Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

1

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
REL 670 Line Distance
Protection IED
Distance protection ZM, PHS,
ZDIR
Substation Automation and
Protection Training
2

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Distance Protection in REL 670
3

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Distance Protection in REL 670
ZM01, ZM02 ZM05 (zone measurements):
They calculate the 6 impedance loops with non directional characteristic.
PHS (phase selection):
It detects the faulty loops by using
impedance-based algorithm
(STCNDZ), or by using current-
based algorithm (STCNDI).
It detects presence in the Load
area (load encroachment) by using
impedance-based algorithm.
ZD01 (directionality):
It detects the direction for all the
six loops. Memory voltage is here!
4

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Combination of ZD and ZM
Directionality
Non Directional
Characteristic
S
e
t
t
i
n
g

i
s

F
o
r
w
a
r
d
S
e
ttin
g
is
R
e
v
e
rs
e
S
e
t
t
i
n
g

i
s
N
o
n
-
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
a
l
AND
5

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Combination of directional characteristic and Load Area
Directional Characteristic
Load Area (in Phase Selector)
AND
6

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Impedance protection characteristic - examples
PE or PP loops
Depending on settings of ZM, PHS and ZD, there can be different shapes of characteristics:
7

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
ZM function blocks
In order to do this they
measure different electrical
impedances (loops)
ZM function blocks
(ZM01, ZM02, , ZM05)
are responsible for measuring the
distance to the fault.
8

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Phase to phase faults and settings
Reach (settings X1, R1)
Reach (settings X1, R1)
arc resistance
(Setting RFPP)
Z
1
Z
1
Z
1
L1
L2
L3
R
f
9

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
ZM measures the ohm/phase impedance of the fault.
ZM PP loops (2-phase faults)
R1+j X1
R1+j X1
L1
L2
RFPP
2
RFPP
2
Test equipment must be set in ohm/phase!
10

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
ZM measures the ohm/phase impedance of the fault.
ZM PP loops (3-phase faults)
R1+j X1
L2
R1+j X1
L1
RFPP
2
RFPP
2
Test equipment must be set in ohm/phase!
R1+j X1
L3
RFPP
2
11

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Phase to earth faults and settings
Reach (settings X1, R1)
Fault resistance
(Setting RFPE)
Z
1
Z
1
Z
1
L1
L2
L3
Z
N N
Neutral Impedance reach
(settings X1, R1, X0, R0)
R
f
12

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
ZM measures the ohm/loop impedance of the fault.
ZM PE loops (phase-earth faults)
R1+j X1
L1
N
RFPE
Test equipment must be set in ohm/loop!
2 (R1+j X1) +(R0+j X0)
3
Zloop
set
=
(R0+j X0) - (R1+j X1)
3
ZN
set
=
13

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Example of ZM settings
Set ZM zones as indicated: ZM01 = 85% of line (fw) 0 ms
ZM02 = 125% of line (fw) 400 ms
ZM03 = 150% of line (rv) 800 ms
ZM04 = 200% of line (fw) 1000 ms
ZM05 = OFF
14

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Settings for ZM01, 85% of line (fw) 0 ms
Settings are in primary, so there is no need to convert primary settings into
secondary.
15

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Set RFPE = 15 ohms and RFPP = 10 ohms
Settings for ZM01, 85% of line (fw) 0 ms
16

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Set primary nominal rated references (base values)
Settings for ZM01, 85% of line (fw) 0 ms
17

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
All settings for ZM1:
Settings for ZM01, 85% of line (fw) 0 ms
18

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Settings for ZM02, 125% of line (fw) 400 ms
Settings for ZM02:
19

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Settings for ZM03, 150% of line (rv) 800 ms
Settings for ZM03:
20

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Settings for ZM04, 200% of line (fw) 1000 ms
Settings for ZM04:
21

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Settings for ZM05, OFF
Settings for ZM05:
Operation = Off
is the important setting.
Other settings have been
modified in order to avoid
misunderstandings.
Note how they have been set to
the MAX allowed value.
22

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Settings for ZD01, directional function
Directional lines function block (ZD01) must also be set.
Keep default
(10%)
Keep default unless network
calculations suggest different
settings
23

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Settings for ZD01 series compensated lines
Settings for series compensated lines must be changed!
Change default settings for
series compensated networks
(from 115 to 130)
24

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
! The hidden link..
There is a hidden characteristic AND between PHS and ZM,
through the STCNDZ signal.
PHS settings should be calculated in such a way to COVER the zones connected to
STCNDZ (usually ZM01 and ZM02), otherwise the characteristic can be different from the
expected one!
25

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Phase Selector - PHS
26

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Basic PHS settings
Keep these settings as default
Unless system studies
suggest different values
27

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Settings of PHS
PHS settings should be calculated in such a way to COVER the zones connected to
STCNDZ (usually ZM01 and ZM02).
In a more simple way:
Ground Faults (L1N, L2N, L3N PE loops): LN characteristic of PHS must cover LN
characteristic of ZM02
2-Phase faults (L1L2, L2L3, L3L1 PP loops): LL characteristic of PHS must cover LL
characteristic of ZM02
3-phase faults (L1L2L3 PP loops): L1L2L3 characteristic of PHS selector must cover
L1L2L3 characteristic of ZM02.
28

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
PHS LN Characteristic ohm/loop domain
The easiest way is to use the non-
directional characteristic of PHS
29

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
PHS LL and LLL Characteristic ohm/phase domain
30

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
PHS LL and LLL Characteristic ohm/phase domain
31

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Conclusion on PHS settings
PHS settings should be done according to users guide formulae. They can be
graphically verified by using the informal EXCEL tool given to the course participants
32

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
PHS settings to cover ZM01 and ZM02
PHS settings to cover the calculated ZM02 zone are the followings:
33

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
PHS settings for the Load Area
PHS settings defining the load cutting area are the followings:
34

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
PHS settings for the Load Area
From Power data to PHS load data:
35

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
PHS settings for the Load Area
Load Area of PHS (example in forward direction).
jX
R
36

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
PHS Load Area for PE loops: LNfaults
LN faults:
Ohm/loop domain
37

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
PHS Load Area for PP loops: LL and L1L2L3 faults
LL faults:
L1L2L3 faults:
Ohm/phase domain
Ohm/phase domain
38

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Real PHS characteristic: PE Loops
LN faults:
Ohm/loop domain
39

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Real PHS characteristic: PP Loops
LL faults:
Ohm/phase domain
L1L2L3 faults:
Ohm/phase domain
40

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Consequences on ZM shape (PP Loops)
ArgLd < 30 degrees:
41

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Consequences on ZM shape (PP Loops)
ArgLd > 30 degrees:
42

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
PHS can trip
PE characteristic, LN faults
PP Characteristic, LL faults
PP characteristic, L1L2L3 faults
In some application, typical remote back-up
applications, PHS can be set to trip if the fault is
measured within the characteristics (not A32
application).
PHS can be seen as a non directional zone, with 3 different characteristics:
43

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
A32 - Impedance Protection Set-up
44

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
Measured characteristic for calculated settings
PE loops, LN faults ohm/loop domain (KL factor in test equipment = 0).
Primary ohms.
45

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
PP loops, LL faults ohm/phase domain. Primary ohms.
Measured characteristic for calculated settings
46

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
PP loops, L1L2L3 faults ohm/phase domain. Primary ohms.
Measured characteristic for calculated settings
47

A
B
B

A
B
,


2
0
0
7
2007-10-03 Substation Automation and Protection Training
A32 - Connections to TRIP function
This logic works BEFORE the trip and not
DURING the trip to avoid unwanted three-phase
trip command from A/R or Binary Input.