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ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

ROCKY MOUNTAIN

ELECTRICAL LEAGUE

OCTOBER 24, 2002

K. James Phillips, Jr., P.E.

jphillips@phillipsengineers.com

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

www.phillipsengineers.com

ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

OVERVIEW

PER PHASE

SHORT CIRCUIT

PER UNIT

HARMONICS

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WHY ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

USED TO PREDICT

OUTCOMES

SHORT CIRCUITS

HARMONICS

VOLTAGES

LOADS

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THE BASICS

ALL ELECTRICAL THEORY RELATES

BACK TO THE BASICS

Volts, Amps, Ohms

I I

Z

V

V = I * Z

Z = V / I

I = V / Z

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SERIES COMBINATIONS

Z

1

Z

2

Z

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COMPLEX IMPEDANCE

R

X

Z

0

X = Z * Sin 0

R = X

X/R

Z = R

2

+X

2

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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SHORT CIRCUIT REQUIREMENTS

NEC 110-9 AND 110-10

Articles 110-9 and 110-10

Equipment shall have adequate

interrupting rating

Clear faults without extensive damage

Implies must perform short circuit study

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AIC RATINGS

CIRCUIT BREAKER SHORT CIRCUIT

TYPE RATING

QOB 10,000

QOB-H 22,000

QOB-VH 42,000

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SHORT CIRCUIT AMPS (SCA)

Source

Circuit Breaker

Source

3 Phase

Circuit Breaker

Line-Ground

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PER PHASE ANALYSIS

~

~

~

~

A

B

C A

B

C

Ia

Ib

Ic

~

Three Phase Representation

Single Phase Representation

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PER PHASE ANALYSIS EXAMPLE

~

~

~

~

A

B

C A

B

C

Ia

Ib

Ic

~

Three Phase Representation

Single Phase Representation

A 480Y / 277V source is serving a balanced three phase wye resistive load of 20

ohms per phase. What is the current in phase A, B and C?

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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PER PHASE ANALYSIS

SHORT CIRCUITS

~

~

~

~

A

B

C A

B

C

Ia

Ib

Ic

~

Three Phase Representation

Single Phase Representation

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DATA

SOURCE IMPEDANCE

THEVENIN

EQUIVALANT

IMPEDANCE

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DATA

TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE

TRANSFORMER

IMPEDANCE

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DATA

CONDUCTOR IMPEDANCE

CONDUCTOR

IMPEDANCE

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BASIC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

I = V / Z = 277 V / (.001+.01+.085 + 2.0)

I = 277 V / 2.096 ohms

I = 132.156 Amps of load current

I

V

Z

source

.001

Z

transformer

.01

Z

conductor

.085

Z

load

2.0

277 V

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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BASIC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

I = V / Z = 277 V / (.001+.01+.085)

I = 277 V / 0.096 ohms

I = 2885.4 Amps of short circuit current

I

Z

source

.001

Z

transformer

.01

Z

conductor

.085

Z

load

2.0

Short Circuit

V

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SCA < AIC

CALCULATED

SHORT CIRCUIT

AMPS MUST BE

LESS THAN AIC

RATING

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CALCULATION TRICK

TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE

VOLTAGE

%Z

KVA

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CALCULATION TRICK

TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE

Transformer

Variable voltage source

Short Circuit

A

Percent Impedance = Percent rated primary

voltage that causes rated base/ambient full

load current to flow in the secondary of a

short circuited transformer.

i.e.. 5.75 percent primary voltage causes

full load current in short circuited secondary,

the percent impedance is 5.75%

%Z = 100%

FLA SCA

SCA = (FLA * 100)

%Z

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SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION

EXAMPLE:

1500 KVA TRANSFORMER

5.75% IMPEDANCE

480 VOLT SECONDARY

1500 KVA

5.75%

480 VOLTS

SCAMPS?

X

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SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION

STEP ONE:

FLA = (1500 KVA) / ( .48 KV * SQRT 3 )

FLA = 1804 AMPS

STEP TWO

SCA = (1804 AMPS * 100 ) / 5.75%

SCA = 31,374 AMPS

1500 KVA

5.75%

480 VOLTS

SCAMPS?

X

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PROBLEM WITH IMPEDANCE ON TWO

SIDES OF TRANSFORMER

10 : 1 RATIO

X

20 OHMS

0.8 OHMS

Z1

(VIEWED FROM SECONDARY)

= Z1 * (1 / 10)

2

= 20 * .01 = .002

Z2

(VIEWED FROM SECONDARY)

= Z2 * (10 / 1)

2

= 0.8 * 100 = 80

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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WHY PER UNIT?

Calculations that involve impedances at

several voltage levels via transformers,

can become complicated due to the

transformer turns ratio.

Per unit eliminates need to reflect

impedances to different voltages.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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PER UNIT EXAMPLE

Example:

A base number of 500 is used. The following is a

summary of per unit values for various numbers:

Number Per Unit Per Cent

250 0.5 p.u. 50%

500 1.0 p.u. 100%

1000 2.0 p.u 200%

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BASE QUANTITIES

Current (p.u.) = Actual Current

Base Current

Voltage (p.u.) = Actual Voltage

Base Voltage

Impedance (p.u.) = Actual Impedance

Base Impedance

Power (p.u.) = Actual Power

Base Power

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BASE QUANTITIES

The per unit system requires two base

quantities to be selected:

Base kVA - Fixed Quantity

Base Voltage - Variable Based on Voltage

Two base quantities are calculated:

Base Impedance - function of base voltage

Base Current - function of base voltage

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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BASE KVA

(SELECTED)

BASE KVA (MVA):

In electric power systems, the base quantity that

remains constant throughout the system is the base

kVA. The kVA base is not affected by voltage levels

or transformer turns ratios. The amount of kVA

entering the primary of a transformer is the same as

the kVA leaving the secondary of the transformer

(neglecting transformer losses).

Any arbitrary number may be selected as the kVA

base, however, most electric utilities use a 100,000

kVA base commonly referred to as a 100 MVA base.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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BASE VOLTAGE

(SELECTED)

BASE VOLTAGE:

The base voltage will vary depending on the voltage

level of the system. The base voltage is generally

the nominal voltage of a particular voltage level.

PER UNIT VOLTAGE

V p.u. = V actual / V base V actual = V base * V p.u.

Example:

V base = 13.8 kV

V actual = 13.4 kV

V p.u. = 13.4 kV / 13.8 kV = 0.97 p.u.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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BASE CURRENT

(CALCULATED)

I base = MVA

base

* 1000 / (sqrt 3 * kV

base

)

I base = kVA

base

/ (sqrt 3 * kV

base

)

PER UNIT CURRENT

I p.u. = I actual / I base I actual = I base * I p.u.

Example:

Bases: 100 MVA, 13.8 kV

I base = (100 MVA * 1000) / (sqrt 3 * 13.8 kV) = 4183 Amps

Actual Amps = 2500 Amps

I p.u. = I actual / I base = 2500 / 4183 = 0.598 p.u.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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BASE IMPEDANCE

(CALCULATED)

Z base = kV

base

2

/ MVA

base

Per Unit Impedance:

Bases: 100 MVA, 13.8kV

Actual Impedance = 0.32 + j0.27 ohms

Z base = 13.8 kV

2

/ 100 MVA = 1.90 ohms

Z p.u. = 0.168 + j0.142 p.u.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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TABLE OF BASE VALUES

100 MVA - NOMINAL VOLTAGES

Voltage (kV) Impedance

(Ohms)

Current

(Amps)

765 5852.25 75.47

500 2500.00 115.47

345 1190.25 167.35

230 529.00 251.02

138 190.40 418.37

115 132.25 502.04

69 47.61 836.74

34.5 11.90 1673.48

23 5.29 2510.22

13.8 1.90 4183.70

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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BASIC SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

REVIEW

I = V / Z = 277 V / (.001+.01+.085)

I = 277 V / 0.096 ohms

I = 2885.4 Amps of short circuit current

I

Z

source

.001

Z

transformer

.01

Z

conductor

.085

Z

load

2.0

Short Circuit

V

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

PER UNIT

Z

load

V base = 13.8 kV, 3 Phase

MVA base = 100

Assume impedances are all reactive i.e. X only. No R component.

I = V / Z = 1.0 p.u. / (.002+.03+.098 p.u.)

I = 1.0 p.u. / 0.13 p.u.

I = 7.69 p.u. short circuit current

I base = (MVA base * 1000) / (Sqrt 3 * kV base )

I base = ( 100 MVA * 1000 ) / (Sqrt 3 * 13.8 kV)

I base = 4183.7 Amps

I actual = I p.u. * I base I actual = 7.69 p.u. * 4183.7 Amps I actual = 32,172.6 Amps

I

V

Z

source

.002p.u.

Z

transformer

.03p.u.

Z

conductor

.098p.u.

1.0 p.u.

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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HARMONICS

DEFINITION

Harmonic Order - integer multiple of the

fundamental frequency.

Harmonic Order Frequency

1 ( fundamental) 60Hz

2 120Hz

3 180Hz

4 240Hz

N N * Fundamental

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HARMONICS - 5TH

5th Harmonic (300 Hz)

Fundamental (60 Hz)

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NON LINEAR LOAD

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SOURCE OF HARMONICS

THE LOAD

Solid State Motor

Drives

Rectifiers

UPS systems

Computer power

supplies

Fluorescent lighting

electronic ballast's

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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FREQUENCY SPECTRUM

1 3 5 7 9 11

Harmonic Order

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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HARMONIC RELATED PROBLEMS

Blown Capacitors / Capacitors Fuses

Transformer Overheating

Neutral Overheating

Motor / Generator Overheating

Equipment Misoperation

Circuit Breaker Misoperation

Communication Interference

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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EFFECTS OF CAPACITORS

Without capacitors, the

circuit is predominantly

inductive.

When capacitors are

added, an L-C circuit

results.

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SYSTEM IMPEDANCE

INDUCTIVE ONLY

Example:

Power factor correction

requirements dictate that two 600

kvar capacitor banks be installed

at the substation bus. What does

the system impedance look like

before adding capacitors?

Short Circuit

Capacity = 30MVA

Harmonic

Source

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SYSTEM IMPEDANCE

INDUCTIVE ONLY

Frequency (harmonic order)

Z

(

O

h

m

s

)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Z = jwl, w = 2pi*f, f = frequency

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SIMPLIFIED RESONANCE

CALCULATIONS

Example:

Power factor correction

requirements dictate that two 600

kvar capacitor banks be installed

at the substation bus. The utility

short circuit current is 30 MVA

(36,084 Amps @ 480V). What is

the resonance frequency when

the 600 kvar bank is on line and

what is the resonance frequency

when both 600 kvar banks are on

line.

Short Circuit

Capacity = 30MVA

2 x 600 kvar

Capacitor Bank

Harmonic Source

5

TH

, 7

TH,

11

TH

, 13

TH

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SIMPLIFIED RESONANCE

CALCULATIONS

MVA

sc

= short circuit MVA at the capacitor

bank location.

Mvar

cap

= Mvar rating of the capacitor bank

Source

Impedance

Power

Factor

Capacitor

Harmonic

Source

X

L

X

C

h

r

= MVA

sc

= X

c

Mvar

cap

X

sc

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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SIMPLIFIED RESONANCE

CALCULATIONS

Frequency (harmonic order)

Z

(

O

h

m

s

)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1200 kvar 600 kvar

h

r

= MVA

sc

=

Mvar

cap

30 MVA

sc

= 7

0.600 Mvar

cap

30 MVA

sc

= 5

1.200 Mvar

cap

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RESULTS

PRODUCES SEVERE DISTORTION

DESIGN CAPACITOR AS HARMONIC

FILTER

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IEEE-519

Sets limits for

voltage and current

distortion at PCC

PCC is the point of

common coupling

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS+ CONSULTANTS, INC.

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QUESTIONS ???

CONTACT INFORMATION:

PHILLIPS ENGINEERS + CONSULTANTS, INC.

4450 BELDEN VILLAGE ST., N.W. SUITE 309

CANTON, OHIO 44718

Tel: 330.491.0261

Fax: 330.491.0265

jphillips@phillipsengineers.com

DESIGN ENGINEERING

ANALYSIS

FEASABILITY

MANAGEMENT

TRAINING

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