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Definition Definition
The science of the disease
which can be demonstrated
in human and animal remains
of ancient times.
The science of the disease
which can be demonstrated
in human and animal remains
of ancient times.
Sir Marc Armand Ruffer,
1913
Sir Marc Armand Ruffer,
1913
Paleopathology Paleopathology
Traumatic Lesions Traumatic Lesions
Neoplastic Lesions Neoplastic Lesions
Artificial Intervention Artificial Intervention
Metabolic Lesions Metabolic Lesions
Degenerative Lesions Degenerative Lesions
Congenital Abnormalities Congenital Abnormalities
Infectious Lesions Infectious Lesions
Inflammatory Lesions Inflammatory Lesions
Methods Methods
Gross Findings Gross Findings
Rehydration Rehydration
Serological Studies Serological Studies
Chemical Studies Chemical Studies
Microscopic Findings Microscopic Findings
Dissecting
Light
Electron
Scanning Electron
Postmortem?? Postmortem??
Trauma fracture Trauma fracture
Fracture patterns Fracture patterns
Transverse Oblique Spiral Comminuted
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Trauma
Fracture healing Fracture healing
Fracture
Callus
Fracture
Callus
New Blood
Vessels
New Blood
Vessels
New Bone
Formation
New Bone
Formation
Blood Clot Blood Clot
Woven bone Woven bone
Fracture callus on juvenile radius Fracture callus on juvenile radius
dislocation dislocation
Trauma Trauma
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Perrys & Collies Perrys & Collies
Fractures Fractures
Artificial Intervention Artificial Intervention
Cradle Boarding
- Peru -
Cradle Boarding
- Peru -
Tumpline deformation Tumpline deformation
Tumpline deformation Tumpline deformation
TrepAnation TrepAnation
T
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S
T
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S
Incomplete Incomplete
Healing Healing
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Modern TrepAnationS Modern TrepAnationS Modern TrepAnationS Modern TrepAnationS
Decoration Decoration
Pre- and Post-Mortem Pre- and Post-Mortem
False Teeth False Teeth
Peruvian skull with agate teeth Peruvian skull with agate teeth
Surgical Repair Surgical Repair
Neoplastic Lesions Neoplastic Lesions
metastatic tumors
myeloma
leukemic involvement
chondrosarcoma
osteosarcoma
chordoma
osteoma 40 & up
chondrosarcoma
enchondroma
giant cell tumor
20-40
osteosarcoma
Ewing's sarcoma
adamantinoma
fibrous dysplasia
simple bone cyst
osteochondroma (exostosis)
osteoid osteoma
osteoblastoma
chondroblastoma
chondromyxoid fibroma
10-20
Ewings sarcoma
leukemic involvement
metastatic neuroblastoma
simple bone cyst
eosinophilic granuloma
0-10
Malignant Tumors Benign Lesions Age
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Giant Cell Tumors Giant Cell Tumors
TYPES OF
TUMORS
TYPES OF
TUMORS
Osteoma Osteoma
Multiple Myeloma Multiple Myeloma
Metabolic Lesions Metabolic Lesions
Vitamin & Mineral Deficiencies
Toxic Intakes
Generalized Stress Indicators
Childhood Stress Indicators
Vitamin Deficiencies Vitamin Deficiencies
Vitamin D deficiency
Epiphyseal stunting
Softened bones
Vitamin D deficiency
Epiphyseal stunting
Softened bones
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Gout Gout
Uric acid crystals Uric acid crystals P
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H
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P
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Diploic thickening Diploic thickening
Cribra orbitalia Cribra orbitalia
Iron deficiency
Part of syndrome
Iron deficiency
Part of syndrome
General stress indicators General stress indicators
Enamel hypoplasias Enamel hypoplasias
Harris Lines Harris Lines
Congenital Lesions Congenital Lesions
Gigantism
Hydrocephaly
Club Foot
Achondroplasia
Spina bifeda
G
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m
G
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H
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H
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Club Foot Club Foot
A
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Spina bifeda
Occulta
Spina bifeda
Occulta
Infectious Lesions Infectious Lesions
Trepanematosis
Treponema pallidum, T. pertineu
Tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Leprosy
Mycobacterium leprae
Treponemal Disease Treponemal Disease
Syphilis, Yaws, Bejel Syphilis, Yaws, Bejel
Venereal syphilis Venereal syphilis Endemic syphilis Endemic syphilis Yaws Yaws Trepanematosis Trepanematosis
Worldwide Distribution Worldwide Distribution
Soft
Tissue
Soft
Tissue
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Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis Tuberculosis
TB Treatments TB Treatments
c. 5-10 years
Intermittent
throughout life
Duration of Infectious
Stage
Early childhood
Late adolescence,
early adulthood
Modal Age of Disease
Early childhood Early childhood Modal Age at Infection
Skin contact
Respiration,
aspiration
Mode of Infection
Treponema pallidum;
Treponema pertenue
Mycobacterium
tuberculosis
Pathogenesis
Treponematosis Tuberculosis
Information courtesy of Mary Lucas Powell, Ph.D. Information courtesy of Mary Lucas Powell, Ph.D.
Low High
Mortality
Potential
Major: blastic
Minor: lytic
Major: lytic
Minor: blastic
Response
25-50% prevalence 3-15% prevalence
Bone Lesions
100% of exposed
individuals
10-50% of exposed
individuals
Prevalence of
Clinical Disease
Mucous tissues, bone
Any organ
system
2 Lesions
Skin, mucous tissues Lungs, lymph nodes
Initial Lesions
Treponematosis Tuberculosis
Information courtesy of Mary Lucas Powell, Ph.D. Information courtesy of Mary Lucas Powell, Ph.D.
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Leprosy Leprosy
leprosy leprosy
leprosy leprosy
Hansens Disease Hansens Disease
Mycobacterium leprae Mycobacterium leprae
70% in India,
Mynmar, & Nepal
70% in India,
Mynmar, & Nepal
Periostitis Periostitis
Inflammatory Lesions Inflammatory Lesions
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis
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Degenerative Lesions Degenerative Lesions
Osteoarthritis
Osteoporosis/Osteopenia
Occupational Stress
osteoArthritis osteoArthritis
N Most common form of arthritis
N Joint pain, cartilage degeneration,
osteophytes
N Repeated microtrauma to articular
cartilage
N Little inflammation of synovial lining
N Degenerative, not inflammatory
N Also called DJD
Etiology of osteoArthritis Etiology of osteoArthritis
Normal load on
abnormal joint
Normal load on
abnormal joint
Abnormal load
on normal joint
Abnormal load
on normal joint
Result Result
Genetic defect
in cartilage
Genetic defect
in cartilage
Excessive load
injury
Excessive load
injury
Joint pain disability
Loss of articular cartilage
Bony remodeling
Joint pain disability
Loss of articular cartilage
Bony remodeling
Degenerative Joint
Disease
Degenerative Joint
Disease
Osteophytosis Osteophytosis
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Osteoporosis Osteoporosis
Osteopenia Osteopenia
Osteoporosis vs Osteopenia Osteoporosis vs Osteopenia
Bone mineral density
cut-off points for
osteopenia and
osteoporosis
Osteoporosis vs.
Osteopenia
Osteoporosis vs.
Osteopenia
Age-related bone loss
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Differential Diagnosis?? Differential Diagnosis??
Differential Diagnosis?? Differential Diagnosis?? Differential Diagnosis ?? Differential Diagnosis ??
Differential Diagnosis ?? Differential Diagnosis ?? Differential Diagnosis ?? Differential Diagnosis ??
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Differential Diagnosis ?? Differential Diagnosis ??