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TERMI NATI ON OF SUI TABLE LOCATI ONS FOR POWER SY- STABI LI ZERS AND STATI CVAR "IPEXGATORS FOR
DAMPI NGELEcTRoMEcHANI CAz, OSCI LLATI ONS I NLARGE SCALE FWER S Y S " S
Nel son Marti ns, Member I EEE
Centro de Pesqui sas de her gi a El gtri ca - CEPEL
Caka Postal 2754
Ri o de J anei ro, RJ , 21945, Brazi l
Keywords - Exci tati on Control , Addi ti onal
Feedback, Stati c VAr Compensators, El ectromechani cal
Osci l l ati ons, Pol e Shi f t, Power SystemDynami cs.
Abstract - Thi s paper presents ef f i ci ent
al gori thms f or the sol uti on of two i mportant probl ems
i n the area of dampi ng control of el ectromechani cal
osci l l ati ons i n l arge scal e systems. The proposed
al gori thms al l ow the determi nati on of : 1 - the most
sui tabl e generators f or i nstal l i ng power system
stabi l i zers; 2 - the most sui tabl e buses i n the system
f or pl aci ng stati c VAr compensators i n order to damp
the cri ti cal modes of osci l l ati on.
These al gori thms i nvol ve the cal cul ati on of
transf er f uncti on resi dues and represent an i mportant
devel opnent on the powerf ul methodol ogy proposed i n
[ 11, whose use was up to nuwrestri cted to power
systems of l i mi ted si ze. Another maj or aspect of thi s
methodol ogy i s that there i s no l i mi tati on on the
degree of model l i ng of the power systembei ng studi ed.
I . I NTRODUCTI ON
Present day al gori thms al l ow ef f i ci ent and
rel i abl e capt at i on of dani nant ei genval ues (and
associ ated ei genvectors) f or power system model s
represented by several thousand state vari abl es [ 2, 3,
4, 5 1. An i mportant requi rement i n thi s f i el d i s the
devel opnt of al gori thms to hel p stabl i shi ng adequate
control strategi es f or l arge systems [ 6 1. ?hi s paper
presents contri l xl ti ons to thi s area of work.
The i nf omt i on contai ned i n the ei genvectors
al l ows the determi nati on of the groups of coherent
generators i n each one of the osci l l atory mdes of the
power system. The set of el ements of an ei genvector
whi ch are associ ated wi th the rotor speed devi ati ons of
al l the generators consti tutes the "mde- shape of rotor
speeds". A f i rst i ndi cati on on a good l ocati on f or
pl aci ng a pwer systemstabi l i zer can be obtai ned f rom
the anal ysi s of these mode- shapes. The generators
l ocated at the anti - nodes (l argest ampl i tudes) of a
mode- shape of rotor speeds are the natural candi dates
f or the i nstal l ati on of stabi l i zers.
Another possi bi l i ty i s to provi de dampi ng t o the
el ectromechani cal osci l l ati ons through dynami c vol tage
su~por t . The buses whi ch i ntui ti vel y are good
cardi dates f or the i nstal l ati on of synchronous or
Leonard0 T. G. Li ma
Mai n Ehqenhari a S.A.
Rua do Ouvi dor, 121
Ri o de J anei ro, RJ , 20040, Brazi l
stati c compensators are those l ocated at the anti - node
poi nts of the "mode- shape of bus vol tages" i n the
system[ 7 I .
These mode shapes onl y gi ve a rel ati ve measure of
the observabi l i ty of a gi ven mode at the vari ous
l ocati ons (or vari abl es) i n the system. An obvi ousl y
better i ndi cati on on l ocati ons f or pl aci ng dampi ng
sources shoul d al so contai n a measure of
control l abi l i ty of the vari ous systemi nputs on the
l ow- dampd el ectromechani cal modes [ 1, 6, 8 1.
The resi due of a speci f i ed transf er f uncti on associ ated
wi th a cri ti cal mode of osci l l ati on i s gi ven by the
product of an observabi l i ty f actor by a control l abi l i ty
f actor[ 1 1. The al gori thms proposed i n thi s paper are
based on the methodol ogy presented i n [ 1 1 whi ch
i nvol ves the cal cul ati on of transf er f uncti on resi dues.
These al gori thms al l ow very ef f i ci ent cal cul ati on of
the requi red resi dues f or l arge scal e power systems and
are bel i eved to advance the state of the art i n thi s
f i el d. The ccsnpl tati onal ef f i ci ency i s deri ved f romthe
use of the "augmented ei genvector" concept [ 2, 4 3.
I t may be argued that stabi l i zers are usual l y
provi ded to l arge machi nes i n many exi sti ng pwer
systems and theref ore the practi cal advantages of the
proposed methodol ogy woul d be slim. However, when
pl anni ng a newnetwork or an i nterconnecti on between
exi sti ng net mr ks there wi l l be a tendency to i nstal l
stabi l i zers on a l i mi ted number of generators [ 1, 9 1.
The choi ce of the most ef f ecti ve generators f or dampi ng
the troubl esane osci l l ati ons i s in thi s case easi l y
carri ed out by the al gori thmdescri bed i n thi s paper.
The l ocati on of a stati c VAr compensator i s
determi ned taking into account vari ous f actors such as
stati c arid dynami c vol tage suppr t , capabi l i ty of
dampi ng el ectromechani cal and subsynchronous
osci l l ati ons, etc. ' I heal gori thmhere proposed attempts
to provi de an answer to the probl emof f i ndi ng the best
l ocati on f or the sol e -se of dmpi ng
el ectranechani cal osci l l ati ons. Thi s parti cul ar probl em
has been gi ven a l ot of attenti on i n a recent EPRI
proj ect [8]. ?he al gori thmpresented here i s thought to
be more general and more ef f i ci ent than that descri bed
i n [ 8 ] .
The mt at i ms adopted i n the paper are defined as
Used.
The Smal l - Di sturbance Stabi l i ty Probl em
?he paer systemel edmnechani cal stabi l i ty
probl em can be represented byas et of di f f erenti al
equati ons wether wi th a set of al gebrai c equat i ms,
to be solved si ml l taneousl y wi th each other:
where i s t he state vector arid i s a vector of
al gebrai c variables.
CH2747-4/89/0000-0074$1 .oOO 1989 IEEE
Smal l - di sturbance stabi l i ty anal ysi s noml l y
i nvol ves the l i neari zati on of ( 1) around a system
operati ng poi nt (x z 1:
-of -0
-1 -
1- 1 I O 1- 1
di ag 1
i
s - x
( 2 )
The power systemstate matri x can be obtai ned
el i mi nati ng the vector of al gebrai c vari abl es i ?gi n
equati on ( 2 ) :
by
The symbol A si gni f i es an i ncremental change f rom
a steady- state val ue and wi l l of ten be omi tted i n the
remai ni ng part of thi s paper.
Ref erence [ 2 ] presented al gori thms f or the
cal cul ati on of system ei genval ues and f requency
response pl ots whi ch do not requi re the expl i ci t
f omt i on of the power system state matri x. These
al gori thms are di rectl y appl i ed t o the l arge and hi ghl y
sparse p e r systemJ acobi an matri x of equati on ( 2 ) . To
avoi d repeti ti on, the reader i s ref erred to [ 2 ] f or
a descri pti on of the J acobi an matri x structure. For a
neater and more ef f i ci ent computer i mpl ementati on, the
J acobi an equati ons in ( 2 ) shoul d be reordered as
di scussed i n [ 2 ] . However, f or the sake of cl ari ty and
brevi ty, the al gori thms proposed i n thi s paper wi l l be
descri bed us- equati on (2).
11. DETERMI NATI ONOF SUI TABLE GENERATORS FOR PLACI NG
POWER SYSTEMSTABI LI ZERS
Backsround Theory
I t was f ound necessary to i ncl ude i n thi s secti on
some concepts presented i n [ l ] so as to make thi s paper
suf f i ci entl y sel f - contai ned.
I n Fi gure 1, G(s) i s a transf er f uncti on rel ati ng
the vari abl es I N(s) and OUT(s), between whi ch i t i s
desi red to cl ose a f eedback H(s) = E . h(s), where E i s
a scal ar and h(s) i s of a speci f i ed structure. Assumi ng
that al l the zeroes and pol es of G( s ) and H(s) are
di sti nct, i t can be shown [ l ] that f or smal l val ues of
E the cl osure of the f eedback l oop causes a change
i n Xi gi ven by:
where A. i s a pol e of G( s ) and Ri i s i ts associ ated
resi due. l Thi s property, as suggested i n [l 1, can be
used to shi f t the poles (systemei genval ues) associ ated
wi th the el ectromechani cal osci l l ati ons wi th reduced
dampi ng. I t i s conveni ent to choose Gk( s ) , where
k=l , 2, , . , ng ( ng bei ng the number of generators i n the
system), as the transf er f uncti on between the ref erence
vol tage of the automati c vol tage regul ator ( Vref ) and a
measurabl e vari abl e ( y) f rom whi ch the power system
stabi l i zer i s deri ved.
Assume that xi, i s one compl ex conj ugate
pai r of ei genval ues of the system f or whi ch more
dampi ng i s requi red. The methcd proposed i n [ 1 1
i nvesti gates the Gk(s) transf er f uncti ons f or al l k=l ,
2, ..., ng, i n the search f or that one wi th the l argest
resi due Ri , asscci at ed wi th the hi , ei genval ue
pai r. I f Gl (s) has the l argest resi due ( Ri ) thi s i s
taken as a good i ndi cati on that the j - th generator i s
the most adequate f or pl aci ng a stabi l i zer in order to
damp the anal ysed mode of osci l l ati on.
Ori gi nal Al gori thm
The state spce equati ons associ ated wi th the
transf er f uncti on Gk(s) =yk(s)/V, k, f (s) are gi ven by:
where the i ndex k denotes quanti ti es of the k-th
generator and
A - systemstate nntri x of order ( n x n)
k k
- b - i nput vector associ ated wi th V
f ef - ref erence vol tage of the exci tati on system
yk - vari abl e to be used as i nput si gnal to
Ck - output mt r i x of order ( 1 x n)
ref
the
the stabi l i zer
Fi gure 1 - I nserti on of a Feedback Loop Wi th a
Smal l Gai n i n a System
k
Note that the pol es of G ( s ) are the ei genval ues
of the state matri x A. The i nput si gnal ( yk to the
stabi l i zer wi l l be ei ther rotor speed devi ati ons ( L
or generator acti ve me r ( P
t ) -
Assume that A has n di sti nct ei genval ues
represented by XI , x2, .. ., % l a n d that
21 , 2 2 , ..., !&, are the associ ated ei genvectors. I n
thi s case mt r i x A can be di agonal i zed through the
si mi l ari ty t r ansf omt i on [ 10 ] :
- 2 =U- 1 - x ( 6 )
where 2 i s the modal vector of the system
and U = [ %I, y, . . ., +] i s the mdal matri x.
equati on:
The modal vector sati sf i es the f ol l owi ng
- i =U- l A U + bk cef = +i;" Cef ( 7 )
y k =dCuk =F's
where = [ di ag xi ] i s the spectral matri x,
- gk i s a mode control l abi l i ty vector and ek i s a
mode observabi l i ty matri x (rowmatri x).
The transf er f uncti on G ( s ) can be expressed [I 11
Gk(s) =8( sI - A) - Lk = (?(sI -A)-v =
k
as :
15
The constant Rk is the residue of Gk(s)
associated with the &le (or eigenvalue) A . , and is
given by the product of a mode observabili+ factor
($) @ a mode ~ntrol l abi l i ty factor (&). The
cabalation of the desired residues as suggehtp in
[l], requires the computation of U and U- and
therefore is prohibitive for large scale systems.
AnImpro vement on the Oriqinal Alcrorithm
If A has n distinct eigenvalues then there
wi l l exiLeXn)n linearly independent eigenvectors
10 1 represented by U. which satisfy the equation:
A U. = A . U. (i = 1,2 ,..., n) (9)
1 1 1
Thetranspose matrix At has the sam? eigenvalues of A
but different eigenvectors 3 101 which satisfy
the equation:
At v. = A . v
-3 I -1
-3 I -3
or vt A = X . vt; (j= 1,2 ,..., n)
These two sets of eigenvectors are orthogonal,
which means that
(i=1,2, ..., n)
(i, j= 1,2,. . .n) for i t j
t
v. U. =9,
11 i
and q g j =0 t
where Ri i s a canplex number.
BJr suitable nomlization of the eigenvectors, it
is possible to obtain
vtu. =1 (i=1,2,. . . ,n)
11
and then
v'v = I
t
or W =I
wherev = [ , v . .., v 1 i s the matri x of A~
and I is the $de&ty mat& .
It follows that
and therefore (7) can be expressed as
It an be seen fran (8) and (10) that in order to
obtain R [ for k =1,2,. . . ,ng, it is only necessary to
calculate the right and l eft eigenvectors % and
associated with Xi.
A more efficient version of a digital program for
the calculation of the residues Rk wuld involve the
use of a QR routine 10I for &e cal mati on of only
the systen eigenvalues. The right ard l eft eigenvectors
associated with the cri ti cal eigenvalues should be
calculated by inverse iterapon uti l i z the same Lu
factors of (A - X i I ) since (A - Xi I ) =Et.
Alcrorithn for Lame Scale Svstems
Equation (9) is now expressed in implicit fom
wherethe vector on the l eft part of (11) wi l l be here
dencaninated the aqmented right eigenvector of Xi [ 2,
4 ] anddenotedby $.
Themode obsepability factor for a specified
transfer function G (s) is given by
A more efficient calculation of Gt , readily
applicable to large scale pcwer system problems, is
obtained with the use of the augmented right
eigenvector $ :
(13)
rowmatrix for the k-th generator.
Equation (11) is ncw rewritten considering the vector
of observability factors to be used in the calculation
of relevant residues associated with X i :
U.
1
Z. 1
1 gi
-
- xi
U.
0
-
0
-
where = (EL, 52, ..., elrg ). Note that eac element
c"k i n $ i s o&i nh fran aldifferent matrix ($la (see
&tion (13)) with k = 1,2 ,..., ng.
be noted that while the number of
associated with the generator active pwer P has only
five non-zero elements for systems of any sue.
Additionally, these five elements have sinple algebraic
expressions and therefore matrices J 5 and J6 do not
need to be formed at al l .
t
Themode controllability vector is given by
(15)
i k =u-l bk t k
- - =v &
only the i-th element of 3 is needed for the
gb =vt bk (16)
calculation of the residue Rh and its expression is
1 1 -
where is the left-eigenvector associated with Xi.
Fquation (16) can be expressed in tern of the
augmented l eft eigenvector va
1
76
augmented i nput vector. The concept of an augmented
i nput vector i s essenti al to the al gori thmdescri bed in
the next secti on of thi s paper.
As previ ousl y sai d i t i s necessary to normal i ze
the l ef t and ri ght ei genvectors in order to cal cul ate
Rk. I t i s computati onal l y mr e conveni ent t o carry out
the noml i zat i on onl y on the ri ght ei genvector, whose
el ements must then be scal ed by the i nner- product
$.%. I n the proposed al gori thm, thi s normal i zati on
i s actual l y done i n the augmented ri ght
ei genvector U&
normal i zed augmented ei genvector (<l n:
1
Equati on (13) i s nowrewri tten i n t er m of the
The resi due Rk i s obtai ned from the product of
the control l abi l i ty' and observabi l i ty f actors, whose
expressi ons are gi ven i n ( 17) and (18). These resi dues
can al so be cal cul ated f or other transf er f uncti on
outputs such as rotor speed or bus f requency
devi ati ons.
111. DETERMI NATI ONOF SUI TABLE LOCATI ONS FOR STATI CVAR
CCi YPENSATORS
I t i s recogni zed that stati c VAr compensators can
ef f ecti vel y damp el ectromechani cal osci l l ati ons. The
dampi ng ef f ecti veness i s dependent not onl y on the
structure and tuni ng of the stati c compensator but al so
on i ts l ocati on i n the el ectri cal system [12 I .
Fi gure 2 shows a bl ock di agram whi ch descri bes
the vol tage control l oop of a stati c VAr compensator
connected to a bus of a mul ti machi ne power system[131.
Note that thi s bl ock di agram i s anal ogous to that
descri bi ng the vol tage control l oop of a synchronous
generator i n a power system[131. The bl ocks SVC(s) and
CSS(s) denote the transf er f uncti ons of the stati c
compensator and i ts stabi l i zi ng si gnal respecti vel y.
The bl ocks F( s) and G( s ) rel ate the vari abl e shunt
admi ttance ( B) of the compensator wi th the devi at i op
i n the regul ated vol tage (v) and f requency ( e )
respecti vel y, consi deri ng the dynami cs of the enti re
mul ti nnchi ne pwer system. Besi des the f requency at a
bus, other i nputs to the stabi l i zer can be consi dered,
such as the transi t power devi ati ons i n a transmi ssi on
l i ne (P. .) f or exampl e.
1 3
I t was shown that transf er f uncti on resi dues can
be used to f i nd the ms t sui tabl e generators f or
pl aci ng stabi l i zers i n a l arge syst m, in whi ch the
generator l ocati ons are wel l def i ned. The method here
proposed f or determi ni ng sui tabl e l ocati ons f or SVC' s
i s based on the same concepts of transf er f uncti on
resi dues. The obj ecti ve i n t h i s case in to determi ne
appropri ate buses, out of al l buses i n the system, to
pl ace stati c Var ampmat or s to ai d i n dampi ng
speci f i c systemd e s .
The f eedback l oqp of the bl ock CSS(s) in Fi gure
2 wi l l now be di sregarded wi th no detri mental
consequences to the obj ecti ves of our anal ysi s. The
bl ock SVC(s) i n the present context i s gi ven the
f uncti on of dampi ng el ectromechani cal osci l l ati ons
rather than regul ati ng bus vol tage.
Fi gure 2. Vol tage control L mp of a SVC.
The i ndex "k" wi l l here denote quanti ti es or
eaui pnent of th? k- t h bus i n the system. Assume that h.
i s a pol e of &( s ) and Rk i s i ts associ ated resi due?
The change experi enced b$ h. when cl osi ng the
f eedback l oop i n Fi gure 3, where hC( s) = E. SVC(S) and
E i s an i ncremental gai n, i s gi ven by
( 19)
Fi gure 3 . SVC Control Loop wi thout Stabi l i zer CSS(s)
- The cl osed l oop pol es of the systemof Fi gure 3
are the same as those of the systemof Fi gure 4 whi ch,
despi te the f act of not ref l ecti ng the real system
conf i gurati on, i s more conveni ent to the anal ysi s.
1 - 1
Fi gure 4. A Conveni ent Representati on of the SVC
For a gi ven ei genval ue pai r A . , A* whi ch needs
to be damped, one s the
transf er f uncti on F(s), where k = 1,2,. . .,nk'and "nk"
i s the total number of buses i n the system. I f Rg
happens to be the resi due of l argest modul us, thi s
i ndi cates that bus "j " i s the ms t sui tabl e f or
i nstal l i ng an SVC f or the pur pse of dampi ng the
cri ti cal ei genval ue pai r. I t shoul d be noted that
may have other out pt s such as: transi t power in an
adj acent l i ne, bus f requency, current magni tude or
apparent resi stance of a l i ne, etc.
Control b p
ul d obtai n the l esi aues Rk of
The augmented i nput vector used i n thi s al gori thm
i s obtai ned f ran the l i neari zed expressi on f or the
current i nj ected by a stati c ccmpensator i nto bus k.
Thi s expressi on, expanded i nto i ts real and i magi nary
components, i s gi ven by:
77
where the subscri pt "0" denotes val ues cal cul ated at
the systemoperati ng poi nt.
al l k = 1. 2, . . .nk. Theref ore the di st ur bmge appl i ed to
the power syst emby the k- th stati c comppat or i s
represented by an augmented i npt vector (& havi ng
non- zero el ements onl y at the two l i nes of the
al gebrai c equati ons associ ated wi th bus "k" ( see
equati on (20)).
I n the present appl i cati on we have B ' = o f or
The f onml at i on f or thi s al gori thmi s, f rom thi s
equi val ent t o that previ ousl y descri bed pi nt onwards,
and i s theref ore omi tted.
I V. FWER SYSTl3l STABI LI ZERRESULTS
The determi nati on of sui tabl e generators f or
pl aci ng power systemstabi l i zers (Pss) usi ng transf er
f uncti on resi dues [ 1 ]has become wel l accepted i n the
f i el d [ 6, 9, 11 ] . Thi s secti on presents resul ts f or
a medi um si ze system whi ch rai se some i nteresti ng
pi nt s regardi ng the power system stabi l i zati on
probl em.
The power systemanal ysed i s the South- Southeast
i nterconnected Brazi l i an systemccmpri si ng 616 buses,
995 l i nes, 50 synchronous machi nes wi th detai l ed rotor
dynami cs model l i ng, 49 smal l er machi nes represented by
negati ve i mpedance l oads, 44 exci tati on systems and 16
power systemstabi l i zers. The operati ng poi nt anal ysed
corresponds t o a heavy l oad condi ti on of the year
1987, wi th a hi gh power transf er f romthe South t o the
Southeast systemand a total qenerati on of 21, 000 MW.
Tne cri ti cal ei genval ues coul d have been obtained by
one of the ef f i ci ent methods descri bed i n [ 2, 3, 4, 5 I .
Hmever, as the systemmatri x was not l arge (420
state vari abl es), the f ul l ei qensol uti on was obta-
by a standard l i brary QR routi ne. The transf er
f uncti on resi dues were cal cul ated by t he method
descri bed i n thi s paper.
The systemshows adequatel y damped osci l l ati ons
f or the gi ven operati ng pi nt and i ts
domi nant ei genval ues are X =- 0. 258 5 j 6. 51 and
A =- 0. 380 5 j 7. 01. The dampi ng ef f ect of the
vari ous power system stabi l i zers to the
el ectromechani cal osci l l ati ons i s el i mi nated by setti ng
thei r gai ns to zero. The domi nant ei genval ues of the
systemwi thout stabi l i zers are:
x1 =- 0. 0017 5 j 3. 51 \ =- 0. 022 5 j 5. 37
X3 =- 0. 081 5 j 6.98 X4 =- 0. 1312 j 5. 21
1 =- 0. 148 5 j 6.099
5
I t i s theref ore evi dent that the power system
stabi l i zers are essenti al to mtah the
el ectromechani cal osci l l ati ons i n the Brazi l i an system
adequatel y damped.
The i denti f i cati on or characteri zati on of the
vari ous modes of osci l l ati on i s done through the
anal ysi s of the rotor speed mode- shapes. ?his anal ysi s
shows that 4 i s associ ated wi th an i nter- area
osci l l atory mode, of f requency 3.5 rad/ s (0. 55 Hz), i n
whi ch the mi chi nes of the South system osci l l ate
agai nst those of the Southeast system. The mode of
f requency 6. 988 rad/ s (1. 11 Hz) corresponds t o an
i ntermachi ne osci l l ati on i n whi ch I TAI PU i s the
generator s h h g the l argest rotor speed devi ati ons.
The mode of f requency 5. 374 rad/ s (0. 85 Hz) i s
observabl e al l over the systemand t o a l arger degree
i s the f ol l owi ng generators: JACUf, PROMIS&,
AVANHANDAn, CAPIVARA, JUF'I& I . SOLTEI RA, GBM,
EMBORCA@O~~~ I TUMBI ARA.
The resi due cal cul ati on al gori thm was used t o
determi ne a minimum set of enerators to damp the ms t
cri ti cal modes: X2 and it . Tabl e I l i sts the
l argest tranf er ' kncti on rzsi dues rel ati ve t o the
i nter- area mode of osci l l ati on ( Al l together wi th the
associ ated generators. The rel ati ve magni tudes of the
resi du are Qsted f or the transf er f uncti ons
pk(s)/? (s)and U (s)/V,k f(s). Note that the r ankhgs
okt ai nAef wi t h these tw% t r mer f uncti ons are qui te
di f f erent. Actual l y, there i s a f i xed rel ati on between
the resi dues of these two transf er f uncti ons:
where * and ** denotes resi dues f or pol e A . associ ated
wi th t hs var i apes " ~ ~ ' 1 and *'ut' re&ti vel y . The
symbol s and D represent the i nerti a constant and
the mechani cal dampi ng constant f or the k- th generator.
The' vari abl es "P I' and '' w 'I st and f or generator
termi nal power andtrotor speed respecti vel y. Note that
the rel ati on above i s onl y val i d i n the absence of
mechani cal power vari ati ons.
The authors f avour the use of pt(s)/ vref(s) f or
ranki ng generators si nce thi s transf er f uncti on
i nherentl y carri es i nf ormati on on machi ne si ze. I t i s
i ntui ti ve that between two strategi cal l y l ocated
machi nes, the l arger has more chances t o damp a
mul ti machi ne mode of osci l l ati on.
The generati ng pl ant named GBM i s operati ng as a
syncronous condenser and generates 150 MVAr. I t i s seen
f rom Tabl e I that GBM i s one of the most sui tabl e
machi nes f or i nstal l i ng a stabi l i zer i n order t o damp
Al. Theref ore, the currentl y adopted practi ce of
di sconnecti ng the power system stabi l i zer when the
machi ne i s operati ng as a synchronous condenser i s not
el ectromechani cal osci l l ati on dampi ng.
absol utel y necessary f rom the vi ewpoi nt of
Tabl e I 1 shows the l argest resi dues rel ati ve t o
another l ow damped osci l l atory mode (A2). Tabl e I 11
shows the shi f ts experi enced by the domi nant
ei genval ues af ter i nserti on of stabi l i zers i n the
i ri di cated machi nes. The stabi l i zer data were provi ded
by the Brazi l i an el ectri ci ty campani es.
The ei genval ues shown i n Tabl e I 11 are i n
agreement wi th the ranki ng resul ts obtai ned ( see Tabl es
and I I ), and are nowshortl y di scussed:
The PSS of ITA& strongl y damps X1 but does not
si gni f i cantl y af f ect h or X 3.
The PSS of I ' I UMBI ARAdamps A1 and
The PSS of GBM strongl y damps X 1.
The stabi l i zers of D ~ R C A ~ O and I . SOLTEI RA damp
h 2 .
I 2'
The PSS of I TAI PUdamps h , and accordi ng t o the
associ ated ranki ng l i st ?not shown i n the pper ) i s
the onl y generator wi th thi s capabi l i ty i n the
system.
The j oi nt acti on of the stabi l i zers i n ITA&,
I TAI PU, EMEORCA@O and I-IAFW i s suf f i ci ent t o
damp al l dcmi nant modes f or the operati ng poi nt
consi dered.
-ti on ( 4) al l ows an approxi mate cal cul ati on
of ei genval ue shi f ts due t o the i nserti on of a
stabi l i zer wi th a mal l gai n [ 1 1. I n f act thi s
approxi mati on i s someti mes reasonabl e even f or
practi cal val ues of stabi l i zer gai ns as shown i n the
f ol l owi ng l i nes. Denote the ei genval ue esti mated
78
Tabl e I - Largest Transf er Functi on Resi dues Rel ati ve to X1 = - . 0017 + j 3. 511
I
Associ ated Stabi l i zer deri ved Ranki ng Stabi l i zer deri ved Ranki ng
Generator f rom"Pt" (1) f m"U" (2)
(1) (2)
GEM
IT-
ITUMBIARA
I . SOLTEI RA
J ACUf
MARIMBOND0
I TAI PU
P. FUNDO
1. 0
0. 936
0.476
0. 367
0. 312
0. 300
0. 232
0. 161
0. 389
1 .o
0. 131
0. 064
0. 585
0. 097
0. 135
0. 309
I
Tabl e I 1 - Largest Transf er Functi on Resi dues Rel ati ve to x2 =- 0. 022 1: j 5. 374
Associ ated Stabi l i zer deri ved Ranki ng Stabi l i zer deri ved Ranking
Generator f rom"P ' I (1) f rom"U' (2)
(1) (2)
I . SOLTEI RA
I ' I UMBI ARA
J ACUf
ENHI RCAGO
mIA
1. 0
0. 303
0. 070
0. 052
0. 040
1. 0
0. 479
0. 758
0. 129
0. 113
Tabl e I 11 - Ei genval ue Shi f ts Fol l owi ng I nserti on of Power SystemStabi l i zers
r
Generator ( s )
wi th Stabi l i zer
A
2
I
None
GBM
J ACUf
I . SOLTEI RA
I TUMBI ARA
I TAI FU
I . SOLTEI RA
I TAI PU+I "MBWI A_
I TA~BA
EMEQRCA@O
I TAI FU+I TAL~A+
+I TA~BA+EMBORCA@O
-0. 0017 + j 3. 511
-0. 553 + j 3. 470
-0. 240 + j 3. 112
-0. 139 + j 3. 492
-0. 0087 + j 3. 509
-0. 084 + j 3. 539
-0. 064 + j 3. 482
-0. 018 + j 3. 503
- 0. 570 + j 3. 436
-0. 624 + j 3. 27
-0. 022 +j 5. 374
-0. 0082 + j 5. 387
+0. 0082 + j 5. 352
+0. 013 + j 5. 365
-0. 157 + j 5. 342
-0. 172 + j 5. 448
- 0. 130 + j 5. 435
-0. 019 + j 5. 366
-0. 145 + j 5. 316
(*I
-0. 081 + j 6. 988
- 0. 052 + j 7. 011
-0. 057 + j 7. 042
-0. 092 + j 6. 999
-0. 0866+j 6. 992
-0. 083 + j 6. 987
-0. 080 + j 6. 986
-0. 334 + j 6. 974
-0. 378 + j 6. 982
(*I
* - Ei genval ues h2 and h3 coul d not be easi l y i denti f i ed.
A l l system ei genval ues are well-damped.
through equati on $4) by hest and
' Iheresul ts of Ranki ng - (2) i n Tabl e I 1 pi nt
ei genval ue by . J ACUf as an adequate generator f or dampi ng h2. I t
was noted however that, i rrespecti ve of i ts parameters,
- For the stabi l i zer Of ITA- $Udti on (4) yi el ds the stabi l i zer of J Amf c&d not damp A2. A more
the cal cul ated
= - 0.49 2 j 3. 21 whi l e l ne =- 0. 55 51 3- 47 detai l ed anal ysi s r evel ed the exi smce of an
est
open- l oop t r akf er f uncti on zero Z =+ 0. 0197 5
j 5.37. Theref ore, despi te the l ade resi due, the
=- 0. 11 5 j 3. 44 whi l e l ne =- 0. 14 5 j 3. 49 proxi mi ty of zero Z, caused pol e A, to be i nvari abl y
- For the stabi l i zer of J ACUf v t i o n (4) yi el ds l est
attracted to i t as &e stabi l i zer ga& was i ncreased.
An i terati ve procedure f or det ehh3 adequate The reader i s ref erred to [ 14 I f or some i nteresti ng
Stabi l i zer based on -ti on (4) i s resul ts on the detri mental ef f ect of ri ght-hand pl ane
descri bed i n b1 . The undamped ei genval ue i s moved zeros on -r system
f rom the i ni ti al to i ts f i nal posi ti on by subsequent
smal l shi fts. The rmi n di sadvantage i s that i t i s
necessary to recal cul ate ei genval ues and resi dues at
each step of thi s procedure [ 9 1.
79
Use of Resi dues i n Stabi l i zer Retuni nq
A possi bi l i ty worth i nvesti gati ng i s the use of
resi dues to hel p retuni ng exi sti ng &mer system
stabi l i zers. As an exampl e, the gai n of the stabi l i zer
at I TXCpU was hal ved and the systemei genval ue X 3
and associ ated resi dues were recal cul ated. These
resi dues sti l l pl aced I TAI PU as the f i rst in the
ranki ng l i st , i ndi cati ng that another stabi l i zer shoul d
be added in paral l el wi th the exi sti ng one. Thi s was
obvi ousl y equi val ent to sayi ng that the stabi l i zer at
I TAI PUneeded to be retuned.
Resul ts Obtai ned wi th Methcds Usi nq Si mDl i f i ed Model s
Ref erence [l ] al so descri bes a Si mpl i f i ed methcd
whi ch cal cul ates resi dues f or the ei genval ues of a
pawer systemstate matri x i n whi ch411 generators are
represented by the cl assi cal 2 order model . The
methcd proposed i n 1151 i s very si mi l ar to that of [l]
though i t does not obtai n transf er f uncti on resi dues.
These t m si mpl i f i ed methods were al so programed by the
authors i n order to test thei r perf ormances. A short
s um~r y of the resul ts obtai ned f or the South- Southeast
Brazi l i an systemi s presented i n the f ol l owi ng l i nes.
The si mpl i f i ed representati on of the system
generators causes the three ei genval ue of
i nterest to becane: A s =0 2 j 3.48, h - 0 j
5.55 and h:= 0 j 6.80. I t i s worth 2menti oni ng
that the associ ati on between h . (obtai ned wi th a
detai l ed system representati on) hd h s i s made
through the observati on of si mi l ar pat t er h in thei r
r ot or - sped mode shapes. Thi s associ ati on i s however
not al ways an easy nntter due to the l arge di f f erences
betweenthesetwon&hcds regardi ng p e r system
del l i ng.
The si mpl i f i ed methods of [l] and [151had equal
perf ormances and produced f ai rl y good resul ts f or the
three ei genval ue pai rs of i nterest. The generators
whi ch came f i rst pl ace i n thei r ranki ng l i st were the
same ones i ndi cated by the mr e detai l ed method used in
thi s paper [l] . Hmever , f or the remai ni ng generators
of the systemthere were l arge di screpanci es between
the resul ts of the si mpl i f i ed and detai l ed methods.
The a c da t e d experi ence to date by the authors
i ndi cates that the si mpl i f i ed methods gi ve sati sf actory
resul ts f or l owf requency i nter- area d e s , but can
l ead to i nadequate resul ts f or d e s of hi gher
f requency. The cl assi cal generator model l i ng i s a
seri ous handi cap si nce i t di storts the f requency and
di sregards the dampi ng of the systemosci l l atory modes.
The resi dues obtai ned wi th the si mpl i f i ed method do not
contai n any val uabl e i nf ormati on regardi ng the requi red
phase compensati on f or a gi ven stabi l i zer. Ref erences
[11 and [151 j usti f y the use of the si mpl er methods f or
i ts reduced compl tati onal l oad and f or bei ng somet hes
desi rabl e to obtai n the generator ranki ng l i st
di sregardi ng thei r autornati c vol tage control systems.
Thi s goal coul d be mr e easi l y achi eved usi ng the
ef f i ci ent method of thi s paper to cal cul ate resi dues
f or the transf er f uncti ons P ( S I / E ( S I , where Ef d i s
the f i el d vol tage f or the k-th gener&!or.
V. STATIC VAR ccMpENsAToR RESULTS
The M-Area Test System
Ref erence [ 8 1 cont aks a detai l ed and hi ghl y
i nstructi ve study on the use of stati c campensators
f or dampi ng pmer system swings. The control l abi l i ty
and observabi l i ty f actors are cal cul ated i n [81 wi th
the obj ecti ve of desi gni ng the suppl ementary
stabi l i zi ng control of the SVC and choosi ng the best
l ocal vari abl e to f eedback. The work reported in [81
appl i es to the SVC probl emexactl y the same i deas used
i n 111 to f i nd the ms t Sui tabl e generators f or pl aci ng
stabi l i zers.
The two- area systemchosen to be studi ed here i s
al nrsst i denti cal to that of [8] except f or the
generator and exci tati on control parameters whi ch were
not avai l abl e. The resul ts obtai ned were al l i n
agreement wi th those descri bed i n [a] though i t i s
worthwhi l e to put f orward sane comnents. Fi gure 4.4 of
[8] shows the vari ati on of the control l abi l i ty f actor
as a f uncti on of the paver transf er, wi th the SVC
l ocated mi dway between the two areas. I t i s seen f ran
that f i gure that the control l abi l i ty f actor changes
si gn wi th a reversal i n the di recti on of the power
i nterchange. As the test system i s exactl y
synet r i cal thi s resul t l ooked surpri si ng to the
authors. A caref ul anal ysi s of thi s probl emshowed that
control l abi l i ty and observabi l i ty f actors are compl ex
numbers whose magni tude and angl e depend on the scal i ng
and ori entati on of the ri ght arid l ef t ei genvectors -
onl y thei r product, whi ch i s the resi due, has a uni que
val ue. Wi th adequate mani pl at i on of the ei genvectors
i t was possi bl e to reproduce Fi gure 4. 4 of [ 8] .
When attempti ng to determi ne the best l ocati on
f or pl aci ng the SVC i n order to damp the i nter- area
mode of osci l l ati on, the methcd of [SI has sane
i nconveni ences. Consi der the Fi gure 4.5 of [ 8] , whi ch
shows the control l abi l i ty f actor as a f uncti on of the
SVC l ocati on i n the two- area system. The curve i n
Fi gure 4.5 was prcduced f m resul ts of many di f f erent
runs of the l oad f l aw and ei genval ue cal cul ati on
programs. I n contrast t o that, the al gori thm proposed
here can determi ne i n one si mul ati on the opti mal
l ocati on of the SVC f or a gi ven power i nterchange
l evel . Thi s i s achi eved by havi ng the l oad f l ow
sol uti on obtai ned at i ntermedi ate pi nt s al ong the
transmi ssi on ci rcui t of the two- area system. The
transmi ssi on ci rcui t was di vi ded i nto ten secti ons of
equal l ength yi el di ng an el even- bus network sham i n
Fi gure 5. Vari ous power f l awcondi ti ons were consi dered
and the resi dues associ ated wi th the i nter- area mode of
osci l l ati on cal cul ated f or transf er f uncti ons
V. (s) / B. (s). The symbol s V. and B. denote i ncremental
c hges i?i vol tage magni tudel and s?i unt admi ttance at
the i - th system bus respecti vel y. The tri di mensi onal
surf ace of Fi gure 6 s h m the vari ati on of the modul i
of these resi dues as a f uncti on of both pwer transf er
l evel and Svc l ocati on. I t i s seen that the resi dues
have l arger magni tude f or buses near the mi ddl e of the
transmi ssi on ci rcui t and that they i ncrease wi th the
power transf er. When there i s no pwer i nterchange
between areas the resi dues are comparati vel y very l aw
and at the mi d- pi nt of the transmi ssi on ci rcui t (bus
6) the resi due i s equal t o zero. Theref ore, f or t hi s
operati ng condi ti on, the i nter- area mode of osci l l ati on
i s not observabl e nor control l abl e f romthe mi d- pi nt
of the transmi ssi on ci rcui t.
These resul ts are i n accordance wi th [B] showi ng
that the SVC shoul d be l ocated near the &-poi nt of
the transmi ssi on ci rcui t and that i t becomes mr e
ef f ecti ve i n dampi ng the i nter- area mode of osci l l ati on
f or hi gher pwer transf er l evel s.
The Brazi l i an I nterconnected System
The Brazi l i an systemwi thout stabi l i zers was seen
to have ei genval ues =- 0.0017 2 j 3.51 (i nter- area
mode) arid 5 =- 0.081 2 j 6.988 (I TAI PUl ocal mode).
~n anal ysi s of the transf er f uncti on resi dues,
i denti f i ed the termi nal bus of the J ACUf generator as
the ms t adequate f or the i nstal l ati on of an SVC in
order to damp Al. A great nmk r of other buses
l ocated at di f f erent parts of the systemwere seen t o
al so be adequate l ocati ons f or daqi ng 1. Si mi l arl y,
h
80
POWER INTERCHANGE ( M W)
-
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1
detai l ed rotor dynami cs representati on and are equipped
wi th speed- governor and exci tati on control systems. The
resul ti ng power system J acobi an has about 3000
equati ons and the total number of state vari abl es i s
953.
I I I I I I I I I I
Al l ti mes gi ven here are for the VAX
si gni f i cantl y reduced i f the computer program was
f urther opti mi zed.
bus to pl ace i t ? The ei genval ue pi : associ ated wi th the
i nter- area mode of osci l l ati on i s now 4 = - 0. 022 2
j 3. 018. The ei genval ue pai r associ ated wl th the I TAI PU
l ocal mode of osci l l ati on i s
7 11/ 780 cci nputer and i t i s bel i eved they coul d be
SVC : Which i s the best
Fi gure 5. Two- A! a Test System
X3 =- 0, 125 2 j 7. 039.
These two ei genval ues were cal cul ated usi ng the
AESOPS/ PEALS [ 3 I and the -l i ci t I nverse I terati on
(111) 2 1 al gori thms. %s resul ts gi ven are f or an
ei genval ue tol erance of 10 on both real and i magi nary
prts .
A RESI DUE
MAGNITUDE - For an i ni ti al esti mate (0 + j 7) the
AESOPS/pEALS al gori thm took 25 i terati ons to converge
to h . The mechani cal di sturbance was appl i ed to the
I TAI PU3generator. The total CPU t hs was 474 seconds.
- For an i ni ti al esti mate (0 + j 3) the
AESOPs/ PEAZS al gori thmtook 9 i terati ons to converge to
A . The mechani cal di sturbance was appl i ed to the
IT& generator. The total CPUwas 192 seconds.
- For an i ni ti al esti mate (0 + j 3. 5) the I 11
al gori thm took 78 seconds to converge to X1 i n 9
i terati ons (wi th onl y two matri x f actori zati ons). Thi s
al gori thm took the same CPU ti me and
iterations/factorizations to converge to h3 when the
i ni ti al est ht e was (0 + 7).
The resul ts presented here show the superi ori ty
of the 111 al gori thmbut the authors recogni ze that the
AESOPS/ PEALS al gori thm may be the best choi ce i n sane
cases.
Once the desi red ei genval ue and associ ated
I nterchange and Network Locati on augment ed ri ght ei genvector are obtai ned, the
cal cul ati on of the l ef t ei genvector i s very f ast. The
*e termi nal ms of the I T ~ ~ U generator was pi nt - as 111 al gori thm i s appl i ed to the previ ousl y Cal cul ated
the most adequate f or dampi ng Xg. I n thi s case onl y LU f a%~s and normal l y Converges af ter 3 Or 4
*e me s l ocated on the radi al ci rcui t out of the i terati ons (Onl y repeat sol uti ons are needed). The
I TAI PU generator were i denti f i ed as adequate l ocati ons sparse matri x Pr duCt s Shown i n equati ons (17) - (18)
for daupi ng X3.
Fi gure 6. Resi due Magni tude as a Functi on of Power
requi re very l i ttl e ccnnputati onti me.
The i nf ormati on obtai ned f romthe anal ysi s of the
transf er f uncti on resi dues =re veri fi ed through
ei genval ue cal cul ati on. A f l oati ng SVC (wi th no MVILI:
generati on) l ocated at the I TAI FU bus and wi th a
yi el ds X3 =- 0. 333 2 j 6. 975. A f l oati ng SVC
pl aced at the JACUf generator txs and wi t h an
appropri ate transf er f uncti on yi el ds X1 =- 0. 167 2
j 3.67.
These resul ts i ndi cate that i n the absence of
power system stabi l i zers, a correctl y tuned SVC
Ma t e s the machi ne termi nal vol tage i n order to
generate the necessary dampi ng torques. I n thi s case,
the best l ocati on f or the Svc my wel l be at a
generator bus.
VI . CPUTI ME RESULTS
The Brazi l i an system previ ousl y anal ysed i s
model l ed here in greater detai l : al l 99 generators have
The augmnt ed l ef t ei genvector rel ati ve to hl
vias obtai ned i n 8. 53 seconds. The resi dues f or A,
needed f or PSS l ocati on were cal cul ated arad properl y
ordered to obtai n the generator ranki ng l i st i n 1. 57
seconds. The bus ranki ng l i st needed f or SVC l ocati on
was cal cul ated i n 17. 07 seconds.
Thi s paper descri bed two al gori thms f or the
cal cul ati on of transf er f uncti on resi dues i n l arye
scal e power systems. These al gori thms are i ntended to
hel p determi ni ng the most adequate si tes in a system
f or pl aci ng dampi ng sources i n order to 9
troubl esare el ectranechani cal osci l l ati ons. "he damprng
sources consi dered i nt hi s paper are pawer system
stabi l i zers and stati c VAr ccanpensators.
The f i rst al gori thm, rel ati ve to pawer system
stabi l i zers, represents an i mportant devel opnent on
the pmer f d methcdol ogy propsed i n [ 1 1 , whose use
was up to mw restri cted to power systems of l i mi ted
si ze. ?he second al gori thm ai ms at aetermining
appropri ate buses, out of al l buses int he system, to
81
pl ace stati c VAr - ccanpensators t o ai d i n dampiny
speci f i c system &S. Tnis di f f ers f romthe generator
stabi l i zer probl emi n whi ch the generator si tes are
al ready def i ned.
The ranki ng l i st f or PSS or SVC si ti ng my not
al ways be i n the correct order f or practi cal use i n
l arge systems. The resi due i nf or mt i on onl y concerns
i ncremental val ues of gai n i n the f eedback l oop. I t was
f ound that an open- l oop zero l ocated i n the proxi mi ty
of the pl e t o be damped coul d attract i t and i mpai r
any si gni f i cant pol e shi f t through that speci f i c
f eedback l oop. I n such cases the l arge rel ati ve val ue
of the resi due associ ated wi th the i nserti on of thi s
f eedback l oop must be di sregarded from the ranki ng
l i st.
The resul ts presented in thi s paper cl earl y
demonstrate the benef i ts to be gai ned f ran the use of
concepts based on transf er f uncti on resi dues. The CHT
t he needed f or the cal cul ati on of transf er f uncti on
resi dues was a smal l f racti on of the CPU ti me
requi red f or the cal cul ati on of a cri ti cal ei genval ue
by the ef f i ci ent methods descri bed i n 1 2, 3, 4, 5 1 .
The ef f i ci ency of the pr opsed al gori thm f or
si ti ng power system stabi l i zers obvi ates the need to
resort to the sj mpl i f i ed methodol ogi es of [ 1, 15 1 .
I t must be kept i n mi nd that the ms t i nexpensi ve
way to damp el ectromechani cal osci l l ati ons i s through
the use of wel l l ocated and tuned power system
stabi l i zers. The possi bi l i ty of dampi ng these
osci l l ati ons through stati c Compensators shoul d onl y be
consi dered once the PSS opti on has been exhausted.
For the sake of brevi t y, the resul ts presented
f or the Br a~i l i an i nterconnected systemonl y consi dered
one parti cul ar operati ng condi ti on. The authors agree
wi th [ 9 1 that several network condi ti ons must be
anal ysed i n order to determi ne the best si ti ng f or the
dwi ngsour ces (PSS and SVC) i n'an actual power
system.
VI I I . ACKN-S
Numerous di scussi ons wi th Prof . A l wa r pedroso
(CEPEL) and M r . Leo Mikami ( COPEL, Brazi l ) have been
val uabl e in devel opi ng the concepts presented i n thi s
paper. The hi gh i nterest and encouragi ng r emr ks of Dr.
Prabha K undur and Dr. GrahamJ . Rogers, f rom Ontari o
Hydro, are gratef ul l y acknowl edged. The data on the
Brazi l i an i nterconnected systemwaski ndl y provi ded by
Messrs. Xi sto Vi ei ra Fi l ho and Paul 0 Gams, f rom
El etrobr6s.
w. REFEXENcE.5
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of El ectramechani cal Osci l l ati on Dampi ng by
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[ 3 1 D. Y. Wong, G. J . Rogers, B. mr r et t a, and P.
K undur, "Ei genval ue Anal ysi s of Very Large Power
Syst ems", I EEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol .
[ 4 I A. Seml yen, L. Wang, "Sequenti al Canputati on of
the Cql et e Ei gensystem f or the Study Zone i n
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[ 5 ] N. Uchi da, T. Nagao, "A NewEi gen- Anal ysi s Method
of Steady- State Stabi l i ty Studi es f or Large Power
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[ 6 1 F. L. Pagol a, I . J . Gr ez- Ar r i aga, G.C. Verghese,
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Appl i cati ons to Osci l l atory Stabi l i ty Anal ysi s
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[ 7 1 C. concordi a, I ndependent contri buti on presented
at the CI& 1982 Meeti ng, in Pari s. Proceedi ngs
of CI GRE? 1982, Secti on on SystemPl anni ng, p. 33.
[ 8 1 E. V. Larsen, J . H. Chow, "SVC Control Desi gn
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1987.
[ 9 ] V. Arci di acono, E. Ferrari , R. Fl arconato, G.
Manzoni , "Probl ems posed i n Power SystemPl anni ng
by El ectromechani cal Osci l l ati on Dampi ng and
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31- 15, Pari s, 1982.
[ 101 J . H. Wi l ki nson, "The Al gebrai c Ei genval ue Frobl em" ,
Cl arendon Fress, Oxf ord, 1965.
[ 111 S. At e, A. Doi , "A New Power System Stabi l i zer
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[ 121 A. E. HamMd, "Appl i cati ons of Stati c VAr
Compensators i n Uti l i ty me r Systems" i n I EEE
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[ 131 N. Martins, "FYequency Response Techni ques
Appl i ed to the Desi gn of Addi ti onal Stabi l i zi ng
Si gnal s f or Stati c VAR Compensators i n Power
Syst em". hroc. of IASTED Conf erence on Hi gh
Technol ogy i n the Power I ndustry, pp. 152- 156 ,
Bozeman, Montana, 1986.
[ 141 J . F. Hauer, "Reacti ve PawwControl as a Means
f or Enhanced I nterarea Dampi ng i n the Western
U. S. Pawer System - A F'requency-Danain
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[ 151 F.P. de Mel l o, P. J . Nol an, T. F. Laskowski,
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PAS- 99, pp. 892- 901, May/ J une 1980.
88S I 692- 6.
PAS- 102, pp. 3910- 3918.
79- 92, 1987.
Nel son Marti ns (M' 1981) recei ved hi s B.S. degree frci n
the Uni versi ty of Brasi l i a, Brazi l , i n 1972. He
recei ved the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, both in el ectri cal
engi neeri ng, frcan the Uni versi ty of Manchester, UK, i n
1974 and 1978 respecti vel y.
Lk. Marti ns i s presentl y a seni or research engi neer
at CEPEL, the Br ai i l h el ectri cal energy research
center l ocated i n Ri o de J anei ro. He devel oped several
new di gi tal - ccanpter tool s and authored many papers in
the area of pwer systemdynami cs and control .
Leonard0 T. G. Lima recei ved hi s B. S. degree in
el ectri cal engi neeri ng f romthe Federal Uni versi ty of
Ri o de J anei ro, in 1986.
M r . Li ma worked i n CEPEL unti l September 1988 when
he j oi ned MAI N menhar i a S. A. , an el ectri cal
consul tant f i rminRi o de J anei ro. Hi s current work and
i nterests i ncl ude power systemdynami cs and devel opnent
of l arye scal e pawer systemanal ysi s tool s.
82