinine
raciolo8y-- study of racial differences
radiolo8y-- study of L-rays and their medical applications
refleBolo8y-- study of refle7es
r%a'dolo8y -- knowlede or learnin concernin divinin rods
r%a'dolo8y -- art of calculatin usin numberin rods
r%eolo8y -- science of the deformation or flow of matter
r%eumatolo8y-- study of rheumatism
r%inolo8y-- study of the nose
r%oc%rematics-- science of inventory manaement and the movement of products
runolo8y -- study of runes
sarcolo8y-- study of fleshy parts of the body
satanolo8y -- study of the devil
scatolo8y-- study of e7crement or obscene literature
sc%ematonics-- art of usin esture to e7press tones
scia8rap%y-- art of shadin
scripop%ily -- collection of bond and share certificates
sedimentolo8y -- study of sediment
seismolo8y -- study of earthJuakes
selenodesy-- study of the shape and features of the moon
selenolo8y-- study of the moon
semantics -- study of meanin
semantolo8y-- science of meanins of words
semasiolo8y-- study of meaninF semantics
topolo8y-- study of places and their natural features
toponymics-- study of place-names
toreutics -- study of artistic work in metal
toBicolo8y -- study of poisons
toBop%ily -- love of archeryF archeryF study of archery
traumatolo8y-- study of wounds and their effects
tri'olo8y -- study of friction and wear between surfaces
tric%olo8y-- study of hair and its disorders
trop%olo8y-- study of nutrition
tsi8anolo8y-- study of ypsies
turnery-- art of turnin in a lathe
typ%lolo8y-- study of blindness and the blind
typo8rap%y-- art of printin or usin type
typolo8y-- study of types of thins
U to E
ufolo8y-- study of alien spacecraft
urano8rap%y-- descriptive astronomy and mappin
uranolo8y-- study of the heavensF astronomy
ur'anolo8y-- study of cities
urenolo8y-- study of rust molds
urolo8y -- study of urineF urinary tract
5enereolo8y-- study of venereal disease
5ermeolo8y-- study of worms
5eBillolo8y-- study of flas
5ictimolo8y-- study of victims
5inolo8y -- scientific study of vines and winemakin
5irolo8y-- study of viruses
5itrics-- lassy materialsF lasswareF study of lassware
5olcanolo8y -- study of volcanoes
5ulcanolo8y-- study of volcanoes
Bylo8rap%y-- art of enravin on wood
Bylolo8y -- study of wood
=eno8rap%y-- study of the planet .upiter
=oiatrics-- veterinary surery
=ooarc%aeolo8y-- study of animal remains of archaeoloical sites
=ooc%emistry-- chemistry of animals
=oo8eo8rap%y-- study of eoraphic distribution of animals
=oo8eolo8y -- study of fossil animal remains
=oolo8y-- study of animals
=oonomy-- animal physioloy
=oonosolo8y-- study of animal diseases
=oopat%olo8y-- study of animal diseases
=oop%ysics-- physics of animal bodies
=oop%ysiolo8y -- study of physioloy of animals
=oop%ytolo8y-- study of plant-like animals
=oosemiotics-- study of animal communication
=ootaBy-- science of classifyin animals
=ootec%nics-- science of breedin animals
=y8olo8y -- science of joinin and fastenin
=ymolo8y -- science of fermentation
=ymur8y-- branch of chemistry dealin with brewin and distillin
Citamin A
$eficiency Symptoms
niht blindness
loss of smell
appetite loss
Natural Sources
&arrots5 )ish liver oils5 liver5 reen leafy veetables -
Citamin B3 @4%iaminA
$eficiency Symptoms
shortness of breath
numb handsMfeet
Natural Sources
3hole rains5 brewers yeast5 wheat erm5 rice5 seeds and milk-
Citamin B- @Ri'ofla5inA
$eficiency Symptoms
corner of mouth cracks and sores
poor diestion
Natural Sources
Liver5 cheese5 fish5 es5 seeds5 and cooked leafy veetables-
Citamin C @Ascor'ic AcidA
$eficiency Symptoms
dental cavities
Natural Sources
Rose hips5 citrus fruits5 black currants5 tomatoes5 sweet potatoes5 and reen bell peppers-
Citamin $
$eficiency Symptoms
tooth decay
Natural Sources
)ortified milk5 e yolks5 butter5 fish liver oils5 sardines5 salmon5 mushrooms5 and
sunflower seeds-
Citamin (
$eficiency Symptoms
enlared prostrate land
Natural Sources
3heat erm5 brussel sprouts5 leafy reens5 veetable oils5 and es-
Citamin ; @MenadioneA
$eficiency Symptoms
nose bleeds
Natural Sources
(elp5 alfalfa5 yourt5 safflower oil5 fish liver oil5 and leafy reen veetables-
,he Sahara is technically the world+s second larest desert after #ntarctica- #t over
95:::5::: sJuare kilometres $?5@::5::: sJ mi%5 it covers most parts of northern #fricaF an
area stretchin from the Red sea5 includin parts of the Mediterranean coasts5 to the
outskirts of the #tlantic ocean- 8t is almost as lare as the United States5 and is larer than
#ustralia- 8ts name derives from an #rabic word meanin NdesertO1 NarPQO $RSTUV%F to
refer to the Sahara as the WSahara !esert+ is therefore a pleonasm-
,he Sahara desert covers hue parts of #leria5 Burkina )aso5 &had5 4ypt5 Libya5 Mali5
Mauritania5 Morocco5 "ier5 Seneal5 Sudan and ,unisia-
,he Sahara includes many landforms such as rivers $"ile River5 SXnXal River%5
mountain ranes $#Yr Mountains5 #haar Mountains5 Saharan #tlas5 ,ibesti Mountains%5
smaller deserts and ers $Libyan !esert5 ,XnXrX5 4yptian Sand Sea5 Eattara !epression5
4r of Bilma5 4r &hebbi%5 lakes $Lake &had% and oases $Bahariya5 'hardaYa5
#ccordin to a botanical criteria of &ap-Rey5 the Sahara is comprised between the
Z at north1 limits of the maturity of *hoeni7 dactylifera $date palm trees%
Z at south1 southern limit of &ornucala monacantha $a &henopodiaceae% or northern limit
of the &encrus biflorus $a *oaceae of the Sahel reion%-
,he Sahara has one of the harshest climates in the world- 8t has many stron winds that
blow from the north-east- Sometimes on the border 0ones of the north and south5 the
desert will receive about >@ cm $<: in-% of rain a year- ,he rainfall happens
,he 'obi is a lare desert reion in &hina and southern Monolia- ,he desert basins of
the 'obi are bounded by the #ltay Mountains and the rasslands and steppes of Monolia
on the north5 by the ,ibetan *lateau to the southwest5 and by the "orth &hina *lain to the
southeast- ,he 'obi is made up of several distinct ecoloical and eoraphic reions5
based on variations in climate and toporaphy- ,his desert is both #sia+s larest and the
fourth larest in the world-
,he 'obi is most notable in history as part of the reat Monol 4mpire5 and as the
location of several important cities alon the Silk Road-
,he 'obi is a rain shadow desert formed by the Himalaya rane blockin rain-carryin
clouds from reachin the 'obi-
,he 'obi measures over <@:: kilometers from southwest to northeast and H:: km from
north to south- ,he desert is widest in the west5 alon the line joinin the Bahrash (ol
and the Lop "or $H=[-H9[ east%- 8t occupies an arc of land <5>9@5::: sJuare kilometers
$@::5::: mi\% in area5 makin it fourth larest in the world and #sia+s larest- Much of
the 'obi is not sandy but is covered with bare rock-
,he 'obi desert is a cold desert5 and it is not uncommon to see frost and occasionally
snow on its dunes- Besides bein Juite far north5 it is also rouhly 9:: meters $>59@? ft%
above sea level5 which further contributes to its low temperatures- #n averae of
appro7imately <9A millimeters $=-I in% of rain falls per year in the 'obi- #dditional
moisture reaches parts of the 'obi in winter as snow is blown by the wind from the
Siberian Steppes- ,hese winds cause the 'obi to reach e7tremes of temperature like no
other5 ranin from KA:[& in 3inter to ]@:[& in Summe
,he #rabian !esert is a vast desert wilderness stretchin from /emen to the *ersian 'ulf
and Cman to .ordan and 8raJ- 8t occupies most of the #rabian *eninsula with an area of
>5??:5::: sJuare kilometers $9::5::: mi\%- #t its center is the Rub+al-(hali5 one of the
larest continuous bodies of sand in the world- 'a0elles5 ory75 sand cats5 and spiny-tailed
li0ards are just some of the desert-adapted species that survive in this e7treme
environment5 which features everythin from red dunes to deadly Juicksand- ,he climate
is e7tremely dry5 and temperatures oscillate between e7treme heat and seasonal nihttime
free0es- 8t is part of the !eserts and 7eric shrublands biome and the *alearctic eco0one-
,his ecoreion holds little biodiversity5 althouh a few endemic plants row here- Many
species5 such as the striped hyena5 jackal and honey bader have become e7tinct in this
area due to huntin5 human encroachment and habitat destruction- Cther species have
been successfully re-introduced5 such as the endanered white ory7 and the
,he ,aklamakan !esert $also ,aklimakan% is a desert of &entral #sia5 in the Linjian
Uyhur #utonomous Reion of the *eople+s Republic of &hina- 8t is known as one of the
larest sandy deserts in the world- 8t covers an area of >=:5::: km\ of the ,arim Basin5
<5::: km lon and A:: km wide- 8t is crossed at its northern and at its southern ede by
two branches of the Silk Road as travellers souht to avoid the arid wasteland-
,here is no water on the desert and it was ha0ardous to cross- Merchant caravans on the
Silk Road would stop for relief at the thrivin oasis towns- ,he key oasis towns5 watered
by rainfall from the mountains5 were (ashar5 Marin5 "iya5 /arkand5 and (hotan
$Hetian% to the south5 (uJa and ,urfan in the north5 and Loulan and !unhuan in the
east- "ow some5 such as Marin5 are ruined cities in a sparsely inhabited dusty spot with
poor roads and minimal transportation in the Linjian #utonomous Reion of the *eoples
Republic of &hina-
,he 3hite .ade River flows into the ,aklamakan5 as do the /arkant He oriinatin in the
(unlun Mountains and the river from the ,ien Shan rane-
Mummies5 some A::: years old5 have been found in the reion- ,hey show the wide
rane of peoples who have passed throuh- Some of the mummies appear 4uropean-
Later5 the ,aklamakan was inhabited by ,urkic peoples- Startin with the ,an !ynasty5
the &hinese periodically e7tended their control to the oasis cities of the ,aklamakan in
order to control the important silk route trade across &entral #sia- *eriods of &hinese rule
were interspersed with rule by ,urkic and Monol and ,ibetan peoples- ,he present
population consists larely of ,urkic Uyhur and (a0akh people in the countryside5 while
the population of the larer cities is predominantly Han &hinese-
,he (alahari !esert is a lare arid to semi-arid sandy area in southern (alaadi #frica
e7tendin 9::5::: km\ $?I>5@:: sJ- mi-%5 coverin much of Botswana and parts of
"amibia and South #frica5 as semi-desert5 with hue tracts of e7cellent ra0in after
ood rains- ,he (alahari !esert is in #frica at the southern part and the desert is a portion
of desert and a plateau- ,he (alahari supports some animals and plants because most of it
is not true desert- ,here are small amounts of rainfall and the summer temperature is very
hih- 8t usually receives @-<: inches of rain per year- ,he surroundin (alahari Basin
covers over >-@ million km\ e7tendin farther into Botswana5 "amibia and South #frica5
and encroachin into parts of #nola5 Bambia and Bimbabwe- ,he only permanent river5
the Ckavano5 flows into a delta in the northwest5 formin marshes that are rich in
wildlife- #ncient dry riverbeds^called omuramba^traverse the &entral "orthern
reaches of the (alahari and provide standin pools of water durin the rainy season-
*reviously havens for wild animals from elephant to iraffe5 and for predators such as
lion and cheetah5 the riverbeds are now mostly ra0in spots5 thouh leopard or cheetah
can still be found-
,he ,har !esert $Hindi1 % 5 also known as the 'reat 8ndian !esert5 is a desert
located in western 8ndia and southeastern *akistan- 8t lies mostly in the 8ndian state of
Rajasthan5 and e7tends into the southern portion of Haryana and *unjab states and into
northern 'ujarat state- 8n *akistan5 the desert covers eastern Sind province and the
southeastern portion of *akistan+s *unjab province- 8n *akistan+s *unjab province it is
known as the &holistan !esert- ,harparker !istrict of province Sindh *akistan is also a
part of ,har desert- ,he ,har !esert is bounded on the northwest by the Sutlej River5 on
the east by the #ravalli Rane5 on the south by the salt marsh known as the Rann of
(utch $parts of which are sometimes included in the ,har%5 and on the west by the 8ndus
River- 8ts boundary to the lare thorny steppe to the north is ill-defined- !ependin on
what areas are included or e7cluded5 the nominal si0e of the ,har can vary sinificantly-
#ccordin to the 33) definition5 the desert proper has 9>5>:: sJuare miles $>?H5=::
km\%- #nother source ives the area of the ,har !esert as AAI5::: km\ e7tendin H:@ km
$about @:: mi% lon and about AH@ km $about ?:: mi% wide5 with >:H5<<: sJuare
kilometres in 8ndia- Cf the 8ndian portion5 I<; falls in Rajasthan5 >:; in 'ujarat and 9;
in *unjab and Haryana combined- ,he reater portion lies in Rajasthan5 coverin about
three-fifths of the total eoraphical area-
,he oriin of the ,har !esert is a controversial subject- Some consider it to be A::: to
<:5::: years old5 whereas others state that aridity started in this reion much earlier-
#nother theory states that area turned to desert relatively recently1 perhaps around >::: -
<@:: B&4- #round this time the 'haar ceased to be a major river- 8t now terminates in
the desert- 8t has been observed throuh remote sensin techniJues that Late Euaternary
climatic chanes and neotectonics have played a sinificant role in modifyin the
drainae courses in this part and a lare number of palaeochannels e7ist-
Most of the studies share the opinion that the palaeochannels of the Sarasvati coincide
with the bed of present day 'haar and believe that the Sutlej alon with the /amuna
once flowed into the present 'haar riverbed- 8t has been postulated that the Sutlej was
the main tributary of the 'haar and that subseJuently the tectonic movements miht
have forced the Sutlej westwards5 the /amuna eastwards and thus dried up the 'haar-
,he #tacama !esert is a virtually rainless plateau in South #merica5 e7tendin 9II km
$I:: mi% between the #ndes mountains and the *acific Ccean- 8t is created by the rain
shadow of the #ndes east of the desert- 8ts area is <H<5?:: sJuare kilometers $=:5:::
mi\%5 mostly in &hile5 but parts in *eru5 Bolivia and #rentina- 8t is made up of salt basins
$salares%5 sand and lava flows5 and is <@ million years old and <:: times more arid than
&alifornia+s !eath Dalley-
,he #tacama !esert is the driest place on 4arth5 and is virtually sterile because it is
blocked from moisture on both sides by the #ndes mountains and by coastal mountains-
,he averae rainfall in the &hilean reion of #ntofaasta is just < mm per year5 and at
one time no rain fell in the entire desert for A:: years- Some weather stations in the
#tacama have never received rain- 4vidence suests that the #tacama may not have had
any sinificant rainfall from <@=: to <9=<- 8t is so arid that mountains that reach as hih
as I5HH@ metres $>>5@9: feet% are completely free of laciers and5 in the southern part
from >@[S to >=[S5 may have been lacier-free throuhout the Euaternary ^ thouh
permafrost e7tends down to an altitude of A5A:: metres and is continuous above @5I::
metres- Studies by a roup of British scientists have suested that some river beds have
been dry for <>:5::: years-
Some locations in the #tacama do receive a marine fo known locally as the
&amanchaca5 providin sufficient moisture for hypolithic alae5 lichens and even some
cacti- But in the reion that is in the Nfo shadowO of the hih coastal crest-line5 which
averaes ?5::: m heiht for about <:: km south of #ntofaasta5 the soil has been
compared to that of Mars- !ue to its otherworldly appearance5 the #tacama has been used
as a location for filmin Mars scenes5 most notably in the television series Space
Cdyssey1 Doyae to the *lanets-
8n >::?5 a team of researchers published a report in Science maa0ine titled NMars-like
Soils in the #tacama !esert5 &hile5 and the !ry Limit of Microbial LifeO in which they
duplicated the tests used by the Dikin < and Dikin > Mars landers to detect life5 and
were unable to detect any sins in #tacama !esert soil- ,he reion may be uniJue on
4arth in this reard and is bein used by "#S# to test instruments for future Mars
missions- #lonso de 4rcilla characteri0ed it in La #raucana5 published in <@I91 N,owards
#tacama5 near the deserted coast5 you see a land without men5 where there is not a bird5
not a beast5 nor a tree5 nor any veetationO-
39 4%e first Prime minister of Ban8lades% #as
Mujibur Rehman
,-9 4%e lon8est ri5er in t%e #orld is t%e
,*9 4%e lon8est %i8%#ay in t%e #orld is
the ,rans-&anada
,29 4%e lon8est %i8%#ay in t%e #orld %as a len8t% of
#bout H::: km
,/9 4%e %i8%est mountain in t%e #orld is
the 4verest
,19 4%e country t%at accounts for nearly one t%ird of t%e total teak
production of t%e #orld is
Myan mar
,09 4%e 'i88est desert in t%e #orld is t%e
Sahara desert
,.9 4%e lar8est coffee 8ro#in8 country in t%e #orld is
,)9 4%e country also kno#n as Hcountry of CopperH is
3,9 4%e name 8i5en to t%e 'order #%ic% separates Pakistan and Af8%anistan
!urand line
339 4%e ri5er Col8a flo#s out into
the &apsian sea
3-9 4%e coldest place on t%e eart% is Cerkoyansk in
3*9 4%e country #%ic% ranks second in terms of land area is
329 4%e lar8est Island in t%e Mediterranean sea is
3/9 4%e ri5er "ordan flo#s out into t%e
!ead sea
319 4%e 'i88est delta in t%e #orld is t%e
309 4%e capital city t%at stands on t%e ri5er $anu'e is
3.9 4%e "apanese call t%eir country as
3)9 4%e len8t% of t%e (n8lis% c%annel is
@IA kilometres
-,9 4%e #orldDs oldest kno#n city is
-39 4%e city #%ic% is also kno#n as t%e City of Canals is
--9 4%e country in #%ic% ri5er Wan8c%u flo#s is
-*9 4%e 'i88est island of t%e #orld is
-29 4%e city #%ic% is t%e 'i88est centre for manufacture of automo'iles in t%e
#orld is
!etroit5 US#
-/9 4%e country #%ic% is t%e lar8est producer of man8anese in t%e #orld is
-19 4%e country #%ic% is t%e lar8est producer of ru''er in t%e #orld is
-09 4%e country #%ic% is t%e lar8est producer of tin in t%e #orld is
-.9 4%e ri5er #%ic% carries maBimum :uantity of #ater into t%e sea is t%e
-)9 4%e city #%ic% #as once called t%e K&or'idden CityD #as
*,9 4%e country called t%e 7and of Risin8 Sun is
*39 Mount (5erest #as named after
Sir 'eore 4verest
*-9 4%e 5olcano Cesu5ius is located in
**9 4%e country kno#n as t%e Su8ar Bo#l of t%e #orld is
*29 4%e len8t% of t%e Sue= Canal is
<I>-@ kilometers
*/9 4%e lo#est point on eart% is 4%e coastal area of
!ead sea
*19 4%e Gurk%as are t%e ori8inal in%a'itants of
*09 4%e lar8est ocean of t%e #orld is t%e
*acific ocean
*.9 4%e lar8est 'ell in t%e #orld is t%e
,sar (olkol at (remlin5 Moscow
*)9 4%e 'i88est stadium in t%e #orld is t%e
Strahov Stadium5 *raue
2,9 4%e #orldDs lar8est diamond producin8 country is
South #frica
239 Australia #as disco5ered 'y
.ames &ook
2-9 4%e first Go5ernor General of Pakistan is
Mohammed #li .innah
2*9 $u'lin is situated at t%e mout% of ri5er
229 4%e earlier name of Ne# ?ork city #as
"ew #msterdam
2/9 4%e (ifel to#er #as 'uilt 'y
#le7ander 4iffel
219 4%e Red Cross #as founded 'y "ean
Henri !urant
209 4%e country #%ic% %as t%e 8reatest population density is
2.9 4%e national flo#er of Britain is
2)9 Nia8ara &alls #as disco5ered 'y
Louis Hennepin
/,9 4%e national flo#er of Italy is
/39 4%e national flo#er of C%ina is
/-9 4%e permanent secretariat of t%e SAARC is located at
/*9 4%e 8ate#ay to t%e Gulf of Iran is
Strait of Hormu0
/29 4%e first Industrial Re5olution took place in
//9 World (n5ironment $ay is o'ser5ed on
@th .une
/19 4%e first Repu'lican President of America #as
#braham Lincoln
/09 4%e country famous for Sam'a dance is
/.9 4%e name of AleBanderDs %orse #as
/)9 Sin8apore #as founded 'y
Sir ,homas Stamford Raffles
1,9 4%e famous Britis% one-eyed Admiral #as
139 4%e earlier name of Sri 7anka #as
1-9 4%e UN> #as formed in t%e year
1*9 UN> stands for
United "ations Crani0ation
129 4%e independence day of Sout% ;orea is cele'rated on
<@th #uust
1/9 K7ast "ud8ementD #as t%e first paintin8 of an Italian painter named
119 Paradise Re8ained #as #ritten 'y
.ohn Milton
109 4%e first President of (8ypt #as
Mohammed "eJuib
1.9 4%e first man to reac% Nort% Pole #as
Rear *eary
1)9 4%e most famous paintin8 of Pa'lo Picasso #as
0,9 4%e primary producer of ne#sprint in t%e #orld is
039 4%e first eBplorer to reac% t%e Sout% Pole #as Cap9
Ronald #mundson
0-9 4%e person #%o is called t%e fat%er of modern Italy is
0*9 World literacy day is cele'rated on
Hth September
029 4%e founder of modern Germany is
0/9 4%e country kno#n as t%e land of t%e midni8%t sun is
019 4%e place kno#n as t%e Roof of t%e #orld is
009 4%e founder of t%e C%inese Repu'lic #as
San /at Sen
0.9 4%e first Pakistani to recei5e t%e No'el Pri=e #as
#bdul Salam
0)9 4%e first #oman Prime Minister of Britain #as
Mararet ,hatcher
.,9 4%e first Secretary General of t%e UN> #as
,ryve Lie
.39 4%e sculptor of t%e statue of 7i'erty #as
)rederick #uuste Bartholdi
.-9 4%e port of Banku is situated in
.*9 "o%n & ;ennedy #as assassinated 'y
Lee Harry Cswald
.29 4%e lar8est ri5er in &rance is
./9 4%e <ueen of (n8land #%o married %er 'rot%er-in-la# #as
&atherine of #raon
.19 4%e first ne8ro to 'e a#arded t%e No'el Peace Pri=e #as Ralp% "o%nson
.09 4%e first Britis% Uni5ersity to admit #omen for de8ree courses #as
London University
..9 4%e principal eBport of "amaica is
.)9 Ne# ?ork is popularly kno#n as t%e
city of Skyscrapers
),9 Mada8ascar is popularly kno#n as t%e
8sland of &loves
)39 4%e %i8%est #aterfalls in t%e #orld is t%e
Salto #nel )alls5 Dene0uela
-9 $istricts
4rrors and mistaks will be welcome and i wiould reJuest to mods please adjust
the errors if any
$istricts In PunFa'
I-!era 'ha0i (han
<9-Mandi Bahauddin
>A-"ankana Sahib
>=-Rahim /ar (han
?A-,oba ,ek Sinh
$istricts of Sind%
<?-"aushahro )iro0
<@-(amber and Shahdad (ot
<9-,ando #llahyar
>:-,ando Muhammad (han
$istricts of Baloc%istan
@-!era Buti
H-.hal Masi
<:-(ech $,urbat%
>>-Eilla #bdullah
>?-Eilla Saifullah
$istricts of t%e Nort% West &rontier Pro5ince
=-!era 8smail (han
<?-Lakki Marwat
<A-Lower !ir
>A-Upper !ir
*9 AS(AN
$#ssociation of Southeast #sian "ations%
&ounded on
H #uust <9I=
4otal meme'ers
Brunei !arussalam
Myanmar $Burma%
AS(AN o'ser5er states
*apua "ew 'uinea $since <9=I%
AS(AN S(creatary General
!r- Surin *itsuwan Biodata$"akorn Sri ,hammarat5 Southern ,hailand%
Annual Summit
,he venue of the <Ath #S4#" Summit had been chaned from Bankok to
&hian Mai and postponed to March >::9 by the Somchai 3onsawat
'overnment due to the political turmoil in Bankok- 8t was later chaned back to
Bankok by the #bhisit Dejjajiva 'overnment and rescheduled to )ebruary ne7t
South #sian #ssociation for Reional &ooperation
(sta'lis%ed on
!ecember H5 <9H@
4otal Mem'ers
#fhanistan $8n #pril >::=5 at the #ssociation6s <Ath summit5 #fhanistan became its
eihth member%
Sri Lanka
4uropean Union
Myanmar $Burma%
South (orea
United States
Secretary General
Sheel (ant Sharma$8ndia%
Annual Summit 3/
#uust <-? >::H $&olombo5 Sri Lanka%
NeBt Summit
Male 5 Maldives
Shanhai &ooperation Cranisation
&ounded in
4otal mem'ers
Annual Summit
>::< *eople6s Republic of &hina ----------Shanhai
>::> Russia -----------------------------Saint *etersbur
>::? Russia -----------------------------Moscow
>::A U0bekistan -------------------------,ashkent
>::@ (a0akhstan ------------------------#stana
>::I *eople6s Republic of &hina ----------Shanhai
>::= (yry0stan ------------------------Bishkek
>::H ,ajikistan --------------------------!ushanbe
>::9 Russia -----------------------------/ekaterinbur
Secretary General
Bolat "uraliyev
Cranisation of the 8slamic &onference
&ormed on
>@ September <9I9
official lan8ua8es
#rabic5 4nlish and )rench-
Secretary Generals
,unku #bdul Rahman $Malaysia%1 $<9=<-<9=?%
Hassan #l-,ouhami $4ypt%1 $<9=A-<9=@%
!r- #madou (arim 'aye $Seneal%1 $<9=@-<9=9%
Habib &hatty $,unisia%1 $<9=9-<9HA%
Syed Sharifuddin *ir0ada $*akistan%1 $<9H@-<9HH%
!r- Hamid #labid $"ier%1 $<9H9-<99I%
!r- #0eddine Laraki $Morocco%1 $<99=->:::%
!r- #bdelouahed Belke0i0 $Morocco%1 $>::<->::A%
Prof9$r9 (kmeleddin L%sanoMlu @4urkeyAN @-,,/ to presentA
#fhanistan5 8slamic Republic of ---------<9I9 Suspended <9H: - March <9H9
#leria5 *eople6s !emocratic Republic of --<9I9
&had5 Republic of -----------------------<9I9
4ypt5 #rab Republic of ------------<9I9 Suspended May <9=9 - March <9HA
'uinea5 Republic of ---------------------<9I9
8ndonesia5 Republic of ------------------<9I9
8ran5 8slamic Republic of ----------------<9I9
.ordan5 Hashemite (indom of ----------<9I9
(uwait5 State of -----------------------<9I9
Lebanon5 Republic of --------------------<9I9
Libya5 Socialist *eople6s Libyan #rab .amahiriya -----<9I9
Malaysia -----------------------------<9I9
Mali5 Republic of ----------------------<9I9
Mauritania5 8slamic Republic of ----------<9I9
Morocco5 (indom of -------------------<9I9
"ier5 Republic of --------------------<9I9
*akistan5 8slamic Republic of -------------<9I9
*alestine5 represented by the *alestine Liberation Crani0ation -----<9I9
Saudi #rabia5 (indom of --------------------<9I9
Seneal5 Republic of ------------------------<9I9
Sudan5 Republic of the ---------------------<9I9
Somalia ---------------------------------<9I9
,unisia5 Republic of -------------------------<9I9
,urkey5 Republic of ------------------------------<9I9
/emen #rab Republic -----------------------<9I9 )rom <99: as Republic of /emen
united with *eople6s !emocratic Republic of /emen
Bahrain5 State of ------------------<9=: )rom >::? as (indom of Bahrain
Cman5 Sultanate of ----------------------<9=:
Eatar5 State of ---------------------<9=:
Syrian #rab Republic <----------------------9=:
United #rab 4mirates5 State of ------------------------<9=:
Sierra Leone5 Republic of ------------------------<9=>
Banladesh5 *eople6s Republic of --------------------<9=A
'abon5 Republic of ----------------------<9=A
'ambia5 Republic of the ------------------------<9=A
'uinea-Bissau5 Republic of ---------------------<9=A
Uanda5 Republic of ----------------------<9=A
Burkina )aso ---------------------------<9=@
&ameroon5 Republic of ---------------------------<9=@
&omoros5 )ederal 8slamic Republic of the ------------------<9=I
8raJ5 Republic of -------------------------<9=I
Maldives5 Republic of ----------------------<9=I
!jibouti5 Republic of --------------------------<9=H
Benin5 Republic of ----------------------------<9H>
Brunei !arussalam5 Sultanate of ------------------------<9HA
"ieria5 )ederal Republic of ------------------<9HI
#0erbaijan5 Republic of ------------------------<99<
#lbania5 Republic of------------------------- <99>
(yry0stan5 Republic of --------------------------<99>
,ajikistan5 Republic of ----------------------<99>
,urkmenistan5 Republic of ---------------------<99>
Mo0ambiJue5 Republic of ------------------<99A
(a0akhstan5 Republic of ------------------------<99@
U0bekistan5 Republic of ----------------------<99@
Suriname5 Republic of <---------------------99I
,oo5 Republic of --------------------<99=
'uyana5 Republic of -------------------<99H
&ate d68voire5 Republic of------------------------------ >::<
Suspended or Wit%dra#n
Ban0ibar <99? 3ithdrew #uust <99?
>'ser5er States
Bosnia and Her0eovina
&entral #frican Republic
"orthern &yprus5 ,urkish Republic of $as ,urkish &ypriot State% <9=9 Cfficial >::A
,hailand5 (indom of
Russian )ederation
Annual summit 32t% @-,,.A
Seneal 5 !akar $<<th March <? - March <A5 >::H %
NeBt Summit
.eddha5 Suadiarabia
Underneat% is t%e useful and 5alua'le collection of t%e !oly <uran9 4%e aim is
to kno# more a'out t%e <uran #it% one 8lance9
<- How many Sura are in Holy Euran b
>- How many Derses are in Holy Euran b
?- How many dots are in Holy Euran b
A- How many over bar $0aber% are in Holy Euran b
@- How many under bar $ Baer % are in Holy Euran b
I- How many RaJue are in Holy Euran b
=- How many stop $ 3aJf % are in Holy Euran b
H- How many ,hashdeed are in Holy Euran b
9- How many letters are in Holy Euran b
<: How many pash are in Holy Euran b
<< How many Madd are in Holy Euran b
<> How many words are in Holy Euran b
<? How many parts are in the Holy Euranb
<A How many times is Bismillah #l-Rahmaan #l-Raheem repeated b
<@ How many Sura start with Bismillah #l-Rahmaan #l-Raheem b
<I How many times is the word 6Euran6 repeated in Holy Euran b
<= 3hich is the lonest Sura of Holy Euran b
<H 3hat is the best drink mentioned in Holy Euran b
<9 ,he best eatable thin in the Euranb
>: 3hich is the shortest Sura of Holy Euran b
>< ,he lonest verse of Holy Euran is in which Surab
Al-Ba:ara% No9-.-
>> ,he most disliked thin by the #llah that is Halal isb
>? 3hich letter is used the most in Holy Euranb
>A 3hich letter is used the least in Holy Euran b
>@ 3hich is the best niht mentioned in Holy Euran b
Ni8%t of <adar9
>I 3hich is the best month mentioned in Holy Euran b
>= 3hich is the biest animal mentioned in Holy Euran b
>H 3hich is the smallest animal mentioned in Holy Euran b
>9 How many words are in the lonest Sura of Holy Euran b
?: How many words are in the smallest Sura of Holy Euran b
?< 3hich Sura of Holy Euran is called the mother of Euran b
Sura Alfati%a
?> How many Sura start with #lhamduallahb
/- &ati%a+Inaam+ ;a%f+ Sa'a O &atr9
?? 3hich Sura has the same number of verses as the number of the Holy
Euran b
4a:5eer+ 332 5erses9
?A How many Sura6s name is only one letter b
4%ree+ <af+ Sad O Noon9
?@ How many Sura6s start with word 2 8nna 2 b
&our sura - &at%a+ Nu%+<adr+ <ausar9
?I 3hich Sura has the number of its verses eJual to the number of
Masumeen b
Saf+ 32 5erses9
?= 3hich sura are called Musabbahat b
(sra+ !adeed+ !sar+ "uma+ 4a8%a'un O Aala9
?H How many sura are Makkahi and how many are Madanib
Macci .1+ Madni -.9
?9 3hich sura is the name of the tribe of the Holy *rophet b
A: 3hich sura is called the heart of Holy Euran b
A< 8n which sura is the name of #llah repeated five times b
Sura al-!aF9
A> 3hich sura are named #0aiam b
SaFda%+ &usselat+ NaFum O Ala:9
A? 3hich sura is the name of one Holy war b
Sura A%=aa'9
AA 3hich sura is on the name of metal b
Sura !adeed
A@ 3hich sura does not start with Bismellah b
Sura 4au'a9
AI 3hich sura is called 6 #roos-ul-Euran b
Sura Ra%man9
A= 3hich sura is considered as <M? of holy Euran b
Sura Ik%las
AH ,he names of how many sura are with out dot b
!amd+ Raad+ 4oor+ Room+ Masad9
A9 3hich sura did Besmillah come twice b
Sura Naml9
@: How many sura start with the 8nitials $ Mukette6at %
-) Sura9
@< 3hich Sura was revealed twice b
Sura !amd9
@> 8n which Sura is the back biter condemedb
Sura !um=a%9
@? 8n which Sura is the name of #llah repeated in every verse b
Sura MuFadala9
@A 8n which Sura is the letter 6)a6 not itb
@@ 3hich Sura are called Mo0wethatan
&alk O Nas9
@I 3hich Sura if their name sare reversed remain the same b
7ael O 4a''at9
@= 3hich Sura if its first letter is removed becomes the name of a city in
Saudi #rabiab
@H 3hich Sura start with word 6 ,abarak #llthey
Mulk O &urkan
@9 Macci Sura were revealed in how many years b
3* years
I: Madani Sura were revealed in how many years b
3, years9
I< 3hich sura start with word (ad b
MuFadala O Momenoon9
I> 3hich Sura is related to Ha0rat #li b
Sura Adiat9
I? How many Suras are in the ?:th- &hapter b
IA 3hich sura does every verse end with letter 6!al 6 b
I@ 3hich Sura is revealed in respect of #hllelbayet b
Sura $a%r9
II 8n 3hich sura does every verse end with letter 6 Ra 6
I= 8n which surais the creation of human bein mentioned b
Sura !iFr C--19
IH 8n which sura is the reulations for prisoner of war mentioned b
Sura Nesa
I9 3hich sura has the laws about marriae b
Sura Nesa9
=: 3hich sura if its name is reversed becomes the name of one bird b
Sura Room-
=< 8n which sura is the story of the worship of cow of Bani 4sra6iel
mentioned b
Sura 4a%a9
=> 8n which sura is the law of inheritance mentionedb
Sura Nesa9
=? 8n which sura is the Heira of Holy *rophet mentioned b
Sura Infall9
=A 8n which Sura are the >= #ttributes of 'od mentioned b
Sura !adeed9
4uropean Union
(sta'lis%ed on
< "ovember <99?
4otal Mem'ers
&0ech Republic
United (indom
Brussels5 Belium
Secreatary General
.avier Solana $born <A .uly <9A> in Madrid5 Spain%
U"8,4! "#,8C"S1 CR'#"8B#,8C"
&ormed on
>A Cctober <9A@
#fhanistan $<9 "ovember <9AI%
#lbania $<A !ecember <9@@%
#leria $H Cctober <9I>%
#ndorra $>H .uly <99?%
#nola $< !ecember <9=I%
#ntiua and Barbuda $<< "ovember <9H<%
#rentina $>A Cctober <9A@%
#rmenia $> March <99>%
#ustralia $< "ovember <9A@%
#ustria $<A !ecember <9@@%
#0erbaijan $> March <99>%
Bahamas $<H September <9=?%
Bahrain $>< September <9=<%
Banladesh $<= September <9=A%
Barbados $9 !ecember <9II%
Belarus $>A Cctober <9A@%
Belium $>= !ecember <9A@%
Beli0e $>@ September <9H<%
Benin $>: September <9I:%
Bhutan $>< September <9=<%
Bolivia $<A "ovember <9A@%
Bosnia and Her0eovina $>> May <99>%
Botswana $<= Cctober <9II%
Bra0il $>A Cctober <9A@%
Brunei !arussalam $>< September <9HA%
Bularia $<A !ecember <9@@%
Burkina )aso $>: September <9I:%
Burundi $<H September <9I>%
&ambodia $<A !ecember <9@@%
&ameroon $>: September <9I:%
&anada $9 "ovember <9A@%
&ape Derde $<I September <9=@%
&entral #frican Republic $>: September <9I:%
&had $>: September <9I:%
&hile $>A Cctober <9A@%
&hina $>A Cctober <9A@%
&olombia $@ "ovember <9A@%
&omoros $<> "ovember <9=@%
&ono5 Republic of the--- $>: September <9I:%
&osta Rica $> "ovember <9A@%
&ate d68voire $>: September <9I:%
&roatia $>> May <99>%
&uba $>A Cctober <9A@%
&yprus $>: September <9I:%
&0ech Republic $<9 .anuary <99?%
!emocratic *eople6s Republic of (orea $<= September <99<%
!emocratic Republic of the &ono $>: September <9I:%
!enmark $>A Cctober <9A@%
!jibouti $>: September <9==%
!ominica $<H !ecember <9=H%
!ominican Republic $>A Cctober <9A@%
4cuador $>< !ecember <9A@%
4ypt $>A Cctober <9A@%
4l Salvador $>A Cctober <9A@%
4Juatorial 'uinea $<> "ovember <9IH%
4ritrea $>H May <99?%
4stonia $<= September <99<%
4thiopia $<? "ovember <9A@%
)iji $<? Cctober <9=:%
)inland $<A !ecember <9@@%
)rance $>A Cctober <9A@%
'abon $>: September <9I:%
'ambia $>< September <9I@%
'eoria $?< .uly <99>%
'ermany $<H September <9=?%
'hana $H March <9@=%
'reece $>@ Cctober <9A@%
'renada $<= September <9=A%
'uatemala $>< "ovember <9A@%
'uinea $<> !ecember <9@H%
'uinea-Bissau $<= September <9=A%
'uyana $>: September <9II%
Haiti $>A Cctober <9A@%
Honduras $<= !ecember <9A@%
Hunary $<A !ecember <9@@%
8celand $<9 "ovember <9AI%
8ndia $?: Cctober <9A@%
8ndonesia $>H September <9@:%
8ran5 8slamic Republic of--- $>A Cctober <9A@%
8raJ $>< !ecember <9A@%
8reland $<A !ecember <9@@%
8srael $<< May <9A9%
8taly $<A !ecember <9@@%
.amaica $<H September <9I>%
.apan $<H !ecember <9@I%
.ordan $<A !ecember <9@@%
(a0akhstan $> March <99>%
(enya $<I !ecember <9I?%
(iribati $<A September <999%
(uwait $<A May <9I?%
(yry0stan $> March <99>%
Lao *eople6s !emocratic Republic $<A !ecember <9@@%
Latvia $<= September <99<%
Lebanon $>A Cctober <9A@%
Lesotho $<= Cctober <9II%
Liberia $> "ovember <9A@%
Libyan #rab .amahiriya $<A !ecember <9@@%
Liechtenstein $<H September <99:%
Lithuania $<= September <99<%
Lu7embour $>A Cctober <9A@%
Madaascar $>: September <9I:%
Malawi $< !ecember <9IA%
Malaysia $<= September <9@=%
Maldives $>< September <9I@%
Mali $>H September <9I:%
Malta $< !ecember <9IA%
Marshall 8slands $<= September <99<%
Mauritania $>= Cctober <9I<%
Mauritius $>A #pril <9IH%
Me7ico $= "ovember <9A@%
Micronesia5 )ederated States of--- $<= September <99<%
Monaco $>H May <99?%
Monolia $>= Cctober <9I<%
Montenero $>H .une >::I%
Morocco $<> "ovember <9@I%
Mo0ambiJue $<I September <9=@%
Myanmar $<9 #pril <9AH%
"amibia $>? #pril <99:%
"auru $<A September <999%
"epal $<A !ecember <9@@%
"etherlands $<: !ecember <9A@%
"ew Bealand $>A Cctober <9A@%
"icaraua $>A Cctober <9A@%
"ier $>: September <9I:%
"ieria $= Cctober <9I:%
"orway $>= "ovember <9A@%
Cman $= Cctober <9=<%
*akistan $?: September <9A=%
*alau $<@ !ecember <99A%
*anama $<? "ovember <9A@%
*apua "ew 'uinea $<: Cctober <9=@%
*arauay $>A Cctober <9A@%
*eru $?< Cctober <9A@%
*hilippines $>A Cctober <9A@%
*oland $>A Cctober <9A@%
*ortual $<A !ecember <9@@%
Eatar $>< September <9=<%
Republic of (orea $<= September <99<%
Republic of Moldova $> March <99>%
Romania $<A !ecember <9@@%
Russian )ederation $>A Cctober <9A@%
Rwanda $<H September <9I>%
Saint (itts and "evis $>? September <9H?%
Saint Lucia $<H September <9=9%
Saint Dincent and the 'renadines $<I September <9H:%
Samoa $<@ !ecember <9=I%
San Marino $> March <99>%
Sao ,ome and *rincipe $<I September <9=@%
Saudi #rabia $>A Cctober <9A@%
Seneal $>H September <9I:%
Serbia $< "ovember >:::%
Seychelles $>< September <9=I%
Sierra Leone $>= September <9I<%
Sinapore $>< September <9I@%
Slovakia $<9 .anuary <99?%
Slovenia $>> May <99>%
Solomon 8slands $<9 September <9=H%
Somalia $>: September <9I:%
South #frica $= "ovember <9A@%
Spain $<A !ecember <9@@%
Sri Lanka $<A !ecember <9@@%
Sudan $<> "ovember <9@I%
Suriname $A !ecember <9=@%
Swa0iland $>A September <9IH%
Sweden $<9 "ovember <9AI%
Swit0erland $<: September >::>%
Syrian #rab Republic $>A Cctober <9A@%
,ajikistan $> March <99>%
,hailand $<I !ecember <9AI%
,he former /uoslav Republic of Macedonia $H #pril <99?%
,imor-Leste $>= September >::>%
,oo $>: September <9I:%
,ona $<A September <999%
,rinidad and ,obao $<H September <9I>%
,unisia $<> "ovember <9@I%
,urkey $>A Cctober <9A@%
,urkmenistan $> March <99>%
,uvalu $@ September >:::%
Uanda $>@ Cctober <9I>%
Ukraine $>A Cctober <9A@%
United #rab 4mirates $9 !ecember <9=<%
United (indom of 'reat Britain and "orthern 8reland $>A Cctober <9A@%
United Republic of ,an0ania $<A !ecember <9I<%
United States of #merica $>A Cctober <9A@%
Uruuay $<H !ecember <9A@%
U0bekistan $> March <99>%
Danuatu $<@ September <9H<%
Dene0uela5 Bolivarian Republic of--- $<@ "ovember <9A@%
Diet "am $>: September <9==%
/emen $?: September <9A=%
Bambia $< !ecember <9IA%
Bimbabwe $>@ #uust <9H:%
Main Bodies
<-General Assem'ly
Subsidiary Crans
&ommittee on 8nformation
Human Rihts &ouncil
PR(SI$(N4 of t%e 1*rd Session
United Nations General Assem'ly
H-4- Mr- Miuel d64scoto Brockmann
Security Council
*eacebuildin &ommission
&ounter-terrorism Bodies
&ounter-,errorism &ommittee
#l-Eaida and ,aliban Sanctions &ommittee
<@A: &ommittee $non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction
Sanctions &ommittees Security &ouncil *residency in >::9
?-Security Council Presidency in -,,)
Month ---------*residency -------------4nd of Membership
.anuary -------)rance -------------*ermanent Member
)ebruary ------.apan -------------------?< !ecember >:<:
March ----------Libyan #rab .amahiriya ------?< !ecember >::9
#pril -------------Me7ico -----------------?< !ecember >:<:
May ---------Russian )ederation ------------*ermanent Member
.une --------------,urkey ------------?< !ecember >:<:
.uly -------------Uanda -----------?< !ecember >:<:
#uust ----------- United (indom -----------*ermanent Member
September -------------United States -------*ermanent Member
Cctober ------------ Diet "am -----------?< !ecember >::9
"ovember --------------#ustria -------------- ?< !ecember >:<:
!ecember ---------- Burkina )aso ------------?< !ecember >::9
&hina ------------*ermanent Member
&osta Rica --------?< !ecember >::9
&roatia ?< -----------!ecember >::9
Mem'ers%ip in -,,)
permanent members
&hina5 )rance5 Russian )ederation5 the United (indom and the United States
non-permament members $with year of term6s end%
#ustria $>:<:%
.apan $>:<:%
Uanda $>:<:%
Burkina )aso $>::9%
Libyan #rab .amahiriya $>::9%
Diet "am $>::9%
&osta Rica $>::9%
Me7ico $>:<:%
&roatia $>::9% ,urkey $>:<:%
(conomic and Social Council
4conomic &ommission for #frica $4&#%
4conomic &ommission for 4urope $4&4%
4conomic &ommission for Latin #merica and the &aribbean $4&L#&%
4conomic and Social &ommission for #sia and the *acific $4S&#*%
4conomic and Social &ommission for 3estern #sia $4S&3#%
I-International Court of "ustice
,he &ourt is composed of 3/ Fud8es5 who are elected for terms of office of nine
years by the United "ations 'eneral #ssembly and the Security &ouncil- 8t is assisted
by a Reistry5 its administrative oran- 8ts official lanuaes are 4nlish and )rench-
!iameter A95::: (ilometer Moons H #v-!istance to Sun A5A9= million (M ,ime to
Crbit the Sun <I@ /ears
8t is denser c little smaller than Uranus-
8ts #tmosphere appear blue5 with Juickly chanin white clouds often suspended hih
above an apparent surface-
#tmosphere constituents are mostly hydrocarbon compounds-
8t 4mits about >-? times more enery than it receives from the sun and the #urora
phenomenon was noticed by Doyaer 88-
!iameter @>5:9I (ilometer Moons <= #v-!istance to Sun >5H@>-H million (M ,ime
to Crbit the Sun HA /ears
3aterly Uranus is the only planet that lies on its side-
Cne pole5 than the other5 faces the Sun as it orbits-
Doyaer-8 found nine dark5 compact rins around the planet and a corkscrew-shaped
manetic field that stretches millions of kilometers-
!iameter I5=@@-> (ilometer Moons > #v-!istance to Sun >>@-I million (M ,ime to
Crbit the Sun IH= !ays
,he Dikin probes failed to Beneath its thin atmosphere-
Mars is barren5 covered with pink soil and boulders-
Lon ao it was active5 the surface is marked with dormant volcanoes and deep
chasms where water once freely flowed-
!iameter <>5:?> (ilometer Moons "one #v-!istance to Sun <:=-@> million (M
,ime to Crbit the Sun >>@ !ays
4arth6s twin in si0e and mass5 sparinly hot Denus is perpetually veiled behind
reflective sulfuric-acid clouds-
*robes and radar mappin have pierced the clouds and carbon-dio7ide environment to
reveal flat5 rocky plains c sins of volcanic activity-
!iameter A5HA9-I (ilometer Moons "one #v-!istance to Sun @=-I million (M ,ime
to Crbit the Sun HH !ays
,iny Mercury5 slihtly larer than 4arth6s moon-
Races alon its elliptical orbital <5=I5::: kilometer per hour-
# speed that keeps it from bein drawn into the Sun6s ravity field-
,he crated planet has no atmosphere5 days are scorchin hot and nihts5 friid-
!iameter <>5=?>-> (ilometer Moons < #v-!istance to Sun <AH-H million (M ,ime
to Crbit the Sun ?I@ !ays
UniJuely moderate temperature and the presence of o7yen and copious water maker
4arth the only planet in the solar system to support life-
!iameter <5A<59IH (ilometer Moons <I #v-!istance to Sun ==>-H million (M ,ime
to Crbit the Sun <<-9 /ears
,wo *ioneer space probes photoraphed the 'reat Red Spot on the Solar system6s
larest planet-
Doyaers 8 and 88 later showed it is an enormous eddy in the turbulent cloud cover-
4arth the only planet in the solar system to support life-
,hey also spotted dusty rins5 three new moons and volcanoes on the Moon-
!iameter <5<95>9I (ilometer Moons >: or more #v-!istance to Sun <5A<=-I million
(M ,ime to Crbit the Sun >9-@ /ears
Doyaer 8 found that the celebrated rins of the olden iant Saturn are composed of
thousands of ripplin5 spiralin bands just <:: feets thick-
,he moon ,itan has a nitroen atmosphere and hydrocarbons-
!iameter <?5HA5::: (ilometer Statellites 9 *lanets #e A-@ billion years
# rather ordinary5 middle ae star5 the aseous sun may reach a temperature of >=-
millon derees &elsius at its core-
8ts << years cycle is now approachin a solar ma7imum5 a period marked by freJuent
sunspots and flares-
Cn 4arth5 some radio waves will be disturbed and the ama0in sky streamers called
"orthern Lihts will appear-
,he solar system consists of the SunF the eiht official planets $ *luto not rearded as
sattelite any more%5 at least three 2dwarf planets25 more than <?: satellites of the
planets5 a lare number of small bodies $the comets and asteroids%5 and the
interplanetary medium-
,he eiht bodies officially cateori0ed as planets are often further classified in several
P 'y compositionN
terrestrial or rocky planets1 Mercury5 Denus5 4arth5 and Mars1
] ,he terrestrial planets are composed primarily of rock and metal and have relatively
hih densities5 slow rotation5 solid surfaces5 no rins and few satellites-
jovian or as planets1 .upiter5 Saturn5 Uranus5 and "eptune1
] ,he as planets are composed primarily of hydroen and helium and enerally have
low densities5 rapid rotation5 deep atmospheres5 rins and lots of satellites-
P 'y si=eN
small planets1 Mercury5 Denus5 4arth5 Mars-
] ,he small planets have diameters less than <?::: km-
iant planets1 .upiter5 Saturn5 Uranus and "eptune-
] ,he iant planets have diameters reater than AH::: km-
,he iant planets are sometimes also referred to as as iants-
P 'y position relati5e to t%e SunN
inner planets1 Mercury5 Denus5 4arth and Mars-
outer planets1 .upiter5 Saturn5 Uranus5 "eptune-
,he asteroid belt between Mars and .upiter forms the boundary between the inner
solar system and the outer solar system-
P 'y position relati5e to (art%N
inferior planets1 Mercury and Denus-
] closer to the Sun than 4arth-
] ,he inferior planets show phases like the Moon6s when viewed from 4arth-
superior planets1 Mars thru "eptune-
] farther from the Sun than 4arth-
] ,he superior planets always appear full or nearly so-
P 'y %istoryN
classical planets1 Mercury5 Denus5 Mars5 .upiter5 and Saturn-
] known since prehistorical times
] visible to the unaided eye
modern planets1 Uranus5 "eptune-
] discovered in modern times
] visible only with optical aid
,he 8#U has recently decided that 2classical2 should refer to all eiht planets
$Mercury thru "eptune5 includin 4arth but not *luto%- ,his is contrary to historical
usae but makes some sense from a ><st century perspective-
BIGG(S4+ !IG!(S4+ 7ARG(S4+ 7>NG(S4 9999 IN 4!( W>R7$
Animal+ 4allest
Ac%ipela8o+ 7ar8est
Bird+ &astest
Bird+ 7ar8est
Bird+ Smallest
Hummin Bird
Brid8e+ 7on8est Rail#ay
Huey *- Lon Bride5 Lousiana $US#%
Buildin8+ 4allest
Burj !ubai5 U#4
Canal+ 7on8est Irri8ational
,he (alakumsky &anal
Canal+ 7on8est
Sue0 &anal
Capital+ !i8%est
La *a0 $Bolivia%
City+ Bi88est in area
Mount 8sa $#ustralia%
City+ 7ar8est in Population
City+ Costliest
City+ !i8%est
Dan &huan $&hina%
Continent+ 7ar8est
Continent+ Smallest
Country+ Bi88est in Area
Country+ 7ar8est in Population
Country+ 7ar8est in (lectorate
Creature+ 7ar8est
Blue 3hale
$elta+ 7ar8est
Sunderban $Banladesh and 8ndia%
$esert+ 7ar8est in World
Sahara $#frica%
$esert+ 7ar8est in Asia
$am+ 7ar8est
'rand &oulee !am $US#%
$am+ !i8%est
Hoover !am $US#%
$iamond+ 7ar8est
,he &ullinan
$ome+ 7ar8est
#strodome5 Houstan $US#%
(pic+ 7ar8est
Irri8ation Sc%eme+ 7ar8est
Lloyd Barrae5 Sukkhur $*akistan%
Island+ 7ar8est
>cean+ 7ar8est
Sea+ 7ar8est
Mediterranean Sea
7ake+ $eepest
Baikal $Siberia%
7ake+ !i8%est
,iticaca $Bolivia%
7ake+ 7ar8est @ArtificialA
Lake Mead $Boulder !am%
7ake+ 7ar8est @&res% WaterA
7ake+ 7ar8est @Salt WaterA
7i'rary+ 7ar8est
United States Library of &onress5 3ashinton !&
Mountain Peak+ !i8%est
4verest $"epal%
Mountain Ran8e+ 7on8est
#ndes $South #merica%
Museum+ 7ar8est
British Museum5 London
Palace+ 7ar8est
Datican $8taly%
Park+ 7ar8est
/ellow Stone "ational *ark $US#%
Peninsula+ 7ar8est
Place+ Coldest @!a'itatedA
Derkhoyansk $Siberia%
Place+ $ryest
8JiJue $in #tlantic !esert5 &hile%
Place+ !ottest
#0i0ia $Libya5 #frica%
Place+ !i8%est Rainfall
Mausinram $Mehalaya5 8ndia%
Planet+ Bi88est
Planet+ Smallest
Planet+ Bri8%test
Plateau+ !i8%est
*amir $,ibet%
Platform+ 7on8est Rail#ay
(harapur $8ndia%
Rail#ay+ 7on8est
,rans-Siberian Railway
Rail#ay Station+ 7ar8est
'rand &entral ,erminal5 &hicao $US#%
Ri5er+ 7on8est
"ile $#frica%
Ri5er+ 7ar8est
#ma0on $South #merica%
Sea-'ird+ 7ar8est
Star+ Bri8%test
Statue+ 4allest
Statue of Motherland5 Dolarad $Russia%
4elescope+ 7ar8est Radio
"ew Me7ico $US#%
4ram#ay+ &irst in World
"ew /ork
4unnel+ 7on8est @Rail#ayA
,anna $.apan%
4unnel+ 7on8est @RoadA
Mont Blanc ,unnel $between )rance and 8taly%
Colcano+ !i8%est
Cjos del Salado $#ndes5 4cuador%
Colcano+ Most Acti5e
Maunaloa $Hawaii K US#%
Wall+ 7on8est
'reat 3all of &hina
Waterfall+ !i8%est
#nel $Dene0uela%
Water+ 7o#est Body
!ead Sea
Eoo+ 7ar8est
(ruer "ational *ark5 South #frica
Sports $iary
Australian >pen4ennis -,,.
"ovak !okovic and Maria Sharapova
WomenDs Sin8le 4itleN
Maria Sharapova $Russia% defeats #na 8vanovic $Serbia%
MenDs Sin8le 4itleN
"ovak !okovic $Serbia% defeats .o-3ilfried ,sona $)rance%
WomenDs $ou'les 4itleN
#lyona Bondarenko $Ukraine% and (eteryna Bondarnko $Ukraine%
MenDs $ou'les 4itleN
.onathan 4rlich $8srael% and #ndy Ram $8srael%
MiBed $ou'le 4itle1
Sun ,iantian $&hina% and "enad Bimonjic $Serbia% defeat Sania Mir0a$8ndia% and Mahesh
&renc% >pen 4ennis -,,.
#na 8vanovic and Rafael "adal
WomenDs Sin8le 4itleN
#na 8vanovic $Serbia% defeats !inara Safina $Russia%
MenDs Sin8le 4itleN
Rafael "adal$Spain% defeates Roer )ederer $Swit0erland%
WomenDs $ou'les 4itleN
#nabel Medina 'arriues $Spain% and Dirinia Ruano *ascual $Spain%
MenDs $ou'les 4itleN
*ablo &uevas $Uruuay% and Louis Horna $*eru%
MiBed $ou'le 4itleN
Dictoria #0arenka $Belarus% and Bob Bryan $US#%
Wim'eldon 4ennis -,,.
Rafael "adal and Denus 3illiams
WomenDs Sin8le 4itleN
Denus 3illiams$US#% defeats Serena 3illiams$US#%
MenDs Sin8le 4itleN
Rafael "adal$Spain% defeates Roer )ederer$Swit0erland%
WomenDs $ou'les 4itleN
Denus 3illiams$US#% and Serena 3illiams$US#%
MenDs $ou'les 4itleN
!aniel "estor$&anada% and "enad Bimonjic$Serbia%
MiBed $ou'le 4itleN
Bob Bryan$US#% and Samantha Stosur$#ustralia%
3ladimir (litchko
3ladimir (litschko $Ukraine% defeat 3BC heavyweiht champion Sultan 8braimov
(uro -,,. Soccer
Spain defeat 'ermany <-: in the final of >::H U4)# 4uropean )ootball &hampionship-
-,,. 4our de &rance
&arlos Sastre $Spain% won the 9@th ,our de )rance5 the road bicyclin event held durin
@->= .uly >::H-
World >r8anisations
Euestionnaire1 3orld Cranisations
39 W%en #as t%e 7ea8ue of Nations formedQ
#- <9<A
B- <9>:
&- <9?@
!- <9A@
-9 4%e United Nations >r8anisation came into eBistence onN
#- >Ath Cctober5<9A@
B- >Ath !ecember5 <9A@
&- ?:th #uust5<9A@
!- "one of the above
*9 C%arter of t%e UN #as si8ned on "une -1+ 3)2/ atN
#- 'eneva
B- San )rancisco
&- &alifornia
!- *aris
29 Admission of State to t%e mem'ers%ip of t%e UN is made 'y1
#- simple majority of the 'eneral #ssembly
B- unanimous vote of the 'eneral #ssembly
&- Security &ouncil
!- two-thirds majority of the 'eneral assembly members present and votin5 on the
recommendation of the Security &ouncil
/9 4%e General Assem'ly meets re8ularly N
#- once a month
B- after every three months
&- twice a year
!- once a year
19 W%ic% one is not an official lan8ua8e of UN>Q
#- 4nlish
B- &hinese
&- )rench
!- Hindi
09 >fficial lan8ua8es of t%e UN> areN
#- 4nlish5 )rench5 &hinese5 Russian5 #rabic and Spanish
B- 4nlish and )rench
&- 4nlish5 &hinese5 )rench and Russian
!- 4nlish5 Hindi5 &hinese and Russian
.9 !o# many maFor or8ans does t%e UN %a5eQ
#- Si7
B- )our
&- )ive
!- Seven
)9 4%e UN> !ead:uarters is atN
#- Haue
B- 'eneva
&- *aris
!- "ew/ork
3,9 4%e num'er of permanent mem'ers of t%e Security Council isN
#- 9
B- <<
&- @
!- <@
339 Some mem'ers of t%e UN> enFoy Ceto po#er #%ic% is eBercisea'le in1
#- ,rusteeship &ouncil
B- Security &ouncil
&- 'eneral #ssembly
!- 8nternational &ourt of .ustice
3-9 4%e term R5etoD in t%e conteBt of t%e UN Security Council refers toN
#- unanimous aceptance of a proposal
B- rejection of a proposal by a majority of the members
&- aceptance of a proposal by a majorityofthemembers
!- powers vested in the permanent members torejectaproposal
3*9 4%e Secretary-General of t%e UN> is elected e5ery 1
#- >years
B- < year
&- @years
!- A years
329 4%e C%airmans%ip6Presidency of t%e UN Security Council rotates amon8 the
&ouncil Members1
#- every month
B- every three months
&- every si7 months
!- every year
3/9 W%ic% one of t%e follo#in8 is not a part of t%e United Nations Cranisation b
#- 'eneral #ssembly
B- U"4S&C
&- 8M)
!- 8LC
319 W%ic% one of t%e follo#in8 countries does not enFoy 5eto po#er at t%e UN>Q
#- )rance
B- US#
&- .apan
!- &hina
309 W%en did India 'ecome t%e mem'er of t%e UN>Q
#- 8n<9I:
B- 8n <9@:
&- 8n<9A@
!- 8n <9@>
3.9 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 is not a UN a8encyQ
#- 3orld Health Cranisation
B- 8nternational Labour Cranisation
&- 8nternational Monetary )und
!- )ood and #ricultural Cranisation
4- 8nternational Red &ross Society
3)9 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 a8encies related to t%e United Nations #as in
eBistence 'efore t%e Second World WarQ
#- )ood and #ricultural Cranisation
B- 8nternational Labour Cranisation
&- 3orld Health Cranisation
!- 8nternational Monetary )und
-,9 W%ic% UN 'ody deals #it% t%e population pro'lemQ
#- U"4S&C
B- U")*#
&- U"!*
!- U"8&4)
-39 4%e United Nations a8ency setup to impro5e t%e standards of education and
stren8t%en international cooperation in t%is sp%ere is calledN
#- U"8&4)
B- U"4)
&- U"4!#
!- U"4S&C
--9 Sin8le out t%e false statement pertainin8 to t%e International Court of "ustice
#- its judes are elected
B- its decisions are not enforceable
&- it is the *rincipal .udicial oran of the United "ations
!- in case of non-implementation of the decision further rievances are not feasible
-*9 4%e International Court of "ustice %olds its sessions at its %ead:uarters inN
#- Lake Success
B- #msterdam
&- Haue
!- *aris
-29 4%e international !uman Ri8%ts Con5ention adopted 'y t%e United Nations
in 3)), relates to t%eN
#- &hildren
B- Mirant workers
&- Stateless persons
!- !isabled people
-/9 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 or8anisations+ t%rou8% its 5arious pro8rammes+
#orks to ac%ie5e complete economic union of its mem'ersQ
#- B4"4LUL 4conomic Union
B- Cranisation of 4conomic &ooperation and !evelopment $C4&!%
&- #sian *roductivity Cranisation$#*C%
!- #sian and *acific &ouncil$#S*#&%
-19 UNC4A$ is a 'ody #%ic% promotes N
#- ,ourism and !evelopment
B- ,rade and !evelopment
&- ,rade and &ommerce
!- "one of theabove
-09 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 eBactly denotes t%e full name of t%e or8anisation
commonly kno#n as t%e RWorld BankQ
#- 8nternational Bank for 4conomic Cperation $B4&%
B- &ouncil for Mutual 4conomic #sistance$&M4#%
&- 8nternational Monetary )und$8M)%
!- 8nternational Bank for Reconstruction and !evelopment$8BR!%
-.9 W%en #as t%e World Bank foundedQ
#- <9A<
B- <9<?
&- <9AI
!- <9<@
-)9 4%e International Bank for Reconstruction and $e5elopment is located atN
#- "ew /ork
B- London
&- 3ashinton
!- 'eneva
*,9 W%en #as t%e International Monetary &und esta'lis%edQ
#- <9A@
B- <9AI
&- <9A=
!- <9@:
*39 4%e soft loan affiliate of t%e World Bank isN
#- #sian !evelopment Bank
B- 8nternational Monetary )und
&- 8nternational !evelopment #ssociation
!- 8nternational Bank for Reconstruction and !evelopment
*-9 4%e main function of t%e World Bank is to N
#- reduce trade aps and ineJualities
B- asist in projects in developin countries
&- ive loans for development purposes
!- help meet the countries+ balance of payment problems
**9 4%e %ead:uarters of RInternational Monetary &und is atN
#- 3ashinton
B- *aris
&- 'eneva
!- "ew /ork
*29 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 is true a'out t%e International Monetary &undQ
#- 8t is an aency of United "ations
B- 8t can lend money to any country in theworld
&- 8t can lend money to the State 'overnment of a country
!- 8t can lend money to the member countries only
*/9 All of t%e follo#in8 or8anisations %a5e t%eir %ead:uarters at Was%in8ton $C+
#- 8nternational Bank for Reconstruction and !evelopment
B- 8nternational Monetary )und
&- United "ations &hildren+s )und
!- 8nternational )inance &orporation
*19 All of t%e follo#in8 or8anisations %a5e t%eir %ead:uarters at Gene5a+ eBceptN
#- )ood and #ricultural Cranisation
B- 8nternational Labour Cranisation
&- 3orld Health Cranisation
!- 'eneral #reement on ,ariffs and ,rade
*09 4%e %ead:uarters of all t%e follo#in8 international or8anisations are 'ased at
Cienna+ eBcept N
#- United "ations 8ndustrial !evelopment Cranisation
B- Cranisation of *etroleum 47portin &ountries
&- United "ations !evelopment *roramme
!- 8nternational #tomic 4nery #ency
*.9 4%e %ead:uarters of a fe# a8encies related to t%e UN are located in Cienna+
#%ic% is inN
#- #ustria
B- Belium
&- !enmark
!- Sweden
*)9 G-0 refers to a 8roup ofN
#- less developed countries with in the U"&,#!
B- developed countries within the 3orld Bank
&- developed countries within the 8M)
!- less developed countries within the U"
2,9 4%e General A8reement on 4ariffs and 4rade @GA44A came into force onN
#- .an<5<9AH
B- .an ><5<9AH
&- #pril5>:5<9AH
!- )eb-<:5 <9AH
239 4%e %ead:uarters of GA44 #as atN
#- "ew /ork
B- 'eneva
&- London
!- Rome
2-9 A 8roup of Asian nations Foined %ands in Au8ust 3).* to launc% a ne# forum9
W%at is it kno#n asQ
#- South #sian #sociation for "uclear*eace &onference
B- 8ndian Ccean "ations &ouncil
&- South #sian Reional &ooperation
!- South 4ast #sian &ountries &ooperation
2*9 Sout% Asian Asociation for Re8ional Co-operation @SAARCA#as formed inN
#- !ecember <9H@
B- Cctober <9H@
&- .anuary <9HI
!- )ebruary <9H@
229 W%ic% one of t%e follo#in8 statements re8ardin8 SAARC countries is
#- "o S##R& country other than 8ndia has a common border with another member
country5 SriLanka and Maldives bein islands
B- #ll the countries with which 8ndia has border are members of S##R&5 SriLanka
and Maldives bein islands
&- 47cept Sri Lanka and Maldives5 all the S##R& countries have common border
with &hina-
!- 47cept Sri Lanka and Maldives no other S##R& country has islands as part of its
2/9 Apart from India+ Pakistan and Ban8lades% #%ic% ot%er countries complete
t%e SAARC mem'ers%ipQ
#- "epal5 Sri Lanka5 Bhutan5 Maldives
B- "epal5 Bhutan5 Burma5 Maldives
&- "epal5 Burma5 Bhutan5 #fhanistan
!- Bhutan5Sri Lanka5 "epal
219 4%e Uni5ersal Postal Union #as formed in t%e yearN
#- <9<9
B- <H@=
&- <H=A
!- <H=I
209 In #%ic% year t%e >r8anisation of African Unity @>AUA #as constitutedQ
#- <9I
B- <9I@
&- <9=:
!- <9I?
2.9 World Intellectual Property >r8anisation @WIP>A #as formed in t%e yearN
#- <9I=
B- <9=I
&- <9I@
!- <9IH
2)9 4%e (conomic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific @(SCAPA is
located at1
#- (uala Lumpur
B- Bankok
&- Manila
!- Sinapore
/,9 4%e International Atomic (ner8y Asociation @IA(AA+ #%ic% #as esta'lis%ed
in 3)/0 under t%e ae8is of t%e United Nations+ %as its %ead:uarters atN
#- 3ashinton
B- London
&- *aris
!- Dienna
/39 4%e %ead:uarters of t%e I7> is at N
#- Haue
B- "ew/ork
&- *aris
!- 'eneva
/-9 4%e %ead:uarters of t%e UN Uni5ersity is located atN
#- 'eneva
B- Bon
&- ,okyo
!- "ew /ork
/*9 4%e %ead:uarters of International Red Cross is atN
#- 'eneva
B- "ew /ork
&- Stockholm
!- *aris
/29 Amnesty International+ a #orld#ide %uman ri8%ts or8anisation+ %as its
%ead:uarters atN
#- *aris
B- "ew /ork
&- 'eneva
!- London
//9 4%e >P(C mem'er countries num'erN
#- <:
B- <<
&- <>
!- <?
/19 4%e mem'er countries of t%e Common#ealt% N
#- aree to come to defence of each other if attacked by any outsider
B- have democratic overnments on the same pattern as in U(
&- are fre to folow independent policies
!- share the same wealth and hence the name
/09 >f t%e t%ree founder countries of non-ali8nment+ India is oneN t%e ot%er t#o
countries areN
#- Burma and 8ndonesia
B- /uoslavia and 8ndonesia
&- /uoslavia and 4ypt
!- Burma and 4ypt
/.9 W%ic% one of t%e follo#in8 countries is not a mem'er of AS(ANQ
#- 8ndonesia
B- Sinapore
&- &ambodia
!- Sri Lanka
/)9 4%e United Nations $ay is o'ser5ed annually onN
#- "ovember <A
B- Cctober >A
&- Cctober >
!- Cctober ?:
1,9 W%at is Septem'er . o'ser5ed as e5ery year Q
#- 3orld *eace !ay
B- 8nternational &ooperation !ay
&- 3orld Health !ay
!- 8nternational Literacy !ay
139 3,t% $ecem'er is re8arded as a red-letter-day for t%e #%ole #orld 'ecause it
is t%eN
#- 8nternational Labour !ay
B- Human Rihts !ay
&- United "ations !ay
!- !ay of Dictory over the "a0is
1-9 W%ic% day is o'ser5ed as t%e World !ealt% $ay e5ery yearQ
#- #pril =
B- .uly A
&- #uust I
!- !ecember A
1*9 4%e International $ay of Peace is cele'rated 'y t%e UN> onN
#- first Monday of .anuary
B- second )riday of #uust
&- third ,uesday of September
!- fourth Saturday of !ecember
129 W4> came into eBistence inN
#- .anuary <99@
B- .anuary <99I
&- .anuary <99=
!- .anuary <99:
1/9 4%e %ead:uarters of W4> is at N
#- "ew /ork
B- 3ashinton
&- *aris
!- 'eneva
General Science
39 4%e ener8y released on account of t%e motion of a 'ody is termed as t%eN
#- potential enery
B- kinetic enery
&- relative velocity
!- "one of these
-9 ;ilo#att is t%e measurin8 unit ofN
#- power
B- current
&- work
!- enery
*9 In #%ic% unit can #e measure food ener8yQ
#- &alorie
B- (eloin
&- .oule
!- 4r
29 4%e conser5ation of ener8y principle refers to t%e fact t%atN
#- it is essential not to waste natural as and oil5 for these are limited in supply
B- solar heatin makes use of the sun+s enery5 which would otherwise be wasted
&- enery can neither be created nor destroyed
!- nuclear-power plants recycle spent fuel
/9 >ne !P is e:ual to SSS k8 per meter per second9
#- >@
B- @:
&- =@
!- <:
19 W%en a constant force is applied to a 'ody+ it mo5es #it% uniformN
#- Speed
B- Delocity
&- #cceleration
!- Momentum
09 RParsec is a unit ofN
#- weiht
B- time
&- speed
!- distance
.9 ;not is unit of speed of #%ic% of t%e follo#in8Q
#- Ship
B- #eroplane
&- Liht rays
!- Sound waves
)9 Assume t%at - A denotes narro# #%eel+ A #ider #%eel+ B denotes small free
#%eel+ B lar8er free #%eel+ C denotes small 8ear #%eel+ C lar8er 8ear #%eel+ - in
a rural area #%ere t%ere are sandy tracts+ it #ill 'e ad5isa'le to use a 'icycle
#it% N
#- #5 B5 &
B- #5 B5 &
&- #5 B5 &
!- #5 B5 &
3,9 A #%eel t%at %as 1 co8s is mes%ed #it% a lar8er #%eel of 32 co8s9 W%en t%e
smaller #%eel %as made -3 re5olutions+ t%e num'er of re5olutions made 'y t%e
lar8er #%eel isN
#- <>
B- A9
&- 9
!- A
339 If ru''er tyres replace #%eels in 'ullock carts t%enN
<- speed of bullock cart increases
>- load carryin capacity increases
?- the capacity of bullock to pull the cart at a stretch increases
A- "one of the above
#- < c ?correct
B- > c ?correct
&- < c >correct
!- <5 > c ?correct
3-9 Rollin8 a drum is easier t%an pullin8 it alon8 a road 'eacuseN
#- rollin causes less friction
B- friction is more when the object is rolled
&- pullin willl damae the drum
!- "one of the above
3*9 Walkin8 on ice is more difficult t%an #alkin8 on concrete 'ecause ice1
#- ives less friction
B- ives more friction
&- is very cold and as such blood ets fro0en up
!- bein soft5 one can et boed down into it while walkin
329 W%at s%ould 'e done 'y a car dri5er if %e is cau8%t on t%e #ay 'y a severe
thunder storm and lihteninb
#- He should leave the wheel and lie down on the round
B- He should remain inside the car with its window lasses all pulled up
&- *ark the car beneath a tall tree
!- .ust bite a piece of cotton firmly in between the two rows of teeth
3/9 Ball 'earin8s are used in cycles and scooters toN
#- reduce the area of contact between the two surfaces in contact
B- reduce friction between wheel and a7le
&- increase friction between wheel and a7le
!- reduce friction between round and vehicle
319 !o# do t%e centripetal forces pull a 'odyQ
#- Upward
B- !ownward
&- 8nwards
!- Cutwards
309 W%en milk is c%urned+ t%e cream separates from it due to t%eN
#- cohesive force
B- frictional force
&- centrifual force
!- ravitational force
3.9 A 'ody in circular motion re:uiresN
#- centrifual force
B- centripetal force
&- inertial force
!- ravitational force
3)9 4%e risin8 of ink to t%e point of ni' in a fountain pen is due toN
#- surface tension
B- capillary action
&- ravitational attraction
!- "one of the above
-,9 As one 8oes up t%e mountain one suffers from nose 'leedin8 sometimes9 ,he
reason is that
#- blood pressure decreases at hih altitudes
B- blood pressure increases at hih altitudes
&- as one starts oin up5 the pressure of the blood capillaries becomes hiher than
the outside pressure
!- "one of the above
-39 Birds 8et t%rust @for#ard motionA and lift @up#ard motionA fromN
#- flappin of wins
B- twistin of feathers
&- shape of wins which is similar to aeroplane blades
!- air sacs
--9 Small rain-drops are sp%erical in s%ape 'ecause ofN
#- surface-tension
B- ravity
&- atmospheric pressure
!- evaporation
-*9 4%e cross-section of t%e #ater column in t%e 8i5en fi8ure is circular9 4%e
diameter of t%e 'i88er lim' is 2 cm and t%at of t%e smaller lim' - cm9 A force of
2,k8 is placed at t%e 'i88er end9 W%at force #ill 'e re:uired at t%e smaller end
to keep t%e le5el of #ater 'alancedQ
#- >: k
B- H: k
&- <I: k
!- <: k
-29 A 'ody partially floats in #ater #%enN
#- the volume of the displaced water is reater than the volume of the body
B- a body immersed in fluid loses as much in weiht as the weiht of the displaced
volume of the fluid
&- the mass of the displaced water is reater than the mass of the body
!- "one of the above
-/9 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 is used in diesel en8ineQ
<- &ylinder
>- Spark plu
?- *iston
&hoose your answer from the codes
iven below 1
#- <5 > and ?
B- < and >
&- > and ?
!- < and ?
-19 Iron is %ea5ier t%an #ater+ still t%e s%ip floats on t%e sea 'ecause
#- weiht of the ship is less than the weiht of water in the sea
B- weiht of the ship is more than sea water
&- weiht of the ship is less than the weiht of water that the ship displaces
!- weiht of ship is eJual to the weiht of water that ship displaces
-09 4%e 5olume of an o'Fect #ill 'e maBimum #%en it isN
#- spherical
B- rectanular
&- cone shaped
!- trianular
-.9 4%e mass of t%e 'ody is different from its #ei8%t 'ecauseN
#- mass is variable Juantity whereas weiht is constant
B- mass is constant but weiht increases as the body moves from the poles to the
&- mass varies very little at different places where as weiht varies a lot
!- mass is a measure of the Juantity of matter where as weiht is a force
-)9 W%ic% one of t%e follo#in8 is a 5ector :uantityQ
#- volume
B- mass
&- weiht
!- density
*,9 4%e #ei8%t of a 'ody at t%e centre of t%e eart% isN
#- increased
B- neutralised
&- decreased
!- the same
*39 A certain amount of cold air #ill #ei8% %ea5ier t%an t%e same amount of dry
air 'ecause of t%eN
#- reater number of molecules at low temperature
B- lesser number of molecules at hih temperature
&- reater enery of molecules at hih temperature
!- lesser enery of molecules at hih temperature
*-9 A free-floatin8 astronaut RA pus%es anot%er free-floatin8 astronaut RB in
space9 4%e mass of RA is 8reater t%an t%at of RB9 4%e force eBerted 'y astronaut
RA on astronaut RB #ill 'eN
#- eJual to 0ero
B- eJual to the force e7erted by WB+ on W#+
&- reater than the force e7erted by WB+on W#+
!- les than the force e7erted by WB+ on W#+
**9 >n t%e lunar surfaceN
#- weiht remains same but mass varies
B- mass ramains same but weiht varies
&- both of them vary
!- "one of the above is true
*29 4%e effect of circular mo5ements on a person in a satellite around t%e eart% is
#- his mass becomes nil while the weiht remains the same
B- his mass remains constant while weiht becomes 0ero
&- his mass oes up while the weiht remains unchaned
!- "one of the above
*/9 A #ooden 'lock is floatin8 in #ater9 If 26/ of its 5olume is immersed in #ater
and 5olume of t%e #ater displaced is .,,ml+ t%e 5olume of t%e 'lock isN
#- <<A: ml
B- >:: ml
&- H:: ml
!- <:: ml
*19 A 'alloon filled #it% air is #ei8%ted @WA so t%at it Fust floats in #ater9 W%en it
is furt%er pus%ed a s%ort distance in #ater it #illN
#- sink to the bottom
B- stay at the depth where it stands submered
&- not come back to its oriinal position
!- sink down a little further but will not reach the bottom
*09 >il+ #ater and 8as can 'e present in a #ell in t%e ascendin8 order ofN
#- water5 oil5 as
B- as5 water5 oil
&- water5 as5 oil
!- oil5 water5 as
*.9 Mercury is preferred to #ater in 'arometer 'ecauseN
#- mercury is ood conductor of heat
B- mercury is briht and hence its level can be easily read
&- mercury is available in pure form
!- mercury has hih density and low surface tension
*)9 An aeroplane rises upN
#- on account of upward thrust of air
B- as the air over the aeroplane is denser than that under the plane
&- as the pressure over its wins is more than the pressure under them
!- as its nose is pointed upwards
2,9 A 'oat filed #it% some stones is floatin8 in #ater9 If t%e stones are dropped
into t%e #ater+ t%e le5el of t%e #ater #illN
#- rise
B- decrease
&- remain the same
!- insufficient data to predict
239 W%en a s%ip enters sea from a ri5er+ its le5elN
#- remains same
B- rises
&- may or may not chane
!- decreases
2-9 4%ere is a %ole in t%e 'oat t%rou8% #%ic% #ater is seepin8 into t%e 'oat9 "ust
'efore t%e 'oat capsi=es N
#- water level in the boat will increase
B- water level will decrease
&- water level will remain constant
!- "one of these
2*9 An ice cu'e is floatin8 in a 8lass of #ater9 !o# #ill t%e #ater le5el 'e affected
#%en t%e ice cu'e meltsQ
#- ,he level of water will o up
B- ,he level of water will o down
&- ,he level of water will remain unchaned
!- 8n the beinnin the level will o up but later on the level will o down
229 &at%om is t%e unit ofN#- sound
B- depth
&- distance
!- freJuency
2/9 >rdinary clocks lose time durin8 summer9 It is so 'ecause t%e len8t% of t%eir
#- increases and so does the lenth of time
B- increases and therefore its duration of time decreases
&- decreases and therefore the lenth of time increases
!- decreases and therefore the lenth of time decreases
219 A 'ody is attac%ed to a sprin8 'alance suspended from a stand9 4%e readin8
on t%e 'alance is ,9/ k89 4%e t#o to8et%er are detac%ed from t%e stand and
allo#ed to fall t%rou8% a %ei8%t9 W%ile fallin8 t%e readin8 in t%e 'alance #ill 'eN
#- 0ero
B- less than :-@k but not 0ero
&- more than :-@ k dependin on the heiht
!- :-@ k
209 4#o 'ars of 8old and sil5er are #ei8%ed 'y sprin8 'alance and read -,, 8ms
eac%9 4%ese 'ars are t%en suspended in a li:uid and #ei8%ed 'y usin8 t%e same
'alance9 W%at could 'e deri5edQ
#- 'old will weih more than silver
B- Silver will weih more than old
&- Both the bars will be eJual in weiht
!- "othin can be said5 unless the density of the liJuid is known
2.9 W%ic% one of t%e follo#in8 #ill take place #%en a #atc% 'ased on oscillatin8
sprin8 is taken to a deep mineQ
#- 8t will become slow
B- 8t will become fast
&- 8t will indicate the same time as on earth
!- 8t will stop workin
2)9 Cery small-time inter5als are accurately measured 'y t%eN
#- pulsars
B- while dwarfs
&- atomic clocks
!- Juart0 clocks
P%ysical Geo8rap%y
(art% is represented nearly perfect 'yN
#- lobe
B- maps
&- toporaphy sheets
!- three-dimensional maps
-9 Satellites put in or'it 'y man %a5e disco5ered t%at t%e eart% isN
#- e7actly round
B- e7actly oval
&- orane-shaped
!- pear-shaped
*9 4%e s%ape of t%e (art% isN
#- spherical
B- circular
&- tetrahedral
!- eoid
A- ,he averae diameter of the earth is appro7imately1
#- >@5::: miles
B- <:5::: miles
&- H5::: miles
!- <@5::: miles
/9 4%e circumference of t%e eart% isN
#- >@5::: kms
B- >@5::: miles
&- H5::: metres
!- H5::: kms
I- ,he three basic movements of earth are1
#- alatic5 revolution and rotation
B- katabatic5 revolution and rotation
&- adiabatic5 revolution and rotation
!- adiabatic5 katabatic5 alatic
09 Rotation refers toN#- turnin of the earth on its own a7is
B- earth movement around the centre of the ala7y
&- earth movement around the sun
!- movement of the planets
.9 W%en eart% is closest to t%e sun+ it is atN
#- perihelion
B- aphelion
&- kames
!- helion
)9 W%en eart% is fart%est from t%e sun+ it is atN
#- cirJue
B- 7erophitic
&- aphelion
!- perihelion
3,9 4%e eart% is closest to t%e sun at a distance of a'out )3+/,,+,,, miles on1
#- .anuary ?
B- !ecember >@
&- !ecember >A
!- .une ><
339 4%e eart% is fart%est from t%e sun at a distance of a'out )2+/,,+,,, miles onN
#- .uly A
B- .une >>
&- March >
!- September >>
3-9 4%e eart%s aBis is tilted at an an8le ofN
#- >?-@[
B- II-@[
&- ??-@[
!- A@-@[
3*9 4%e time re:uired for t%e eart% to complete one rotation #it% respect to stars
#- >?h @Im A-:9s
B- >Ah
&- >Ah <m :-<s
!- >?h
329 4%e time re:uired for t%e eart% to complete one rotation #it% respect to t%e
sun isN
#- >?h @Im A-:9s
B- >Ah
&- >Ah <m :-<s
!- >?h
3/9 W%en eart% completes one rotation in -*% /1m 29,)s+ it is called aN
#- Sidereal day
B- Star day
&- Sun day
!- Lunar day
319 4%e nort%ern tip of t%e eart% is inclined to#ards t%e sun onN
#- .une ><
B- !ecember >
&- March ><
!- September >>
309 W%en days and ni8%ts are of e:ual len8t% on Septem'er -*+ t%is position is
kno#n asN
#- eJuino7
B- occluded
&- veerin
!- kames
3.9 !o# many days does t%e eart% take to complete a circle around t%e sunQ
#- ?I@
B- ?I@-@
&- ?I@->@
!- ?II
3)9 4%e eart%s mo5ement in its or'it is fromN
#- 3est to 4ast
B- 4ast to 3est
&- "orth to South
!- South to "orth
-,9 4%e sout%ern tip of t%e eart% is inclined to#ards t%e sun onN
#- .une >
B- !ecember >
&- September >
!- March >>
-39 4%e sun rays on Marc% -3 and Septem'er -* strike #it% an an8le of ),T onN
#- :[ latitude
B- >?-@[ latitude
&- II-@[ latitude
!- A@-@[ latitude
--9 4%e sun rays strike on "une -3 #it% an an8le of ),T on t%e1
#- ,ropic of &ancer
B- ,ropic of &apricorn
&- #rctic &ircle
!- 'reat &ircle
-*9 4%e sun rays on $ecem'er - strike #it% an an8le of ),Ton t%eN
#- ,ropic of &ancer
B- ,ropic of &apricorn
&- #ntarctic &ircle
!- 4Juator
>A- 8nsolation is1
#- solar radiation
B- earth radiation
&- satellite radiation
!- lunar radiation
-/9 Intensity and duration of insolation are maFor factors t%at determine seasons9
It 5aries due toN
#- inclination of a7is and revolution
B- rotation
&- revolution
!- earth+s distance from sun
-19 (art%s annual re5olution around t%e sun causesN
#- seasons
B- day and niht
&- rainfall distribution on the lobe
!- differin lenths of day and niht in different places
-09 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 #as not a leap yearQ
#- <H9I
B- <9:H
&- <9::
!- <9:A
-.9 Generally temperature decreases #it% increase inN
#- latitude
B- lonitude
&- sclerophyllous
!- altitude
-)9 Assertion @AAN >nly %alf of t%e moons surface is directly 5isi'le from t%e
eart%9Reason $R%1 ,he period of rotation of the moon on its a7is is eJual to the period
of its revolution of earth-
#- # and R are true but R is not the correct e7planation
B- # and R are true and R correctly e7plains #
&- Both # and R are false
!- # is false but R is true
*,9 W%ic% one of t%e follo#in8 'est eBplains t%e occurrence of solar eclipseb
#- 3hen sun is in between moon and earth
B- 3hen earth is in between moon and sun
&- 3hen moon comes between sun and earth on a new moon day
!- 3hen moon comes between sun and earth on a full moon day
*39 W%ic% part of t%e sun is 5isi'le durin8 a total solar eclipseQ
#- &orona
B- &hromo sphere
&- *hotosphere
!- "o part is visible
*-9 7unar (clipse is caused #%enN
#- the sun and the moon and the earth are in a line
B- the earth comes between the sun and the moon
&- the sun and the earth are on either side of the moon
!- the sun comes between the earth and the moon
**9 W%en does lunar eclipse occurQ#- Cn half moon
B- Cn Juarter moon
&- Cn full moon
!- Cn new moon
*29 4%e full moon rises in t%eN
#- South
B- "orth
&- 4ast
!- 3est
*/9 Assertion @AA N (clipses can not occur on all full moon and ne# moon
days9Reason $R%1 ,he moon revolves in an elliptical orbit round the earth-
#- # and R are true but R does not e7plain #
B- Both # and R are false
&- # and R are true and R correctly e7plains #
!- # is true but R is false
*19 4%e lon8est circle #%ic% can 'e dra#n on t%e eart% surface passes alon81
#- &ircle of #rctic
B- 4Juator
&- ,ropic of &ancer
!- ,ropic of &apricorn
*09 An ima8inary circle #%ic% passes t%rou8% t%e centre of t%e eart% on its
surface is calledN
#- 'reat circle
B- #rctic circle
&- #ntarctic circle
!- 4Juator
*.9 4%e ima8inary parallel lines runnin8 from (ast to West areN
#- latitudes
B- lonitudes
&- altitudes
!- prime meridian
*)9 4%e e:uator di5ides t%e eart% into t#o %emisp%eres namedN
#- "orth and South
B- 4ast and 3est
&- "orth-South and 4ast-3est
!- South-3est and "orth-4ast
2,9 4%e end point of t%e ima8inary aBis is calledN
#- *ole
B- *oint
&- Selva
!- &irJue
239 4%e ima8inary lines runnin8 from Nort% to Sout% are calledN
#- latitudes
B- lonitudes
&- parallels
!- altitudes
2-9 4%e latitude of a place eBpresses its an8ular position relati5e to t%e plane ofN
#- #7is of the 4arth
B- 4Juator
&- "orth *ole
!- South *ole
2*9 Isot%erms are ima8inary lines dra#n on a map #%ic% connect places of
#- atmospheric pressure
B- humidity
&- rainfall
!- temperature
229 Seasonal contrasts are maBimum inN
#- Mid latitudes
B- Low latitudes
&- Hih latitudes
!- Subtropics
2/9 7ines dra#n on a map t%rou8% places %a5in8 e:ual %ei8%t a'o5e sea le5el are
#- &ontours
B- 8sobars
&- 8sotherms
!- 8sotopes
219 W%ic% lon8itude is kno#n as t%e Prime MeridianQ
#- :[ lonitude
B- :[ 4 lonitude
&- :[ 3 lonitude
!- :[ latitude
209 7atitude of a point on t%e eart% is measured 'y t%e distance inN
#- kms from the 4Juator
B- anles from the 4Juator
&- anles from the *oles
!- kms from *oles
2.9 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 statements a'out meridians and e:uator is trueQ
#- Meridians are imainary lines parallel to eJuator
B- Meridians and eJuator convere at the two poles
&- Meridians and eJuator never meet each other
!- Meridians are perpendicular to the eJuator
2)9 4%e lon8itude of a place on a clear ni8%t sky can 'e determined 'y measurin8
t%e an8le #%ic% t%eN
#- Cbserver5 Denus and *ole-star make amon them
B- *ole-star makes with the Cbserver
&- *ole-star5 Cbserver and Saturn make amon them
!- Cbserver makes with the moon
/,9 4%e altitude at #%ic% t%e 8eo-stationary satellite is placed isN
#- @5::: kms
B- <>5::: kms
&- >A5::: kms
!- ?I5::: kms
Women Politcal 7eaders
An8ola -------- Eueen "0inha <@H>-<II?
Ar8entina ----- *resident &ristina )ernande0 de (irchner >::=K*resent
Ar8entina ----- *resident 8sabel *erdn <9=AK<9=I
Ba%amas ---- 'overnor-'eneral !ame 8vy !umont >::<K>::@
Ban8lades% ---- *rime Minister (haleda Bia <99<K<99I5 >::<K>::I
Ban8lades% ---- *rime Minister Sheikh Hasina 3ajed <99IK>::<
Bar'ados ---- 'overnor-eneral !ame "ita Barrow <99:K<99@
Beli=e ---- 'overnor-eneral !ame Minita 'ordon <9H<K<99?
Bermuda ---- *remier *amela 'ordon <99=K<99H
Bermuda ---- *remier .ennifer Smith <99HK>::?
Boli5ia ---- *rime Minister Lidia 'ueiler <9=9K<9H:
Bra=il ---- Eueen Maria 8 <H<@K<H<I
Bra=il ---- 4mpress 8sabel $reent% <H=<K<H=>5 <H=IK<H==5 <HH=K<HHH
Burundi ---- *rime Minister Sylvie (inii <99?K<99A
By=antium ---- $Roman 4mpire% 4mpress ,heodora <:@@K<:@I
Cam'odia ---- Eueen #n Mey <H?@K<HA:5 <HAAK<HA@
Cam'odia ---- Eueen (ossamak $joint ruler% <9@@K<9I:
Canada ---- 'overnor-eneral .eanne SauvX <9HAK<99:
Canada ---- *rime Minister (im &ampbell <99? $A months%
Canada ---- 'overnor-eneral #drienne &larkson <999K>::@
Canada ---- 'overnor-eneral Michaelle .ean >::@K
Central African Repu'lic ---- *rime Minister 4li0abeth !omitien <9=AK<9=I
C%erokee Nation ---- 3ilma Mankiller <9H@K<99@
C%ile ---- *resident Michelle Bachelet >::IK
C%ina ---- 4mpress 3u &hao I@@K=:@
C%ina ---- !owaer 4mpress ,su-Hsi <HI<K<9:H
C%ina ---- !owaer 4mpress Lonyu <9<<K<9<>
$enmark ---- Eueen Mararet 8 <?H=K<A<>
$enmark ---- Eueen Marrethe 88 <9=>Kpresent
$ominica ---- *rime Minister Mary 4uenia &harles <9H:K<99@
(aster Island Paramount ---- &hief (oreto *uakuruna <HIHK<HI9b
(aster Island Paramount ---- &hief &arolina <HI9bK<HHHb
(8ypt ---- Eueen Hatshepsut <@:<K<A9H B-&-
(8ypt ---- Eueen ,iye <A<@K<?A: B-&-
(8ypt ---- Eueen "efertiti <?=>K<?@: B-&-
(8ypt ---- Eueen "efertari <>9>K<>>@ B-&-
(8ypt ---- Eueen #rsinoe 88 $joint ruler% >=9K>=: B-&-
(8ypt ---- Eueen Berenice H<KH: B-&-
(8ypt ---- Eueen &leopatra D88 @<K?: B-&-
(8ypt ---- 4mpress Bauditu <9<IK<9?:
(t%iopia ---- 4mpress &andace ??> B-&-
(t%iopia ---- 4mpress Baudita <9<IK<9?:
&aeroe Islands ---- *rime Minister Marita *etersen <99?K<99A
&inland ---- *resident ,arja Halonen >:::Kpresent
&inland ---- *rime Minister #nneli .fftteenmfki >::? $> months%
&rance ---- *rime Minister 4dith &resson <99<K<99>
Geor8ia ---- Eueen ,amara <<HAK<><>
Germany ---- &hancellor #nela Merkel >::@K
G%ana ---- Eueen Mother /aa #santewa <HI?-<9>?
Great Britain ---- Boadicea5 Eueen of the 8ceni c- >IKI<
Great Britain ---- Eueen .ane $Lady .ane 'rey% <@@? $9 days%
Great Britain ---- Eueen Mary 8 <@@?K<@@H
Great Britain ---- Eueen 4li0abeth 8 <@@HK<I:?
Great Britain ---- Eueen Mary 88 $joint ruler% <IH9K<=:>
Great Britain ---- Eueen #nne <=:>K<=<A
Great Britain ---- Eueen Dictoria <H?=K<9:<
Great Britain ---- Eueen 4li0abeth 88 <9@>Kpresent
Great Britain ---- *rime Minister Mararet ,hatcher <9=9K<99:
Grenada ---- 'overnor !ame Hilda Louisa Bynoe <9I=K<9=>
Guyana ---- *rime Minister .anet .aan <99=
Guyana ---- *resident .anet .aan <99=K<999
!aiti ---- *rovisional *resident 4rtha *ascal-,rouillot <99:5 <99<
!aiti ---- *rime Minister &laudette 3erleih <99@K<99I
!a#aii ---- Eueen Liliuokalani <H9<K<H9?
!un8ary ---- Eueen Mary <?H>K<?H=
!un8ary ---- Eueen 4li0abeth <A?9K<AA:
!un8ary ---- Eueen Maria ,heresa <=A:K<=H:
Iceland -----*resident Didis )innboaddttir <9H:K<99I
India --------*rime Minister 8ndira 'andhi <9IIK<9==5 <9H:K<9HA
Indonesia ---------*resident Meawati Sukarnoputri >::<K>::A
Ireland ---------*resident Mary Robinson <99:K<99=
Ireland -------*resident Mary Mc#leese <99=Kpresent
Israel and "uda% -----------Eueen #thaliah HA>KH?= B-&-
Israel---------- *rime Minister 'olda Meir <9I9K<9=A
Italy ----------Eueen ,heodelinda @9:
Italy ----------Eueen .oanna 8 of "aples <?A?K<?H<
Italy -------Eueen Maria of Sicily <?==K<A:>
Italy ---------Eueen .oanna 88 of "aples <A<AK<A?@
"amaica ---------*rime Minister *ortia Simpson Miller >::IK
"apan ----------4mpress Suiko ,enno @9?KI>H
"apan ----------4mpress (oyoku IA>KIA@
"apan ---------4mpress .ito IHIKI9=
"apan--------- 4mpress 'emmyo =:?K=>A
"apan -4mpress (oken $abdicated% =A9K=@H
"apan -----4mpress Shotuku-(oken =IAK==:
"apan -----4mpress ,oshi-ko <=I>K<==<
7at5ia ------*resident Daira Dike-)reibera <999Kpresent
7esser Armenia ---- Eueen Babel <><9K<>>I
7esot%o Paramount ------------&hief 6Mantsebo #melia 6Matsaba Sempe <9A<K<9I:
7i'eria ---*resident 4llen .ohnson-Sirleaf >::IK
7it%uania ---------*rime Minister (a0imiera *runskiene <99:K<99<
7uBem'our8 ---------'rand !uchess Marie #nne de Braance $reent% <9:HK<9<>
7uBem'our8 -------'rand !uchess Marie-#dXlaYde <9<>K<9<9
7uBem'our8 -------'rand !uchess &harlotte <9<9K<9IA
Mada8ascar ----------Eueen Ranavalona 8 <H>HK<HI<
Mada8ascar ---Eueen Rasoaherina <HI?K<HIH
Mada8ascar ---Eueen Ranavalona 88 <HIHK<HH?
Mada8ascar -----Eueen Ranavalona 888 $deposed% <HH?K<H9=
Maldi5es -------Sultan #mina Rani (ilaefanu <=@=K<=@9
Malta -----------*resident #atha Barbara <9H>K<9H=
Micronesia------ Hih &ommissioner of ,rust ,erritory of the *acific 8slands .anet .-
Mc&oy <9H<K<9HI
Monaco------ *rincess Louise-Hippolyte <=?<
Net%erlands ------Eueen 3ilhelmina $abdicated% <H9:K<9AH
Net%erlands ------Eueen .uliana <9AHK<9H:
Net%erlands ----Eueen Beatri7 <9H:Kpresent
Net%erlands Antilles ---*rime Minister Lucinda da &osta 'ome0-Matheeuws <9==
Net%erlands Antilles ---*rime Minister Maria Liberia-*eters <9HAK<9HI5 <9HHK<99?
Net%erlands Antilles ---*rime Minister Susanne &amelia-Romer <99?5 <99HK<999
Net%erlands Antilles ---*rime Minister Mirna Louisa-'odett >::?K>::A
Ne# Caledonia ----------*resident Marie-"oelle ,hXmereau >::AKpresent
Ne# Eealand -------'overnor-eneral !ame &atherine ,i0ard <99:K<99I
Ne# Eealand ------'overnor-eneral !ame Silvia &artwriht >::<K>::I
Ne# Eealand -------*rime Minister .enny Shipley <99=K<999
Ne# Eealand ----*rime Minister Helen &lark <999Kpresent
Ne# Eealand -----$Maori community% Eueen ,e #ta-i Rani-(ahu (oroki ,e Rata
Mahuta ,awhiao *otatau ,e 3herowhero <9IIK>::I
Nicara8ua------- *resident Dioleta Barriosde &hamorro <99:K<99=
Ni8eria ---------Eueen #mina of Baria <@HH-<@H9
Nor#ay ------Eueen Mararet <?H=K<A<>
Nor#ay -----*rime Minister 'ro Harlem Brundtlandt <9H<5 <9HIK<9H95 <99:K<99I
Pakistan--- *rime Minister Bena0ir Bhutto <9HHK<99:5 <99?K<99I
Panama --------*resident Mireya Moscoso <999K>::A
Peru Prime--- Minister Beatri0 Merino >::? $I months%
P%ilippines --------*resident Maria &ora0on #Juino <9HIK<99>
P%ilippines ------*resident 'loria Macapaal-#rroyo >::<Kpresent
Poland --------Eueen Hedwie <?HAK<?99
Poland --------*remier Hanna Suchocka <99>K<99?
Portu8al -------Eueen Maria 8 <===K<H<I
Portu8al --------Eueen Maria 88 <H>IK<H>H5 <H?AK<H@?
Portu8al -----*rime Minister Maria de Lourdes *intasilo <9=9 $<A9 days%
Roman (mpire--4mpress 8rene =9=KH:>
Russia --------4mpress &atherine 8 <=>@K<=>=
Russia ------4mpress #nna 8vanovna <=?:K<=A:
Russia ---------4mpress 4li0abeth *etrovna <=A<K<=I>
Russia ----------4mpress &atherine 88 $,he 'reat% <=I>K<=9I
R#anda --------*rime Minister #athe Uwiliniyimana <99?K<99A
St9 7ucia -----'overnor-'eneral !ame *earlette Louisy <99=Kpresent
SUo 4omV and PrWncipe ----*rime Minister Maria das "eves >::>K>::A
SUo 4omV and PrWncipe ---*rime Minister Maria do &armo Silveira >::@Kpresent
Scotland-------------- Eueen Mary Stuart $e7ecuted% <@A>K<@I=
Seminole--------- "ation Betty Mae .umper <9I:K<9I9
Sene8al ---------Mame Madior Boye >::<K>::>
S%e'a -----Eueen Makeda 9I: B-&-
Spain -------Eueen !ona Urraca <<:9K<<>I
Spain ---------Eueen .uana 8 <>=AK<?:=
Spain ----------Eueen .uana 88 <?>HK<?A9
Spain ----------Eueen !ona Blanca <A>@K<AA<
Spain ------Eueen 8sabella 8 $joint ruler% <A=AK<@:A
Spain --------Eueen &atalina de #lbret <AH<K<@<>
Spain ------Eueen 8sabella 88 <H??K<HIH
Sri 7anka --------Eueen #nula A=KA> B-&-
Sri 7anka------- Eueen Sivali ?@ B-&-
Sri 7anka-------- Eueen Lilavati <<9=K<>::5 <>:9K<><>
Sri 7anka ------------Eueen (alyanavati <>:>K<>:H
Sri 7anka -----*rime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike <9I:K<9I@5 <9=:K<9==5
Sri 7anka ---------*resident &handrika (umaratuna <99AK>::@
Sudan ------------#manirenas5 Eueen of &ush late <st century B-&-
S#eden ----------Eueen &hristina $abdicated% <I?>K<I@A
S#eden ----------Eueen Ulrica 4leonora $abdicated% <=<HK<=>:
S#it=erland -------*resident Ruth !reifuss <999
4on8a C%ief --------,upoumahe6ofo <=bK<=9?
4on8a <ueen -------Salote ,ubou 888 <9<HK<9I@
4urkey Prime -------Minister ,ansu giller <99?K<99I
Ukraine Prime -------Minister /ulia ,imoshenko >::@
Wallis Ruler -----,oifale <H>@
Wallis Ruler -----)alakika Seilala Lavelua <H@HK<HI9
Wallis Ruler -----#melia ,okaahahau #liki Lavelua <HI9K<H9@
Wallis Ruler -----#loisia Lavelua <9@?K<9@H
?u8osla5ia -----*remier Milka *laninc <9H>K<9HI
Eululand -------Eueen "andi <==HK<H>I
&orms of Go5ernment
'ovt by noble people-
'ovt by one person-
*AAut%oritarianN 4
7tremely powerful 'ovt-
'ovt that is carried on throuh officers-
'ovt that is carried on throuh a caliph-
'ovt of the people5 by the people5 for the people-
'ovt by one dictator-
'ovt by the tyrant-
'ovt by a monarch-
'ovt by small roup-
'ovt by rich people-
'ovt that is carried on throuh reliious people-
# one party 'ovt-
Speed of li8%t in different units
>995=9>5A@H -------meterMsecond
<5:=95>@>5HAH-H--- kilometersMhour
7en8t% of time for li8%t to tra5el99
Cne foot --- <-: nanosecond
Cne meter --- ?-? nanoseconds
Cne km---- ?-? microseconds
Cne mile--- @-A microseconds
#round 4arth6s eJuator--- -----------------------:-<? seconds
)rom 4arth to eostationary orbit and back---- :->A seconds
)rom 4arth to the moon ----------------------- <-? seconds
)rom 4arth to the sun------------ H-? minutes
,o 4arth from #lpha &entauri - A-A years
)rom ede to ede of the Milky 3ay ----------- <::5::: years
3 Second X 3,,,,,,,,, Nanoseconds
3 Second X 3,,,,,, microseconds
Speed >f Sound
=I<-I- miles per hour
??: ---meters per second
<>>@ --kilometers per hour
!uman Body
39 W%at is t%e 'ody temperature of a normal manQ
#- H<-<o&
B- ?I-9o&
&- 9H-Io&
!- ><-=o&
-9 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 %elps in clottin8 of 'loodQ
#- Ditamin B<
B- Ditamin B>
&- Ditamin !
!- Ditamin (
*9 4otal 5olume of 'lood in a normal adult %uman 'ein8 is
#- @-I liters
B- ?-A liters
&- H-<: liters
!- <:-<> liters
29 Red 'lood corpuscles are formed in t%e
#- Liver
B- Bone marrow
&- (idneys
!- Heart
/9 !o# many 'ones are t%ere in an adult %uman 'ein8Q
#- ><:
B- >I:
&- >:I
!- ?::
19 4%e pancreas secretes
#- 8nsulin
B- Bile juice
&- *eptic juice
!- "one of these
09 4i'ia is a 'one found in t%e
#- Skull
B- #rm
&- Le
!- )ace
.9 4%e lar8est part of t%e %uman 'rain is t%e
#- Medulla oblonata
B- &erebellum
&- &erebrum
!- "one of these
)9 W%at is t%e main component of 'ones and teet%Q
#- &alcium carbonate
B- &alcium phosphate
&- &alcium sulphate
!- &alcium nitrate
3,9 4%e main constituent of %emo8lo'in is
#- &hlorine
B- 8ron
&- &alcium
!- "one of these
339 4%e main function of t%e kidney is
#- ,o control blood pressure
B- ,o control body temperature
&- ,o remove waste product from the body
!- ,o help in diestion of food
3-9 4%e function of %emo8lo'in is
#- ,ransportation of o7yen
B- !estruction of bacteria
&- *revention of anemia
!- Utili0ation of enery
3*9 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 8lands secrete tearsQ
#- Lachrymal
B- *ituitary
&- ,hyroid
!- *ancreas
329 W%ic% is t%e lar8est 8land in t%e %uman 'odyQ
#- ,hyroid
B- Liver
&- *ancreas
!- "one of these
3/9 W%ic% is t%e lar8est or8an in t%e %uman 'odyQ
#- Liver
B- Heart
&- Skin
!- (idney
319 A person of #%ic% of t%e follo#in8 'lood 8roups is called a uni5ersal donorQ
#- C
B- #B
&- #
!- B
309 W%ic% 8land in t%e %uman 'ody is called t%e master 8landQ
#- *ancreas
B- ,hyroid
&- *ituitary
!- Spleen
<H- How many bones are there in a newly born infantb
#- >:I
B- >?:
&- >H:
!- ?::
3)9 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 %a5e maBimum calorific 5alueQ
#- &arbohydrates
B- )ats
&- *roteins
!- Ditamins
-,9 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 5itamins promote %ealt%y functionin8 of eyes in
%uman 'ein8sQ
#- Ditamin B
B- Ditamin &
&- Ditamin #
!- Ditamin !
-39 4%e a5era8e %eart'eat per minute in a normal man is
#- @:
B- =:
&- H:
!- <::
--9 A person #it% #%ic% of t%e follo#in8 'lood 8roups can recei5e 'lood of any
#- #
B- #B
&- B
!- C
-*9 Malaria is a disease #%ic% effects t%e
#- Heart
B- Luns
&- Spleen
!- (idneys
-29 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 diseases is caused 'y 5irusQ
#- Small po7
B- ,uberculosis
&- Malaria
!- &holera
-/9 Medulla o'lon8ata is a part of %uman
#- Heart
B- Brain
&- Liver
!- Se7 oran
-19 Myopia is a disease connected #it%
#- 4ars
B- 4yes
&- Luns
!- Brain
-09 7eukemia is a disease of t%e
#- Luns
B- Blood
&- Skin
!- "erves
-.9 S%ort-si8%tedness can 'e corrected 'y usin8
#- &onve7 lens
B- &oncave lens
&- &onve7-concave lens
!- &oncave-conve7 lens
-)9 4rac%oma is a disease of t%e
#- Liver
B- 4yes
&- Luns
!- (idneys
*,9 Matc% t%e follo#in8
&olumn 8 &olumn 88
#- Beriberi <- Ditamin #
B- Scurvy >- Ditamin B
&- Rickets ?- Ditamin &
!- "iht Blindness A- Ditamin !
# B & !
$a% ? > < A
$b% > < ? A
$c% > ? A <
$d% > ? < A
*39 4yp%oid and c%olera are typical eBamples of
#- 8nfectious diseases
B- #ir-borne disease
&- 3ater-borne disease
!- "one of these
*-9 Pyorr%ea is a disease of t%e
#- "ose
B- 'ums
&- Heart
!- Luns
**9 7ack of #%at causes dia'etes9
#- Suar
B- 8nsulin
&- &alcium
!- Ditamins
*29 AppendiB is appendiB is a part of
#- Small intestine
B- Lare intestine
&- Stomach
!- Liver
*/9 Matc% t%e follo#in8 columns
&olumn 8 &olumn 88
#- &ataract <- Bones
B- .aundice >- 4yes
&- !iabetes ?- Liver
!- #rthritis A- *ancreas
# B & !
$a% > ? A <
$b% > ? < A
$c% < ? A >
$d% ? > A <
*19 Bronc%itis is a disease of #%ic% of t%e follo#in8 or8ansQ
#- Blood
B- Bladder
&- Liver
!- Respiratory tract
*09 (CG is used for t%e dia8nosis of aliments of
#- Brain
B- Heart
&- (idneys
!- Luns
*.9 Biopsy is done on
#- ,issues taken from a dead body
B- ,issues taken form a livin body
&- Blood from veins
!- Blood from arteries
*)9 Barium is used for
#- &heckin blood roup
B- L-ray of alimentary canal
&- L-ray of brain
!- "one of these
2,9 $ialysis is used for t%e treatment of
#- (idney failure
B- Heart weakness
&- Brain diseases
!- "one of these
239 Insulin is inFected into t%e intestines 'y
#- *ancreas
B- Liver
&- Stomach
!- 'all bladder
2-9 7ock "a#+ i9e9+ difficulty in openin8 t%e mout% is a symptom of
#- &holera
B- *laue
&- ,etanus
!- !iphtheria
2*9 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 pairs is incorrectQ
#- *laue-rats
B- Rabies-do
&- ,apeworm-pi
!- *oliomyelitis-monkey
229 Matc% t%e follo#in8 columns
&olumn 8 &olumn 88
#- #ir-borne <- ,etanus
B- 3ater-borne >- ,uberculosis
&- &ontact ?- &holera
!- 3ound A- Syphilis
# B & !
$a% > ? < A
$b% > ? A <
$c% ? > A <
$d% A ? > <
2/9 Ricketts is a disease of t%e
#- Bones
B- ,issue
&- Muscles
!- Blood
219 W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 statements is correct
#- *ulmonary artery carries pure blood
B- *ulmonary artery carries impure blood
&- *ulmonary vein carries impure blood
!- "one of these
209 7un8s are situated in t%e
#- #bdominal cavity
B- *ericardial cavity
&- Buccal cavity
!- ,horacic cavity
2.9 4%e %uman cell contains
#- AA chromosomes
B- AH chromosomes
&- AI chromosomes
!- >? chromosomes
2)9 (n=ymes %elp in
#- Respiration
B- !iestion of food
&- 8mmune system
!- Reproduction
/,9 &ood is normally di8ested in t%e
#- Liver
B- Stomach
&- Small intestines
!- Lare intestines
<- b >- d ?- a A- b @- c
I- a =- c H- c 9- b <:- b
<<- c <>- a <?- a <A- b <@- c
<I- a <=- c <H- d <9- a >:- c
><- b >>- b >?- c >A- a >@- b
>I- b >=- b >H- b >9- b ?:- c
?<- c ?>- b ??- b ?A- b ?@- a
?I- d ?=- b ?H- b ?9- b A:- a
A<- a A>- c A?- d AA- b A@- a
AI- b A=- d AH- c A9- b @:- c
Gun Metal
&opper 9:;5 ,in <:;
8ron 99 ; 5 &arbon <;
Stainless Steel
8ron with :-<->-<; carbon upto >=; chromium or >:; tunsten or <@; "ickal
,in5#ntimony c &opper
&opper5 ,in and Binc
German Sil5er
&opper5Binc and "ickel
'old c Silver
3. carat Gold
'old =@;5 Silver c copper >@;
$entist Amal8am
=:; Mercury ?:; &opper
?ello# Brass
&opper I=; Binc ??;
8ron 5 <@; mananese and carbon and silicon
&opper c ?H; Binc
"ickel c &hromium
Plum'ers Solder
Lead and tin
Mu Metal
==; nickel5 <@; iron5 plus copper and molybdenum
An amal8am
refers to alloys of mercury-
39 <uestionN A man #it% a load Fumps from a %i8% 'uildin89 W%at #ill 'e t%e
load eBperienced 'y %imQ
#nswer1 Bero5 because while fallin5 both the man and the load are fallin at the
same acceleration i-e- acceleration due to ravity-
-9 <uestionN A piece of c%alk #%en immersed in #ater emits 'u''les9 W%yQ
#nswer1 &halk consists of pores formin capillaries- 3hen it is immersed in
water5 the water beins to rise in the capillaries and air present there is e7pelled in
the form of bubbles-
*9 <uestionN W%y does a li:uid remain %ot or cold for a lon8 time inside a
t%ermos flaskQ
#nswer1 ,he presence of air5 a poor conductor of heat5 between the double lass
wall of a thermos flask5 keeps the liJuid hot or cold inside a flask for a lon time-
29 <uestionN W%y does a 'all 'ounce upon fallin8Q
#nswer1 3hen a ball falls5 it is temporarily deformed- Because of elasticity5 the
ball tends to reain its oriinal shape for which it presses the round and bounces
up $"ewton6s ,hird Law of Motion%-
/ <uestionN W%y is standin8 in 'oats or dou'le decker 'uses not allo#ed+
particularly in t%e upper deck of 'usesQ
#nswer1 Cn tiltin the centre of ravity of the boat or bus is lowered and it is
likely to overturn-
19 <uestionN W%y is it recommended to add salt to #ater #%ile 'oilin8 dalQ
#nswer1 By addition of salt5 the boiled point of water ets raised which helps in
cookin the dal sooner-
09 <uestionN W%y is it t%e 'oilin8 point of sea #ater more t%an t%at of pure
#nswer1 Sea water contains salt5 and other impurities which cause an elevation in
its boilin point-
.9 <uestionN W%y is it easier to spray #ater to #%ic% soap is addedQ
#nswer1 #ddition of soap decreases the surface tension of water- ,he enery for
sprayin is directly proportional to surface tension-
)9 <uestionN W%ic% is more elastic+ ru''er or steelQ
#nswer1 Steel is more elastic for the same stress produced compared with rubber-
3,9 <uestionN W%y is t%e sky 'lueQ
#nswer1 Diolet and blue liht have short waves which are scattered more than red
liht waves- 3hile red liht oes almost straiht throuh the atmosphere5 blue and
violet liht are scattered by particles in the atmosphere- ,hus5 we see a blue sky-
339 <uestionN W%y $oes ink leak out of partially filled pen #%en taken to a
%i8%er altitudeQ
#nswer1 #s we o up5 the pressure and density of air oes on decreasin- #
*artially filled pen leaks when taken to a hiher altitude because the pressure of
air actin on the ink inside the tube of the pen is reater than the pressure of the
air outside-
3-9 <uestionN >n t%e moon+ #ill t%e #ei8%t of a man 'e less or more t%an %is
#ei8%t on t%e eart%Q
#nswer1 ,he ravity of the moon is one-si7th that of the earthF hence the weiht
of a person on the surface of the moon will be one-si7th of his actual weiht on
3*9 <uestionN W%y do some li:uid 'urn #%ile ot%ers do notQ
#nswer1 # liJuid burns if its molecules can combine with o7yen in the air with
the production of heat- Hence5 oil burns but water does not-
329 <uestionN W%y can #e see oursel5es in a mirrorQ
#nswer1 3e see objects when liht rays from them reach our eyes- #s mirrors
have a shiny surface5 the liht rays are reflected back to us and enter our eyes-
3/9 <uestionN W%y does a solid c%unk of iron sink in #ater 'ut float in
#nswer1 Because the density of iron is more than that of water bus less than that
of mercury-
319 <uestionN W%y is cookin8 :uicker in a pressure cookerQ
#nswer1 #s the pressure inside the cooker increases5 the boilin point of water is
raised5 hence5 the cookin process is Juicker-
309 <uestionN W%en #ood 'urns it crackles9 (BplainQ
#nswer1 3ood contains a comple7 mi7ture of ases and tar formin vapors
trapped under its surface- ,hese ases and tar vapors escape5 makin a crackin
3.9 <uestionN W%y do stars t#inkleQ
#nswer1 ,he liht from a star reaches us after refraction as it passes throuh
various layers of air- 3hen the liht passes throuh the earthbs atmosphere5 it is
made to flicker by the hot and cold ripples of air and it appears as if the stars are
3)9 <uestionN W%y is it easier to roll a 'arrel t%an to pull itQ
#nswer1 Because the rollin force of friction is less than the dynamic force of
slidin friction-
-,9 <uestionN If a feat%er+ a #ooden 'all and a steel 'all fall simultaneously in
a 5acuum+ #%ic% one of t%ese #ould fall fasterQ
#nswer1 #ll will fall at the same speed in vacuum because there will be no air
resistance and the earthbs ravity will e7ert a similar ravitational pull on all-
-39 <uestionN W%en a man fires a 8un+ %e is pus%ed 'ack sli8%tly9 W%yQ
#nswer1 #s the bullet leaves the no00le of the unbs barrel with momentum in a
forward direction5 as per "ewton6s ,hird Law of Motion5 the ejection imparts to
the un as eJual momentum in a backward direction-
--9 <uestionN Ice #rapped in a 'lanket or sa# dust does not melt :uickly9
#nswer1 Both wood and wool are bad conductors of heat- ,hey do not permit heat
rays to reach the ice easily-
-*9 <uestionN W%y do #e perspire on a %ot dayQ
#nswer1 3hen the body temperature rises5 the sweat lands are stimulated to
secrete perspiration- 8t is nature6s way to keep the body cool- !urin the process
of evaporation of sweat5 body heat is taken away5 thus ivin a sense of coolness-
-29 <uestionN W%y does ice float on #ater 'ut sink in alco%olQ
#nswer1 Because ice is lihter than water it floats on it- However5 ice is heavier
than alcohol and therefore it sinks in alcohol-
-/9 <uestionN W%y do #e perspire 'efore rainsQ
#nswer1 Before the rain falls5 the atmosphere ets saturated with water vaporsF as
a result5 the process of evaporation of sweat is delayed-
-19 <uestionN W%y does a t%ermometer kept in 'oilin8 #ater s%o# no c%an8e
in readin8 after 3,,,CQ
#nswer1 ,he boilin point of water is <:::&- Cnce water starts boilin at this
temperature5 thermometer records no chane in temperature- ,he Juantity of heat
supplied is bein utili0ed as latent heat of evaporation to convert the water at
boilin point into vapour-
-09 <uestionN W%y do #e 'rin8 our %ands close to t%e mout% #%ile s%outin8
across to someone far a#ayQ
#nswer1 By keepin hands close to mouth the sound is not allowed to spread
$*henomenon of diffraction of sound% in all direction5 but is directed to a
particular direction and becomes louder-
-.9 <uestionN W%y does a corked 'ottle filled #it% #ater 'urst if left out on a
frosty ni8%tQ
#nswer1 Because of low temperature the water inside the bottle free0es- Cn
free0in it e7pands5 thereby its volume increases and pressure is e7erted on the
-)9 <uestionN W%y is a small 8ap left at t%e Foint 'et#een t#o railsQ
#nswer1 ,o permit e7pansion of rails due to heat enerated by friction of a
movin train-
*,9 <uestionN W%y cannot a copper #ire 'e used to make elements in electric
#nswer1 &opper melts at <:H-?:& and forms a black powder on reactin with
atmospheric o7yen- )or heater elements a metal should have more resistance to
produce heat-
*39 <uestionN W%y are #ater or mercury droplets al#ays round #%en
dropped on a clean 8lassQ
#nswer1 ,he surface of a liJuid is the seat of a special force as a result of which
molecules on the surface are bound toether to form somethin like a stretched
membrane- ,hey tend to compress the molecules below to the smallest possible
volume5 which causes the drop to take a round shape as for a iven mass he
sphere has minimum volume-
*-9 <uestionN W%y does a 'alloon filled #it% %ydro8en rise in t%e airQ
#nswer1 3eiht of hydroen is less than the weiht of air displaced by it- 8n
balloons hydroen is normally filled because it is lihter than air-
**9 <uestionN W%y do #e lean for#ard #%ile clim'in8 a %illQ
#nswer1 8n order to keeps the vertical line passin throuh our centre of ravity
always between our feet5 which is essential to attain eJuilibrium or stability-
*29 <uestionN W%y does smoke curl up in t%e airQ
#nswer1 Smoke contains hot ases which bein lihter in weiht5 follows a
curved path because of the eddy currents that are set up in the air-
*/9 <uestionN W%y does an electric 'ul' eBplode #%en it is 'rokenQ
#nswer1 ,he bulb encompasses partial vacuum and as it breaks5 air rushes in
causin a small e7plosion-
*19 <uestionN W%y does a man fall for#ard #%en %e Fumps out of a runnin8
train or 'usQ
#nswer1 He is in motion while in the train or bus- 3hen he jumps out5 his feet
comes to rest while touchin the round but his upper portion which is still in
motion propels him forward-
*09 <uestionN W%y does an ordinary 8lass tum'ler crack #%en 5ery %ot tea
or milk is poured in itQ
#nswer1 3hen a hot liJuid is poured into a tumbler5 the inner layer of the tumbler
ets heated5 it e7pands before the outer layer and an uneJual e7pansion of both
layers causes the tumbler to crack-
*.9 <uestionN W%y is a compass used as an indicator of directionQ
#nswer1 ,he manetic needles of a compass under the influence f the earthbs
manetic field lie in a north-south direction- Hence5 we can identify direction-
*)9 <uestionN W%y is #ater from a %and pump #arm in #inter and cold in
#nswer1 8n winter5 the outside temperature is lower than that of water flowin out
of the pump5 and therefore5 the water is warm- 3hereas in summer5 the outside
temperature is hiher than the water of the pump5 and therefore5 it feels cold-
2,9 <uestionN W%y is a rain'o# seen after a s%o#erQ
#nswer1 #fter a shower5 the clouds containin water droplets act like a prism
throuh which the white liht is dispersed producin a spectrum-
239 <uestionN W%y does a s#immin8 pool appear less deep t%an is actually isQ
#nswer1 ,he rays of liht comin from the bottom of the pool pass from a denser
medium $water% to a rarer medium $air% and are refracted $bend away from the
normal%- 3hen the rays return to the surface5 they form an imae of the bottom of
the pool at a point5 which is little above the real position-
2-9 <uestionN W%y is oneQs 'reat% 5isi'le in #inter 'ut not in summerQ
#nswer1 8n winter5 water vapor contained in the breath condenses into small
droplets5 which become visible but in summer they are Juickly evaporated and
not seen-
2*9 <uestionN W%y doesnQt t%e electric filament in an electric 'ul' 'urn upQ
#nswer1 )irstly5 because is made of tunsten which has a very hih meltin point
$?A<::&% whereas the temperature of the filament reJuired to low is only
>=::o&- Secondly5 o7yen is absent since the bulb is filled with an inert as
which does not help in burnin-
229 <uestionN W%y does 'lottin8 paper a'sor' inkQ
#nswer1 Blottin paper has fine pores5 which act like capillaries- 3hen a portion
of blottin paper is brouht in contact with ink5 ink enters the pores due to surface
tension $capillary action f liJuids% and is absorbed-
2/9 <uestionN W%y does a small iron sink in #ater 'ut a lar8e s%ip floatQ
#nswer1 ,he weiht of water displaced by an iron ball is less than its own weiht5
whereas water displaced by the immersed portion of a ship is eJual to its weiht
$#rchimedesb *rinciple%-
219 <uestionN W%y does ice float on #aterQ
#nswer1 ,he weiht of the ice block is eJual to the weiht of the liJuid displaced
by the immersed portion of the ice-
209 <uestionN W%y does moisture 8at%er outside a tum'ler containin8 cold
#nswer1 ,he water vapour in the air condenses on coolin and appears as droplets
of water-
2.9 <uestionN W%y does kerosene float on #aterQ
#nswer1 Because the density of kerosene is less than that of water- )or the same
reason cream rises in milk and floats at the top-
2)9 <uestionN W%y is t%e #ater in an open pond cool e5en on a %ot summer
#nswer1 #s the water evaporates from the open surface of a pond5 heat is taken
away in the process5 leavin the surface cool-
/,9 <uestionN W%y is it less difficult to cook rice or potatoes at %i8%er
#nswer1 #tmospheric pressure at hiher altitudes is low and boils water below
<::&- ,he boilin point of water is directly proportional to the pressure on its
/39 <uestionN W%y is it difficult to 'reat%e at %i8%er altitudesQ
#nswer1 Because of low air pressure at hiher altitudes the Juantity of air is less5
and so that of o7yen-
/-9 <uestionN W%y are #inter ni8%ts and summer ni8%ts #armer durin8
cloudy #eat%er t%an #%en t%e sky is clearQ
#nswer1 &louds bein bad conductors of heat do not permit radiation of heat from
land to escape into the sky- #s this heat remains in the atmosphere5 the cloudy
nihts are warmer-
/*9 <uestionN W%y is a metal tyre %eated 'efore it is fiBed on #ooden #%eelsQ
#nswer1 Cn heatin5 the metal tyre e7pands by which its circumference also
increases- ,his makes fi7in the wheel easier and therefore coolin down shrinks
itF thus fi7in the tyre tihtly-
/29 <uestionN W%y is it easier to s#im in t%e sea t%an in a ri5erQ
#nswer1 ,he density of sea water is hiherF hence the up thrust is more than that
of river water-
//9 <uestionN W%o #ill possi'ly learn s#immin8 faster-a fat person or a t%in
#nswer1 ,he fat person displaces more water which will help him float much
more freely compared to a thin person-
/19 <uestionN W%y is a flas% of li8%tenin8 seen 'efore t%underQ
#nswer1 Because liht travels faster than sound5 it reaches the earth before the
sound of thunder-
/09 <uestionN W%y cannot a petrol fire 'e eBtin8uis%ed 'y #aterQ
#nswer1 3ater5 which is heavier than petrol5 slips down permittin the petrol to
rise to the surface and continue to burn- Besides5 the e7istin temperature is so
hih that the water poured on the fire evaporates even before it can e7tinuish the
fire- ,he latter is true if a small Juantity of water is poured-
/.9 <uestionN W%y does #ater remain cold in an eart%en potQ
#nswer1 ,here are pores in an earthen pot which allow water to percolate to the
outer surface- Here evaporation of water takes place thereby producin a coolin
/)9 <uestionN W%y do #e place a #et clot% on t%e fore%ead of a patient
sufferin8 from %i8% temperatureQ
#nswer1 Because of bodybs temperature5 water evaporatin from the wet cloth
produces a coolin effect and brins the temperature down-
1,9 <uestionN W%en a needle is placed on a small piece of 'lottin8 paper
#%ic% is place on t%e surface of clean #ater+ t%e 'lottin8 paper sinks after a
fe# minutes 'ut t%e needle floats9 !o#e5er+ in a soap solution t%e needle
sinks9 W%yQ
#nswer1 ,he surface tension of clean water bein hiher than that of a soap
solution5 it cans support the weiht of a needle due to its surface tension- By
addition of soap5 the surface tension of water reduces5 thereby resultin in the
sinkin of the needle-
139 <uestionN 4o pre5ent multiplication of mos:uitoes+ it is recommended to
sprinkle oil in t%e ponds #it% sta8nant #ater9 W%yQ
#nswer1 MosJuitoes breed in stanant water- ,he larvae of mosJuitoes keep
floatin on the surface of water due to surface tension- However5 when oil is
sprinkled5 the surface tension is lowered resultin in drownin and death of the
1-9 <uestionN W%y does oil rise on a clot% tape of an oil lampQ
#nswer1 ,he pores in the cloth tape suck oil due to the capillary action of oil-
1*9 <uestionN W%y are 5entilators in a room al#ays made near t%e roofQ
#nswer1 ,he hot air bein lihter in weiht tends to rise above and escape from
the ventilators at the top- ,his allows the cool air to come in the room to take its
129 <uestionN !o# does ink 8et filled in a fountain penQ
#nswer1 3hen the rubber tube of a fountain pen immersed in ink is pressed5 the
air inside the tube comes out and when the pressure is released the ink rushes in to
fill the air space in the tube-
1/9 <uestionN W%y are air coolers less effecti5e durin8 t%e rainy seasonQ
#nswer1 !urin the rainy reason5 the atmosphere air is saturated with moisture-
,herefore5 the process of evaporation of water from the moist pads of the cooler
slows down thereby not coolin the air blown out from the cooler-
119 <uestionN W%y does 8rass 8at%er more de# in ni8%ts t%an metallic
o'Fects suc% as stonesQ
#nswer1 'rass bein a ood radiator enables water vapour in the air to condense
on it- Moreover5 rass ives out water constantly $transpiration% which appears in
the form of dew because the air near rass is saturated with water vapour and
slows evaporation- !ew is formed on objects which are ood radiations and bad
109 <uestionN If a li8%ted paper is introduced in a Far of car'on dioBide+ its
flame eBtin8uis%es9 W%yQ
#nswer1 Because carbon dio7ide does not help in burnin- )or burnin5 o7yen is
1.9 <uestionN W%y does t%e mass of an iron increase on rustin8Q
#nswer1 Because rust is hydrated ferric o7ide which adds to the mass of the iron
rod- ,he process of rustin involves addition of hydroen and o7yen elements to
1)9 <uestionN W%y does milk curdleQ
#nswer1 Lactose $milk suar% content of milk underoes fermentation and
chanes into lactic acid which on reactin with milk protein $casein% form curd-
0,9 <uestionN W%y does %ard #ater not lat%er soap profuselyQ
#nswer1 Hard water contains sulphates and chlorides of manesium and calcium
which forms an insoluble compound with soap- ,herefore5 soap does not lather
with hard water-
039 <uestionN W%y is it dan8erous to %a5e c%arcoal fire 'urnin8 in a closed
#nswer1 3hen charcoal burns it produces carbon mono7ide which is suffocatin
and can cause death-
0-9 <uestionN W%y is it dan8erous to sleep under trees at ni8%tQ
#nswer1 *lants respire at niht and ive out carbon dio7ide which reduces the
o7yen content of air reJuired for breathin-
0*9 <uestionN W%y is a ne# :uilt #armer t%an an old oneQ
#nswer1 8n a new Juilt the cotton is not compressed and as such it encloses more
air which is bad conductor of heat- ,herefore5 it does not allow heat to pass-
029 <uestionN Cur5ed rail tracks or cur5ed roads are 'anked or raised on one
side9 W%yQ
#nswer1 Because a fast movin train or vehicle leans inwards while takin turn
and the banked or raised track provides reJuired centripetal force to enable it to
move round the curve-
0/9 <uestionN !o# do 'ats fly in darkQ
#nswer1 3hen bats fly they produce ultrasonic sound waves which are reflected
back to them from the obstacles in their way and hence they can fly without
019 <uestionN Water pipes often 'urst at %ill stations on cold frosty ni8%ts9
#nswer1 ,he temperature may fall below ::& durin cold frosty nihts which
converts the water inside the pipes into ice5 resultin in an increase in volume-
,his e7erts reat force on the pipes and as a result5 they burst-
009 <uestionN W%y are #%ite clot%es more comforta'le in summer t%an dark
or 'lack onesQ
#nswer1 3hite clothes are ood reflectors and bad absorbers of heat5 whereas
dark or black clothes are ood absorbers of heat- ,herefore5 white clothes are
more comfortable because they do not absorb heat from the sun rays-
0.9 <uestionN W%y does a rose appear red 8rass 8reen in dayli8%tQ
#nswer1 Rose absorbs all the constituent colors of white liht e7cept red which is
reflected to us- Similarly5 rass absorbs all colors e7cept reen which is reflected t
0)9 <uestionN W%y does a s%ip rise as it enters t%e sea from a ri5erQ
#nswer1 ,he density of sea water is hih due to impurities and salts compared to
river water as a resultF the upthurst produced by the sea water on the ship is more
than that of river water-
.,9 <uestionN W%y are fuse pro5ided in electric installationsQ
#nswer1 # safety fuse is made of a wire of metal havin a very low meltin point-
3hen e7cess current flows in5 the wire ets heated5 melts and breaks the circuit-
By breakin the circuit it saves electric eJuipment or installations from damae
by e7cessive flow of current-
.39 <uestionN W%y is it easier to lift a %ea5y o'Fect under #ater t%an in airQ
#nswer1 Because when a body is immersed in water5 it e7periences an upward
thrust $#rchimedesb *rinciple% and loses weiht eJual to the weiht of the water
displaced by its immersed potion5 and hence5 is easier to lift objects-
.-9 <uestionN If a %i8%ly pumped up 'icycle tyre is left in t%e %ot sunli8%t+ it
'ursts9 W%yQ
#nswer1 ,he air inside the tube increases in volume when heated up- #s sufficient
space for the e7pansion of the air is not available because the tube is already
hihly pumped5 it may result in burstin of the tyre-
.*9 <uestionN W%at #ill 'e t%e color of 8reen in 'lue li8%tQ
#nswer1 'rass will appear dark in color because it absorbs all other colors of the
liht e7cept its own reen color- ,he blue liht fallin on rass will be absorbed
by it5 and hence5 it will appear dark in color-
.29 <uestionN W%y do t#o eyes 8i5e 'etter 5ision t%an oneQ
#nswer1 Because two eyes do not form e7actly similar imaes and he fusion of
these two dissimilar imaes in the brain ives three dimensions of the
stereoscopic vision
-9 3-4%e platypus and t%e ec%idna are t%e only mammals t%atN
#% Lay es
B% Have reen blood
&% Live in #ntarctica
!% 4at eucalyptus leaves
>-W%at is special a'out Sirius+ t%e $o8 StarQ
#% 8t is the only star first observed by #lbert 4instein
B% 8t is the brihtest star in the sky
&% 8t always lies directly above the "orth *ole
!% 8t emits staccato barkin sounds which radio telescopes can detect
?-An android is any ro'ot t%atN
#% Has more than one basic function
B% Has the ability to make decisions and formulate plans
&% 8s built by other robots
!% Looks and acts like a human
A-C%arles $ar#in 'e8an de5elopin8 %is t%eory of e5olution #%ile 5oya8in8
on a s%ip namedN
#% ,he 4nterprise
B% ,he Beale
&% ,he Santa Maria
!% ,he 4ndeavour
@-;inetic ener8y isN
#% Life enery5 possessed only by livin oranisms
B% Cnly important at subatomic distances
&% 4nery of movement
!% # rare form of enery sometimes observed in deep space
I-It is no# 'elie5ed t%at dinosaurs 'ecame eBtinct 'ecause ofN
#% Diral diseases
B% Huntin by early humans
&% # worldwide period of climatic coolin
!% # meteorite impact
=-If you #ere to take a lump of coal and s:uee=e for a lon8 time at 5ery %i8%
temperatures+ you #ould end up #it%N
#% 'raphite
B% Dolcanic lass5 also known as obsidian
&% # smaller lump of coal
!% # diamond
H-W%ere s%ould one 8o to find t%e Ya'lati5e a'soluteZQ
#% # book of Latin rammar
B% # film by visionary 'erman director )rit0 Lan
&% #n 8rish monastery
!% # plastic sureon
9-4%e metal mercury
#% 8s the hardest known metal
B% 8s a liJuid at room temperature
&% 8s hihly radioactive
!% 8s e7tensively used in aircraft construction
<:-Unlike most ot%er fis%+ s%arks %a5e noN
#% Bones
B% ,eeth
&% 'ills
!% Liver
<<-4%e 8alaBy #e li5e in is called t%e Milky Way9 It is s%aped approBimately
#% # round ball
B% # douhnut
&% # pret0el
!% # flat spiral
*9 7ayers of t%e (art%Ds Atmosp%ere
,he atmosp%ere is di5ided into fi5e layers- 8t is thickest near the surface and
thins out with heiht until it eventually meres with space-
3A ,he troposp%ere is the first layer above the surface and contains half of the
4arth6s atmosphere- 3eather occurs in this layer-
-A Many jet aircrafts fly in the stratosp%ere because it is very stable- #lso5 the
o0one layer absorbs harmful rays from the Sun-
*A Meteors or rock framents burn up in the mesosp%ere-
2A ,he t%ermosp%ere is a layer with auroras- 8t is also where the space shuttle
/A ,he atmosphere meres into space in the e7tremely thin eBosp%ere9 ,his is the
upper limit of our atmosphere-
,he troposphere is the lowest layer of the 4arth6s atmosphere- ,he air is very well
mi7ed and the temperature decreases with altitude-
#ir in the troposphere is heated from the round up- ,he surface of the 4arth
absorbs enery and heats up faster than the air does- ,he heat is spread throuh
the troposphere because the air is slihtly unstable-
3eather occurs in the 4arth6s troposphere-
,he top of the stratosphere occurs at @: km $?< miles% altitude-
C0one5 an unusual type of o7yen molecule that is relatively abundant in the
stratosphere5 heats this layer as it absorbs enery from incomin ultraviolet
radiation from the Sun- ,emperatures rise as one moves upward throuh the
stratosphere- ,his is e7actly the opposite of the behavior in the troposphere in
which we live5 where temperatures drop with increasin altitude
,he mesosphere starts at @: km $?< miles% above 4arth6s surface and oes up to
H@ km $@? miles% hih-3hat do we know about the mesosphereb Most meteors
from space burn up in this layer- # special type of clouds5 called 2noctilucent
clouds25 sometimes forms in the mesosphere near the "orth and South *oles-
,hese clouds are strane because they form much5 much hiher up than any other
type of cloud- ,here are also odd types of lihtnin in the mesosphere- ,hese
types of lihtnin5 called 2sprites2 and 24LD4S25 appear do0ens of miles above
8t e7tends from about 9: km $@I miles% to between @:: and <5::: km $?<< to I><
miles% above our planet-
,emperatures climb sharply in the lower thermosphere $below >:: to ?:: km
altitude%5 then level off and hold fairly steady with increasin altitude above that
heiht- Solar activity stronly influences temperature in the thermosphere- ,he
thermosphere is typically about >::[ & $?I:[ )% hotter in the daytime than at
niht5 and rouhly @::[ & $9::[ )% hotter when the Sun is very active than at
other times- ,emperatures in the upper thermosphere can rane from about @::[ &
$9?>[ )% to >5:::[ & $?5I?>[ )% or hiher-
Dery hih up5 the 4arth6s atmosphere becomes very thin- ,he reion where atoms
and molecules escape into space is referred to as the e7osphere- ,he e7osphere is
on top of the thermosphere-
29 W%at causes a rain'o#Q
#lthouh liht looks colorless5 it+s made up of many colors-red5 orane5 yellow5
reen5 blue5 indio and violet- ,hese colors are known as the spectrum- 3hen
liht shines into water5 the rays of liht refract5 or bend5 at different anles-
!ifferent colors bend at different anles--red bends the least and violet the most-
3hen liht passes throuh a raindrop at a certain anle5 the rays separate into the
colors of the spectrum-and you see a beautiful rainbow-
W%y do some o'Fects+ suc% as doors and #indo#s+ 8et 'i88er and smallerQ
Have you noticed that closet doors don+t close as easily in the summer as they do
in the winterb 8t+s because they e7pand in the heat of the summer and contract
durin the cold winter- 4verythin on 4arth is made up of tiny particles called
molecules5 which are in constant motion- 3hen the molecules heat up5 they move
faster5 pullin apart from one another- #s they move apart5 they take up more
space5 causin even solid objects to row slihtly larer- Molecules slow down as
they cool5 and they take up less room- ,his causes thins to shrink a little bit-
$3ater is an e7ception- 3hen it free0es5 the molecules line up in such a way that
the ice takes up more space-%
W%y do cats al#ays land on t%eir feetQ
&ats owe some of their nine lives to their uniJue skeletal structure- &ats don+t
have a collarbone5 and the bones in their spine are more fle7ible than other
animals- ,his makes it easier from them to bend and rotate their bodies easier
durin a short fall- # fall of two or more floors5 however5 can seriously injure a
cat- # cat6s feet and les usually can+t absorb the impact of a fall from that
distance or hiher-
W%at makes popcorn popQ
# popcorn kernel is actually a seed- #t its center is a tiny plant embryo5 a life
form in its earliest phase- ,he embryo is surrounded by soft5 starchy material that
contains water- Surroundin the embryo is a hard shell- 3hen the kernel is heated
to about A:: derees )ahrenheit5 the water turns to steam- ,he pressure from the
steam causes the kernel+s shell to e7plode and the starch to spill out- /ou have to
add the butterh
W%at causes li8%tnin8Q
3hen air rises and falls within a thunderstorm5 positive and neative chares form
in the cloud- ,he bottom of the thundercloud has a neative chare5 and the top
has a positive chare- # flash of lihtnin happens when a chare becomes so
stron that the air can+t stop it from jumpin from the cloud to the round5 which
has a positive chare- Lihtnin can also form inside the cloud5 movin between
the positively and neatively chared areas- ,he averae flash of lihtnin could
turn on a <::-watt liht bulb for more than three months- 4%e air near a
li8%tnin8 strike is %otter t%an t%e surface of t%e Sun-
W%y do I feel di==y #%en I spinQ
8nside your ears are tubes filled with liJuid- ,he liJuid moves when you move5
tellin your brain what position your body is in- 3hen you spin5 the liJuid also
spins- ,he liJuid continues to spin after you stop- /our brain thinks you+re still
spinnin5 so you continue to feel that everythin is oin in circles-until the liJuid
stops movin-
W%y does a knuckle'all seem to YdanceZ to#ard %ome plateQ
,he ball drops and soars unpredictably because it doesn+t spin- ,he lack of rapid
spin turns the seams of the baseball into tiny airfoils^surfaces that create lift and
dra when they fly throuh the air- #s the air passes over the seams5 tiny swirls
are created5 causin pockets of low pressure around the surface of the ball- #s air
rushes in to fill the pockets5 the ball is pushed in different directions- 8f the ball
rotates too much5 the seams will present a more consistent surface to the wind5
and the ball will likewise follow a smoother path-
W%y do lea5es c%an8e color in t%e fallQ
Cne of the sure sins of fall $besides the beinnin of a new school year% is the
chane in color of leaves from reen to briht yellow5 orane and red- ,rees are
sort of like bears^they store up food durin the sprin and summer and then rest
for the winter- Cver the sprin and summer5 trees use a process called
photosynthesis to make food and enery- # reen piment called chlorophyll
makes photosynthesis happen- !urin the fall and winter5 there isn+t enouh liht
or water for photosynthesis to occur5 so the chlorophyll beins to fade way- #s the
reen disappears5 the other colors bein to emere- ,hese colors were present in
the leaves all alon5 but they were dominated by the chlorophyll
W%y does my %air stand on end #%en I take off my %at on a cold+ dry dayQ
4verythin you see is made up of atoms- ,hey contain even smaller particles5
called protons and electrons- *rotons have positive electrical chares and they
never move- 4lectrons have a neative chare and they move around- #toms
usually have the same number of protons and electrons5 so they cancel each other
out and atom is neutral^it has no chare- 3hen two thins are rubbed toether5
sometimes the electrons move from one thin to the other- ,he atom that loses
electrons becomes positively chared5 and the atom that ets more electrons
becomes neatively chared- ,wo thins that have different chares pull toward
each otherF two thins with the same chares push away from each other- 3hen
you take your hat off5 electrons from your hat move on to your hair- /our
individual hairs then have the same positive chare5 so they move away from each
other5 and you look really funny-
!o# does a plane takeoff and flyQ
8t+s easy to understand how a bird can fly^it+s lihtweiht and has wins- But
how does a hue airplane et off the roundb ,he plane+s enine pushes the plane
forward- #s it moves5 air flowin around the wins creates lift- ,he lift increases
as the plane athers speed- ,he plane takes off once there+s enouh lift to overtake
ravity- 3hen the plane+s in the air5 thrust from the enines pushes the plane
!o# do scientists kno# %o# to make a flu 5accine if 5iruses can 'e different
e5ery yearQ
,he flu virus chanes every year- However5 scientists ather information about
virus mutations5 or chanes5 before the flu-virus season beins- ,his lets them
predict what each year+s flu virus miht look like- Based on that5 a vaccine is
made that we hope will be accurate enouh to help people fiht off major cases of
the flu-
W%at are stem cellsQ
Stem cells5 the basic buildin blocks of human development5 are sometimes called
Nmaic seeds-O ,hat+s because they can reenerate human tissue of various kinds-
,he use of stem cells is controversial because the best source for the cells is
human embryos- Stem cells form four to five days after an e is fertili0ed- ,hese
embryos must be destroyed to harvest the cells5 and those opposin the research
consider this the same as takin human life- ,hose who support stem cell research
say that an embryo that is just a few days old is simply a miniscule cluster of cells
and not the same as a human life- ,hey maintain that stem cells have the potential
to save human lives- Stem cells show promise in bein able to one day be able to
treat and cure many illnesses and diseases5 such as #l0heimer6s5 diabetes5
*arkinson6s5 spinal cord injuries and other medical conditions-
W%y do stars t#inkleQ
3e see the stars throuh the atmosphere- ,heir liht passes throuh millions of
miles of constantly movin pockets and streams of air5 which distort the imae of
the stars- 4ven thouh many stars are much larer than planets5 they6re so far
away from us that they seem smaller5 like tiny dots- ,he distortions make it seem
as if the shinin lihts are movin or blinkin- 8n outer space5 where there is no
atmosphere5 stars don6t twinkle-
W%at causes t%underQ
3hen a bolt of lihtnin shoots throuh the atmosphere5 it heats the air to an
ama0in @:5::: derees )ahrenheit in a fraction of a second- ,he superheated air
rapidly e7pands5 cools and then contracts5 causin shock waves- ,hese shock
waves create sound waves5 which we hear as thunder-
W%y donDt t%e oceans free=eQ
8n the #rctic and #ntarctic5 the oceans do free0e- ,he ice cap at the "orth *ole is
entirely over oceanF the ice5 however5 is only a few feet deep- Cceans don6t free0e
solid for because they contain a lot of water5 which is constantly circulatin
around the world- 8n addition5 water flowin from warmer oceans $and from areas
near underround volcanoes% takes off some of the chill- #nother important factor
is that oceans contain salt water5 which has a hiher free0in point than fresh
W%y do 'oats floatQ
# steel bar dropped into water sinks5 but a hue boat made of steel floats- 3hyb
Most of the space in the boat is taken up by air- ,he air makes the boat less dense
than water- Cbjects of lesser density float on liJuids of reater density- ,his is also
why holes in the bottom of a boat cause it to sink1 as air floods out of the boat and
water rushes in5 the overall density of the boat increases to become more dense
than the surroundin water-
W%atDs t%e difference 'et#een 'acteria and 5irusQ
Bacteria are tiny5 one-celled livin oranisms that can only be seen with a
microscope- ,hey live and breed in warm5 moist environments in the body and
elsewhere5 rowin Juickly and causin infection- Bacterial infections can usually
be treated with an antibiotic- Diruses are smaller than bacteria and cannot be seen
with a microscope- ,hey row inside the body and produce to7ins $poisons% that
can cause rashes5 aches and fevers- Diruses cannot be killed with antibiotics-
W%y do I %a5e 'ro#n eyesQ
,he enes we inherit from our parents determine thins like our heiht5 looks5
hair color and eye color- ,his passin of characteristics from parent to child is
called heredity- 8f your mother has brown eyes5 and your father has blue eyes5
there+s a ood chance you+ll have brown eyes- ,hat+s because the brown-eye ene
is dominant5 and the blue-eye ene is recessive- ,he dominant ene usually
prevails over the recessive one- 8t+s possible5 however5 for you to have blue eyes if
both your parents have brown eyes- ,hey probably inherited recessive blue-eye
enes from their parents and passed them on to you-
/9 Country Wit% Internet Users
>-United States---------->>:5<A<59I9
=-United (indom----------A<5H<=5HA=
9-(orea5 South-------------?A5H>:5:::
urrent Affairs
-Bena0ir Bhuttto was awarded U" Human Rihts #ward >::H-
-<:th !ecember was celebrated as Human Rihts day-
-<st !ecember was celebrated as world #8!S !ay-
-U"4* $United "ations 4nvironment *roram has declared >::9 as N?ear of
-Somali *rime Minister Hassan Hussein "ur was sacked from his post on
!ecember <A5 >::H-
-Harold *inter 5 a "obel *ri0e-winnin eminent British *laywriht died on
-.-(- Rowlin is the creator of Harry *otter series and his latest book is N,he
,ales of Beedle the BardO-
-8n US# presidential elections Barak Cbama ot ?IA electoral collee votes-
-Hihest number of electoral votes in #merica belons to &alifonia
-,he operation to flush out Mumbai terrorists was Cperation Black ,ornado-
-&arla Bruni has been made the first ambassador to the 'eneva based 'loba
)unds to )iht #8!S ,B and Malaria-
-#*4& is #sia *acific 4conomic &ooperation - 8ts HE are at Sinapore
-Recently #S4#" concluded an areement as first step in establishment of a free
trade area ),# in the reion by the year >:<I-
09 3-W%o is t%e aut%or of t%e 'ook+ Q4%e Man W%o $i5ided IndiaQ Q
$a% #run Shourie
$b% !ominiJue Lapierre
$c% RafiJ Bakaria
$d% Salman Rushdie
--$urin8 t%e Mu8%al period+ #%ic% one of t%e follo#in8
#ere t%e first to come to India as traders Q
$a% *ortuuese
$b% !utch
$c% !anish
$d% 4nlish
*-Alt%ou8% fo8 consists of fine drops of #ater+ #e cannot
see clearly t%rou8% it 'ecause
$a% ,he liht rays undero total internal reflection in the
$b% )ine drops of water in fo polari0e the liht
$c% ,he fine drops are opaJue to the liht
$d% ,he drops scatter most of the liht
2-India %as si8ned an a8reement to procure Ad5anced "et
4rainer @!a#kA from #%ic% of t%e follo#in8 countries Q
$a% US#
$b% U(
$c% )rance
$d% Russia
/-4%e United States %as 8ranted t%e status of QmaFor
non-NA4> allyQ to #%ic% of t%e follo#in8 countries recently Q
$a% *akistan
$b% 8ndia
$c% #fhanistan
$d% Myanmar
1- W%o amon8 t%e follo#in8 persons 'ou8%t t%e s#ord of 4ipu
Sultan in 7ondon and 'rou8%t it 'ack to India Q
$a% Ratan ,ata
$b% Mukesh #mbani
$c% Dijay Mallya
$d% #ditya Birla
0- W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 parts of t%e poppy plant is used
for t%e eBtraction of opium Q
$a% &apsules
$b% )lowers
$c% Leaves
$d% Roots
.-A 'lack %ole is a 'ody in space #%ic% does not allo#
any radiation to come out9 4%is property is due to its
$a% Dery small si0e
$b% Dery lare si0e
$c% Dery hih density
$d% Dery low density
)-At #%ic% sta8e in its life cycle does t%e silk #ork
yield t%e fi're of commerce Q
$a% 4
$b% Larva
$c% *upa
$d% 8mao
3,-(ndoscopy+ a tec%ni:ue used to eBplore t%e stomac% or
ot%er inner parts of t%e 'ody+ is 'ased on t%e p%enomenon of
$a% ,otal internal reflection
$b% 8nterference
$c% !iffraction
$d% *olarisation
<-$ c % RafiJ Bakaria
>-$ a % *ortuuese
?-$ d % ,he drops scatter most of the liht
A-$ b % U(
@-$ a % *akistan
I-$ c % Dijay Mallya
=-$ b % )lowers
H-$ c % Dery hih density
9-$ c % *upa
<:-$ a % ,otal internal reflection
>fficial Books and Papers
Blue Book
Cfficial report of the 'overnment of United (indom
Green Book
Cfficial publications of 8taly and 8ran
Grey Book
Cfficial reports of .apan and Belium
>ran8e Book
Cfficial publications of "etherlands
Red Book
Book banished in a country
W%ite Book
Cfficial publications of 'ermany5 &hina and *ortual
W%ite Paper
Short pamphlet ivin authoritative recital of facts issued by the 8ndian overnment
statin its views on a particular issue for the knowlede of eneral public
?ello# Book
Cfficial publications of )rance
<-W%ic% 8as in atmosp%ere a'sor's ultra5iolet raysQ
<-&all in air temperature #it% increasin8 ele5ation is kno#n as
thermal anomaly
thermal reduction
temperature fall
lapse rate
Ans#er-7apse rate
<-W%ere is t%e doldrums 'elt locatedQ
near the eJuator
near the polar areas
on the ,ropic of &ancer
on the ,ropic of &apricorn
Ans#er-Near t%e e:uator
<-W%at is t%e name 8i5en to #inds 'lo#in8 from su'tropical %i8% pressure
re8ions+ to t%e e:uatorQ
tropical easterlies
hih latitude easterlies
Ans#er-4ropical easterlies
<-H!orse latitudesH is t%e term applied to t%e
::-@: " and S latitudes
polar circles
?::-A:: " and S latitudes
A::-I:: " and S latitudes
Ans#er-*,,-2,, N and S latitudes
<-4%e stratosp%ere is said to 'e ideal for flyin8 Fet aircraft9 4%is is 'ecause
this layer is rich in o0one which reduces fuel consumption
the temperature is constant and ideal for aircraft enine efficiency
this layer is out of the firin rane of anti-aircraft uns
of the absence of clouds and other weather phenomena
Ans#er->f t%e a'sence of clouds and ot%er #eat%er p%enomena
<-4%e 5elocity of #inds is 8o5erned 'y
pressure radient
)arrel6s law
rotation of the earth
Ans#er-Pressure 8radient
<->5er #%ic% re8ion is t%e temperature t%e %i8%est near t%e tropopauseQ
around t%e e:uator
over the #rctic reion
near the ,ropic of &apricorn
near the ,ropic of &ancer
Ans#er-Near t%e 4ropic of Capricorn
<-Name t%e instrument use for measurin8 %umidity9
<-W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 are not a planetary #indQ
drainae winds
trade winds
Ans#er-$raina8e #inds
<-!o# muc% pressure is eBerted 'y t%e atmosp%ere at sea le5elQ
< kMcm>
< poundMcm>
@ kMcm>
> kMcm>
Ans#er-3 k86cm-
<-4%e #ater content in t%e atmosp%ere
is not dependent on temperature
increases as temperature increase
remains unchaned with chane in temperature
cannot be measured
Ans#er-Increases as temperature increase
<-W%at #ill %appen if t%e temperature of #ater is lo#ered from .,C to *,CQ
water will free0e
water will not chane in volume
the volume will first increase5 then decrease
the volume will first decrease5 then increase
Ans#er-4%e 5olume #ill first decrease+ t%en increase
<-W%ic% is t%e s%ortest route from Mosco# to San &ransiscoQ
via &anada
over land
over the South *ole
over the "orth *ole
Ans#er->5er t%e Nort% Pole
<-W%ic% one of t%e follo#in8 is a 8reat circleQ
tropic of &ancer
tropic of &apricorn
#rctic &ircle
<-In #%ic% re8ion can 'e p%enomenon of midni8%t sun 'e o'ser5edQ
in the tropical 0one
in warm temperature reions
in the #rctic and #ntarctic reions
anywhere at the time of solar eclipse
Ans#er-In t%e Arctic and Antarctic re8ions
<-&arrelDs la# is concerned #it% t%e
direction of winds
velocity of winds
intensity of winds
none of these
Ans#er-direction of #inds
<-Bli==ards are c%aracteristics of SSSSSSSSSS re8ionQ
<-W%at is t%e importance of o=one in t%e atmosp%ereQ
it provides protection aainst ultraviolet radiation
it provides condensation effect on earth
it creates the reenhouse effect on earth
it helps scatter the blue liht
Ans#er-It pro5ides protection a8ainst ultra5iolet radiation
<-W%at is a cycloneQ
a low pressure system with clockwise winds in the northern hemisphere
a hih pressure system with anti-clockwise winds in the northern hemisphere
a low pressure system with anti-clockwise winds in the northern hemisphere
a hih pressure system with clockwise winds in the northern hemisphere
Ans#er-A lo# pressure system #it% anti-clock#ise #inds in t%e nort%ern
<-W%ic% one is an anticycloneQ
a low pressure system with clockwise winds in the northern hemisphere
a hih pressure system with clockwise winds in the northern hemisphere
a low pressure system with clockwise winds in the southern hemisphere
a hih pressure system with clockwise winds in the southern hemisphere
Ans#er-A %i8% pressure system #it% clock#ise #inds in t%e nort%ern
<-An upper air #ind system #it% 5ery %i8% 5elocities in certain parts of t%e
atmosp%ere is called
a cyclone
an anticyclone
jet stream
Ans#er-"et stream
<-W%at is a tornadoQ
a very hih pressure centre
a very low pressure centre
a very hih ocean wave
a planetary wind
Ans#er-A 5ery lo# pressure centre
<-Sno#fall occurs #%en
water droplets free0e as they fall to the round
raindrops are carried up by updrauhts in air
dew point of air is below free0in point
air is hihly moist and rises due to convection
Ans#er-$e# point of air is 'elo# free=in8 point
<-4%e process of c%an8e of state of #ater form solid directly into 5apour is
snow fall
<-W%en %umidity is eBpressed as a percenta8e+ it is called
relati5e %umidity
absolute humidity
specific humidity
percentae humidity
Ans#er-Relati5e %umidity
<-W%at is t%e 5apour pressureQ
the presence of vapour in air
barometric pressure
pressure only due to vapour in the air
pressure in the clouds
Ans#er-Pressure only due to 5apour in t%e air
<-W%at is measured 'y t%e Slin8 Psyc%rometerQ
<-W%at is stated in terms of 8rams of #ater 5apour per kilo8ram of moist airQ
specific humidity
relative humidity
vapour pressure
absolute humidity
Ans#er-Specific %umidity
<-Amount of #ater 5apour @8ramsA in a 8i5en 5olume of air @cu'ic metreA is
kno#n as
specific humidity
relative humidity
mi7in ratio
absolute humidity
Ans#er-A'solute %umidity
<-4%e temperature at #%ic% an air parcel #ill 'ecome saturated #it% t%e
present amount of #ater 5apour is
critical temperature
saturation point
dew point
condensation point
Ans#er-Critical temperature
<-W%at is meant 'y t%e term HCirrusHQ
a low cloud
a rain-bearin cloud
a hih cloud
a hail-bearin cloud
Ans#er-A %i8% cloud
<-W%at is &o8Q
a cumulonimbus cloud
a low stratus cloud
a cirro stratus cloud
an altocumulus cloud
Ans#er-A lo# stratus cloud
<-!ail consists of
ranular ice
crystals of ice
water droplets
masses of ice with concentric layers
Ans#er-Masses of ice #it% concentric layers
<-Rainfall caused due to t%e presence of mountains in t%e #ay of #inds is called
ororaphic rain
cyclonic rain
convectional rain
advectional rain
Ans#er->ro8rap%ic rain
<-4%e lee#ard side of a mountain #%ic% does not recei5e rain is kno#n as
dry =one
desert area
rain-shadow area
adiabatically dry area
Ans#er-Rain-s%ado# area
<-$e# is caused #%en
humid air condenses on cool surface
the air is colder than the earth6s surface
the sky is overcast at niht
the wind is too dry to cause rainfall
Ans#er-!umid air condenses on cool surface
<-W%ic% compound is t%e most a'undant in sea #aterQ
calcium carbonate
poatassium chloride
sodium chlorides
manesium sulphate
Ans#er-Sodium c%lorides
<-In #%ic% of t%e follo#in8 areas is salinity likely to 'e t%e %i8%estQ
8ndian Ccean
Red Sea
"orth *acific
"orth #tlantic
Ans#er-Red Sea
<-W%at is a Gulf StreamQ
a cold current in the #tlantic Ccean
cold current in the *acific Ccean
a warm current in the #tlantic Ccean
a warm current in the *acific Ccean
Ans#er-A #arm current in t%e Atlantic >cean
<->ne of t%e #arm currents in t%e Indian >cean is t%e
Labrador &urrent
#ulhas &urrent
&uroshio &urrent
Humboldt &urrent
Ans#er-A8ul%as Current
International 7a'our >r8anisation@I7>AN
(sta'lis%ed in1 <9<9
!ead:uarters1 'eneva
Aims and >'Fecti5es1 ,o improve conditions and livin standard of workers
World !ealt% >r8anisation@W!>A1
(sta'lis%ed in1 <9AH
!ead:uarters1 'eneva
Aims and >'Fecti5es1 #ttainment of hihest possible level of health by all people
United Nations (ducational+ Scientific and Cultural >r8anisation@UN(SC>AN
(sta'lis%ed in1 <9AI
!ead:uarters1 *aris
Aims and >'Fecti5es1 ,o promote collaboration amon nations throuh education5
science and culture
International Atomic (ner8y A8ency@IA(AAN
(sta'lis%ed in1 <9@=
!ead:uarters1 Dienna
Aims and >'Fecti5es1 ,o promote the peaceful uses of atomic enery
United Nations International C%ildrenDs (mer8ency &und@UNIC(&AN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9AI
!ead:uartersN "ew /ork
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o promote children6s welfare all over the world
United Nations !i8% Commissioner for Refu8ees@UN!CRAN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9@:
!ead:uartersN 'eneva
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o provide protection to refuees
United Nations &und for Population Acti5ities@UN&PAAN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9I=
!ead:uartersN "ew /ork
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o formulate population policies
International &und for A8ricultural $e5elopmentN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9==
!ead:uartersN Rome
Aims and >'Fecti5esN )or financin aricultural projects in the world to raise the
economic rowth
United Nations Conference on 4rade and $e5elopment@UNC4A$AN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9IA
!ead:uartersN 'eneva
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o promote international trade to accelerate economic rowth
of developin countries
International Ci5il A5iation >r8anisation@ICA>AN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9A=
!ead:uartersN Montreal
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o promote safety of international aviation
International Monetary &und@IM&AN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9A@
!ead:uartersN 3ashinton !-&-
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o promote international monetary cooperation
International &inance Corporation@I&CAN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9@I
!ead:uartersN 3ashinton !-&-
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o promote economic development by encourain private
enterprise in its member countries
Uni5ersal Postal Union@UPUAN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9A=
!ead:uartersN Berne
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o improve various postal services in the world
United Nations (n5ironmental Pro8ramme@UN(PA1
(sta'lis%ed inN <9=>
!ead:uartersN "airobi
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o fund and implement a wide rane of development projects
related to the atmosphere5 marine and terrestrial eco-systems
United Nations Industrial $e5elopment >r8anisation@UNI$>AN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9I=
!ead:uartersN 'eneva
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o set international reulations for radio5 teleraph5 telephone
and space radio communication
&ood and A8ricultural >r8anisation@&A>AN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9A@
!ead:uartersN Rome
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o improve livin condition of rural population
International Bank for Reconstruction and $e5elopment@IBR$AN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9A@
!ead:uartersN 3ashinton !-&-
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o develop economies of members by facilitatin investment
of capitals by providin loans
World Meteorolo8ical >r8anisation@WM>A1
(sta'lis%ed inN <9@:
!ead:uartersN 'eneva
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o promote international e7chane of weather reports
United Nations $e5elopment Pro8ramme@UN$PAN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9I@
!ead:uartersN "ew /ork
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o help developin countries increase the wealth producin
capabilities of their natural and human resources
Inter-8o5ernment Maritime Consultati5e >r8anisation@IMC>AN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9@H
!ead:uartersN London
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o promote co-operation on technical matters of maritime
safety5 naviation and encouraes anti-pollution measures
International $e5elopment Association@I$AAN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9I:
!ead:uartersN 3ashinton !-&-
Aims and >'Fecti5esN #s an affiliate to 3orld Bank5 to help under-developed
countries raise livin standards
International 4elecommunication Union@I4UAN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9A=
!ead:uartersN 'eneva
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o set international reulations for radio teleraph5 telephone
and space radio communication
United Nations Institute for 4rainin8 and Researc%@UNI4ARAN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9I@
!ead:uartersN "ew /ork
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o provide trainin and research to help facilitate U"
objectives of the world peace and security and of economic and social proress
United Nations Relief and Work for Palestine Refu8ees@UNRWAAN
(sta'lis%ed inN <9A9
!ead:uartersN "ew /ork
Aims and >'Fecti5esN ,o provide basic amenities and education for the victims of
#rab-8srael 3ar
3-No'el Pri=e for (conomics #as instituted in t%e year
--4%e 'ook HMein ;ampfH is #ritten 'y
a-#le7ander the 'reat
b-Sir 3inston &hurchill
c-Benito Mussolini
d-#dolf Hitler
*-4%e first Asian Games #ere %eld at
d-"ew !elhi
2-Mu8%al Paintin8 reac%ed its climaB durin8 t%e rei8n of
/-National Institute of Nutrition is located at
c-"ew !elhi
1-W%ic% of t%e follo#in8 is not a form of Carnatic musicQ
0-W%o amon8 t%e follo#in8 is not associated #it% sitarQ
a-#mir (husrau
b-Ravi Shankar
c-Ustad #laudin (han
d-#mjad #li (han
.-Group of 0 @G-0A #as formed in
)-Common#ealt% of Independent States @CISA is made up of
a-<: members
b-<@ members and < associate member
c-<< members and < associate member
d-H members
3,-?ear -,,. is declared 'y UN> as
a-8nternational /ear of "utrition
b-8nternational /ear of *eace
c-8nternational /ear of Sanitation
33-Budd%ism #as founded in
a-Ith &entury B&
b-@th &entury B&
c-?rd &entury B&
d-Ath &entury B&
3--HAnalectsH is t%e sacred 'ook of
3*-Pekin8 is t%e sacred place of
32-Islam #as founded in
a-=th &entury #!
b-@th &entury #!
c-@th &entury B&
d-?rd &entury B&
3/-S%intoism is present in
31-Syna8o8ue is t%e place of #ors%ip of
30-W%at is t%e a8e of t%e SunQ
a-<: billion years
b-<@ billion years
c-= billion years
d-@ billion years
3.-4%e smallest continent of t%e eart% is
d-South #merica
[ W%o disco5ered t%e electronQ
sir j-j thomas
[ W%ic% is t%e lon8est 'one in t%e %uman 'odyQ
,he femur or the thih bone-
[ At #%ic% temperature do 'ot% t%e Centi8rade and &a%ren%eit s%o# t%e same
[ W%o in5ented t%e 'ifocal lensQ
Benjamin )ranklin
[ W%y #e do not feel pains to cut our nailsQ
"ails are not connected with cartilaes or blood vessels- 3hile cuttin5 therefore5 the
nervous system is not affected-
[ W%o in5ented t%e Fet en8ineQ
Sir )rank 3hittle of 4nland in <9?=
[ W%at is Mac% Num'erQ
Ratio of speed of the body to the speed of sound under similar conditions-
[ W%at is t%e scientific name for study of %and#ritin8Q
[ W%at causes an o'Fect to look 'lackQ
3hen radiation fallin on an object is fully absorbed5 it appears black
[ W%o disco5ered insulinQ
Sir )rederick 'rant Bantin c . . R Macleod
[ W%ic% element %as t%e %i8%est 'oilin8 pointQ
,antalum5 about I:::&
[ W%y does a tennis 'all 'ounce %i8%er on %ills t%an on plainsQ
,he ravitational pull in the hills is less than that at plains
[ W%ic% planet %as t%e 'i88est satelliteQ
Saturn6s seventh5 known as ,itan $diameter @IH: km%
[ !o# do 'ats mana8e to a5oid o'stacles #%ile flyin8Q
Bats while flyin5 emit a set of short sJueaks which are ultrasonic waves- ,hese5 after
reflection from trees and buildins reach the ear of the bats and make them jude5 by
hearin the echo of the ultrasonic sound5 the distance and direction of the obstacle in
the air-
[ W%ic% is t%e most common of all t%e metals in t%e eart%Ds crustQ
#luminum5 H-<?; of the earth6s crust by weiht
[ W%at is t%e source of ca5iarQ
8t is made by saltin the roe of stureon
[ W%y does an iron 'all sink and not an iron s%ipQ
,he weiht of the iron ball is more than the water it displaces5 in case of the ship5 it is
[ W%at is %erpetolo8yQ
Study of reptiles
[ W%at is constellationQ
# cluster of fi7ed stars in the heaven like 'reat Bear5 Crion
[ W%at is an aard5arkQ
#n ant-eatin animal
[ &rom #%ic% plant is morp%ine o'tainedQ
Cpium poppy
[ W%o disco5ered t%e cause of malariaQ
Ronald Ross
[ W%at makes MeBican Fumpin8 'eans FumpQ
,he seeds are inhabited by the larvae of a small moth whose movements cause the
seeds to jump about-
[ In plants+ #%at is c%lorop%yllQ
*hotosynthetic piments which absorb blue-violet and red riht5 hence5 reflectin
reen liht and ivin the reen color of plants-
[ W%y is t%e color of any root #%iteQ
Because of the absence of chlorophyll which will only appear if the plant is e7posed
to liht-
[ !o# do #e term plants specially adapted to capture and di8est insectsQ
#s insectivorous-
[ 4o #%ic% family of plants does t%e apple 'elon8Q
,he rose family-
[ In #%ic% country is tea first 'elie5ed to %a5e 'een culti5atedQ
South &hina-
[ W%at part of t%e plant is t%e clo5e t%at #e use as a spiceQ
,he dried bud-
[ W%at is kno#n as R5e8eta'le 8oldQ
[ W%ic% 5e8eta'le contains t%e most ironQ
Spinach5 <::m of which may contain as much as >->m of iron-
[ 4o #%ic% 'otanical family does t%e onion 'elon8Q
,he lily family $#llium cepa%-
[ W%ic% scientist recei5ed No'el Pri=es for 'ot% C%emistry and PeaceQ
Linus *aulin-
[ W%o in5ented t%e 5acuum flaskQ
.ames !ewar $U-(-% in <H9>-
[ Wit% #%ic% important in5ention is t%e name of 7eeu#en%oek associatedQ
,he microscope
[ W%ic% Russian 'orn American is so famous for researc% connected #it%
tele5ision t%at %e %as 'een descri'ed as Rt%e fat%er of modern tele5isionQ
Dladimir Bworykin-
[ W%at 'ranc% of c%emistry is concerned #it% car'on compoundsQ
Cranic &hemistry-
4%e 7ar8est producer of 8roundnut in World i8ndia
4%e 7ar8est producer of 4o'acco in World i &hina
4%e 7ar8est <uantity of Barley is produced in World i Russia
4%e 7ar8est producer of 7on8 Staple Cotton in World i US#
4%e 7ar8est Cattle production in World i 8ndia
4%e 7ar8est producer of Butter O G%ee in World i 8ndia
4%e 7ar8est producer of Rice in World i 8ndia c US#
4%e 7ar8est producer of &is% in World i &hina
4%e 7ar8est producer of Mutton in World i "ew Bealand c #ustralia-
4%e 7ar8est producer of Mercury in World i Spain
4%e 7ar8est producer of Rock P%osp%ate in 3orld i US# c Russia-
4%e 7eadin8 producer of Uranium in World i &anada
4%e 7eadin8 producer of Automo'iles in World i US#
4%e 7eadin8 producer of Cement in World i US#
4%e Country t%at Manufactures due MaBimum num'er of 7ocomoti5es in
World i US#
4%e Country kno#n for 7ocomoti5e i *hiladelphia
4%e Country famous for Wollen teBtiles in World i Leeds-
4%e Country kno#n as Su8ar Bo#l in World i &uba-
Badminton i !euce F Smash F !rop F Let F 'ame F Love F !ouble )ault-
Base'all i *itcher F Strike F !iamond F Buntin F Home F *ut Cut-
Boat Race i &o7-
Billiards i .ier F Break F Scratch F &annons F *ot F &ue F 8n Baulk F 8n Cff-
Boatin8 i &o7-
BoBin8 i .ab F Hook F *unch F (nock-out F Upper cut F (idney *unch-
Brid8e i Revoke F Ruff F !ummy F Little Slam F 'rand Slam F ,rump F !iamonds F
,ricks -
C%ess i 'ambit F &heckmate F Stalemate F &heck-
Cricket i L-B-3 F Maiden over F Rubber F Stumped F #shes F Hattrick F Le Bye F
)ollow on F 'ooly F 'ulley F Silly *oint F !uck F Run F !rive F "o ball F &over
point F Le Spinner F 3icket (eeper F *itch F &rease F Bowlin F Le-Break F Hit-
3icket F Bouncer F Stone-3allin-
Croc:uet i Mallett F Hoops-
&oot'all i !ribble F Cff-Side F *enalty F ,hrow-in F Hat-,ickF )oul F ,ouch F !own F
!rop (ick F Stopper F
Golf i Hole F Boey F *ut F Stymie F &addie F ,ee F Links F *uttin the reen-
!ockey i Bully F Hat-,rick F Short corner F Stricks F Strikin &ircle F *enalty corner F
Under cuttin F Scoop F &entre forward F &arry F !ribble F 'oal F &arried-
!orse Racin8 i *unter F .ockey F *lace F 3in F *rotest-
7a#n 4ennis i Dolley F Smash F Service F Back-hand-drive-
Polo i &hukker F Bunder F Mallet-
Rifle S%ootin8 i Bull6s eyes-
Ru8'y &oot'all i !rop (ick F Screen-
Skiin8 i ,oboainin-
Swimmin i Stroke-
Colley'all i !euce F Booster F Spikers F Service F Love-
Wrestlin8 i Heave F Half "elson-
39$o8 - ?H-9 deree &
-9cat - ?H-I deree &
*9stallion - ?=-I deree &
29Mare - ?=-H deree &
/9Ra''it - ?9-@ deree &
19Pi8 - ?9-> deree &
09S%eep - ?9-A deree &
.9$airy co# - ?H-I deree &
)9!orse - ?H deree &
3,9(lap%ant - ?I-@ deree &
339W%ales - ?= deree &
3-9Bat - ?= deree &
3*9Seal - ?H deree &
329Ba'oon - ?H-< deree &
3/9Goats - ?9-= deree &
Central Asia landlocked countries @1AN
#fhanistan5 (a0akhstan5 (yry0stan5 ,ajikistan5 ,urkmenistan5 U0bekistan
Central (uropean and Balkan landlocked countries @.AN
#ustria5 &0ech Republic5 Hunary5 (osovo5 Liechtenstein5 Republic of Macedonia5
Serbia5 Slovakia and Swit0erland
Central African landlocked countries @/AN
Burkina )aso5 &entral #frican Republic5 &had5 Mali5 "ier
Sout% African landlocked countries @2AN
Botswana5 Malawi5 Bambia5 Bimbabwe
(ast African landlocked countries @*AN
Burundi5 Rwanda5 Uanda
Caucasian landlocked countries @-AN
#rmenia5 #0erbaijan
Sout% American landlocked countries @-AN
Bolivia5 *arauay
4%ese are t%e ones #%o do not s%are any common 'oundary #it% any ot%er
7andlocked country
Z #frica1 4thiopia5 Lesotho5 Swa0iland
Z #sia1 Bhutan5 Laos5 Monolia5 "epal
Z 4urope1 #ndorra5 Belarus5 Lu7embour5 Moldova5 San Marino5 Datican &ity
-j 4stimated 3eiht$mass% - @59A:5:::5:::5:::5:::5:::5::: metric tons-
-j 4stimated #e i A-I billion years-
-j &urrent *opulation i I5<?@5:::5:::
-j Surface #rea i @<:5:II5::: sJ-km
-j Land area i <AH5IA=5::: sJ-km
-j Ccean #rea i ??@5>@H5::: sJ-km
-j ,ype of 3ater i salt - 9=;5 fresh i ?;
-j &ircumference at the 4Juator i A:5:II km
-j &ircumference at the poles i ?9599> km
-j !iameter at the 4Juator i <>5=@? km
-j !iameter at poles i <>5=<: km
-j Radius at the 4Juator i I?=I km
-j Radius at the *oles i I?@@ km
-j Crbit Speeds the 4arth orbits the sun at i II5=:: mph- <:=5?>: km per hour-
-j Sun orbit the earth orbits the Sun every ?I@ days5 @ hours5 AH minutes c AI
>C(ANS >& 4!( W>R7$
k *acific i <@@5@@=5::: sJ-km
k #tlantic i =I5=I>5::: sJ-km
k 8ndian i IH5@@I5::: sJ-km
k Southern i >:5?>=5::: sJ-km
k #rctic i <A5:@I5::: sJ-km
"ote 1 Southern Ccean was approved in the year >:::5 by ,he 8nternational
Hydroraphic Crani0ation- 8t is now Ath larest ocean-
GR(A4(S4 $(P4!S
Z Mariana ,rench5 *acific Ccean i ?@5H?= ft-
Z *uetro Rico ,rench5 #tlantic Ccean i ?:5>AI ft-
Z .ava ,rench5 8ndian Ccean i >A5AI: ft-
Z #rctic Basin5 #rctic Ccean i <H5A@I ft-
$((P(S4 >C(AN O S(AS
Z *acific Ccean i <:59>A meters5 ?@5H?= ft-
Z #tlantic ocean i 9><9 meters5 ?:5>AI ft-
Z 8ndian ocean i =A@@ meters5 >A5AI: ft-
Z &aribbean Sea i I9AI meters5 >>5=HH ft-
Z #rctic ocean i @I>@ meters5 <H5A@I ft-
Z South &hina Sea i @:<I meters5 <I5A@I ft
Z Berin Sea i A==? meters5 <@5I@9 ft-
Z Mediterranean Sea i AI?> meters5 <@5<9= ft-
Z 'ulf of Me7ico i ?=H= meters5 <>5A>@ ft-
Z .apan Sea i ?=A> meters5 <>5>=I ft-
l South &hina i >59=A5I:: sJ-km
l &aribbean Sea i >5@<@59:: sJ-km
l Mediterranean i >5@<:5::: sJ-km
l Berin i >5>I<5<:: sJ-km
l 'ulf of Me7ico i <5@:=5I:: sJ-km
l #rabian Sea i <5A9H5?>: sJ-km
l Sea of Ckhotsk i <5?9>5<:: sJ-km
l Sea of .apan $east sea% i <5:<>59:: sJ-km
l Hudson Bay i =?:5<:: sJ-km
l 4ast &hina i IIA5I:: sJ-km
l #ndaman i @IA59:: sJ-km
l Black i @:=59:: sJ-km
l Red i A?@5:: sJ-km
l 'reenland i >5<=@5I:: sJ-km
l "ew 'uinea i =9>5@:: sJ-km
l Borneo i =>@5@:: sJ-km
l Madaascar i @H=5::: sJ-km
l Baffin i @:=5@:: sJ-km
l Sumatra i A>=5?:: sJ-km
l Honshu i >>=5A:: sJ-km
l 'reat Britain i ><H5<:: sJ-km
l Dictoria i ><=5?:: sJ-km
l 4llesmere i <9I5>:: sJ-km
l &elebes i <=H5I@: sJ-km
l "ew Bealand $south% i <@<5::: sJ-km
l "ew Bealand $north% i <<A5::: sJ-km
l .ava i <>I5=:: sJ-km
l "ew)oundLand i <:H59:: sJ-km
MA">R RIC(RS B? 7(NG4!
j "ile5 #frica i IH>@ km
j #ma0on5 South #merica i IA?= km
j &han .ian5 #sia i I?H: km
j Mississippi5 "orth #merica i @9=< km
j /enisey-#nara5 #sia i @@?I km
j Huan $/ellow%5 #sia i @AIA km
j Cb-8rtysh5 #sia i @A<: km
j #mur5 #sia i AA<I km
j &ono5 #frica i A?=: km
j M#ckeni0e-*eace5 "orth #merica i A>A< km
j Mekon5 #sia i A<HA km
j "ier5 #frica i A<=< km-
MA">R 7A;(S B? SIE(
j &aspian sea5 #sia-4urope i ?=<5::: sJ-km
j Superior5 "-#merica i H>5<:: sJ-km
j Dictoria5 #frica i I95@:: sJ-km
j Huron5 "-#merica i @95I:: sJ-km
j Michian5 "-#merica i @=5H:: sJ-km
j ,ananyika5 #frica i ?>59:: sJ-km
j Baikal5 #sia i ?<5@:: sJ-km
j 'reat Bear5 "-#merica i ?<5?:: sJ-km
j #ral sea5 asia i ?:5=:: sJ-km
j Malawi5 #frica i >H59:: sJ-km
j 'reat Slave5 &anada i >H5@IH sJ-km
j 4rie5 "-#merica i >@5II= sJ-km
$((P(S4 7A;(S X B? GR(A4(S4 $(P4!
mm Baikal5 Russia fed- i@?<@ ft
mm ,ananyika5 #frica i AH:: ft
mm &aspian sea5 #sia-4urope i ??I? ft-
mm "yasa5 #frica i >?<= ft
mm 8ssyk-(ul5 (yry0stan i >?:? ft-
4A77(S4 M>UN4AINS >N (AC! C>N4IN(N4
mm Mt- 4verest i HH@: meters5 >9:?@ ft - #sia
mm #concoua i I9@9 meters5 >>H?< ft - S-#merica
mm Mt (c(inley i I<9A meters5 >:?>: ft - "-#merica
mm Mt-(ilimanjaro i @9I? meters5 <9@I? ft - #frica
mm Mt 4lbrus i @I?? meters5 <HAH< ft - 4urope
mm *uncak .aya i AHHA meters5 <I:>? ft - Cceania
mm DinSon Massif i AH9= meters5 <I:II ft - #ntarctica-
!IG!(S4 O 7>W(S4 SUR&AC( P>IN4S
h- !ead sea5 #sia i A:9 meters
h- Lake #ssal5 #frica i <@I meters
h- !eath Dalley5 "-#merica i HI meters
h- Daldes *eninsula5 S-#merica i A: meters
h- #ntarctica $ice-covered% i >@?H meters-
h- Sahara5 "-#frica i ?5@::5::: sJ-miles
h- #rabian5 Middle east i <5:::5::: sJ-miles-
h- 'reat Dictoria5 #ustralia i >@:5::: sJ-miles
h- Rub6al (hal5 Middle east i >@:5::: sJ-miles
h- (alahari5 Southern #frica i >>@5::: sJ-miles
h- Syrian5 Middle east i >::5::: sJ-miles
h- &hihuahuan5 Me7ico i <=@5::: sJ-miles
h- ,har5 8ndiaM*akistan i <=@5::: sJ-miles
h- 'reat Sandy5 #ustralia i <@:5::: sJ-miles
h- 'ibson5 #ustralia i <>:5::: sJ-miles
h- Sonoran5 S-3- US# i <>:5::: sJ-miles
h- Mohave5 S-3- US# i @A5::: sJ-miles
-- #sia i ?5I=A5:::5:::
-- #frica i ==H5:::5:::
-- 4urope i =?>5:::5:::
-- "orth #merica i AH?5:::5:::
-- South #merica i ?A>5:::5:::
-- #ustraliaMCceania i ?<5:::5:::
-- #ntarctica i :
39 India #on its first tri series a8ainst Australia in N
$a% Sydney
$b% *erth
$c% Brisbane
$d% Melbourne
-9 >lympic torc% relay 'e8an in N
$a% <9@>
$b% <9@A
$c% <9@I
$d% <9@<
*9 4%e term RButterfly Stroke is referred to #%ic% 8ame Q
$a% ,ennis
$b% ,able ,ennis
$c% Swimmin
$d% )ootball
29 4%e first ;ans%i Ram ;%el Ratna A#ard #as 8i5en to N
$a% *raveen (umar
$b% Sachin ,endulkar
$c% M S !honi
$d% /uvraj Sinh
/9 In t%e 3/t% Asian Games India 'a88ed t%e lar8est num'er of medals in N
$a% Shootin
$b% Bo7in
$c% Swimmin
$d% #thletics
19 4%e -,3, mens !ockey World Cup #ill 'e %eld in N
$a% 8ndia
$b% *akistan
$c% #ustralia
$d% 'ermany
09 -,3- >lympic Games #ill 'e %eld in N
$a% London
$b% Sydney
$c% Beijin
$d% #thens
.9 Rad%a Mo%an Cup is associated #it% N
$a% &ricket
$b% *olo
$c% Hockey
$d% )ootball
)9 4%e captain of India !ockey team #%o #on Asia Cup -,,0 #as N
$a% *rabodh ,irkey
$b% !alip ,irkey
$c% 'aandeep Sinh
$d% !anraj pillay
3,9 W%en #as Nepal declared a Secular NationQ
$a% >::@
$b% >::=
$c% >::A
$d% >::I
3*9 "oint SAARC Uni5ersity of ei8%t SAARC nations #ill 'e esta'lis%ed inN
$a% "ew !elhi
$b% Mumbai
$c% (olkata
$d% #hmadabad
329 4%e World 4elecommunication $ay is o'ser5ed on N
$a% May <9
$b% May <=
$c% May <@
$d% May <?
3/9 Ran'aBy Company is 'ein8 as:uired 'y a company of N
$a% 8ndia
$b% 'ermany
$c% )rance
$d% .apan
309 Blindness is caused 'y t%e deficiency of N
$a% Ditamin &
$b% Ditamin #
$c% Ditamin !
$d% Ditamin B
-,9 W%ic% countrys 8o5ernment report is kno#n as yello# 'ook Q
$a% 'ermany
$b% )rance
$c% 8taly
$d% Russia
<-$c% >-$a% ?-$c% A-$a% @-$a% I-$a% =-$a% H-$b% 9-$a% <:-$d% <?-$a%
<A-$b% <@-$d% <=-$b% >:-$b%
-9 Name of Instrument ------Use of Instrument
#ltimeter--------- Measures altitude $uses in aircraft%
#mmeter---------- Measures strenth of electric current
#nemometer------- Measures force and velocity of wind and determines its
#udiometer-------- Measures intensity of sound
Barometer------- Measures atmospheric pressure
Balometer------- Measures heat radiation
&allipers ------- Measures inner and outer diameter of solids
&alorimeter--------- Measures Juantities of heat
&ardioram $4&'% -------,races movements of the heat5 recorded on a
&hronometer------- !etermines lonitude of a vessel at sea
&ryometer------ Measures very low temperatures5 usally below :o&
!ynamo ---- ---- &onvert Mechanical enery into electric enery
!ynamometer Measures electric power
$44&% Record and interprets the electrical waves of the brain recorded on
4lectrometer------- Measures very small5 potential difference in electric current
4lectroscope-------- !etects presence of an electric current
4doscope ------ 47amines internal orans of the body
)athometer------ Measures depth of the ocean
)lu7meter--------- Measures manetic flu7
'alvanometer-------- Measures the eletric current
Hydrometer------ Measures the relative density of liJuids
Hyrometer------- Measures level of humidity
Hydrophone------ Measures sound under water
(ymoraph------- 'raphically record physioloical movements $e--5 blood
Lactometer------------ Measures the relative density of milk to determine purity
$fat content%
Manometer-------- Measures the pressure of ases
Microphone------ &onverts sound waves into electrical sinals
Microscope------- ,o obtain a manified of liht by particles suspended in a liJuid
Chmmeter----------- Measures electrical resistance in ohms
Cndometer--------- Measures the freJuency of electromanetic waves
*eriscope --------- ,o view objects above sea level $used in submarines%
*olyraph----------- 8nstrument that simultaneously records chanes in
physioloical processes such as heartbeat5 blood pressure and respiration used as a
lie detector
*yknometer-------- !etermines the density and coefficient of e7pansion
of liJuids
*yrheliometer------- Measures components of solar radiation
*yrometer------- Measures very hih temperature
Euadrant ------- Measures altitude and anles in naviation and astronomy
Rader !etects the direction and rane of an approachin
aeroplane by means of an radiowaves $Radio5 #nle5 !etection and Rane%
Refractometer-------- Measures refractive indices
Resistance ,hermometer
#n accurate type of thermometer in which temperature is meansured by
determinin the electrical resistance of a coil of thin wire
Salinometer------- !etermines salinity of solutions
Se7tant -------- Used by naviators to find the latitude of a place by measurin the
elevation above the hori0on of the sun or another star-also measures the heiht of
distant objects
Sphymomanometer-------- Measures Blood pressure
Stereoscope----- Used to veiw two - dimensional pictures
Stethoscope------- Used by doctors to hear and analy0e heat and jun sounds
Stroboscope-------- Used to view rapidly movin objects
,achometer------ !etermines speed5 especially the rotational speed of a shaft
$used in motor vehicles5 aeroplanes and motor-boats%
,acheometer------- Used to measure distance5 elevations and bearins durin
,elescope-------- Used to view distant objects in space
,heodolite------- Measures hori0ontal and vertical anles
,onometer------- Measures the pitch of sound
,ransponder------ Used to receive a sinal and transmit a reply immediately
Udometer Rain aue
Denturi meter------- Measures rate of flow of liJuids
Discometer------ Measures the viscosity of liJuids
Doltmeter------- Used to measure potential difference between two points
3attmeter------ Measures the power of an electric circuit
3avemeter-------- Measures the wavelenth of a radiowave
*9 World War I (August 4, 1914 to November 11, 1918A
)ranco b 'erman revelry proved to be the main cause of 3orld 3ar 8-
Main Contestants
&entral *owers comprisin 'ermany5 #ustralia-Hunary5 ,urkey and Bularia on
the one hand5 and
#llied *ower comprisin 4nland5 )rance5 Belium5 Serbia5 which were joined by
Russia and 8taly in <9<@ and <9<=5 respectively-
!o# t%e &irst World War Broke >utQ
3hen #ustria attacked Serbia5 after one month of *rince )erdinandbs murder5 it
drew Russia towards Serbia- 'ermany entered the fray to support #ustria because
it had vested interests in ,urkey and was committed to support #ustria- Cne by
one5 )rance5 4nland and the other countries entered the war-
Results6Conse:uences of World War I
&entral powers were defeated- #bout @: lakh allied soldiers were killed and <
crore and <: lakh wounded- Bularia5 ,urkey and #ustria surrendered- 'ermany
sined the #rmistice ,reaty on "ovember <<5 <9<H and 3orld 3ar 8 ended- 8n
<9<9 the ,reaty of Dersailles was sined which curbed powers of the 'erman
empire5 further humiliatin and weakenin it-
World War II (September 3, 1939 to August 14, 1945
&auses1 #n unjust ,reaty of Dersailles5 improper behavior of )rance5 rise policy of
e7pansion5 and imperialism of 4nland and )rance were some of the causes
behind 3orld 3ar 88-
Main Contestants
#7is *owers b also called the central powers which included 'ermany5 8taly and
#llied *owers b Britain5 )rance5 Russia5 US5 *oland and Benelu7 countries-
Results of World War II
Hitler5 who was responsible for this war5 initially very successful but later met
with stron resistance when he attacked Russia in <9A<5 and was forced to retreat
to Berlin- Cn learnin that 'ermany had collapsed5 he committed suicide on #pril
?:5 <9A@ in Berlin-
'ermany was divided into two parts b 4ast 'ermany under Russia and 3est
'ermany under the control of 4nland5 )rance and #merica $allies%- Russia
emered as the sinle biest power in the world- 8t was at this time that the
strule for freedom in colonies under 4uropean control in #sia $8ndia%5 Myanmar
$Burma%5 Sri Lanka $&eylon%5 Malaysia $Malaya%- 4ypt etc- cauht on- ,he
British 4mpire thus rapidly lost its leadership as more and more colonies won
independence- ,he U"C was then established in <9A@-
3hen .apan did not aree to the demands of the allied powers to surrender5 the
first atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on #uust @5 <9A@ and the second on
"aasaki on #uust 95 <9A@- .apan then surrendered unconditionally on #uust
<A5 <9A@ and 3orld 3ar 88 ended-
A''re5iated 4itles of Some Well ;no#n &i8ures
!uke of 3ellinton -----------------------------8ron !uke
!wiht !avid 4isenhower------------- --8ke
4arl of 3arwick -----------------------------(in Maker
'en- 4rwin Rommel--------------------------- !esert )o7
)lorence "ihtinale------------------ Lady with the Lamp
)rancisco )rance ---------------------------4l &audillo
'eoffery &haucer --------------------------)ather of 4nlish *oetry
.awaharlal "ehru ----------------------------'-B-S-
.ayaprakash "arayan ---------------.- *-5 Loknayak
.oan of #rc ------------------------Maid of Crleans
Lal Bahadur Shastri -------------------------Man of *eace
Lala Lajpat Rai -----------------------Sher-4-*unjab5 *unjab (esari
M-(- 'andhi -----------------Bapu5 Mahatma5 )ather of the "ation
M-S- 'olwalkar ----------------------'uruji
Madan Mohan Malaviya -------------Mahamana
"apoleon Bonaparte ---------------Little &orporal5 Man of !estiny
"arinder !atta ----------------------------Swami Divekanand
)ield Marshal (- M- ------------------&ariappa (ipper
Ctto von Bismarck --------------------Man of Blood and 8ron5 8ron &hancellor
Eueen 4li0abeth 8 ---------------Maiden Eueen
Rabindranath ,aore ------------'urudev
Rajinder Sinh $Maj- 'en-% --------------Sparrow
Samuel Lonhorn &lemens ------------Mark ,wain
Sardar Dallabhbhai *atel ------------Man of 8ron5 Stron Man of 8ndia
Sarojini "aidu ----------------"ihtinale of 8ndia
Sheikh Mohamma #bdullah -------------Sher-4-(ashmir
Sheikh Mujibur Rehman ---------------Banabandhu
Subhash &handra Bose -----------------"etaji
,en0in "oray --------------------------,ier of Snows
,- *rakasam ---------------#ndhra (esari
Sir 3alter Scott -----------------3i0ard of the "orth
3illiam 4wart 'ladstone ---------------'rand Cld Man of Britain
3illiam Shakespeare ---------------------Bard of #von
Reli8ions of t%e World
39 Budd%ism
'autam Siddhartha Buddha $@I?-AH? B&% born in "epal $Lumbini%
&ounded in
@>@ B&
&ollo#ed in 8ndia5 &hina5 ,ibet5 (orea5 Monolia5 "epal5 Bhutan5 ,hailand5 .apan5
Laos5 Myanmar $Burma%5 Sri Lanka5 &ambodia5 ,aiwan5 8ndonesia5 Bhutan and
Sacred 4eBt ,
he ,ripitaka $&ollection of Buddhabs teachin% also called Sutras
Sacred Places
Lumbini $"epal% where he received enlihtenment and (usinaar $U*% where he
attained b"irvanab-
Place of Wors%ip
Dihar $temple% and Monastery $where monks reside%
Mahayana and Hinayana
-9 Confucianism
(in )u ,su5 Better known as &onfucius $@@<-A=9 B&% born in the state of LU in
&ounded in
@:: B&
&ollo#ed in
&hina5 ,aiwan5 South (orea5 "auru and Dietnam
Sacred 4eBt
,he #nalects
Sacred Places
"o church or temple
*9 C%ristianity
.esus &hrist $@ B& to #! ?:% born in .udea5 also called .esus of "a0areth
&ounded in
>::: years ao
&ollo#ed in
Spread all over the world
Sacred 4eBt
Holy Bible consistin of Cld ,estament $before &hrist% and the "ew ,estament
$durin and after &hrist%
Sacred Places
.erusalem where &hrist lived and preached
Place of Wors%ip
Important Sects
&atholics and *rotestants
29 !induism
#ncient Saes
&ounded in
#round <@:: B&
&ollo#ed in
&oncentrated in 8ndia and "epal and also found in Bhutan5 )iji5 'uyana5 8ndonesia5
Mauritius5 Sri Lanka5 South #frica5 Surinam5 ,rinidad and ,obao
Sacred 4eBt
,he Dedas5 the Upanishads5 the Bhaavad-'ita and the epics of the Mahabharata and
the Ramayana
Place of Wors%ip
/9 Islam
*rophet Mohammed *BUH$#! @=:-I?>% born in Mecca $Saudi #rabia%
&ounded in
#! I>>
&ollo#ed in
)rom west coast of #frica to the *hilippines which includes ,an0ania5 Southern part
of Russia and &hina5 8ndia5 *akistan5 Banladesh5 Malaysia and 8ndonesia- #lso parts
of "orth #frica-
Sacred 4eBt
Euran $words of 'od%5 Hadis $&ollection of *rophetbs sayin%-
Sacred Places
Makkahand Madina in Saudi #rabia
Place of Wors%ip
Masjid $mosJue%
Sunnis and Shias
19 "udaism @Reli8ion of t%e !e're#sA
Moses5 born in 4ypt
&ounded in
<?:: B&
&ollo#ed in
3orldwide with concentration in 8srael and United States
Sacred 4eBt
,almads5 found particularly in the five books of the BibleF commentary on ,orah
known as ,almud and Midrash
Sacred Places
Place of Wors%ip
09 S%intoism
Bean with .apanese culture and developed out of tradition and ancestor worship
&ollo#ed in
Sacred 4eBt
"o specific te7t
Sacred Places
&entral Shrine of 8se $central .apan% and the /asukuni Shrine in ,okyo
.9 Sik%ism
'uru "anak $<AI9-<@?9%
&ounded in
#! <@::
&ollo#ed in
Sacred 4eBt
Shri 'uru 'ranth Sahib
Sacred Places
,he 'olden ,emple of #mritsar
Place of Wors%ip
)9 4aoism
Lao-tse5 a &hinese *hilosopher
&ounded in
Ith century B&
&ollo#ed in
&hina5 ,aiwan5 "auru5 Brunei5 Sinapore and Dietnam
Sacred 4eBt
3,9 Eoroastrianism @Parsi Reli8ionA
Boroaster5 born in Medea $modern 8ran% in about II: B&
&ounded in
#round @:: B&
&ollo#ed in
8ran and north-west 8ndia- ,he Boroastrians who fled to 8ndia durin the eihth
century are the ancestors of the present *arsi &ommunity in 8ndia
Sacred 4eBt
Bend #vasta
Place of Wors%ip
)ire temple
7ist of $ifferent 4ypes of $octors
*sychiatrist - !eals with mental health
*odiatrist - )oot doctor
Cptometrist -Cphthamoloist- 4ye doctor
!entist - ,ooth doctor
Uroloist - !eals with bladder
Cbstetrician - !eals with prenancy and birth
*ediatrician - &hild doctor
Cncoloist- &ancer doctor
"euroloist - !eals with the problems of Brain and nerves
&ardioloist - Heart doctor
"ephroloist - (idney doctor
Rheumatoloist - !eals with treatment of arthritis and other diseases of the joints5
muscles and bones
!ermatoloist - !eals with skin problems
4ndocrinoloist - !eals with the problems of thyroid and ductless lands
'astroloist - !eals with diestive system problems