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Alfa Romeo

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Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A.

Type Societ per azioni
Industry Automotive
Predecessor(s) Societ Anonima Italiana Darracq (SAID)
Founded 24 June 1910 in Milan, Italy
Founder(s) Alexandre Darracq/Ugo Stella
Nicola Romeo
Headquarters Turin, Italy
[1]

Area served Worldwide
Key people John Elkann (President)
Harald J Wester (CEO)
Products Automobiles
Production output 101,000 units(2012)
[citation needed]

Owner(s) Fiat S.p.A.
Parent Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A.
Website AlfaRomeo.com
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. (Italian pronunciation: [alfa romo]), sometimes colloquially referred to as
simply Alfa, is an Italian manufacturer of cars. Founded as A.L.F.A. (Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili)
on June 24, 1910, in Milan,
[2]
the company has been involved in car racing since 1911, and has a reputation for
building expensive sports cars.
[3]
The company was owned by Italian state holding companyIstituto per la
Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat Group,
[4]
and since
February 2007 a part of Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A.
The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Societ Anonima Italiana Darracq (SAID) in 1906 by
the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. In the late 1909, the Italian
Darracq cars were selling slowly and a new company was founded named A.L.F.A. (Anonima Lombarda
Fabbrica Automobili, English: Lombard Automobile Factory, Public Company), initially still in partnership with
Darracq. The first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe
Merosi. A.L.F.A. ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa
Florio with two 24 HP models. In August 1915 the company came under the direction of Neapolitan
entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied
war efforts. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20-30
HP becoming the first car to be badged as such.
In 1928 Nicola Romeo left, with Alfa going broke after defense contracts ended, and at the end of 1932 Alfa
Romeo was rescued by Benito Mussolini's government, which then had effective control. The Alfa factory
struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, and turned to mass-producing small vehicles
rather than hand-building luxury models. In 1954 the company developed the classic Alfa Romeo Twin Cam
engine, which would remain in production until 1998.
[citation needed]
During the 1960s and 1970s Alfa Romeo
produced a number of sporty cars, though the Italian government parent company,Finmeccanica, struggled to
make a profit so sold the marque to the Fiat Group in 1986.
Alfa Romeo has competed successfully in many different categories of motorsport, including Grand Prix motor
racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing andrallies. They have competed both as a constructor
and an engine supplier, via works entries (usually under the name Alfa Corse or Autodelta) and private entries.
The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, and Alfa Romeo won
the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925. The company gained a good name in
motorsport, which gave a sporty image to the whole marque. Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing
team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team, before becoming independent in 1939.
[5]

Contents
[hide]
1 History
o 1.1 Foundation and early years
o 1.2 Post war
o 1.3 Carabinieri and Italian government
o 1.4 Recent developments
o 1.5 Return to the United States
2 Design and technology
o 2.1 Technological development
o 2.2 Body design
o 2.3 The badge
3 Motorsport
4 Quadrifoglio
o 4.1 History of the symbol
5 Production
6 Automobiles
o 6.1 Current models
o 6.2 Future models
o 6.3 Historic models
o 6.4 Trucks and light commercial vehicles
o 6.5 Concepts
7 Other production
o 7.1 Aircraft engines
o 7.2 Aero-engines produced by Alfa Romeo
8 Media and public profile
9 Marketing and sponsorship
10 See also
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links
History [edit]
Foundation and early years [edit]


A 1908 Darracq 8/10 HP assembled by Alfa Romeo's predecessor, Darracq Italiana


The A.L.F.A 24 hp (this is with Castagnatorpedo body) was the first car made by Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili in 1910.
The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Societ Anonima Italiana Darracq (SAID) in 1906 by
the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. One of them, Cavaliere Ugo
Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909.
[6]
The firm's initial location was
in Naples, but even before the construction of the planned factory had started, Darracq decided late in 1906
that Milan would be a more suitable location and accordingly a tract of land was acquired in the Milan suburb
of Portello, where a new factory of 6,700 square metres (8,000 sq yd) was erected. Late 1909, the Italian
Darracq cars were selling slowly and Stella, with the other Italian co-investors, founded a new company named
A.L.F.A. (Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili), initially still in partnership with Darracq. The first non-
Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi, hired in 1909 for
designing new cars more suitable to the Italian market. Merosi would go on to design a series of new A.L.F.A.
cars, with more powerful engines (40-60 HP). A.L.F.A. ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and
Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24 HP models. In 1914, an advanced Grand Prix car was
designed and built, the GP1914, which featured a four-cylinder engine, double overhead camshafts, four valves
per cylinder and twin ignition.
[7]
However, the onset of the First World Warhalted automobile production at
A.L.F.A. for three years.
In August 1915 the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who
converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. Munitions, aircraft
engines and other components, compressors and generators based on the company's existing car engines
were produced in a vastly enlarged factory during the war. When the war was over, Romeo invested his war
profits in acquiring locomotive and railways carriage plants in Saronno (Costruzioni Meccaniche di Saronno),
Rome (Officine Meccaniche di Roma) and Naples (Officine Ferroviarie Meridionali), which were added to his
A.L.F.A. ownership.
Alfa Romeo production between 1934 and 1939
[8]

Year Cars
Industrial
vehicles
1934 699 0
1935 91 211
1936 20 671
1937 270 851
1938 542 729
1939 372 562
Car production had not been considered at first, but resumed in 1919 since parts for the completion of 105 cars
were still lying at the A.L.F.A. factory since 1915.
[6]
In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa
Romeo with the Torpedo 20-30 HP becoming the first car to be badged as such.
[9]
Their first success came in
1920 when Giuseppe Campari won at Mugello and continued with second place in the Targa Florio driven
by Enzo Ferrari. Giuseppe Merosi continued as head designer, and the company continued to produce solid
road cars as well as successful race cars (including the 40-60 HP and the RL Targa Florio).
In 1923 Vittorio Jano was lured away from Fiat, partly thanks to the persuasion of a young Alfa racing driver
namedEnzo Ferrari, to replace Merosi as chief designer at Alfa Romeo. The first Alfa Romeo under Jano was
the P2 Grand Prix car, which won Alfa Romeo the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925.
For Alfa road cars Jano developed a series of small-to-medium-displacement 4-, 6-, and 8-cylinder inline power
plants based on the P2 unit that established the classic architecture of Alfa engines, with light alloy
construction, hemispherical combustion chambers, centrally located plugs, two rows of overhead valves per
cylinder bank and dual overhead cams. Jano's designs proved to be both reliable and powerful.
Enzo Ferrari proved to be a better team manager than driver, and when the factory team was privatised, it then
became Scuderia Ferrari. When Ferrari left Alfa Romeo, he went on to build his own cars. Tazio Nuvolari often
drove for Alfa, winning many races prior to the Second World War.


8C 2900B Touring Spider (1937)
In 1928 Nicola Romeo left, with Alfa going broke after defense contracts ended, and at the end of 1932 Alfa
Romeo was rescued by the government,
[9]
which then had effective control. Alfa became an instrument of
Mussolini's Italy, a national emblem. During this period Alfa Romeo built bespoke vehicles for the wealthy, with
the bodies normally built by Touring of Milan or Pinin Farina. This was the era that peaked with the
legendary Alfa Romeo 2900B Type 35 racers.
The Alfa factory (converted during wartime to the production of Macchi C.202 Folgoreengines, this engine was
the daimler-benz 600 series built under license) was bombed during the Second World War, and struggled to
return to profitability after the war. The luxury vehicles were out. Smaller mass-produced vehicles began to be
produced in Alfa's factories beginning with the 1954 model year, with the introduction of the Giulietta series
of berline(saloons/sedans), coupes and open two-seaters. All three varieties shared what would become the
classic Alfa Romeo overhead Twin Cam four-cylinder engine, initially in 1300 cc form. This engine would
eventually be enlarged to 2 litres (2000 cc) and would remain in production until 1995.

When I see an Alfa Romeo go by, I tip my hat.

Henry Ford talking with Ugo Gobbato in 1939
[10]

Post war [edit]
Once motor sports resumed after the Second World War, Alfa Romeo proved to be the car to beat in Grand
Prix events. The introduction of the new formula (Formula One) for single-seat racing cars provided an ideal
setting for Alfa Romeo's tipo 158 Alfetta, adapted from a pre-war voiturette, and Giuseppe Farina won the first
Formula One World Championship in 1950 in the 158. Juan Manuel Fangio secured Alfa's second consecutive
championship in 1951.
Alfa Romeo production between 1998 and 2011
[11]

Year Cars
1998 197,680
1999 208,336
2000 206,836
2001 213,638
2002 187,437
2003 182,469
2004 162,179
2005 130,815
2006 157,794
2007 151,898
2008 103,097
2009 103,687
2010 119,451
2011 130,535
2012 101,000
[12]

In 1952, Alfa-Romeo experimented with its first front-wheel drive compact car named "Project 13-61".
[13]
It had
the same transverse-mounted, forward-motor layout as the modern front-wheel drive automobile. Alfa-Romeo
made a second attempt toward the late 1950s based on Project 13-61. It was to be called Tipo 103 and
resembled the smaller version of its popular Alfa-Romeo Giulia. However, due to the financial difficulties in
post-war Italy, the Tipo 103 never saw production. Had Alfa-Romeo succeeded in producing the Tipo 103, it
would have preceded the Mini as the first "modern" front-wheel drive compact car.
During the 1960s, Alfa concentrated on competition using production-based cars, including the GTA (standing
for Gran Turismo Allegerita), an aluminium-bodied version of the Bertone-designed coupe with a powerful twin-
plug engine. Among other victories, the GTA won the inaugural Sports Car Club of America's Trans-
Am championship in 1966. In the 1970s, Alfa concentrated on prototype sports car racing with the Tipo 33, with
early victories in 1971. Eventually the Tipo 33TT12 gained the World Championship for Makes for Alfa Romeo
in 1975 and the Tipo 33SC12 won the World Championship for Sports Cars in 1977.
[14][15]

By the 1970s, Alfa was again in financial trouble and creative measures were attempted to shore up Alfa's
flagging fortures, including an ultimately unsuccessful joint venture with Nissan endorsed by Ettore Massacesi
of Alfa's parent company, the Italian-government owned Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI) and Italian
Prime MinisterFrancesco Cossiga. By 1986, IRI was suffering from heavy losses, and IRI president Romano
Prodi put Alfa Romeo up for sale. Finmeccanica, the mechanical holdings arm of IRI and its predecessors
owned Alfa Romeo since 1932. Prodi first approached fellow Italian manufacturer Fiat, who offered to start a
joint venture with Alfa. Prodi was initially unsupportive of the venture, citing the strained industrial relations
between Northern and Southern Italy, with Fiat being based in Turin and Alfa being based in Milano.
Fiat withdrew its plan for a joint venture when Ford Motor Company put in an offer to acquire part of Alfa
Romeo and restructure the company, while increasing its stake over time. However, Fiat put in a bid to acquire
the entirety of Alfa Romeo and offer job guarantees to Italian workers, an offer that Ford was unwilling to
match.
It also did not hurt any of the parties involved that an acquisition by Fiat would keep Alfa Romeo in Italian
hands. In 1986, the deal was concluded with Alfa Romeo being merged with traditional rival Lancia into Fiat's
Alfa Lancia Industriale S.p.A.
Models produced subsequent to the 1990s combined Alfa's traditional virtues of avant-garde styling and
sporting panache with the economic benefits of product rationalisation, and include a "GTA" version of
the 147 hatchback, the Giugiaro-designed Brera, and a high-performance exotic called the 8C
Competizione (named after one of Alfa's most successful prewar sports and racing cars, the 8Cof the 1930s).
In 2005 Maserati was bought back from Ferrari and brought under Fiat's full control. The Fiat Group plans to
create a sports and luxury division from Maserati and Alfa Romeo.
[16]
There is a planned strategic relationship
between these two; engines, platforms and possibly dealers will be shared in some market areas.
[17]

In the beginning of 2007, Fiat Auto S.p.A. was reorganized and four new automobile companies were created;
Fiat Automobiles S.p.A., Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A., Lancia Automobiles S.p.A. and Fiat Light Commercial
Vehicles S.p.A. These companies are fully owned by Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A.
[18]

Carabinieri and Italian government [edit]


Italian State Police Flying Squad "Panther" 1971 Alfa Giulia Super
In the 1960s Alfa Romeo became famous for its small cars and models specifically designed for the Italian
police and Carabinieri; among them the glorious "Giulia Super" or the 2600 Sprint GT, which acquired the
expressive nickname of "Inseguimento" dir. trl. "to chase or predate" . The colours of the Alfa Romeos used by
the Polizia were/is green/blue with white stripes and writing, known as "Pantera" (Panther), enhancing the
aggressive look of the Alfa (particularly the Giulia series), while the Carabinieri Alfas were dark blue with white
roofs and red stripes, known as the "Gazzella" (Gazelle) denoting the speed and agility of these "Pattuglie"
(armed response patrol units). However, the term "Pantera" became used interchangeably and the image
helped create a no-nonsense, determined and respected perception by the general public of the men that
drove these cars, true to their history.
Since then, Alfas remain the chosen mount of the Carabinieri (renowned arm of the Italian Armed Forces
seconded only partly for civilian Policing purposes), Polizia Autostradale (Highway Police) and the conventional
police service (Polizia). Successively, the following Alfa Romeo Berlinas have found favour for Italian Police
and Government employment:
[19]

Alfa Romeo Alfetta
Alfa Romeo "Nuova" Giulietta
Alfa Romeo 33 (Only Polizia di Stato)
Alfa Romeo 75
Alfa Romeo 164 (Official Vehicles)
Alfa Romeo 155
Alfa Romeo 156
Alfa Romeo 166 (Official Vehicles)
Alfa Romeo 159
Since 1960s, the Italian Prime Minister has used Alfa Romeos (and lately the new Maserati Quattroporte) as
preferred government limousines. The 164, and 166 have found particular employment in the last two decades.
Recent developments [edit]
Alfa Romeo has been suffering from falling sales. Some analysts concluded that the automaker suffered large
operating losses in the mid-2000s - estimated to be about 15 percent to 20 percent of the Alfas annual
revenuesor about 300 million to 500 million euros a year. For the year of 2010, it sold a total of about
112,000 units which was significantly lower than Fiat CEO Marchionne's global sales target of 300,000. Alfa
then wanted to achieve 170,000 sales in 2011, including 100,000 Giulietta and 60,000 MiTo, but it actually sold
130,000 units that year.
[20]
Its medium-term target remains 500,000 units by 2014 including 85,000 from N.
American market.
[21]

Return to the United States [edit]


Giulietta Spider
Alfa Romeo was imported to the United States by Max Hoffman starting from the mid-1950s.
[22]
The Giulietta
Spider was born by request of Max Hoffman, he made proposal to produce an open version of the
Giulietta.
[23]
In 1961 Alfa Romeo started importing cars to the United States.
[24]

In 1995 Alfa Romeo ceased exporting cars to the United States,
[25]
the last model to be sold being the 164.
Rumours began of their return, however as the FAQ on Alfa's English website had said "The long-awaited
return of Alfa Romeo to the United States market should take place by 2007, with a range of new models."
Alfa Romeo's return to United States was confirmed on 5 May 2006 by Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne. Alfa
Romeo resumed sales in the United States with the 8C Competizione in October 2008.
[26]
In 2008, Alfa Romeo
and Chrysler were reported to be in discussions, with Alfa Romeo possibly using Chrysler manufacturing plants
that have been shut down due to unneeded product.
A new Alfa Romeo Spider will also be built based on the Mazda Miata platform
[27]
The underpinnings of the
carbuilt at Mazda's Hiroshima, Japan, plantwill share the Mazda rear-wheel drive technology that it is
planning for the next generation of the MX-5 model (often known as the Mazda Miata), but the automakers will
style different bodies for each brand. Each car will look different from the outside, and each will also receive
different engines. The automaker will reintroduce itself to Americans in the second half of 2013 with the Alfa
4C, another two-seater sports car. The Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A. and Mazda Motor Corporation
agreement about Spider/MX-5 should be finalized later in 2012, and production of the Spider could begin in
2015.
The Wall Street Journal reported on Nov. 4, 2009, that Chrysler would announce that it is dropping several
models of Dodge and Jeep while phasing in Alfa Romeo and Fiat 500 models.
[28]

The Alfa Romeo 4C was announced to be the first mass-produced car to re-enter the US market in 2013.
[29]
In
2012 this re-entry was again delayed, this time to early 2014.
[30]

Design and technology [edit]
Technological development [edit]
Alfa Romeo has introduced many technological innovations over the years, and the company has often been
among the first users of new technologies. Alfa Romeo's trademark double overhead cam engine was used for
the first time in the 1914 Grand Prix car,
[31]
the first road car with such an engine the 6C 1500 Sport appeared
in the 1928.
Alfa Romeo tested one of the very first electric injection systems (Caproni-Fuscaldo) in the Alfa Romeo 6C
2500 with "Ala spessa" body in 1940 Mille Miglia. The engine had six electrically operated injectors which were
fed by a semi-high pressure circulating fuel pump system.
[32]

Mechanical Variable Valve Timing was introduced in the Alfa Romeo Spider sold in U.S. markets in
1980.
[33]
Electronic Variable Valve Timing was introduced in the (Alfetta)
[citation needed]
.
The 105 series Giulia was a quite advanced car using such technologies as: All-wheel disc brakes,
[34]
plastic
radiator header tank
[citation needed]
it had also the lowest Drag Coefficient (Cd) in its class
[35]
The same trend
continued with the Alfetta 2000 and GTV, which had such things as 50:50 weight distribution,
[36]
standard
fit alloy wheels
[citation needed]
and transaxle.
[37]

Newer innovations include complete CAD design process used in Alfa Romeo 164,
[38]
robotised/paddle control
transmission Selespeedused in 156,
[39]
the 156 was also world's first passenger car to use Common rail diesel
engine.
[40]
The Multiair -an electro-hydraulic variable valve actuation technology used in MiTo was introduced in
2009.
[41]

Body design [edit]
Over the life of the marque, many famous automotive design houses in Italy have accepted commissions to
produce concepts and production vehicle shapes for Alfa Romeo. A selection of these include the following
Bertone
Giorgetto Giugiaro / Italdesign
Pininfarina
Zagato
Centro Stile Alfa Romeo
The last mentioned, the Centro Stile, has rapidly gained international credibility with its work. The 8C
Competizione super-coup, and the MiTo hatchback are the result of their work.
Construction techniques used by Alfa Romeo have become imitated by other car makers, and in this way Alfa
Romeo body design has often been very influential. The following is a list of innovations, and where
appropriate, examples of imitation by other car manufacturers:
1950s : Monocoque body design in the Giulia : While not an imitation per se, this construction technique
became extremely widespread, and remains so to the present day.
1960s : Aerodynamics : The 116-series Giulia boasted a very low Cd. Toyota in particular sought to
produce a similarly shaped series of vehicles at this time.
1970s : Fairing of bumpers : In order to meet American crash standards, Alfa formulated design styling
techniques to incorporate bumpers into the overall bodywork design of vehicles so as to not ruin their lines.
The culmination of this design technique was 1980s Alfa Romeo 75. The process was widely copied,
particularly in Germany and Japan.
1980s : The Alfa 164 : The design process and influence of this car is almost completely out of all
proportion to previous Alfas. The 164 introduced complete CAD/CAM in the manufacturing cycle, with very
little directly made by hand in the vehicle. In addition, the 164's styling influence continues into the present
day line of modern Alfas. Most manufacturers incorporated design ideas first expressed in the 164 into
their own designs, including greater reliance on on-board computers.
[citation needed]

1990s : The pseudo-coup : The Alfa 156 and 147, while four-door vehicles, represented themselves as
two-doors with prominent front door handles, and less visible rear door-handle flaps. Honda has used this
design style in the latest Civic hatchback, and a somewhat similar idea is also seen in the most recent
Mazda RX-8 four-seat coup.
2000s : The Brera and 159 : These vehicles design, by Giorgetto Giugiaro, have proven influential as
regards sedan and coup styling, demonstrating that concept vehicles are often immediately translatable
into road car form, providing that initial design takes place using CAD systems.
Alfa Romeo models have also served as the inspiration and basis of some very interesting and often beautiful
concept cars. Here follows a short list of concept cars, and their impacts on car design:
1950s - The B.A.T. cars
The Berlina Aerodinamica Tecnica prototype cars were designed by Bertone as an exercise in determining
whether streamlining and wind-tunnel driven designs would result in high performance on a standard chassis,
and whether the resulting vehicles would be palatable to public. Alfa 1900 Sprint were the basis of the B.A.T. 5,
7 and 9.
[42]
The later B.A.T. 11 was based on the 8C Competizione.
1960s and 1970s - Descendants of the Tipo 33
The Tipo 33 racing car, with its high-revving 2000 cc V8 engine became the basis for a number of different
concept cars during 1960s and 1970s, two of which ultimately resulted in production vehicles. Most made their
appearances at the Auto Salon Genve. Here is a brief list:
Gandini/Bertone Carabo (1968) - Marcello Gandini expressed ideas that would come to fruition in the
Lamborghini Countach.
Tipo 33.2 (1969)- Designed by Pininfarina, this car ultimately resulted in the 33 Stradale road car
Gandini/Bertone Montreal Concept (1967) - making its appearance at the 1967 Montreal Expo, this Giulia-
based concept resulted in the production Alfa Romeo Montreal road car with a variant of the Tipo 33 V8
engine.
Bertone/Giugiaro Navajo (1976)- A fully fibreglassed vehicle, and in some ways the epitome of Giugiaro's
'Origami' style of flat planes.
1980s-today - Modern ideas
In general, concept cars for Alfa Romeo have generally become production vehicles, after some modification to
make them suitable for manufacture, and to provide driver and passenger safety. The Zagato SZ, GTV and
Spider (descended from the Proteo), Brera and 159 are all good examples of Alfa Romeo's stylistic
commitment in this direction.
The future
Alfa Romeo concept cars have mostly emphasized performance in combination with historical tradition. The
Nuvola Concept, and the independently designed Diva Concept cars have demonstrated that this ethos is the
centre of Alfa conceptualisation. The Centro Stile website also gives designers very good direction in terms of
the combination of line and form Alfa prefers to see in the design process of its cars' bodywork.
The badge [edit]


Evolution of Alfa Romeo's badge
Alfa's badge incorporates emblems from fifth century Italy.
[43]
It was designed in 1910 by an
Italian draughtsman Romano Cattaneo who used two heraldic devices traditionally associated with Milan: on
the right is the Biscione, the emblem of the House of Visconti, rulers of Milan in the 14th century; on the left is a
red cross on a white field, the emblem of Milan, which Cattaneo had seen on the door of the Castello
Sforzesco.
[43][44]
In 1918, after the company was purchased by Nicola Romeo, the badge was redesigned with
the help ofGiuseppe Merosi. A dark blue metallic ring was added, containing the inscription "ALFA ROMEO"
and "MILANO" separated by two Savoy dynasty knots to honour the Kingdom of Italy. After the victory of
the P2 in the inaugural Automobile World Championship in 1925, Alfa added a laurel wreath around the
badge.
[43]
In 1946, after the abolition of the monarchy, the Savoy knots were replaced with two curvy lines. The
name "MILANO", the hyphen, and the lines were eliminated when Alfa Romeo opened its factory at Pomigliano
d'Arco, Naples in the early 1970s. The serpent and man appear to be Jonah and the serpent. These images
are often found in Liturgical art as far back as the third century.
Motorsport [edit]


Brian Redman driving with Alfa Romeo 33 TT 12
Main article: Alfa Romeo in motorsport
Alfa Romeo has been involved with motor racing since 1911, when they entered two 24 HPmodels on Targa
Florio competition. In the 1920s and 30s Alfa Romeo scored wins at many of the most famous and prestigious
races and motoring events such as Targa Florio, Mille Miglia and Le Mans. Great success continued
with Formula One, Prototypes, Touring and Fast Touring. Private drivers also entered some rally competitions,
with fine results. Alfa Romeo has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries Alfa
Corse, Autodelta and private entries. Alfa Romeo's factory racing team was outsourced to Enzo
Ferrari's Scuderia Ferrari between 1933 and 1938. The most legendary Alfa Romeo driver is Tazio Nuvolari,
who took one of the most legendary victories of all time by winning the 1935 German Grand Prix at the
Nrburgring.
Quadrifoglio [edit]
The Quadrifoglio emblem (also called the 'Cloverleaf') is the symbol of Alfa Romeo racing cars since 1923.
Following WWII, it has also been used to designate the higher trim models of the range (comparable to BMW M
Performance or Volkswagen GTI models). The Quadrifoglio is usually placed on the side panels of the car,
above or behind the front wheels. The symbol consists of a green or gold cloverleaf with four leaves, contained
with a white triangle.
History of the symbol [edit]


Ugo Sivocci at the wheel of 1923 Alfa Romeo P1
The Quadrifoglio has been used on Alfa Romeo cars since the death of Ugo Sivocci in 1923. As a friend
of Enzo Ferrari, Sivocci was hired by Alfa Romeo in 1920 to drive for Alfa in the three-man works team: (Alfa
Corse) with Antonio Ascari and Enzo Ferrari. Sivocci was regarded as a driver with an enormous amount of
experience, but often hampered by bad luck and considered the eternal second-placer. To banish his bad luck,
when the Targa Florio came around, the driver painted a white square with a green four-leaf clover (the
Quadrifoglio) in the centre of the grille of his car. Sivocci had immediate success, crossing the finish line first.
The Quadrifoglio subsequently became the symbol of the racing Alfa Romeos with the victory at the Targa
Florio. Almost as if to prove the magical effects of this symbol, Sivocci was killed while
testing Merosi`s new P1 at Monza, a few months after winning the Targa Florio. The Salerno driver's P1, which
went off the track on a bend, did not have the Quadrifoglio. Since this period in 1923, the bodies of Alfa Romeo
racing cars have been adorned with the Quadrifoglio as a lucky charm. The white square was replaced with a
triangle in memory of Uvo Sivocci.
[45]

Production [edit]
Until the 1980s, Alfa Romeos, except for the Alfasud, were rear-wheel-drive.
According to the current Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne, in order to reap economies of scale, all new Alfa Romeo
models will be made from the same basic platform (i.e., frame). Even Maserati will share components with
some Alfas.
[46]



Quadrifoglio badge on the Alfetta 159
Cloverleaf, or Quadrifoglio, badges denote high-end in comfort and engine size variants of Alfa Romeo cars,
but previously denoted Alfa Romeo racing cars in the pre-Second-World-War era. Some modern Alfas wear
a cloverleaf badge which is typically a green four leaf clover on a white background (Quadrifoglio Verde), but
variants of blue on white have been recently observed as well.
The Alfettas of the early 1980s had models available sold as the "Silver Leaf" and "Gold Leaf" (Quadrifoglio
Oro). These models were the top of the range. Badging was the Alfa Cloverleaf in either gold or silver to denote
the specification level. The Gold Leaf model was also sold as the "159i" in some markets, the name in homage
to the original 159.
The trim levels (option packages) offered today on the various nameplates (model lines) include
the lusso ("luxury"), turismo ("touring"), and the GTA (gran tourismo alleggerita) ("light-weight grand tourer").
The GTA package is offered in the 147 and 156 and includes a V-6 engine. In the past, Alfa Romeo offered a
Sprint trim level.
During the 1990s, Alfa Romeo moved car production to other districts in Italy. The Pomigliano dArco plant
produced the 155, followed by the 145 and the 146, while the Arese plant manufactured the 164 and new
Spider and GTV. The 156 was launched in 1997, and became quite successful for Alfa Romeo; in 1998 it was
voted Car of the Year. The same year a new flagship, the 166 (assembled in Rivalta, near Turin) was
launched. At the beginning of the third millennium, the 147 was released, which won the prestigious title of Car
of the Year 2001. In 2003 the Arese factory was closed.
The Arese factory today hosts almost nothing and is nearly abandoned. What remains are some offices and the
great Alfa Romeo Historical Museum, a must-see for Alfa Romeo fans.
In the 60s, the main Alfa Romeo seat was moved from inside Milan to a very large and nearby area extending
over the municipalities ofArese, Lainate and Garbagnate Milanese. However, since then the Alfa seat is known
to be in Arese, since the offices and the main entrance of the area are there.
In the late 1960s, a number of European automobile manufacturers established facilities in South Africa to
assemble right hand drive vehicles. Fiat and other Italian manufacturers established factories along with these
other manufacturers, Alfa-Romeos were assembled in Brits, outside of Pretoria in the Transvaal Province of
South Africa. With the imposition of sanctions by western powers in the 1970s and 1980s, South Africa became
self-sufficient, and in car production came to rely more and more on the products from local factories. This led
to a remarkable set of circumstances where between 1972 and 1989, South Africa had the greatest number of
Alfa Romeos on the road outside of Italy. Even stranger, Alfa Romeos Brits plant was used from March
1983
[47]
until 1985 to build Daihatsu Charadesfor local consumption, but also for export to Italy in order to skirt
Italian limits on Japanese imports.
[48]

In late 1985, with the impending Fiat takeover and an international boycott of the South
African Apartheid government, Alfa Romeo withdrew from the market and closed the plant. After the plants
closing, literally tons of valuable parts were bulldozed into the ground to escape paying import duties.
Assembly plants by model
[49]

Plant Owner Location Model(s)
Cassino Piedimonte S. Germano Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A. Piedimonte San Germano Giulietta
Stabilimento Mirafiori Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A. Turin MiTo
Modena Maserati S.p.A Modena 4C
Automobiles [edit]
Current models [edit]
MiTo Giulietta 4C



Alfa Romeo MiTo
The MiTo is a three-door sporty supermini officially introduced on 19 June 2008 in Castello
Sforzesco in Milan,
[50]
the international introduction was at British Motor Show in 2008.
Alfa Romeo Giulietta
The Giulietta is a five-door, small family car officially revealed at the Geneva Motor Show 2010.
[51]
It replaced
the 147.
Alfa Romeo 4C
The Alfa Romeo 4C is a small, lightweight rear wheel drive two seater Coup sports car, similar in size to the
Alfa Romeo MiTo. The car was revealed as concept car at the 81st Geneva Motorshow in 2011. The
production version was launched to the European market at the 83rd Geneva Motorshow in 2013 and will be
launched to the American market at the Los Angeles Motorshow at the end of November 2013.
Future models [edit]
Alfa Romeo Giulia sedan and station wagon (Expected-2014)
[29]

Alfa Romeo C-SUV (Expected-2014)
[29]

Alfa Romeo Spider (new) (Expected-2015)
[52]

Alfa Romeo 169 (Expected-2014)
[29]

Historic models [edit]


6C Gran Sport (1931)


8C 2300 (1931)


2600 Touring Spider (1961)


GT Junior (1965)


Montreal (1970)


GTV6 (1980)


Spider (1992)


156 (1997)


8C Competizione (2008)


Alfa Romeo Autotutto F12 ambulance

Road cars Racing cars
1910
1910-1920 24 HP
1910-1911 12 HP
1911-1920 15 HP
1913-1922 40-60 HP
1911 15 HP Corsa
1913 40-60 HP Corsa
1914 Grand Prix
1920
1921-1922 20-30 HP
1920-1921 G1
1921-1921 G2
1922-1927 RL
1923-1925 RM
1927-1929 6C 1500
1929-1933 6C 1750
1922 RL Super Sport
1923 RL Targa Florio
1923 P1
1924 P2
1928 6C 1500 MMS
1929 6C 1750 Super Sport
1930
1931-1934 8C 2300
1933-1933 6C 1900
1934-1937 6C 2300
1935-1939 8C 2900
1939-1950 6C 2500
1931 Tipo A
1931 8C 2300 Monza
1932 Tipo B (P3)
1935 Bimotore
1935 8C 35
1935 8C 2900A
1936 12C 36
1937 12C 37
1937 6C 2300B Mille Miglia
1937 8C 2900B Mille Miglia
1938 308
1938 312
1938 316
1938 158
1939 6C 2500 Super Sport Corsa
1940

1948 6C 2500 Competizione
1950
1950-1958 1900
1951-1953 Matta
1951 159
1952 6C 3000 CM
1954-1962 Giulietta
1958-1962 2000
1959-1964 Dauphine
1960
1962-1968 2600
1962-1976 Giulia Saloon
1963-1967 Giulia TZ
1963-1977 Giulia Sprint
1963-1966 Giulia Sprint Speciale
1965-1967 Gran Sport Quattroruote
1965-1971 GTA
1966-1993 Spider
1967-1969 33 Stradale
1967-1977 1750/2000 Berlina
1960 Giulietta SZ
1963 Giulia TZ
1965 GTA
1965 Tipo 33
1968 33/2
1969 33/3
1970
1970-1977 Montreal
1972-1983 Alfasud
1972-1984 Alfetta saloon
1974-1987 Alfetta GT/GTV
1976-1989 Alfasud Sprint
1977-1985 Nuova Giulietta
1979-1986 Alfa 6
1972 33/4
1973 33TT12
1976 33SC12
1979 177
1979 179
1980
1983-1994 33
1984-1987 Arna
1984-1987 90
1985-1992 75
1987-1998 164
1989-1993 SZ/RZ
1982 182
1983 183
1984 184
1985 185
1990
1992-1998 155
1994-2000 145
1994-2000 146
1995-2006 GTV/Spider
1997-2005 156
1993 155 V6 TI
1998-2007 166
2000
2000-2010 147
2007-2009 8C Competizione
2008-2010 8C Spider
2003-2010 GT
2005-2010 Brera
2005-2011 159
2006-2010 Spider

Trucks and light commercial vehicles [edit]


Romeo2 LCV
In 1930 Alfa Romeo presented a light truck in addition to heavy LCVs based to Bssingconstructions.
[53]
In the
Second World War Alfa Romeo also built trucks for the Italian army ("35 tons anywhere") and later also for the
German Wehrmacht. After the war, commercial motor vehicle production was resumed. In co-operation
with FIAT and Saviem starting from the 60s different light truck models were developed. The production of
heavy LCVs was terminated in 1967. In Brazil the heavy trucks were built still few years by Alfa Romeo
subsidiary Fbrica Nacional de Motores under the name FNM. The last Alfa Romeo vans were the Alfa Romeo
AR6 and AR8, which were rebadged versions of Iveco Daily and Fiat Ducato. The company also
produced trolleybuses for many systems in Italy, Latin America,
[54]
Sweden,
[55]
Greece,
[56]
Germany, Turkey and
South Africa. Later, Alfa Romeo concentrated only on passenger car manufacturing.
LCVs


Alfa Romeo 430
Alfa Romeo Romeo (19541958)
Alfa Romeo Romeo 2 (until 1966)
Alfa Romeo Romeo 3 (1966)
Alfa Romeo A11/F11
Alfa Romeo A12/F12
AR8 (based on first generation Iveco Daily)
AR6 (based on first generation Fiat Ducato)
Alfa Romeo F20 (Saviem license)
Trucks
Alfa Romeo 50 "Biscione" (Bssing-NAG 50)/ 80 (19311934)
[57]

Alfa Romeo 85 / 110 (1934 - n/a)
Alfa Romeo 350 (1935 - n/a)
Alfa Romeo 430 (19421950)
[58]

Alfa Romeo 500 (1937 - n/a)
Alfa Romeo 800 (19401943)
[58]

Alfa Romeo 900 (19471954)
Alfa Romeo 950 (19541958)
Alfa Romeo Mille (Alfa Romeo 1000) (19581964)
Alfa Romeo A15 (Saviem license)
Alfa Romeo A19 (Saviem license)
Alfa Romeo A38 (Saviem license)


Alfa Romeo 1000 (Mille) Aerfer FI 711.2 OCREN trolleybus in Naples
Buses
Alfa Romeo 40A.
Alfa Romeo 80A
Alfa Romeo 85A.
Alfa Romeo 110A.
Alfa Romeo 140A.
Alfa Romeo 150A.
Alfa Romeo 430A.
Alfa Romeo 500A
Alfa Romeo 800A.
Alfa Romeo 900A.
Alfa Romeo 902A.
Alfa Romeo 950A.
Alfa Romeo Mille (bus) (Alfa Romeo 1000)
Trolleybuses
Alfa Romeo 110AF (1938)
Alfa Romeo 140AF (1949)
Alfa Romeo 800AF
Alfa Romeo 900AF
Alfa Romeo Mille AF (Alfa Romeo 1000)
Concepts [edit]
Main article: Alfa Romeo concept cars
Design has always played a large role in the history of Alfa Romeo. There have been many Alfa Romeo
concept cars, often made by famous design houses and designers. The BAT series of concepts from the 1950s
was a joint collaboration project with the Italian design house Bertone. Other famous Italian coachbuilders and
design houses like Pininfarina, Bertone, Zagato and ItalDesign-Giugiaro have also played a great role in Alfa
Romeo's history, and even today some of models are designed and constructed by these great names.
Other production [edit]
Although Alfa Romeo is best known as automobile manufacturer it has also produced commercial vehicles of
various size, railway locomotives,
[6]
tractors, buses, trams, compressors, generators, an electric
cooker,
[59]
marine and aircraft engines.
Aircraft engines [edit]


D2 aircraft engine
An Alfa engine was first used on an aircraft in 1910 on the Santoni-Franchini biplane.
[60]
In 1932 Alfa Romeo
built its first real aircraft engine the D2 (240 bhp), which was fitted to Caproni 101 D2. In the 1930s when Alfa
Romeo engines were used for aircraft on a larger scale; the Savoia Marchetti SM.74, Savoia-Marchetti
SM.75, Savoia-Marchetti SM.79, Savoia Marchetti SM.81 and Cant Z506B Airone all used Alfa Romeo
manufactured engines.
[61]
In 1931, a competition was arranged whereTazio Nuvolari drove his Alfa Romeo 8C
3000 Monza against a Caproni Ca.100 airplane.
[32]
Alfa Romeo built various aircraft engines during the Second
World War; the best known was the RA.1000 RC 41-I Monsone, a licensed version of the Daimler-Benz DB
601. This engine made it possible to build efficient fighter aircraft like the Macchi C.202 Folgore for the Italian
army. After the Second World War Alfa Romeo produced engines for Fiat, Aerfer and Ambrosini. In the 1960s
Alfa Romeo mainly focused upgrading and maintaining Curtiss-Wright, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce and
General Electric aircraft engines. Alfa Romeo built also Italy's first turbine engine, installed to the Beechcraft
King Air. Alfa Romeo's Avio division was sold to Aeritalia in 1988,
[62]
from 1996 it was part of Fiat Avio.
[63]
Alfa
Avio was also part of developing team to the new T700-T6E1 engine to the NHI NH90helicopter.
[64]

Aero-engines produced by Alfa Romeo [edit]


Alfa Romeo 115
Alfa Romeo D2
Alfa Romeo 110
Alfa Romeo 115
Alfa Romeo 121
Alfa Romeo 125
Alfa Romeo 126
Alfa Romeo 128
Alfa Romeo 135
Alfa Romeo Lynx
Alfa Romeo Mercurius
Alfa Romeo RA.1000
Alfa Romeo RA-1050
Alfa Romeo R.C.10
Alfa Romeo R.C.34
Alfa Romeo R.C.35
Alfa Romeo AR.318
Media and public profile [edit]
In Italian, an Alfa Romeo enthusiast is an "Alfista", and a group of them are "Alfisti".
[65]
There are many thriving
Alfa Romeo owners clubs and Alfa Romeo Model Registers.
The Graduate


Dustin Hoffman's Spider runs out of gas in The Graduate.
Probably the most famous appearance and presence on screen of any Alfa is in the 1967 hit film The
Graduate, starring Dustin Hoffman, Katharine Ross and Anne Bancroft.
[66]
It gave worldwide celebrity to the
"Spider". The Spider depicted on screen had its engine note accurately recorded, and electrical foibles (the
non-functional fuel gauge) reproduced. On the strength of the Spider's appeal, Alfa Romeo continued sales of
the Spider into the 1990s, and a special edition named the Alfa Graduate was available in the United States in
the 1980s.
[42]

The entire set of scenes featuring the Spider in the Graduate were replicated in satire byMike Myers in his
comedy, Wayne's World 2.
[67]
The Spider here cuts out Simon & Garfunkel's "Mrs. Robinson" when passing
under a bridge (implying music being played on a radio), but still has a non-functional fuel gauge - causing it to
ultimately grind to halt (fortunately at the correct church!)
The Spider was designed by Pininfarina; derived from several design studies dating back to the late 1950s, the
Spider is believed to be the last design on which Battista Farina personally worked.
[68]

James Bond
One of the most prominent roles was when James Bond (Roger Moore) stole and then drove a
graphite GTV6 in 1983's Octopussy. In the scene it is pursued by two Bavarian BMW 5-series police cars.
[69]

A pair of black Alfa Romeo 159 Ti cars appeared in the opening scenes of the 2008 James Bond film Quantum
of Solace.
[70]
They featured in the car chase with James Bond's Aston Martin DBS V12 around Lake Garda,
Italy. Noteworthy attention was paid to the auditory qualities of the Alfa's, which have the characteristic 'Big V-6'
sound on-screen. The same film also features a Carabineri Alfa 156. Rene Mathis also has an Alfa, a white
2600 GT coup.
Other films
Giulietta Masina in Fellini's Juliet of the Spirits is courted by a "Romeo" in a Giulietta (Spider), a double
play on words.
[71]

Michael Caine in Robert Parrish's 1974 film The Marseille Contract where John Deray (Michael Caine)
makes a race in an Alfa Romeo Montreal in the French mountains of the provence with a Porsche 911
conducted by a girl. There is no winner at the end, but the scenes are authentic and nice.
Edward Fox's character, the titular Jackal, in 1973's The Day of the Jackal drives a white Giulietta Spider.
He repaints the car blue in a forest clearing to avoid police, then crashes the car.
[72]

Michael Corleone (Al Pacino) in The Godfather drove a black Alfa Romeo 6C while in exile in Sicily. This
was actually the car that was booby-trapped and explodes with Apollonia, his Sicilian wife, in it.
[73]

Viktor Taransky (Al Pacino) gave his daughter a black 2600 Touring Spider on her 16th birthday in the
2002 movie S1m0ne.
John Malkovich, as Tom Ripley, in Ripley's Game, drives a red Alfa Romeo 156 Sportwagon.
[74]

The 1982 film The Soldier featured an Alfa Romeo Alfetta sedan as a getaway vehicle.
In the French film "36 Quai des Orfvres (film)" from 2004 police officer Lo Vrinks (Daniel Auteuil) drives
a black Alfa Romeo GT.
In the 1985 comedy "Fletch", the title character (Chevy Chase), posing as an emissions inspector,
commandeers a 1983 Alfa Romeo Spider that was in the process of being stolen by a teenager (David
Harper).
Television
In the television crime film series Ein Fall fr Zwei ("a case for two", over 250 episodes made so far), the
leading actor Claus Theo Grtner, who plays the role of the private detective Josef Matula, has always
been driving Alfa Romeo, starting from Giulia Super to the latest Alfa Romeo models.
[75]

Alfa Romeo had also a "role" in the Austrian detective series Kommissar Rex (Inspector Rex). At the
beginning, Tobias Morettidrove a 155
[76]
and later Gedeon Burkhard drove a 166.
Top Gear
In recent times, the BBC 2 Series 'Top Gear' has had quite an impact on the popular conception of the Alfa
Romeo. Presenter Jeremy Clarkson insists that "nobody can call themselves a true petrolhead" until they have
owned one.
[77]

Literature
In the first printing of Dan Brown's novel Angels & Demons, the members of the Swiss Guard all drive Alfa
Romeo sedans (albeit inaccurately referred to as 'Alpha Romeos' throughout the book).
In the Ian Fleming novel Moonraker, James Bond becomes involved in an impromptu race with a young man
driving an Alfa Romeo while he pursues Hugo Drax. This scene in the novel results in the death of the young
man, the destruction of his car, and the eventual destruction of Bond's Bentley Mark IV.
[78]

Marketing and sponsorship [edit]


Alfa Romeo II on her first sail
During the years Alfa Romeo has been marketed with different slogans like: "The family car that wins races"
used in the 1950s in Alfa Romeo 1900 marketing campaign, "racing since 1911" used on most 1960s Alfa
advertisements,
[79]
In the 1970s the Alfa Romeo 1750 GTV was marketed as "if this kind of handling is good
enough for our racing cars, its good enough for you."
[80]
The Giulia Sprint GTA was marketed as "The car you
drive to work is a champion".
[81]
More recent slogans used are "Mediocrity is a sin", "Driven by Passion", "Cuore
Sportivo" and "Beauty is not enough".
As part of its marketing policy, Alfa Romeo sponsors a number of sporting events, such as the Mille
Miglia rally.
[82]
It has sponsored the SBK Superbike World Championship and Ducati Corse since 2007, and
the Goodwood Festival of Speed for many years, and was one of the featured brands in 2010 when Alfa
Romeo celebrated its 100th anniversary.
[83][84]
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta has been used since Monza 2010 race
as the safety car in Superbike World Championship events.
[85]

In 2002, Alfa Romeo I, the first Alfa Romeo super maxi yacht was launched. She has been first to finish in at
least 74 races including the 2002 SydneyHobart Race.
[86]
A new state-of-the-art super maxi, Alfa Romeo II,
was commissioned in 2005, measuring 30 metres (98 ft) LOA. Alfa Romeo IIset a new elapsed-time record for
monohulls in the 2009 Transpac race, of 5 days, 14 hours, 36 minutes, 20 seconds
[87]
She has been first to
finish in at least 140 races. In mid-2008 Alfa Romeo IIIwas launched for competitive fleet racing under
the IRC rule. Alfa Romeo III measures 21.4 metres (70 ft) LOA and features interior design styled after the Alfa
Romeo 8C Competizione.
[88]

See also [edit]

I taly portal

Companies portal

Cars portal
Alfa Romeo Arese Plant
Alfa Romeo Pomigliano d'Arco Plant
Alfa Romeo Portello Plant
Alfa Romeo Museum
Category: Alfa Romeo engines
Category: Alfa Romeo people