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SUBMITTED BY:

JAMES B. FUlGENCIO
BSE-FILIPINO IV


SUBMITTED TO:
Virgilo P. Vergel

Benjamin Diokno



Benjamin Diokno (born March 31, 1948) was Secretary of Budget and
Management of the Philippines in the administration of President Joseph Estrada, from
July 1998 until Estrada's ouster in January 2001. Diokno also served as Undersecretary
for Budget Operations at the Department of Budget and Management, from 1986 to
1991, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino.
During the Aquino administration, Diokno provided technical assistance to
several major reforms such as the design of the 1986 Tax Reform Program, which
simplified income tax and introduced the value-added tax (VAT), and the 1991 Local
Government Code of the Philippines.
During the Estrada administration, Diokno initiated and instituted several reforms
that would enhance transparency and improve the efficiency of the delivery of
government services. The first major reform instituted was the "what you see is what
you get" or WYSWIG policy that is a simplified system of fund release for the General
Appropriations Act (GAA). This allowed agency heads to immediately plan and contract
out projects by just looking at the GAA, which is available in print and at the DBM
website, without waiting for the issuance of an allotment authority. Diokno initiated the
reform of the government procurement system (GPS) through the adoption of rapidly
improving information and communications technology. He secured technical
assistance from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) to help the
GPS develop an electronic procurement system along the lines of the Canadian model.
By August 1999, the DBM had two documents necessary to initiate reforms in public
procurement. In early 2000, Diokno and USAID successfully concluded a substantial
technical assistance program for the DBM's budget reform programs, which now
included procurement reform. Other budget reforms instituted by Diokno concerned
procedures for payment of accounts payable and terminal leave/ retirement gratuity
benefits. The release of cash allocation were programmed and uploaded to the
department's website while payments were made direct to the bank accounts of specific
contractor
The growing budget deficit was of large concern during Diokno's tenure, with
the National Economic and Development Authority director citing it as the government's
biggest problem. The government ended 1999 with a budget deficit of P114 billion,
overshooting its target of P101 billion which had previously been increased from an
original target of P68.4 billion. The government missed its target by a far wider margin
the next year, set an original deficit target of P62.5 billion for 2000, yet occurring a full-
year deficit of P130 billion. This is higher than the P126.5 billion "worst-case scenario"
figure from the International Monetary Fund. Diokno is currently a professor at
the University of the Philippines School of Economics. He is also a columnist for
Business World. He was born in Taal, Batangas.


Manuel "Mar" Araneta Roxas II



Manuel "Mar" Araneta Roxas II (born May 13, 1957) is a former Senator of
the Philippines. He is the son of former Senator Gerry Roxas, and the grandson of
former President Manuel Roxas and industrialist J. Amado Araneta.
A graduate of the Wharton School, Roxas worked as an investment banker,
mobilizing venture capital funds for small and medium enterprises. He served as
the Representative of the 1st District of Capiz from 1993 to 2000. His stint as
Congressman was cut short after he was appointed by President Joseph
Estrada as Secretary of Trade and Industry. He resigned from the position at the height
of the EDSA Revolution of 2001 and was later re-appointed by President Gloria
Macapagal-Arroyo in her new Cabinet. He resigned again to run for a Senate seat in
the 2004 Philippine election. He was elected as Senator with 19 million votes and the
highest ever garnered by a national candidate in any Philippine election and co-author
of Expanded Value Added Tax Law (E-Vat).
Initially one of the leading contenders in the Philippine presidential election,
2010, he slid down to become a vice-presidential candidate in order to make way for
fellow Senator Benigno Aquino III. He was defeated by Makati CityMayor Jejomar
Binay of the Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan(PDP-Laban) by the
narrowest margin in the history of the Fifth Republic. However, Roxas filed an electoral
protest with the Supreme Court of the Philippines, the Court sitting as Presidential
Electoral Tribunal.
On June 7, 2011, President Benigno Aquino III appointed Roxas as the
newSecretary of Transportation and Communications to replace outgoing
Secretary Jose de Jesus and took office on July 4, 2011. Afterwards on August 31,
2012, President Aquino nominated him as the next Secretary of Interior and Local
Government, replacing former DILG Sec. Jesse Robredowho died in a plane crash.

Early life and career
Roxas was born on May 13, 1957, in Manila, Philippines to Judy Araneta of Bago
City, Negros Occidental and Gerardo Roxas (19241982) of Capiz. Roxas' father was a
former Senator (19631972), and the only son of Manuel Roxas, the firstPresident of
the Third Philippine Republic, and Trinidad de Leon. The couple married in 1955. He
has two siblings namely Maria Lourdes or Ria, married to Augusto Ojeda and mother of
three and the late Congressman Gerardo "Dinggoy" Roxas, Jr. (19601993).
Roxas attended Ateneo de Manila University for grade school and high school,
then attended the Wharton School of Economics at the University of Pennsylvania,
earning a degree in economics in 1979.
After graduation, he worked for seven years as an investment banker in New
York, and became an assistant vice president of the New York-based Allen & Company.
Following the 1985 announcement by President Ferdinand Marcos of a snap election,
he took a leave of absence to join the presidential campaign of Corazon Aquino.
In September 1986, President Corazon Aquino went to the United States. He was one
of those who organized a series of investment round-table discussions with the
American business community. From 1986 onwards, he visited the Philippines more
frequently.
He then proposed to his company to have set up shop in Asia specifically in the
Philippines, and later, his superiors agreed. In 1991, he was stationed in the country
under North Star Capitals, Inc. which took Jollibee public. In the United States, he
participated in the first financing of Discovery Channel and Tri-Star Pictures.

Manuel "Mar" Araneta Roxas II currently the secretary of DILG, a former Senator
of the Philippines. He is the son of former Senator Gerry Roxas, and the grandson of
former President Manuel Roxas and industrialist J. Amado Araneta.
Manuel "Mar" Araneta Roxas II (born May 13, 1957) is a former Senator of the
Philippines. He is the son of former Senator Gerry Roxas, and the grandson of former
President Manuel Roxas and industrialist J. Amado Araneta.
A graduate of the Wharton School of Economics, Roxas worked as an
investment banker, mobilizing venture capital funds for small and medium enterprises.
He served as the Representative of the 1st District of Capiz from 1993 to 2000. His stint
as Congressman was cut short after he was appointed by President Joseph Estrada as
Secretary of Trade and Industry. He resigned from the position at the height of the
EDSA Revolution of 2001 and was later re-appointed by President Gloria Macapagal-
Arroyo in her new Cabinet. He resigned again to run for a Senate seat in the 2004
Philippine election. He was elected as Senator with 19 million votes and the highest
ever garnered by a national candidate in any Philippine election and co-author of
Expanded Value Added Tax Law (E-Vat).

Initially one of the leading contenders in the Philippine presidential election,
2010, he slid down to become a vice-presidential candidate in order to make way for
fellow Senator Benigno Aquino III. He was defeated by Makati City Mayor Jejomar
Binay of the Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-Laban) by the
narrowest margin in the history of the Fifth Republic. However, Roxas filed an electoral
protest to the Supreme Court of the Philippines at the Presidential Electoral Tribunal.

On June 7, 2011, President Benigno Aquino III appointed Roxas as the new
Secretary of Transportation and Communications to replace outgoing Secretary Jose de
Jesus and took office on July 4, 2011.
Afterwards, on August 31, 2012, President Aquino has nominated him as the new
Secretary of Interior and Local Government, replacing former DILG Sec. Jesse Robredo
who died in a plane crash.