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You are on page 1of 51

Presented By:

J eff Imrie

August 2006

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Mud engineers must be capable of making

various calculations including:

capacities and volumes of pits, tanks,

pipes and wellbores

circulation times

annular and pipe mud velocities

other important calculations.

PFM

Engineering Calculations - Volumes

Rectangular tank

Volume(bbl) = length width height

5.6146

PFM

Engineering Calculations - Volumes

Vertical cylindrical tank

Volume(bbl) = (diameter)

2

height

7.1486

PFM

Engineering Calculations - Volumes

Horizontal cylindrical tank (half full or

less)

Volume (bbl) =

(0.3168 d x h + 1.403 h

2

- 0.933 x(h

3

/d)) length

5.6146

h is the height of the fluid level, ft

d is the diameter of the tank, ft

All diameters are expressed in inches; section

lengths are expressed in feet.

PFM

Engineering Calculations - Volumes

Horizontal cylindrical tank (more than

half full)

Volume (bbl) = (diameter)

2

length -

7.1486

(0.3168 d x h + 1.403 h

2

- 0.933 x(h

3

/d)) length

5.6146

h is the height of the fluid level, ft

d is the diameter of the tank, ft

All diameters are expressed in inches; section

lengths are expressed in feet.

PFM

Engineering Calculations - Volumes

Drillpipe or drill collar capacity and

displacement

You can use calculations or look the data up in a

table

Capacity (bbl/ft) = (inside diameter)

2

1029.4

Displacement (bbl/ft) =

(outside diameter)

2

- (inside diameter)

2

1029.4

PFM

Engineering Calculations - Volumes

Capacity of a long cylinder

bbl/100 ft = 0.0972 D

2

bbl/inch = 0.000081 D

2

bbl/1,000 ft = 0.972 D

2

ft/bbl = 1029 D

2

Where D is the diameter of the cylinder, in

PFM

Engineering Calculations - Volumes

Inside diameter of a steel cylinder

ID = OD

2

- 0.3745W

OD is the outside diameter, in

W is the weight, lb/ft

PFM

Engineering Calculations - Volumes

Pump Output

Normally found in tables

Duplex Pump (bbl/stroke)

Output =

(2 x liner

2

- rod diameter

2

) stroke x Eff

6176.4

Triplex Pump (bbl/stroke)

Output =

(liner inside diameter)

2

0.000243stroke length

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Annular Velocity

Annular Velocity (commonly referred to

as AV) is the average rate at which fluid

is flowing in an annulus.

A minimum annular mud velocity is

needed for proper hole cleaning.

This minimum annular velocity depends

on a number of factors, including rate of

penetration, cuttings size, hole angle,

mud density and rheology.

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Annular Velocity

Annular velocity

Annular velocity (AV), ft/min:

AV = 1029.4 PO

BPM

ID

2

HOLE

- OD

2

DP

PO

BPM

is the pump output in barrels per minute

ID

HOLE

is the diameter of hole or inside diameter

of casing in inches

OD

DP

is drillpipe outside diameter in inches

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Circulation Time

Total circulation time is the time (or

number of strokes) required for mud to

circulate from the pump suction down the

drillstring, out the bit, back up the

annulus to the surface, through the pits

and arrive at the pump suction once

again.

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Circulation Time

Total circulation time

Total circulation time (min) =

V

System

V

Pump Output

V

System

= Total system volume (active) (bbl)

V

Pump Output

= Pump output (bbl/min)

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Circulation Time

Bottoms-up time is the time (or number

of strokes) required for mud to circulate

from the bit at the bottom of the hole

back up the annulus to the surface.

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Circulation Time

Bottoms-up time

Bottoms-up time (min) =

V

Annulus

V

Pump Output

V

Annulus

= Annular volume (bbl)

V

Pump Output

= Pump output (bbl/min)

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydrostatic pressure (P

HYD

) is the pressure

exerted by the weight of a liquid on its

container and is a function of the density of

the fluid and the True Vertical Depth (TVD) as

shown by the equation below.

In a well, this is the pressure exerted on the

casing and open hole sections of the wellbore

and is the force that controls formation fluids

and prevents wellbore collapse.

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Hydrostatic Pressure

Formula for Hydrostatic pressure

P

HYD

(lb/in.

2

) = Mud weight (lb/gal) x TVD (ft) x 0.052

Conversion factor 0.052 =

12 in./ft

231 in.

3

/gal

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Mass Volume Balance

The ability to perform a material balance

is essential in drilling fluids engineering.

Solids analysis, dilutions, increasing

density and blending equations are all

based on material balances.

To solve a mass balance, first determine

the known and unknown volumes and

densities and identify as component or

product.

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Mass Volume Balance

In general, the following steps lead to solving

for the unknown:

Step 1. Draw a diagram.

Step 2. Determine components and products,

mark volumes, and densities as known or

unknown.

Step 3. Develop mass and volume balance.

Step 4. Substitute one unknown into mass

balance and solve equation.

Step 5. Determine second unknown and calculate

material consumption.

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Mass Volume Balance

Volume balance

V

Total

= V

1

+ V

2

+ V

3

+ V

4

+

Mass balance

V

Total

r

Total

= V

1

r

1

+ V

2

r

2

+ V

3

r

3

+ V

4

r

4

+

V = Volume

r = Density

These simple formula's as the basis of volume

and mass balance

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Mass Volume Balance

Example build a weighted mud

Determine the quantities of materials to

build 1,000 bbl (159 m

3

) of 16.0 lb/gal

(1.92 kg/l) mud with 20 lb/bbl (57 kg/m

3

)

Bentonite use Barite as weighting

agent.

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Mass Volume Balance

Step 1. Draw a diagram.

Step 2. Determine densities and volumes with

known and unknown.

Components r (lb/gal) V (bbl)

Water 8.345 ?

Bentonite 21.7 22 (see below)

Barite 35.0 ?

Mud 16.0 1,000

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Mass Volume Balance

V

Gel

= 20 lb/bbl x 1,000 bbl

21.7 lb/gal x 42 gal/bbl

= 22 bbl

Step 3. Develop mass and volume

balance.

V

Mud

r

Mud

= V

Water

r

Water

+ V

Gel

r

Gel

+ V

Bar

r

Bar

V

Mud

= V

Water

+ V

Gel

+ V

Bar

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Mass Volume Balance

At this point the mass balance has two

unknowns (V

Bar

and V

Water

) that can be

determined by using both equations. Solve the

volume balance for one unknown and then

substitute it into the mass balance.

1,000 bbl = V

Water

+ 22 bbl + V

Bar

V

Bar

(bbl) = (1,000 22) V

Water

V

Bar

(bbl) = 978 V

Water

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Mass Volume Balance

Step 4. Substitute one unknown into mass

balance and solve equation.

V

Mud

r

Mud

= V

Water

r

Water

+ V

Gel

r

Gel

+ V

Bar

r

Bar

1,000 x 16 = V

Water

x 8.345 + 22 x 21.7 + (978 V

Water

) x 35

16,000 = V

Water

x 8.345 + 477.4 + 34,230 V

Water

x 35

V

Water

(35 8.345) = 477.4 + 34,230 16,000 = 18,707.4

V

Water

= 18,707.4

26.655

V

Water

= 702 bbl

PFM

Engineering Calculations

Mass Volume Balance

Step 5. Determine second unknown and

calculate material consumption. The

volume of barite is derived from the

volume balance.

V

Bar

= (978 V

Water

) = 978 702 = 276 bbl

lbBar = 276 bbl x (35 lb/gal x 42 gal/bbl)

= 276 bbl x 1,470 lb/bbl

= 405,720 lb

Or 4057 sacks (100lb).

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

The final use of material balance to be

discussed is determining solids analysis.

Two cases are discussed, an unweighted

freshwater system without oil and a

weighted system containing salt and oil.

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

The material balance and volume

equation are as follows:

V

Mud

r

Mud

= V

Water

r

Water

+ V

LGS

r

LGS

V

Mud

= V

Water

+ V

LGS

V

Mud

= Volume of mud

V

Water

= Volume of water

V

LGS

= Volume of Low-Gravity Solids

r

Mud

= Density of mud or mud weight

r

Water

= Density of water

r

LGS

= Density of Low-Gravity Solids

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

The density of water, low-gravity solids

and mud are all known. If the volume of

mud is 100% and the mud weight is

known, the volume of the LGS can be

determined.

First, the volume of water must be solved

for in the volume equation.

%V

Water

= 100% %V

LGS

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

Then this equation must be substituted

into the material balance.

100% r

Mud

= (100% %V

LGS

) r

Water

+ %V

LGS

r

LGS

Solving for the percent volume of low-

gravity solids the following equation is

obtained:

%V

LGS

= 100% x (r

Mud

r

Water

)

(r

LGS

r

Water

)

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

Example with un-weighted mud

An unweighted freshwater mud has a

density of 9.2 lb/gal. Determine the

percent of low-gravity solids in the system.

%V

LGS

= 100% x (r

Mud

r

Water

)

(r

LGS

r

Water

)

%V

LGS

= 100% x (9.2 8.345)

(21.7 8.345)

%V

LGS

= 6.4%

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

Example with weighted saltwater mud

The second case is a weighted system

containing sodium chloride and oil. This

material balance is one of the more

complicated material balance evaluations

encountered in drilling fluids engineering.

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

For this example, the following is given:

Mud weight 16.0 lb/gal

Chlorides 50,000 mg/l

Oil (%) 5 (7.0 lb/gal)

Retort water (%) 63

Weight material Barite (35.0 lb/gal)

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

Step 1. Draw a component diagram.

Step 2. Determine the known and unknown

variables and label the components. Use the

appropriate density for the HGS, LGS and oil.

Components r (lb/gal) V (%)

HGS 35.0 ?

LGS 21.7 ?

Oil 7.0 5%

Salt ? ?

Water 8.345 63%

Mud 16.0 100%

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

Step 3. Write the material balance and

volume equations.

V

Mud

r

Mud

= V

HGS

r

HGS

+ V

LGS

r

LGS

+ V

SW

r

SW

+ V

Oil

r

Oil

V

Mud

= V

HGS

+ V

LGS

+ V

SW

+ V

Oil

= 100%

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

The volume of saltwater cannot be determined

directly. The retort measures the quantity of

distilled water in the mud sample (V

Water

). The

volume of salt (V

Salt

) can be calculated after

measuring the chloride concentration of the

filtrate (saltwater).

The volume of saltwater is equal to the retort

water volume plus the calculated salt volume:

V

SW

= V

Water

+ V

Salt

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

The equations are changed to use these

variables.

V

Mud

r

Mud

= V

HGS

r

HGS

+ V

LGS

r

LGS

+ (V

water

+

V

Salt

) r

SW

+ V

Oil

r

Oil

V

Mud

= V

HGS

+ V

LGS

+ (V

water

+ V

Salt

) + V

Oil

=

100%

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

Step 4. Develop the corresponding

equations to solve for the unknowns.

The density of the saltwater (r

SW

) can be

calculated from the chloride concentration.

The following equation is a curve fit of

density-to-chloride concentration for

sodium chloride.

SG

SW

= 1+1.166 x 10

6

x (mg/l Cl

) 8.375 x 10

13

x (mg/l Cl

)

2

+1.338 x 10

18

x (mg/l Cl

)

3

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

SG

SW

= 1+1.166 x 10

6

x (50000) 8.375 x 10

13

x (50000)

2

+1.338

x 10

18

x (50000)

3

= 1.0564

r

SW

(lb/gal) = 1.0564 x 8.345 = 8.82 lb/gal

The weight percent sodium chloride of the

saltwater is calculated by the following

expression:

% NaCl (wt) = mg/l Cl

x 1.65

SG

SW

x 10,000

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

Substitute

% NaCl (wt) = 50000 x 1.65

1.0564 x 10,000

= 7.81%

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

The volume percent salt of the mud (V

Salt

)

can be calculated from the specific gravity

and weight percent sodium chloride of

the saltwater by the following equation:

V

Salt

= V

Water

100

-1

SG

SW

(100 % NaCl (wt))

V

Salt

=63% 100

-1

1.0564 (100 7.81))

V

Salt

= 1.69%

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

Frequently this salt concentration is

reported in pounds per barrel using the

following conversion:

NaCl (lb/bbl)

= (V

Water

+ V

Salt

) x mg/l Cl

x 1.65 x 3.5

10,000 100

NaCl (lb/bbl) = (63 + 1.69) x 50000 x 1.65 x 3.5

10000 100

= 18.68 lb/bbl

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

Step 5. Use the material balance and

volume equations to solve for the

remaining unknowns.

V

HGS

and V

LGS

are the only remaining

unknowns. First the volume equation is

solved for V

LGS

in terms of V

HGS

and

substituted into the material balance

equation to obtain:

V

Mud

r

Mud

= V

HGS

r

HGS

+ V

LGS

r

LGS

+ (V

Water

+ V

Salt

) r

SW

+ V

Oil

r

Oil

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

V

HGS

r

HGS

= V

Mud

r

Mud

(100 V

Water

V

Salt

V

Oil

V

HGS

) r

LGS

(V

Water

+

V

Salt

)r

SW

V

Oil

r

Oil

V

HGS

= 100 r

Mud

(100 V

Water

V

Salt

V

Oil

) r

LGS

(V

Water

+ V

Salt

)r

SW

V

Oil

r

Oil

r

HGS

r

LGS

V

HGS

=16 x 100 (100 63 1.69 5) x 21.7 (1.69 + 63) x 8.8 7 x 5

(35 21.7)

V

HGS

= 25.41%

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

This concentration is converted to lb/bbl units

as follows:

HGS (lb/bbl) = V

HGS

x r

HGS

100

HGS (lb/bbl) = 25.41% x (35 lb/gal x 42 gal/bbl)

100

HGS (lb/bbl) = 373.5 lb/bbl

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

Next, V

LGS

can be determined using the

volume equation:

V

LGS

= 100% V

Water

V

Salt

V

Oil

V

HGS

V

LGS

= 100% 63% 1.69% 5% 25.41%

= 4.9%

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

This concentration is converted to lb/bbl units

as follows:

LGS (lb/bbl) = V

LGS

x r

LGS

100

LGS (lb/bbl) = 4.9% x (21.7 lb/gal x 42 (gal/bbl))

100

LGS (lb/bbl) = 44.7 lb/bbl

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

Volume (%)

V

H20

63

V

OIL

5

V

SALT

1.69

V

HGS

25.41

V

LGS

4.9

Total 100.0

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

Weight (lb/bbl)

H2O [0.63 x 350] 220.5

Oil [0.05 x 7 x 42] 14.7

NaCl 18.7

HGS 373.5

LGS 44.7 .

Total 672.1

r

Mud

(lb/gal) = 672.1 = 16.0 lb/gal

42

PFM

Engineering Calculations Solids Analysis

End

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