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ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS
ROCKY MOUNTAIN
ELECTRICAL LEAGUE
OCTOBER 24, 2002
K. James Phillips, Jr., P.E.
jphillips@phillipsengineers.com
PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.
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ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS
OVERVIEW
PER PHASE
SHORT CIRCUIT
PER UNIT
HARMONICS
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WHY ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS
USED TO PREDICT
OUTCOMES
SHORT CIRCUITS
HARMONICS
VOLTAGES
LOADS
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THE BASICS
ALL ELECTRICAL THEORY RELATES
BACK TO THE BASICS
Volts, Amps, Ohms
I I
Z
V
V = I * Z
Z = V / I
I = V / Z
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SERIES COMBINATIONS
Z
1
Z
2
Z
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COMPLEX IMPEDANCE
R
X
Z
0
X = Z * Sin 0
R = X
X/R
Z = R
2
+X
2
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SHORT CIRCUIT REQUIREMENTS
NEC 110-9 AND 110-10
Articles 110-9 and 110-10
Equipment shall have adequate
interrupting rating
Clear faults without extensive damage
Implies must perform short circuit study
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AIC RATINGS
CIRCUIT BREAKER SHORT CIRCUIT
TYPE RATING
QOB 10,000
QOB-H 22,000
QOB-VH 42,000
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SHORT CIRCUIT AMPS (SCA)
Source
Circuit Breaker
Source
3 Phase
Circuit Breaker
Line-Ground
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PER PHASE ANALYSIS
~
~
~
~
A
B
C A
B
C
Ia
Ib
Ic
~
Three Phase Representation
Single Phase Representation
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PER PHASE ANALYSIS EXAMPLE
~
~
~
~
A
B
C A
B
C
Ia
Ib
Ic
~
Three Phase Representation
Single Phase Representation
A 480Y / 277V source is serving a balanced three phase wye resistive load of 20
ohms per phase. What is the current in phase A, B and C?
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PER PHASE ANALYSIS
SHORT CIRCUITS
~
~
~
~
A
B
C A
B
C
Ia
Ib
Ic
~
Three Phase Representation
Single Phase Representation
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DATA
SOURCE IMPEDANCE
THEVENIN
EQUIVALANT
IMPEDANCE
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DATA
TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE
TRANSFORMER
IMPEDANCE
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DATA
CONDUCTOR IMPEDANCE
CONDUCTOR
IMPEDANCE
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BASIC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
I = V / Z = 277 V / (.001+.01+.085 + 2.0)
I = 277 V / 2.096 ohms
I = 132.156 Amps of load current
I
V
Z
source
.001
Z
transformer
.01
Z
conductor
.085
Z
load
2.0
277 V
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BASIC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
I = V / Z = 277 V / (.001+.01+.085)
I = 277 V / 0.096 ohms
I = 2885.4 Amps of short circuit current
I
Z
source
.001
Z
transformer
.01
Z
conductor
.085
Z
load
2.0
Short Circuit
V
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SCA < AIC
CALCULATED
SHORT CIRCUIT
AMPS MUST BE
LESS THAN AIC
RATING
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CALCULATION TRICK
TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE
VOLTAGE
%Z
KVA
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CALCULATION TRICK
TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE
Transformer
Variable voltage source
Short Circuit
A
Percent Impedance = Percent rated primary
voltage that causes rated base/ambient full
load current to flow in the secondary of a
short circuited transformer.
i.e.. 5.75 percent primary voltage causes
full load current in short circuited secondary,
the percent impedance is 5.75%
%Z = 100%
FLA SCA
SCA = (FLA * 100)
%Z
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SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION
EXAMPLE:
1500 KVA TRANSFORMER
5.75% IMPEDANCE
480 VOLT SECONDARY
1500 KVA
5.75%
480 VOLTS
SCAMPS?
X
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SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION
STEP ONE:
FLA = (1500 KVA) / ( .48 KV * SQRT 3 )
FLA = 1804 AMPS
STEP TWO
SCA = (1804 AMPS * 100 ) / 5.75%
SCA = 31,374 AMPS
1500 KVA
5.75%
480 VOLTS
SCAMPS?
X
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PROBLEM WITH IMPEDANCE ON TWO
SIDES OF TRANSFORMER
10 : 1 RATIO
X
20 OHMS
0.8 OHMS
Z1
(VIEWED FROM SECONDARY)
= Z1 * (1 / 10)
2
= 20 * .01 = .002
Z2
(VIEWED FROM SECONDARY)
= Z2 * (10 / 1)
2
= 0.8 * 100 = 80
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WHY PER UNIT?
Calculations that involve impedances at
several voltage levels via transformers,
can become complicated due to the
transformer turns ratio.
Per unit eliminates need to reflect
impedances to different voltages.
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PER UNIT EXAMPLE
Example:
A base number of 500 is used. The following is a
summary of per unit values for various numbers:
Number Per Unit Per Cent
250 0.5 p.u. 50%
500 1.0 p.u. 100%
1000 2.0 p.u 200%
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BASE QUANTITIES
Current (p.u.) = Actual Current
Base Current
Voltage (p.u.) = Actual Voltage
Base Voltage
Impedance (p.u.) = Actual Impedance
Base Impedance
Power (p.u.) = Actual Power
Base Power
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BASE QUANTITIES
The per unit system requires two base
quantities to be selected:
Base kVA - Fixed Quantity
Base Voltage - Variable Based on Voltage
Two base quantities are calculated:
Base Impedance - function of base voltage
Base Current - function of base voltage
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BASE KVA
(SELECTED)
BASE KVA (MVA):
In electric power systems, the base quantity that
remains constant throughout the system is the base
kVA. The kVA base is not affected by voltage levels
or transformer turns ratios. The amount of kVA
entering the primary of a transformer is the same as
the kVA leaving the secondary of the transformer
(neglecting transformer losses).
Any arbitrary number may be selected as the kVA
base, however, most electric utilities use a 100,000
kVA base commonly referred to as a 100 MVA base.
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BASE VOLTAGE
(SELECTED)
BASE VOLTAGE:
The base voltage will vary depending on the voltage
level of the system. The base voltage is generally
the nominal voltage of a particular voltage level.
PER UNIT VOLTAGE
V p.u. = V actual / V base V actual = V base * V p.u.
Example:
V base = 13.8 kV
V actual = 13.4 kV
V p.u. = 13.4 kV / 13.8 kV = 0.97 p.u.
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BASE CURRENT
(CALCULATED)
I base = MVA
base
* 1000 / (sqrt 3 * kV
base
)
I base = kVA
base
/ (sqrt 3 * kV
base
)
PER UNIT CURRENT
I p.u. = I actual / I base I actual = I base * I p.u.
Example:
Bases: 100 MVA, 13.8 kV
I base = (100 MVA * 1000) / (sqrt 3 * 13.8 kV) = 4183 Amps
Actual Amps = 2500 Amps
I p.u. = I actual / I base = 2500 / 4183 = 0.598 p.u.
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BASE IMPEDANCE
(CALCULATED)
Z base = kV
base
2
/ MVA
base
Per Unit Impedance:
Bases: 100 MVA, 13.8kV
Actual Impedance = 0.32 + j0.27 ohms
Z base = 13.8 kV
2
/ 100 MVA = 1.90 ohms
Z p.u. = 0.168 + j0.142 p.u.
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TABLE OF BASE VALUES
100 MVA - NOMINAL VOLTAGES
Voltage (kV) Impedance
(Ohms)
Current
(Amps)
765 5852.25 75.47
500 2500.00 115.47
345 1190.25 167.35
230 529.00 251.02
138 190.40 418.37
115 132.25 502.04
69 47.61 836.74
34.5 11.90 1673.48
23 5.29 2510.22
13.8 1.90 4183.70
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BASIC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
REVIEW
I = V / Z = 277 V / (.001+.01+.085)
I = 277 V / 0.096 ohms
I = 2885.4 Amps of short circuit current
I
Z
source
.001
Z
transformer
.01
Z
conductor
.085
Z
load
2.0
Short Circuit
V
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SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
PER UNIT
Z
load
V base = 13.8 kV, 3 Phase
MVA base = 100
Assume impedances are all reactive i.e. X only. No R component.
I = V / Z = 1.0 p.u. / (.002+.03+.098 p.u.)
I = 1.0 p.u. / 0.13 p.u.
I = 7.69 p.u. short circuit current
I base = (MVA base * 1000) / (Sqrt 3 * kV base )
I base = ( 100 MVA * 1000 ) / (Sqrt 3 * 13.8 kV)
I base = 4183.7 Amps
I actual = I p.u. * I base I actual = 7.69 p.u. * 4183.7 Amps I actual = 32,172.6 Amps
I
V
Z
source
.002p.u.
Z
transformer
.03p.u.
Z
conductor
.098p.u.
1.0 p.u.
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HARMONICS
DEFINITION
Harmonic Order - integer multiple of the
fundamental frequency.
Harmonic Order Frequency
1 ( fundamental) 60Hz
2 120Hz
3 180Hz
4 240Hz
N N * Fundamental
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HARMONICS - 5TH
5th Harmonic (300 Hz)
Fundamental (60 Hz)
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NON LINEAR LOAD
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SOURCE OF HARMONICS
THE LOAD
Solid State Motor
Drives
Rectifiers
UPS systems
Computer power
supplies
Fluorescent lighting
electronic ballast's
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FREQUENCY SPECTRUM
1 3 5 7 9 11
Harmonic Order
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
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HARMONIC RELATED PROBLEMS
Blown Capacitors / Capacitors Fuses
Transformer Overheating
Neutral Overheating
Motor / Generator Overheating
Equipment Misoperation
Circuit Breaker Misoperation
Communication Interference
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EFFECTS OF CAPACITORS
Without capacitors, the
circuit is predominantly
inductive.
When capacitors are
added, an L-C circuit
results.
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SYSTEM IMPEDANCE
INDUCTIVE ONLY
Example:
Power factor correction
requirements dictate that two 600
kvar capacitor banks be installed
at the substation bus. What does
the system impedance look like
before adding capacitors?
Short Circuit
Capacity = 30MVA
Harmonic
Source
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SYSTEM IMPEDANCE
INDUCTIVE ONLY
Frequency (harmonic order)
Z

(
O
h
m
s
)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Z = jwl, w = 2pi*f, f = frequency
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SIMPLIFIED RESONANCE
CALCULATIONS
Example:
Power factor correction
requirements dictate that two 600
kvar capacitor banks be installed
at the substation bus. The utility
short circuit current is 30 MVA
(36,084 Amps @ 480V). What is
the resonance frequency when
the 600 kvar bank is on line and
what is the resonance frequency
when both 600 kvar banks are on
line.
Short Circuit
Capacity = 30MVA
2 x 600 kvar
Capacitor Bank
Harmonic Source
5
TH
, 7
TH,
11
TH
, 13
TH
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SIMPLIFIED RESONANCE
CALCULATIONS
MVA
sc
= short circuit MVA at the capacitor
bank location.
Mvar
cap
= Mvar rating of the capacitor bank
Source
Impedance
Power
Factor
Capacitor
Harmonic
Source
X
L
X
C
h
r
= MVA
sc
= X
c
Mvar
cap
X
sc
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SIMPLIFIED RESONANCE
CALCULATIONS
Frequency (harmonic order)
Z

(
O
h
m
s
)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
1200 kvar 600 kvar
h
r
= MVA
sc
=
Mvar
cap
30 MVA
sc
= 7
0.600 Mvar
cap
30 MVA
sc
= 5
1.200 Mvar
cap
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RESULTS
PRODUCES SEVERE DISTORTION
DESIGN CAPACITOR AS HARMONIC
FILTER
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IEEE-519
Sets limits for
voltage and current
distortion at PCC
PCC is the point of
common coupling
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QUESTIONS ???
CONTACT INFORMATION:
PHILLIPS ENGINEERS + CONSULTANTS, INC.
4450 BELDEN VILLAGE ST., N.W. SUITE 309
CANTON, OHIO 44718
Tel: 330.491.0261
Fax: 330.491.0265
jphillips@phillipsengineers.com
DESIGN ENGINEERING
ANALYSIS
FEASABILITY
MANAGEMENT
TRAINING