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ElectaCourse.com
2005 Last Updated August 2006
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This presentation is suitable for those studying for the
City & Guilds 2391 and 2400 courses
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The presentation includes guidance and
continuous self-assessment
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In order to work through this presentation you will need copies
Of the following publications
BS 7671:2001 (16
th
Edition IEE Wiring Regulations)
Guidance Note 3 (Inspection and Testing
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To ensure the safety of any electrical installation it should be
inspected, tested and the necessary certification completed:
Before being put into service (initial verification)
At regular intervals thereafter (Periodic Inspection Report)
On completion of any alteration or addition
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For an initial verification
BS 7671:2002 states:
Installed equipment to an appropriate standard, i.e. BS, BS EN
Correctly selected and erected
Not visibly damaged or defective as to impair safety
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The Periodic Installation Report (PIR)
BS 7671:2001 states:
Periodic inspection and testing of an electrical installation
shall be carried out to determine, so far as is reasonably
practicable, whether the installation is in a satisfactory condition
for continued service
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Generally, the main reason for undertaking an inspection and
test is to ensure that the installation is safe to use
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What Are the likely reasons for an installation failing to be safe?
Age
Wear and tear
Damage, i.e. fire, flooding etc
Electrical overload
DIY enthusiasts
Unscrupulous contractors
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What factors would influence the need for a PIR
Expiry of current certificate
Change of ownership or use of the installation
As a result of damage or electrical overloading
Mortgage/insurance purposes
Compliance with current regulations
Local bylawrequirements
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What factors would influence the safety of an installation?
Poorly installed equipment/accessories
Loose connections giving rise to shock and or fire
Inadequate overcurrent protection of equipment and circuits
Underrated/overloaded circuit conductors
Inadequate/non-existent earthing or bonding arrangements
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Inspection always proceeds testing
Prior to visual inspection the supply to the installation or part
of the installation undergoing inspection should be
disconnected fromthe supply
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Electrical installations which comply with BS 7671:2001 are
regarded by the Health & Safety Executive as likely to achieve
conformity with which statutory regulations?
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The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
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Page 8
BS 7671:2001 Note by the Health and Safety Executive
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Identify THREE areas which should be given consideration prior to
undertaking alterations or additions to an existing electrical
installation
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The ability of existing equipment including that of the supplier is
adequate for the additional load
The earthing arrangements are adequate
The bonding arrangements are adequate
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130-07 Additions and alterations to an installation
Regulation 130-07-01
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Identify SIX characteristics of the incoming electrical supply that
would need to be ascertained by the person undertaking an
inspection and test of an electrical installation
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(i) the nominal voltage(s)
(ii) the nature of the current and frequency
(iii) the prospective short circuit current at the origin
(iv) the external earth fault loop impedance (Ze)
(v) the suitability for the requirements of the installation
including the maximumdemand
(vi) the type and rating of the overcurrent protective device
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Page 33
313 Nature of Supply
Regulation 313-01-01
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Identify two precautions that should be observed during
inspection and testing of an electrical installation
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avoid danger to persons
avoid damage to property and installed equipment
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Page 170
Chapter 71 - Initial Verification
Regulation 711-01-01
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State the THREE requirements of BS 7671 with regard to installed
electrical equipment
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(i) in compliance with Section 511
(ii) correctly selected and erected in accordance with the
Regulations
(iii) not visibly damaged or defective so as to impair safety
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Page 170- Inspection
Regulation 712 - 01 - 02
Note: Section 511 deals with compliance with standards. All
equipment should comply with the appropriate British Standard or
Harmonized Standard- See page 84 - Selection and Erection of
Equipment
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Identify TWO statutory, and FIVE non-statutory documents that an
inspecting engineer may need to refer when undertaking an
inspection and test on an electrical installation
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Statutory:
Health and Safety at Work Act etc 1974
Electricity at Work Regulation 1989
Non-statutory:
BS 7671:2001
IEE Guidance Note 3 (Inspection and Testing
IEE On-Site Guide
GS 38 Equipment used by electricians (HSE Guidance)
Memorandumof Guidance to The Electricity at Work Regulations
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Visual inspection always precedes testing
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Fromthe inspection check list within BS 7671 Identify THREE
methods of protection against direct electric shock (contact)
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Insulation of live parts
Barriers
Enclosures
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Risk of direct contact. Barrier removed and not replaced
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Risk of direct contact. Barrier removed and not replaced
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Risk of direct contact.
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Page 170
Regulation 712 - 01 - 03
Two additional methods of protection against direct shock of a
special nature are:
Placing out of reach
Obstacles Note: this method of protection is intended to prevent
inadvertent contact with live parts and therefore areas
incorporating this type of protection should only be accessible to
skilled persons only
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Fromthe inspection check list within BS 7671 Identify THREE
methods of protection against indirect contact
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EEBAD
Class II
Electrical Separation
Non-conducting location
Earth-free local equipotential bonding
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Page 170/171
Regulation 712 - 01 - 03
Note: Protection by non-conducting location and earth-free local
equipotential bonding are both of a special nature and very rarely
encountered
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Fromthe inspection check list within BS 7671 Identify TWO methods
of protection against both direct and indirect contact
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Separated extra-lowvoltage (SELV)
Limitation of discharge energy
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Page 170/171
Regulation 712 - 01 - 03
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Fromthe inspection check list within BS 7671 Identify FOUR types of
protective conductor
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earthing conductor
circuit protective conductor (CPC)
main equipotential bonding conductor
supplementary equipotential bonding conductor
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Page 170/171
Regulation 712 - 01 - 03
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Presence of main equipotential bonding conductors
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One requirement fromRegulation 712-01-03 is the selection of
equipment and protective measures appropriate to external
influences. List the external influences likely to be encountered by
an electrical installation located within a commercial greenhouse
accessible to the general public.
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Ultra-violet radiation
Extremes of temperature
Mechanical damage
Water/moisture/humidity
Rodent attack
Chemicals
Corrosion
Vandalism
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Page 170/171
Regulation 712 - 01 - 03
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Regulation 712- 01 - 03 requires visual inspection to ensure
cables are routed in safe zones and also considers erection
methods.
Here are some examples of non-compliance
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Routing of cables
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Routing of cables
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R
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Routing of cables
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R
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Routing of cables
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R
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Routing of cables
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Routing of cables
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Selection of conductors for current carrying capacity
Identification of conductors
Selection of conductors for voltage drop
Requirements for circuit conductors
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Regulation 712- 01 - 03 requires visual inspection to ensure
cables are correctly and adequately identified
Here are some examples of non-compliance
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Identification of conductors
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Identification of conductors
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Identification of conductors
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Identification of conductors
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Identification of conductors
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Electrical connections
Regulation 526-01-1
Every connection between conductors to provide durable
electrical connection and mechanical strength
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Connection between conductors
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Taped joint between PVC and VRI cables
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R
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Taped joint between PVC and VRI cables
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Faulty conductor termination
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Result of insecure/loose connection
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Result of insecure/loose connection
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The Regulations require that connections and joint be accessible
for inspection, testing and maintenance. There are however FOUR
situations where this regulation does not apply. Identify these
FOUR situations.
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Regulation 526-04-01
(i) A compound-filled or encapsulated joint
(ii) A connection between a cold tail and a heating element
(iii) A joint made by welding, soldering, brazing or compression
tool
(iv) A joint forming part of the equipment complying with the
appropriate product standard
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Page 100
Regulation 526-04-01
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Erection of wiring systems
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Lid/covers not fitted
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Lid/covers not fitted
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Lid/covers not fitted
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Enclosure door not secured
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Equipment door forced open to defeat interlock
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Enclosure not secured to wall
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Enclosure not secured to wall
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A visual inspection is to be carried out on a domestic installation.
Detail FIVE specific areas of visual inspection at the origin of this
installation.
For the purpose of this exercise the PES supply has been isolated
by the removal of the service head fuse.
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Presence and size of earthing conductor
Presence and size of main equipotential bonding conductors
Type and rating of overcurrent protective devices
Prospective breaking capacity of overcurrent devices
Circuit and conductor identification
Type of earthing arrangement
IP rating of distribution board
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A miniature circuit breaker within the distribution board is marked
as a Type 2, M6 device.
Describe the characteristics of this device and state to which
Standard it complies.
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As the device carries an M rating its has been manufactured to
BS 3871 (nowreplaced by BS EN 60898 device)
Mindicates its maximumprospective fault current value M6 = 6kA
6000A.
Type 2 indicates the instantaneous tripping characteristic
4.0 7.0 In.
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Page 60 Guidance Note 3
Table 4.2 Rated short-circuit capacities
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State TWO functional tests that may be applied at the distribution
board
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Operation of circuit breakers
Operation of the main switch
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State the hand lighting would you use if working in a confined
damp location?
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Hand lighting provided froman SELV (Separated Extra-LowVoltage)
supply
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Separated Extra-LowVoltage (SELV)
Supplied froma recognised safety source - Regulation
ELV conductors NOT referenced to earth - Regulation
Within voltage constraints - Regulation
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The following information relates to a circuit breaker complying
with BS EN 60898.
Type B
Icn 10
Ics 7.5
State the meaning of each of the above terms
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Type B relates to the instantaneous tripping characteristic of
the device. In this case 3 - 5 In (where In is the rating of the
device in amperes
Icn - the rated short-circuit capacity (indicted on the device)
Ics the service short-circuit capacity.
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Page 60 Guidance Note 3
Table 4.2 Rated short-circuit capacities
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State TWO characteristics of the incoming supply that may be
determined by enquiry or measurement
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Prospective fault current
External earth fault loop impedance
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313 Nature of supply
Regulation 313-01-01
Any of the following characteristics may be obtained by
measurement or enquiry:
Nominal voltage, nature of current and frequency. Generally
however the two most common characteristics determined by
enquiry and calculation are Ze (external earth fault loop
impedance) and prospective fault current Ip.
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Regulation 313-01-01 requires that the supply characteristics from
whatever source be verified. Give TWO examples of sources other
than that of the PES supply that may supply an installation
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Those of:
standby generators (alternators
Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)
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An RCD protected A
2
radial circuit feeds five 13A socket outlets to
BS 1363. The circuit has been added to an existing installation
within domestic premises.
identify the relevant document that should be completed for this
installation
The sequence of tests, in the correct order that should be
applied to this circuit
If the supply to the installation is TN-S state the main purpose of
the RCD
In the correct sequence identify the tests that should be applied
to the RCD
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Minor Works Certificate
Continuity of CPCs
Provide supplementary protection against direct contact
x I n
1 x I n
5 x I n
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Page 29 GN 3
2.7.4 The sequence of tests
Page 171
Regulation 713-01-01 (sequence of tests)
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State the action you would take if ONE of the tests undertaken in
question 22 indicated a defect
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Determine whether fault would have any adverse effect on any
previous tests result
When rectified repeat any tests that may have been adversely
affected
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Explain why applying a functional test only, to a residual current
device is unacceptable during a periodic inspection (PIR)
Howoften should an RCD undergo functional testing
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Functional testing relies upon an imbalance between phase and
neutral within thetoroidal winding of the device. It does not verify:
the presence of earthing conductor
the presence of any CPCs
the presence of any earthing arrangements
does not verify operating time or current
Functional testing applied at three month intervals
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Page 61 GN
32.7.16 Operation of residual current devices
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Regulation 713-13-01 Functional testing
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Explain why an insulation resistance test instrument is required to
produce a current of 1 mA when loaded at the minimumacceptable
value of insulation as permitted by BS 7671?
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Effect of instrument loading on output (terminal) voltage
0.5M 1.0M 10M
Terminal voltage
500V d.c.
Insulation resistance M
Minimumacceptable value for 230/400V circuits
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Page 86 GN
4.4 Insulation resistance testers
Page 172
Regulation 713-04-03
An effective test for insulation can only be made if the output
voltage is maintained by the instrument
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Explain the possible danger of removing test probes froma circuit
under test before releasing the test button of an insulation
resistance tester
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Capacitance of the circuit's under test may be as high as 5F.
When releasing the test button the instrument automatically
discharges the circuit under test. Failure to employ this discharge
circuit may lead to electric shock fromcapacitive charge.
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Page 86 GN
4.4 Insulation resistance testers
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Explain the termstanding voltage and the electrical test that may
give rise to this situation
Describe TWO methods of reducing the risk of shock fromthese
standing voltages
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Restrict duration of instrument test currents
Place warning notices in location of test area
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Page 86 GN
4.6 Earth fault loop impedance testers
Restrict test currents to 40mS
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Where impedance tests are undertaken on circuits of rating up to
50A, the instrument used should have a resolution and accuracy
of?
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resolution of 0.01 ohm
accuracy of around 0.2 ohm
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Page 86 GN
4.6 Earth fault loop impedance testers
Instruments to BS EN 61557-3 will comply with the requirements of
BS 7671 with regard to impedance testers
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State the requirements of the Electricity @Work Regulations 1989
with regard to access and lighting whilst undertaking a visual
inspection of the distribution board.
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Working space
Adequate to allowto pull back away fromlive conductors
without hazard
Adequate to allowpersons to pass one another safely
Lighting
Natural light preferred. Where this is impractical permanent
lighting arrangements of an acceptable design should be
provided. At times, lighting may need to be temporary, i.e.
torches or hand lamps. Whichever method is employed the level
of lighting must be adequate to avoid injury
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Regulation 15 Working space, access and lighting
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Means of escape in the event of an emergency
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Means of escape blocked in the event of an emergency
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Safe access and exit fromworkplace?
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A safe and tidy workplace!