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Structural
Scheme Design
Guide

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December 2006 Version

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Structural Scheme Design Guide


December 2006 Version

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Ove Arup & Partners Ltd


13 Fitzroy Street, London W1T 48Q
Tel +44 (0)20 7636 1531 Fax +44 (0)20 775
www.arup.com

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Index (1/2)

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THE ARUP STRUCTURAL SCHEME DESIGN GUIDE


CONTENTS
VER 3.0 I Aug 1998

1. Building Geometry & Anatomy


1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

Typical grid dimensions


Typical sections
Typical service zone requirements
Car parks
References

4.5.5
4.5.6
4.5.7
4.5.8

4.6Timber
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4

2. Guide toCosts
2.1

''

2.2

3.Loads

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Comparative European costs for


material supply
Relative costs of steel subgrades

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

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Density of materials
Dead loading
Typical imposed loading
Imposed loads on barriers
References

4.1 Properties of Structural Materials


4.2 Reinforced Concrete

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4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.2.8
4.2.9

Rules of thumb
Load factors
Beams
Slabs
Stiffness
Columns
Creep and Shrinkage
Bar and mesh areas and weights
References

4.3 Prestressed Concrete


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4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
4.3.8

Rules of thumb
Common strands
Common tendons
Equivalent loads
Allowable stresses at service loads
Ultimate bending strength
Shear
References

4.4 Steel (Non-Composite)

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4.1.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.4.5
4.4.6
4.4.7
4.4.8
4.4.9
4.4.1 0
4.4.11

Rules of thumb
Load factors
Design strength
Beam design
Columns (and beam columns)
Portal Frame sizing
Element stiffness
Connections
Corrosion protection
Section properties
References

4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete


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4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4

Rules of thumb
Load factors
Bending resistance
Shear connectors

Bending strength (during construction)


Stiffness
Safe load tables
References

4.6.5
4.6.6
4.6.7
4.6.8
4.6.9

Rules of thumb
Materials supply
Grade stresses
Sizing of elements in.domestic
construction
Outline of design rules for timber
members
Selected timber modification factors
Modification factor combinations
Deflection
Fasteners

4.7 Masonry
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.4
4.7.5
4.7.6
4.7.7
4.7.8
4. 7.9
4. 7.10
4.7.11
4. 7.12

Rules of thumb
Load factors
Material factors
Modular dimensions
Typical unit strengths
Masonry compressive strength
Sizing external wall panels
Flexural strength of masonry
Internal non-loadbearing masonry walls
Freestanding masonry walls
Joints
Other issues

4.8 Aluminium
4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.4

Main structural alloys


Durability
Typical physical properties
Design

4.9 Stainless Steel


4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3
4.9.4
4.9.6
4.9.7

Material grades
Mechanical properties
Physical properties
Design strength
Availability
References

5. Foundations
5. 1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

General Principles
Appropriate foundation solutions
Presumed allowable bearing values under
vertical, non-eccentric static loading
Shallow foundations
Piled foundations

6. Water Resistant Basements


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7

Rules of thumb
Establish client's
requirements/expectations
Construction options
Waterproofing options
Critical points
Construction joints
Movementjoints

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THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

Index (2/2)

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6.8

References

7. Fire
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

Minimum periods of fire resistance


Fire protection to steel elements
Fire protection for reinforced concrete
Fire protection for masonry
Fire requirements for timber

APPENDIX A Mathematical Formulae


A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6

Trigonometric functions
Hyperbolic functions
Standard indefinite integrals
Standard substitutions for integration
Geometrical properties of plane
sections
Conversion factors

APPENDIX B Analysis Formulae


8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8

Elastic bending formulae


Elastic torsion formulae
Taut wires, cables or chains
Vibration
Design formulae for beamscantilever
Design formulae for beams -fixed
both ends
Design formulae for beams- simply
supported
Design formulae for beams - propped
cantilever

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APPENDIX C Useful Design Data


C.1
C.2
C.3
C.4
C.5
C.6
C.?
C.8
C.9
C.10

C.11
C.12
C.13
C.14
C.15

Road transportation limitations


Craneage data - double girder
Craneage data - double hoist
Standard rail sections
Typical bend radii- rolled sections
Safe loads for 25 tonne capacity
mobile crane
Standard durbar plate sections
RHS sections - standard lengths
CHS Sections - standard lengths
Carbon steel plate sections - standard
sizes
Carbon and carbon manganese wide
flats - standard sizes
Fasteners - mechanical properties and
dimensions of typical bolts
Fasteners - clearance for tightening
Fasteners - high strength friction grip
bolts
Staircase dimensions

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APPENDIX D Proprietary Components

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D.1
D.2

D.3
D.4
D.5

Macalloy bars
Composite decking [Richard Lees Ltd]
[Ward Multideck 60]
Purlin systems [Metsec]
Precast hollow composite concrete
floors [Bison]
Heavy duty anchors [Hilti-Feb 1994]

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


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AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

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1. Building Geometry and Anatomy (1/4)

1.

BUILDING GEOMETRY AND ANATOMY

1.1

TYPICAL GRID DIMENSIONS 1

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Preferred dimensions:

Offices & retail


Some retail outlets
Car parks

6.0, 7.2, 9.0, 10.5, 12, 15m grids


5.5m or 11m grids (to suit shop units)
(7.5 or 7.2) x (15- 16m) grids (to span full bay)

Modular sizes for horizontal coordinating dimensions of spaces

Range of space
(mm)

Multiples of size (mm)

A. Zones for columns


and load bearing walls

200 to 1800

300 or 100

B. Centres of columns
and wall zones

from 1200

300 or 100

C. Spaces between
column and wall zones

from 1200

300 or 100

from 600

300 or 100

Dimension/space

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D. Openings in walls
(e.g. for windows and
doorsteps)

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Note: The first preference for the multiple of size in each case is 300

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1.2

TYPICAL SECTIONS 1
Modular sizes for vertical coordinating dimensions of spaces

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Dimension/space
A. Floor to ceiling, floor to
floor (and roof)

B. Zones for floors and roofs

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C. Changes of floor and roof


levels

D. Openings in walls (e.g.


for windows)

Range of space (mm)

Multiples of size
(mm)

up to 3600

100

from 3600 to 4800

300

above 4800

600

100 to 600

100

above 600

300

300 to 2400

300

above 2400

600

300 to 3000

300 or 100

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1. Building Geometry and Anatomy (2/4)

1.3

TYPICAL SERVICE ZONE REQUIREMENTS

MIN

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DEALERS
NORM SPACE

STRUCTURAL
ZONE

SERVICES
ZONE

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850/1000

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HEADROOM

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RAISED
FLOOR

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DUCT LEAVING RISER/CORE
CONSIDER UNIVERSAL
COLUMNS AS BEAMS

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VAV TERMINAL BOX

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

Specified by structural
engineer
50mm deflection and tolerance
Approx. 500mm HVAC duct or
terminal device
50mm support and tolerance
50 - 150mm sprinkler zone
150mm lighting and ceiling
zone
Specified by Client I Architect
Raised floor- data, telecoms.,
small power. (Specified by
M&E : allow for tolerence &
precamber)

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MAIN DUCT RUN.QUTS
BELOW NORMAL
MAX BEAM SIZE

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1. Building Geometry and Anatomy (3/4)

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1.4
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CARPARKS
Bay sizes (UK) 3

Car type

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Bay length

Bay width

Turning circle diameter (m)

Long stay

General

Short stay

Between kerbs

Between walls

Standard car

4.75

2.30

2.40

2.50

13.0

14.0

Large car

5.65

2.60

2.75

2.90

15.0

Disabled persons

4.75

3.20 min.

Coaches

12.00

4.00

Approx. 13.5m

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Car geometry - area swept for standard large car3

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Angled parking 3
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Parking
angle

Stall width
parallel to
aisle (m)

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Aisle width (one way)

Bin width

Minimum
(m)

Minimum
(m)

Preferred
(m)

STALL WIDTH
PARALLEL TO AISLE

~
Preferred
(m)

90

2.40

6.00

6.00

15.50

15.50

80

2.45

5.25

5.25

15.4

15.4

70

2.60

4.50

4.70

15.1

15.3

60

2.80

3.75

4.20

14.4

14.8

50

3.2

3.50

3.80

13.9

14.2

45

3.4

3.50

3.60

13.6

13.7

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Ramp gradients: recommended maxima
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Straight ramps:
Helical ramps:

rise
rise
rise
rise

1.500m
> 1.500m
3.000m
> 3.000m

1 in
1 in
1 in
1 in

7
10

10
12

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If at the top of a ramp steeper than 1 in 10 the floor or roof is laid to a fall of 1 in 60 or steeper
away from the ramp, a transition length should be provided. The transition length length should
be at least 3m and its gradient half that of the ramp.

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Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

1. Building Geometry and Anatomy (4/4)


3

Headroom

Recommended minimum height: 2.050m through the building.


If motorcaravans are to be used, allow approx. 2.300m.
Check if there are any specific access requirements e.g. emergency vehicles.

1.5

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REFERENCES
1. BS 6750 : 1986 Modular coordination in building
2. OVE ARUP & PARTNERS, Building Services Concept Design Guide
3. INSTITUTION OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS & INSTITUTION OF HIGHWAYS AND TRANSPORTATION,
Design Recommendations for Multi-Storey and Underground Car Parks (1984)

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AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

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2. Guide to Costs (1/3)

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2.

This section has been intentionally removed from the Structural Scheme Design
Guide.

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GUIDE TO COSTS

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ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR


Dec 06 Version

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3. Loads (1/4)

3.

LOADS

3.1

DENSITY OF MATERIALS 12

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Density

Material

(kN/m

25.5-27.8

Aluminium

27.2

Marble

Asphalt, paving

22.6

Mastic

Lightweight

12.6

Mortar, cement

18.9-20.4

Standard

21.2

Mud

16.5- 18.8

22.8

Oils

Brickwork Concrete
Facing

19.7
14.1

Cement
Chalk, in lumps

11.0-12.6

Clay (in lumps)

11.0

11.0

In bulk

8.8

In barrels

5.7

In drums
Plaster

7.1
13.3

Plasterboard

18.8- 22.0

Dry

15.7- 18.8

Clay (moist)

20.4-25.1

Moist

18.1 -19.6

Clay (wet)

20.4-25.1

Wet

18.1 -20.4

Concrete

Normal

24.0

Lightweight
Crushed brick
Crushed stone

18-20

14.1 - 18.8

17.3-20.4

Snow

13.0
27.4

Glass
Iron

12.6- 18.8

Shale
Slate, Welsh

Foamed blocks
Gravel, clean

Sandstones

12.6 -15.7

14.1 - 17.3
Cast

70.7
111.1

Limestone

Floor finish (screed) 75mm


Ceiling boards
False ceiling
Services: nominal
HVAC
Demountable lightweight partitions
Blockwork partitions
External walling:
curtain walling and glazing
cavity walls {lightweight block/brick)

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78.5
C24

-4.2

C30
Water

1 .2 kN/m 2 on
0.4 kN/m 2 on
0.25kN/m2
0.25kN/m 2
0.4kN/m2
1.0 kN/m 2 on
2.5 kN/m2 on

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-4.6
9.8

25.1

In the absence of specific details, use the following:

0.9

(Softwoods)

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-3.8

General 13

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Fresh
C18

3.2.1

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Wet compact

Steel

DEAD LOADING

1.

Timber

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28.2

75.4

Wrought
Lead, cast or rolled

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8.6

Clay (dry)

Sand

Density

Material

(kN/m 3 }

Blockwork

plan
plan

plan
plan

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0.5 kN/m 2 on elevation


3.5 kN/m 2 on elevation

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3. Loads (2/4)

3.2.2

Specific dead loading

Composite construction 4

Layer

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Screed

1-..i

Typical

Typical Dead Load

Thickness (mm)

on plan kNim 2

Normal

50

1.2

Lightweight
Slab

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0.9

Normal

130

Lightweight

2.8-3.3.
2.3-2.6

The lower value is for a trapezoidal deck (Ribdeck AL), the higher value is for a re-entrant profile (Holorib).

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Cladding Arrangement

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Cladding 1

Load on Elevation
(kNim

Cladding sheeting and fixings

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0.5

Steel wall framing only

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0.25-0.4

Framing + brick panels and windows

2.4

Framing + steel sheeting

0.75

Windows, industrial type


Patent glazing:

0.3

double

0.55

Doors- industrial wood

0.4

Lath + plaster+ studding

0.5

Plate glass I 25mm thick

0.65

Lead plywood

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0.25
single

Walls

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Wall type

Composition

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Concrete walls

225wall

5.4

12mm plaster each face

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Masonry wall (280 cavity)

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Party wall

Dead load on elevation (kNim

102.5 brick

2.25

100 lightweight block and plaster

1.15

Cavity wall two 102.5 brick leaves plastered

5.0

both sides
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Internal wall

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1.4
2.75

102.5mm brick plastered both sides

4.4

225mm thick plastered both sides

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1OOmm lightweight block plastered both


sides

Curtain wall

Glazing + spandrel

1.0

Acoustic wall

265 brick and block

2.5

Partition

Demountable
Stud with lath & plaster

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1 on plan
0.76

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3. Loads (3/4)
Roofs 15

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Dead load on plan (kN/m 2 )


(Assuming flat)

Description

Bituman roofing felts (3 layers including chipping)

0.29

Ceiling tray/panels

0.25

Asphalt (19mm, 25mm)

0.41, 0.58

Tiles (clay laid to 100mm gauge)

0.62-0.70

Concrete tiles interlocking

0.48-0.55

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3.3

TYPICAL IMPOSED LOADING2

Be generous at scheme design stage


Allow for change of use and flexibility of building.
Make no allowance for imposed load reductions during the scheme design except when
assessing the load on foundations.
Intensity of distributed

Use of structure

loading (kNim

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5.0

3.6

Banking hall

3.0

2.7

Book stores

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Concentrated load

Assembly areas
Bedrooms (hotels, hospitals)

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2.0

1.8

2.4 for each metre of

7.0

storage height (min 6.5)


Churches

3.0

2.7

Classrooms

3.0

2.7

Communal kitchens

3.0

4.5

Corridors

4.0

4.5

Domestic, floor

1.5

1.4

Factories (general industrial)

5.0

4.5

File rooms in offices

5.0

4.5

- compactus

7.5

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Garages (cars and light vans)

2.5

9.0

Grandstands (fixed seats)

5.0

3.6

Gymnasia

5.0

3.6

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Libraries
- reading rooms

4.0

4.5

- mobile racking

4.8 for each metre of

7.0

storage height (min 9.6)


Plant I motor rooms etc.

7.5

4.5

Museum floors

4.0

4.5

3.5
2.5.

2.7

4.0

3.6

Rooms with mainframe computers


Offices, general
Shops (not stock rooms)

4.5

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Th1s may increase up to 5.0 kN/m' depending on the clients requirements, add 1.0 kNim' for lightweight
demountable partitions.

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Compact filing system (usually over a small proportion of the floor area e.g. adjacent to cores).

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3. Loads (4/4)

3.4

IMPOSED LOADS ON BARRIERS

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3.4.1

The horizontal force F (in kN), normal to and uniformly distributed over any length of 1.5m of a

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barrier for a car park, required to withstand the impact of a vehicle is given by:
r '

where

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m
v
80
8b

Is the gross mass of the vehicle (in kg);


is the velocity of the vehicle (in m/s) normal to the barrier;
is the ceformation of the vehicle (in mm);
is the deflection of the barrier (in mm).

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Variables

Mass of vehicles <2500 kg

Mass of vehicles >2500 kg

1500

mass of vehicles

4.5

4.5

Oc

10

100

r '
Note : where 8o

r:
I ~.

3.5

=0 use F =150 N for mass of vehicle =2500 kg.

REFERENCES

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1. SCI, Steelwork Design Guide to BS 5950 (Vol. 4) (1991)


2. OVE ARUP & PARTNERS, Metric Handbook (1970)
3. IStructE & ICE, Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures ("Green
Book") (1985)
4. RICHARD LEES Ltd, Steel Deck Flooring Systems
5. BS 6399 - Parts 1 & 2

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4.1 Properties (1 /1)

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PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS


Modulus of elasticity, E
(kN/mm2 or GPa)

Shear modulus
(units of E)

Poisson's ratio

Thermal
expansion
(X 10-6 K- 1)

Density

Concrete, fcu=35

21 to 33 (at 28 days)

0.42 E

0.20

7-12

24

Concrete, f,.=40
(e.g. prestressed)

22 to 34 (at 28 days)

0.42 E

0.20

7-12

24

205

0.38 E

0.30

12

70

0.37 E

0.33

23

Material

Steel
Aluminium alloy
Stainless steel

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78.5

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See section 4.9


105

0.42 E

0.30

16-19

65-95

0.4 E

0.25

11 - 13

70.7

Wrought iron

150-220

0.4 E

0.25

11 - 12

75.4

Timber
C18
(softwoods) C24
C30

6.0 (min)
7.2 (min)
8.2 (min)

0.06 E
0.06 E
0.06 E

-3.8
-4.2
-4.6

900 X fk
(f in kN/mm 2 or GPa)

4-8 (clay)
11-15 (CaSi)

60

Aluminium bronze
Cast iron

Masonry
Water

Note:

9.8

'

'

I
' J

,....,
'
i

The values given for concrete above are typical and vary with age, shrinkage and creep

'

"' )'

\ J

i
I

\ J

......,
'
I

......,
I
'

1
'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUIP

'

i)

1.,

r-- -=

r-

r~-~

r-= (--" c--::

['

c--=

c-:--~

c--~

(~=

r---=

---~

r--- r

4.2 Reinforced Concrete (1/14)

4.2

REINFORCED CONCRETE

4.2.1

RULES OF THUMB
Span/depth ratios for slabs

17
'

Slabs requiring support from beams


600

600

550

550

One-way solid

Two-way solid

500

500

I 1

E45o

Live load kN/rrf

5400
.s:::

~ 6::::::: ~

ro

en 25o

......., ~ ~ ~ ~

200

8::::: ~

r-....
::;;;..--~ iG;:: ~ :::::::

.5

~ 300

........

..) ~ ~ ~

-~

L5..

g-350

j!.!!....

E45o
110

5400
.s:::
g-350

~ 300

v .......

-~

ro

en 25o
1.,:::::::

150

150

ii=='

100

---

15.0

"

200

~~
........ k::::: ~ ~
~~~

17.5

Live load kN/rrf

100
5

10

11

12

--

10

11

12

Multiple span (m)

Multiple span (m)


Slabs requiring support from columns only
600

800

Flat slabs

550
700

./

~500

I I

E
..450

E6oo
.s
.s:::
g.5oo

.s:::
g-400

"'C

"'C

..c

~350

c\5 400

en

250

200

200
4

10

11

12

Live load kN/rrf

17!;

.......-::

[..,...---" ~

c:;::. ~ ~ ~

1-- ~
6

V':: ~

... ~ ::::--:v
/
v

5.0

300

300

10

l..-::::: ~ /

vv v v

~ ~ ..........
~

10

11

12

Multiple span (m)


Multiple span (m)
2
Design assumptions : 3 spans. Loads: 1.5kN/m has been allowed in addition to self-weight for finishes and services. Exposure: mild exposure conditions and
2
2
one hour fire resistance. Materials in-situ: C35 concrete, main steel, fy = 460N/mm , mild steel links, fy = 250 N/mm
THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. fT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 I August 00

ARUP

4.2 Reinforced Concrete (2/14)


Span/depth ratios for

:: ~~~---"_~~~~;~~~-~~]
E'

11
1

800

c. 600
())

I
I
I
I

,.--

_.',''

..-"'
rI ,

,,

""0

E 500
ro
())

!D 400

5~~~.!!!.

..--r--- /

I
I
I

700

.s::.

200 kN/m

__., . ,..,...-

--

--

~----I

I
I

..,......Jr--

..,...-"

I
I
I

--

..-"

-------

--..----

--

II
---1

c.

I
I

ro

----..L.;125
kN/ITJ
____

Q)

_____________!---
4

30

10

,,

,..,.,

E'
E

800

~ 700

=
a.

Cl>
"'0

E
ro
a>

Jll

1400 kN/m

1"---l',:<'

,'
,........:.t
'
,. . .
',_.../

: ,,.......

500

400
300
200

20JI_!(~.L'!l.

/;\

.,.,.,... ,,~_,..-;
./.,..,. ;""
V'
/
.J..-"'
I
..,.,.
,
,. ', .,,....-- ,"'
L ..,.......
......

!
I
600 i

~~

__ ...........

,"_...........

,*"'
_,'

,..,

,,____

,.,.
.,.,,.

///

,-----

~~-

.,.. .....;

/
.........
..................

\ ../ I

...

...

...

r-----

1---

-------------------

10

'

two layers of reinforcement

12

11

())

~400

I
I

ro

>>('-',..,.

,. ,...........-

___ / /.......

15

14

13

16

200 kN/m

,----

,.
,-"'

.,.../

_, I

// ,/

.,.."..._.../

;~

I
I

./"

/'

~~~

,....-.

_.l

~-/
_.../" ...~1
/ ,." ,/...-" ......, _..../' II
_,.'

-- \

___ .,...,. - _...... - r )<___ _..',_!~~~~!!'

!
i
~--------.
.
-~--:~.
.
~
.
.
-.
.
.
~
1
___ .... __ ....... - - _ ....... - - r-------------------------1l

,. ,. . ." ,.,..,':----:=-----

300 ~------

_..,..... _...---

I --I ---

~----:::::._____

12

\ \ '"'"
///
,.
./.,.

0.

~500
E

-----"""""
,,,

600

.,., I

11

~~~~-~~;G~;~f~~f~~;:~-----l

1___ .

400 kN/m

'-2~~~~

one layer of reinforcement


two layers of reinforcement

----------------------"--------------------------

200

10

'

------

-------------------------;r---

_s

two layers of reinforcement

8
9
Multiple span (m)

E700

,~--1

................

,.

'L 25 kN/m

'T' beams, 2400mm wide web II

).

.,.,.!!!--

_,......

.,.,...
_.......
,.,..,.....
_____ ....,....
.,..,. ....... .........

~ -:~_,.,. ~,. -~

..,.)1
,.,

---------------------------1.=.:----------------------~

800

.,..

"

,;"'

,,*"' ,......_.,-""
_,..
""t

,,

......

,,

1
1

K ;"
;

,;" ....

,;

000

-----I
I~,............. _.,...,..................
.. ......... -------------------~----------1
1--- one layer ofremforcement
~,.,..,.

...............

-----

;-'
-; " _........... 50 kN/m

/-

,,

r
i

,,

,......-

tf"

,,

Multiple span (m)

1::: [~~~~-~~~-5~-~~~~~-~i~:-~~~] ---~~------~~~~;l


;

,..,

.,,"

......

Multiple span (m)

_../

,,"
"

12

11

_,..,..,. ,....

..... "'

_..;:;e

JJI__

;"

,,

Cc:::~~::::. .;......

200

__

,.-\
6-...,
\./
kN/
.. ...:!..!!ll. __

~~
,,

,.,....,

.
two layers of remforcement

()) 400
Ill

r~~~~-:n~I;~;of~ci:r~~;;e~~----1
I

2_DJI_~/m...----,-r-_: _

500

""0

300
200

:: .-[_-,~---,_-b_-~-~-~--s-~--1-_2--~-~---~-~---~---i~--e---~-~-~--~J---~~~~----=-~~~~;~1

~700
E
E
~600

II

-----

...------

---

----

----'~
1

100 kN/m

--

,... .....-

17
beam

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Multiple span (m)

For the depth of a single span look up size at span +2%


Design assumptions : Beam self weight (extra over an assumed 200mm depth of slab) allowed for and included. Exposure: mild exposure conditions and one
2
hour fire resistance. Materials in-situ: C35 concrete, main steel, fy = 460N/mm . T beam width= Beam span I 3.5. Loads are Ultimate.

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. fT IS NOT INlENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

ARUIP

Ver 3.2/ August 00

j~

__

_j

~--]

::____ __ ]

~---)

~--J

_]

:__j

__j

~--J

:_ __ _j

_]

_]

,..._.
r '

4.2 Reinforced Concrete (3/14)

Concrete Floor Slabs: Typical Econmic Span Ranger

'

I I I I
I
I I
I

I I I I

RC beams witl1 ribbed


or 5olid one-way RC ,slabs

'\

RC flat slabs

r ,
1--

I I I I I

'-'

RC troughed slabs

'

(
I

RC band beams. with solid


or ribbed one-way RC slabs

I I

TTTT
-1 I I
-~
rT
-1 I T

IITlfTIII

( ',

Two-way RC slabs
with RC beams

I
I I

I I I l

I T I

I I I

Precast: hollow care slabs


with precast or (RC) beams f-- f-I I I I I I I
PT band beams
and PTslabs

( '

'.

I I
I I I I I
I I

10

I I

I I I I I
11

12

13

I I

I I

14

15

16

Kay

r ,

Square panels, aspect ratio 1.0


Rectangular panels, aspect ratio 1.25
Rectangular panels, aspect ratio 1.5

Note
all subject to market conditions and project specific requirements

r '

RC=Reinforced concrete

PT=Post-tensioned concrete

Typical column size - also see section 4.2.6

r \
Minimum column dimensions for 'stocky', braced column= clear height I 17.7

'-'
2

'

Column area where feu = 35 N/mm and fy = 460 N/mm is as follows (N is axial force in
Newtons):-

''

1% steel : Area = N/15


2% steel : Area = N/18
3% steel: Area= N/21
Approximate method for allowing for moments: multiply the axial load from the floor
immediately above the column being considered) by:
1.25-interior columns
1.50-edge columns
2.00-corner columns

'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

'

but keep the columns to constant size for the top two storeys.

'

Ver 3.2/ August 00

ARUIP

'

4.2 Reinforced Concrete (4/14)

'

Typical wall thickness


At least 200mm thick (usually 300mm) for normal loads- if less than 1000mm high then 150mm
thick is usually allowable.
Internal walls:

Thickness> Height/15 (unrestrained at top)


Thickness> Height/30 (restrained at top)

Minimum size of elements


6
Where different, values for Hong Kong are in brackets.
Minimum
dimension, mm
width
Columns fully exposed
Cover
to fire
width
Beams
cover
thickness
Slabs with plain soffit
cover
thickness
Slabs with ribbed open
width of ribs
soffit and no stirrups
cover
....
Cover to !llill!l reinforcement
Member

4h
450
25 (35)
240 (280)
70 (80)
170
45 (55)
150
150
55

:
Fire Rating
2h
300
25 (35)
200
50
125
35
115
110
35

' J

1h
200
20 (25)
200
45
100
35
90
90
35

'

'

I
J

'

'

Nominal cover
Conditions of exposure
Mild - protected from adverse conditions
25
20
20*
20*
35
30
Moderate -condensation, soil
25
Severe - severe rain, occasional freezing
40
30
Very severe - sea water spray, severe freezing, salts
50t
40t
Extreme - abrasive action, acidic water, vehicles
60t
Maximum free water/cement ratio
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
3
Minimum cement content (kg/m )
275
300
325
350
Lowest grade of concrete
C30
C35
C40
C45
Cover to .!ill. reinforcement
*These covers may be reduced to 15mm provided that the nominal maximum size of
aggregate does not
exceed 15mm.
t Where concrete is subject to freezing whilst wet, air-entrainment should be used.
NOTE : This table relates to normal-weight aggregate of 20mm nominal size.

20*
20
25
30
50
0.45
400
C50

Reinforcement weights

_.....,

These values are approximate and should be used only as a check on the total estimated
quantity:
Pile caps
Rafts
Beams
Slabs
Columns
Walls

110- 150 kg/m


3
60- 70 kg/m
3
125- 160 kg/m
3
130-220 kg/m
3
220- 300 kg/m
3
40 - 100 kg/m

'i
I

'

Reinforcement availability
Standard sizes (mm): 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 32, 40
Standard lengths:

> 12mm diameter: 12 metres


< 12mm diameter: from a coil

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2/ August 00

ARUlP

,"'-~
l

\ J

4.2 Reinforced Concrete (5/14)

4.2.2 LOAD FACTORS 3


[!

'

"

Partial safety factors for loads (Values in brackets are for H.K.)
Load combination
(including earth and water
loading where present)

Earth and
Wind Wk
adverse beneficial adverse beneficial water, En
1. Dead and imposed
1.0
1.6 (1.7)
1.4*
1.4 (1.5)
0
2. Dead and wind
1.4
1.0
1.4*
1.4
3. Dead, wind and imposed
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
..
* For pressures ansmg from accidental head of water at ground level, a part1al factor of 1.2 may
be used.
Note : The HK dead & imposed factors can be reduced to 1.4 & 1.6 provided the procedure
outlined in- PNAP 18F is followed.

i.
ll.....i
i

{I

Load type
Imposed,~

Dead,~

(
I

<.......
( '

The 'adverse' and 'beneficial' factors should be used so as to produce the most onerous
condition.

4.2.3 BEAMS 3
For high-tensile reinforcement:
For mild steel:

fy = 460 N/mm
2
fy = 250 N/mm

Bending
2
Mu = 0.156 fcubd

---+ no compression steel


M
A,=---0.95fy0.8d

If: M < Mu
!'

''

cl
1)

If: M > Mu

M -0.15fcubd 2
As - 0.95fy{d-d')
1

"

I!

---+ compression steel required

_
Mu
+A o
A,- 0.95fy0.8d
s

~_. t:>\L_i

where b equals:

I'

<.:._.

Cantilever
Continuous
Simply
supported
bw + L/7.14
bw
bw+ L/5
T-Beam
bw + L /14.29
bw+ L/10
L-Beam
bw
(ii) beam spacing
and < (i) actual flanQe width,
NOTE: If M > 0.4 fcubrht(d-0.5hr) for flanged beams, then the neutral axis is in the web
and the above formulae are not correct.

J \

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGKT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 I August 00

ARUIP

4.2 Reinforced Concrete (6/14)


2

Maximum and minimum areas of longitudinal reinforcement for beams


Minimum tension reinforcement (fy = 460 N/mm2 )

Flanged beams (web in tension):

0.0018 bwh
0.0013 bwh

bw/b < 0.4


bw/b ~ 0.4
T- beam
L- beam

Flanged beams (flange in tension


over a continuous support):
Transverse reinforcement in flanges of flanged beams
(may be slab reinforcement)

0.0026 bwh
0.0020 bwh
0.0015 ht per metre
width

Rectangular beam
Flanged beam web in compression:

Minimum compression reinforcement:

0.002 bh

Rectangular beams with overall dimensions b and h

' J

0.002 bh
0.002 bwh

I
i
'

Maximum reinforcement (tension and compression):


Normally main bars in beams should be not less than 16mm diameter.

0.04 bwh

Shea,-3
Minimum provision of links in beams
Value of v (N/mmL)
Area of shear reinforcement
Grade 250 (mild steel) links equal to 0.18% of the
Less than 0.5vc
horizontal section throughout the beam, except in
members of minor structural importance such as lintels
0.5Vc<v<(vc+0.4)
Minimum links for whole length of beam A sv > 0.4bwsv
0.95fyv

(vc+0.4)<v

Sv(V-Vc)

0.95fyv

'

Links only provided

Asv

> bw

' J

,
\

For beams 2.0 N/mm" typical maximum


2
For ribs 0.6 N/mm typical maximum

v< 0.8 './feu and < 5 N/mmL

~,

NOTE: Asv is the total cross-section of the link(s) in mm (2 legs for a single closed link, 4 legs

,_,

for double closed). sv is the link spacing along the member.

' J

If

1.2
1.1
C' 1.0
E
E 0.9
.......
6 0.8
>Q 0.7
0.6
0,5
0.4
0.3

' J
~

~~~

v
/'

vvv
:..-

I/

.......
~

v
v
v

'-""

.,j

f.-

f.-

-;:;;

f.-

d < 400

400

' J

300

I/

'\

1".......

200

/"

r;

.....

:%

' J

100

0,5

1,0

2,0

2.5

3,0

1..0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

Shear re1istance faeh.lr

r""1

MODFJ:ATJ)N FACTOR FOR BEAMS AND SLABS

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2/ August 00

', J

ARUP

\ j

r:
I

L
fI

'I

4.2 Reinforced Concrete (7/14)

4.2.4 SLABS
{

Bending

Simply supported on all sides:

l...--

ly > 1.51x then one-way spanning, else M = wlx ly kNm/m


24
Design for bending as for beams (in 2 directions)
Continuous one-way spanning:

II

Bending moments and shear forces for one-way slabs


End support
End span
Penultimate
support
Moment
0
0.086 Fl
-0.086 Fl
Shear
0.4 F
0.6 F
-

'.,

Interior
spans
0.063 Fl

Interior
supports
-0.063 Fl
0.5 F

Shear
(

Ultimate shear check at column face


Column (inc. head) 300 x 300

I,

L..

Note:
( 1
',

For column sizes other than 300 x 300 the slab depth should
be multiplied by the factor= (column perimeter/1200)

15

I 1

11

10
I

'

'

Total

Imposed

Load

:_,

(I<N/m")

~"' \\\ \
1\\ 1\~
\ 1\~ "'-\ 0_\ .~
\

h (mm)=2~

i,

~~ ~4' ~~ Li
\ __1\
1\\ 1\\

~ ~ ~~

r,

4
(

3
2

I._;

h = minimum slab thickness


to resist punching shear

\ \\ l\ \ 7~0
\ \ .\\ l~o\
\ \ \ \ 1\\ Ol\

13
12

\ \' _\ \ _\

14

\.'\\ l\.\ \.
"~"'- ~"\ 0 ~

"'"'

~ ~ ~'\ [\.
~ ~~
...........
~~

""'

( 1

.......
'

\
I

I._.,

r \

20
Notes: 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

30 40

50

60

70

80

'

i
l._,i

Ver 3.2/ August 00

100 110 120 130 140 150 160

Area {m~)

feu = 35 N/mm 2 ,
Dead load factor= 1.4,
Live load factor= 1.6,
The value of d/h is assumed to be 0.85,
The ratio of VenN is assumed to be 1.15,

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGI-fT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBLJTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
f

90

ARUIP

4.2 Reinforced Concrete (8/14)

'"'";
i

Column 300 x 300


Punching shear check at first perimeter for preliminary design (vc

15

14
13

12
11
10
Total
Imposed
Load
2
(kN/m )

8
7

5
4
3
2

1
\ J \ l\ \ \ \
\ \ \ \ \
\ 1\ \ \ \ \
\ 1\ \ \
\ ~ _\ \
\ ' \ ~ \ \ 1\ ~ po
_\ 1\ \ \ r\. \ 5\;o \
\ \ \ \ ~o\ \
1\ \ \ \ \ ),In\ ~\
\ 1\ \ ~ r\ f\\ ~ ~
\ \ r\ \ \~ ~ ~ 1'\ \
\
\
[\.
\ 1'\ \ 3'li r~
~\ '\.
\
'\. r--..'\

I\ \ \

'

'\ ~

1
0

h(mm)=_~

20

30

40

"" "" """

""

1'\'\

"'

' I

=0.6)

h = minimum slab thickness


ta resist punching shear
I
I

,......,

60

70

80

90

Area (m

'

\ J

'1

I'\.

~ ~' ["-,""' ~ ~ ~"' !"-,.

50

' )

100 110 120 130 140 150 160

Column 500 x 500


Punching shear check at first perimeter for preliminary design (vc 0.6)
15
h =minimum slab thickness
14
to resist punching shear
1\ \
13
\ I
1\ \
1\ \

12
11
10

Total
Imposed
Load
(kN/m

8
7

\ \\ \ \ 1 \
\ \ 1\ ' \ 1\
\
\
\ 1\00
\ 1\ \ \ \ \ \ 1\ ~ ru\
\ I\ ' \ 1\ \ ~ l~ ~ \
1\ \ \ 1\ \ \ r\ ~ JU\ \
'\
~0
\ \ } \ \ \
~
~ _i

', )

~,

\ r\ \ ~- 1\ 4 Ru\ ~ _i \
\ \ 1\ \ ~0 ~ \. ~ \ \ \
\ \ \~ 5(>\ \ \ '\ \ ' '\
\ 1\ ~ 10\ '\ '\ 1'\ '\ '\. "\..
\ :\ '\ [\. \ \ '\. '\. 1\. :--.,. "\
........

6
5
4

~~

h (mm)

= 20~

0
20

30

40

50

'

I
)

'\ '\_ ~ ~ ~ ~'\ ~ ~


~ I~ ~ ~"
~~ ~
~
"""' ~ [',."1'..'~""-""' ."""-. ~ l'--" ~

"

60

70

80

90

"""

100 110 120 130 140 150 160

Area (m")
Notes: 1. feu = 35 N/mm2 ,
2. Dead load factor= 1.4,
3. Live load factor = 1.6,
4. The value of d/h is assumed to be 0.85,
5. The ratio ofVettN is assumed to be 1.15,
THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 I August 00

'

ARUP

-.
i
)

r '

4.2 Reinforced Concrete (9/14)

4.2.5 STIFFNESS 3

Typically require :

'

< span/250
< span/350
<20mm

Criterion satisfied if span I effective depth < (Basic

X c1 X c2 X

Typical multiplers (C1):


C1 = 0.8 for flanged beams with bJb < 0.3
C1 = 10/span(m) for spans beyond 10m
C1 = 0.9 for flat slabs (use longer span)

r '
',

v
',

Total deflection
Live Load + creep
and

'

'

Basic span/effective depth ratios for


rectangular beams
Support
Rectangular
conditions
sections
Cantilever
7
Simple supported
20
Continuous
26

NOTE: For two-way slabs on continuous support,


use shorter span.

Tension reinforcement modification factor (C2)


f5 = service stress in reinforcement

C3)

1.8

.s...CJ 1.6

r ,

J!!
1.4

..

co
CJ
!E 1.2

' '

"0

::!:

r '

.......fs..;;. 25.Q.MP..,.......

+. .. ~ . . . . .i. .

..:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::1::::::::::t::::::::::t:::::.. .::~:: :.............:...~..--~...:::...:::...~.. =r.,.....:.=::;;j;::;:3


= 300 MRa
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;. . . . . .ifs.............
t. . . . . . . i...........................t;.............1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . t. . . . . . .

0.8

0.6
2

M/bd

Compression reinforcement modification factor (C3)


(

1.48
51.36

t5
~1.24

'

'
w

1.6

1.12
1

[7
0

.V
0.5

......

1.5

_... ~

2.5

3.5

100 A's,prov/bd

'

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Ver 3.2 I August 00

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'

4.2 Reinforced Concrete (10/14)

r'"i
I

' l

4.2.6 COLUMNS

---:
I
I

Typical design of columns

For braced stocky columns use: Neap

= characteristic strength of concrete (N/mm 2 )


Ac = area of concrete (mm 2 )
fy
= yield strength of reinforcement (N/mm 2 )

= area of rebars (mm

< 5294

< 6176

250 x360
300 X 300
200x450
300 X 350
200x 525
250 x420
350 X 350
300 X 410
200 X 615
250 X 490
350 x400
300 X 470
200 X 700
250 X 560
350 x460
250 X 640
300 x540
200x 800
300 X 600
350 X 520
250 X 720
200x 900
350 X 575
300 X 670
200 x1000 250 X 800
300x 800
350 X 690
200 x1200 250 X 960
* Note . Scheme des1gn based on 4% rebar should

=35)

Area of
section
(mm 2 x
< 7059
103 )
90
105
122.5
140
400 x400
160
400 x450
180
400 X 500
200
400 X 600
240
be avOided If possible.

Column size & braced, clear storey height limit (mm)


< 4411

'

Ultimate resistance of braced stocky columns (feu

< 3530

= 0.35 fcuAc + 0.67 fyAsc

where: feu

Asc

'

' J
p=1%
(kN)
1369
1597
1863
2129
2433
2737
3041
3650

p=2%
(kN)
1635
1908
2225
2543
2907
3270
3633
4360

p=3%
(kN)
1901
2218
2588
2958
3380
3803
4225
5070

p=4%*
(kN)
2168
2529
2950
3372
3854
4335
4817
5781

'c

'

'

'

'

'

' J

' J

"""

'

'

'

.._,
I

i
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THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


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AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 I August 00

ARUJP
I

c __ ,

r- -, (-~--= c

r~- -~

r---~

r--~

c--=

r--~

r-~

r~-=

~--~

r~-~

4.2 Reinforced Concrete (11/14)


2

Column interaction diagrams

1.6

ol

1.6

. ... . , r--....
"f
.
1"1

bhfcu

"
I'..'
7'

1.0

J..
f

r<.;,u

~6,

.. J.... '-Q. 1"..0.2'I~1\.

0.4

(
I,I

0.0

I~

'' """

Sii!rs: excluded in

p~..&....

N
h2f
cu

bh

"\

0.2

I)

""'

'
"

'," ""

D~!J'
D.

r~

0 ..2

0.4

0.3

'\

'\.

to\.

\.

II

\. 1\

1.4
1.2

0,7

0.6

bhfcu

........

N-..

........

{'.._

...........
~

"::fL- 1 4

...........

..... .;!..-"' ...........


...........
1'-..1. o"'
~""'--.
-tr..
.........
...... .........
.......
"'
.........
-:--....
"J
......
"""liit"
.........
l
...........
............

1.

..I

~,...

1.0

,...

~~

0.0

"toQ

1.4
= 0.95
1.2

~- -~~'"
culeLJI~tln~

0.1

0.2

0.6
0.4
0.2

.
'
,o
,,
.
'
;....

2 .....

Inn

0,0

...........

.........

...........

...........

'

I'..

Ber91 exl!':llJded

1.0

I~

..-.:aiL.:ul.e.ti11~A

-+-

~.fuo...

N
2
h fcu

~~

......

.........

'

"""""'

0.4
...........

........

'

.......

0.2

!"..
/

~
~
In this region deaign as a beam, &es clause 4.4.5

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

011

0.5

~bl

..

1!:

~ ~

"
r\.'
. ""' ~'
'

....~1\."\
~

.... ~

"\. 1'\.

.. Jtf.. '\.

rX:2
.. ."{
;., 1\~
\

It-

=o.7

~'
"w~

pfy

'"'

reiri'I'.OI'CI"'l'mel"'t

fr...a.._
- ~h'

.........

~1A

""

~'jll:l''

\. r\\.
\ \. \.
i~(J
\ 1\\ 1\\ \
)
l 1 ) ) } 1 1
[

)~ l.:h.

1n !his region design il$ a boeam, see dause 4.4.5

0.6

0.7

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

bh2fcu

h3fcu

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2/ August 00

0.8

0.6

"' "v

0.4

0.3

.. .
'

AM>

0.8

h3fcu

-:I

'l

[<3{

..
..

,..,.

In thill region deaign .as a beam, &!Ia clause 4.4.5 _

0.5

bh 2 f ou

1.6

raln'br~L:emAill

1\ ' \

1.8

"'"

=0 .9

'\.

'' '' "

j'\ 0.2'\._

.1

d.

~~""

1'\ '
"-o
~ " "\.
"'0.4, '\.

this region design as a beam, see clause 4.4.5

0.1

""'

El =

llh.
--~
p-~

h '

~ ""

~I

:'t

' .. fgi 1"-...

.. .,....
f!t"'

0.4

'\.

~'

~ "-...

0.6

1'\.
"\

...

.. ..

0.8

vx--

....

1.0

~lrulm.lng A

I'\.

\ \\

"1

1.4

., "1'-' ' ' """"'~ '


''

0.6

0,2

... ~

I'..

0.8

~I "~~-
d

1.2

nf.

1.2

1.4

calcula1ing A!:Z".

)
~

1.4
N

!'.i

~ = 0.75

I~

~~

0.4

0.5

ARUJP

--:~

f - ~

,...,
I

' J
4.2 Reinforced Concrete (12/14)
I

'

'

4.2.7 CREEP & SHRINKAGE

,--,
Shrinkage

For normal situations, assume long term shrinkage strain of 300 x 10 -e


~

'

Creep

'

For normal situations, assume creep coefficient of ~ = 2


Hence long term E value:

' J

4.2.8 BAR AND MESH AREAS AND WEIGHTS

5
~
I

= diameter (mm); p = pitch (mm)

Sectional area (mm 2 ) per m. width


16
20
10
12

,...I
25

32

40
' J

p
566
376
283
226
189
162
142
113
94

50
75
100
125
150
175
200
250
300

1006
669
503
402
335
287
252
201
168

1570
1044
785
628
523
449
393
314
262

2262
1504
1131
905
754
646
566
452
377

4022
2675
2011
1609
1341
1149
1006
804
670

6284
4179
3142
2514
2095
1795
1571
1258
1047

9818
6529
4909
3927
3273
2805
2455
1964
1636

16084
10696
8042
6434
5361
4595
4021
3217
2681

25132
16713
12566
10053
8377
7180
6283
5026
4189

--11
j

' J

10

4.44
2.96
2.22
1.78
1.48
1.27
1.11
0.89
0.74

7.90
5.27
3.95
3.16
2.63
2.26
1.98
1.58
1.32

12.32
8.21
6.16
4.93
4.11
3.52
3.08
2.46
2.05

Weight (kg/m 2 )
12
16

20

25

32

40

49.32
32.88
24.66
19.73
16.44
14.09
12.33
9.86
8.22

77.08
51.39
38.54
30.83
25.69
22.02
19.27
15.42
12.85

126.26
84.17
63.13
50.50
42.09
36.07
31.57
25.25
21.04

197.28
131.52
98.64
78.91
65.76
56.36
49.32
39.46
32.88

p
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
250
300

17.76
11.84
8.88
7.10
5.92
5.07
4.44
3.55
2.96

31.58
21.05
15.79
12.63
10.53
9.02
7.90
6.32
5.26

,....,
I

'~ )

'I
I

'
J

~""']
I
I

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 I August 00

ARUJP

,
'

I
j

l...J

i
~

r ,

4.2 Reinforced Concrete (13/14)

(.....

n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

f \

L
(

\.-1

10

28
57
85
113
142
170
198
226
255
283
311
340
6

50
101
151
201
252
302
352
402
453
503
553
604
8

79
157
236
314
393
471
550
628
707
785
864
942
10

113
226
339
452
566
679
791
905
1018
1131
1244
1357
12

25.1

31.4

0.395

0.616

Perim.
18.8
(mm 2/mm)
Weight
0.222
(kg/m)
n - number of bars

Sectional Area (mm"')


12
16

20

25

32

40

201
402
603
804
1006
1207
1408
1609
1810
2011
2212
2413
16

314
628
943
1257
1571
1885
2199
2514
2828
3142
3456
3770
20

491
982
1473
1964
2455
2945
3436
3927
4418
4909
5400
5891
25

804
1608
2413
3217
4021
4825
5629
6434
7238
8042
8846
9650
32

1257
2513
3770
5026
6283
7540
8796
10053
11309
12566
13823
15079
40

37.7

50.2

62.8

78.5

100.5

125.6

0.888

1.579

2.466

3.854

6.313

9.864

\.-1

r,
BS Fabric
reference
(

r '

\....;

r,

',

A393
A252
Square
A 193
mesh
A 142
A 98
B 1131
B 785
Structural B 503
mesh
B 385
B 283
B 196
c 785
c 636
Long
c 503
mesh
c 385
C283
Wrapping
D 98
mesh
D49
Stock sheet size

Longitudinal wires
Cross wires
Nominal
mass per
Nominal
Nominal
Pitch
Area
Pitch
Area
square
wire size
(mm)
(mm 2 ) wire size (mm)
(mm 2 ) metre (kg)
(mm)
(mm)
10
200
393
10
200
393
6.16
8
200
252
8
200
252
3.95
193
193
7
200
7
200
3.02
142
142
2.22
6
200
6
200
200
1.54
5
200
98
5
98
1131
200
252
10.9
12
100
8
252
8.14
10
100
785
8
200
200
252
5.93
8
100
503
8
200
193
4.53
7
100
385
7
200
193
3.73
100
283
7
6
200
193
3.05
100
196
7
5
400
70.8
6.72
100
785
6
10
70.8
5.55
100
636
6
400
9
49
4.34
5
100
503
400
8
49
3.41
400
7
100
385
5
400
49
2.61
100
283
5
6
1.54
200
98
5
200
98
5
100
49
0.77
2.5
100
49
2.5
Sheet area 11.52m 2
Length 4.8m
Width 2.4m

I
i....J
(

I
I

:_
(

\
:..,_,
(

~:

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 I August 00

ARlUIP

4.2 Reinforced Concrete (14/14)

' J

Shear reinforcement Asv I Sv values for links

1"""'1

No.
of

Legs

Bar Dia.---Area
10

12

101
2

157
226
151
236

339
201
314

452
302
6

471
679

Link Spacing
100

125

1.005
1.571
2.262
1.508
2.356
3.393
2.011
3.142
4.524
3.016
4.712
6.786

0.804
1.257
1.810
1.206
1.885
2.714
1.608
2.513
3.619
2.413

150

0.670
1.047
1.508
1.005
1.571
2.262
1.340
2.094
3.016
2.011
3.770 3.142
5.429 4.524

175

200

225

250

0.574 0.503 0.447 0.402


0.898 0.785 0.698 0.628
1.293 1.131 1.005 0.905
0.862 0.754 0.670 0.603
1.346 1.178 1.047 0.942
1.939
1.149
1.795
2.585
1.723
2.693
3.878

1.696
1.005
1.571
2.262
1.508
2.356
3.393

1.508
0.894
1.396
2.011
1.340
2.094
3.016

1.357
0.804
1.257
1.810
1.206
1.885
2.714

Sv

275

300

325

350

375

400

0.366
0.571
0.823
0.548
0.857
1.234
0.731
1.142
1.645
1.097
1.714
2.468

0.335
0.524
0.754
0.503
0.785

0.309
0.483
0.696
0.464
0.725
1.044
0.619
0.967
1.392
0.928
1.450
2.088

0.287
0.449
0.646
0.431
0.673
0.969
0.574
0.898
1.293
0.862
1.346
1.939

0.268
0.419
0.603
0.402
0.628
0.905
0.536
0.838
1.206
0.804
1.257
1.810

0.251
0.393
0.565
0.377
0.589
0.848
0.503
0.785
1.131
0.754
1.178
1.696

1.131
0.670
1.047
1.508
1.005
1.571
2.262

' J

'

'

'

' J

4.2.9 REFERENCES

1. REINFORCED CONCRETE COUNCIL, Reinforcing Links Issue IlA, June 1997.


2. IStructE & ICE, Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures ("Green book") (1985)
3. BS 8110, Structural use of concrete, Part 1: 1985 Code of practice for design and construction
4. PALLADIAN PUBLICATIONS, Handbook to BS 8110 (1987)
5. OVE ARUP & PARTNERS, Reinforcement detailing manual (1990)
6. Code of Practice for Fire Resisting Construction, HK, 1996.
7. Goodchild C.H, Economic Concrete Frame Elements (1997),

' J

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I
'

' J

'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 I August 00

ARUIP

'

l )

i
'--'
f

4.3 Prestressed Concrete (1/6)

4.3

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

r '
I
I

4.3.1 RULES OF THUMB

Advantages of using prestressed concrete

'

Increased clear spans


Thinner slabs
Lighter structures
Reduced cracking and deflections
Reduced storey height
Rapid construction
Water tightness

Note:
(

use of prestressed concrete does not significantly affect the ultimate limit state
(except by virtue of the use of a higher grade of steel).

Maximum length of slab


'
1...,;

50m, bonded or unbonded, stressed from both ends.


25m, bonded, stressed from one end only.

r :

Mean prestress
(

Typically: P/A"' 1 to 2 N/mm2

'

Cover

Take minimum cover to be 25mm.


Allow sufficient cover for (at least) nominal bending reinforcement over the columns, in both
directions (typically T16 bars in each direction).

Effect of restraint to floor shortening


Post-tensioned floors must be able to shorten to enable the prestress to be applied to the floor.

Typical span/total depth ratios for a variety of section types of multi-span prestressed
floors 2
r '

Sectlon type

Total
Imposed
loading
kpa

r ,

'

Additional
raqulrament

8m~43AI

1. Solid flat slab

II

II
3 Span/3

~~-----:
I
I

':I

I
I
I

~-----1

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
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Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

2.5

40

5.0

38

10.0

30

2.5

44

5.0

40

10.0

34

rl

f . -.. . .I

r '

Span/

ARUJP

I
)

4.3 Prestressed Concrete (2/6)


(Typical span/total depth ratios for multi-span prestressed floors (cont.)]

Section

type

Total
Imposed
loading
kpa

3. Coffered flat slab

rc

(not meeting the requirement of types 4 or 5)

~,

II

I I

II

II
II

I I
I I

II
II

--~r-----1 r - - 1r
~~--

-r r--

j~

1 r - - T r - - 1r
II
II
I I
II
II
_,.__
...I I
-~r-- 1
r- -lr

__

"
4. Coffered flat slab with solid panels

1r

-1/

II

Span/3

II
---------- w - - - -- II
II
II
II
...JI
IL
r1
-.
lr
II
11
II
II
11
_ It.. ___ - __ -' L

II

-~r--

c==\[

II
... ,

II
II
..........

I
I

__

-- ..

II
1r
II
..II._

r1

-.

1r - - 1 r - - 1r
II
II
I I
It may be possible tha~reatressed tendons will on,% be ~red In the banded
section and that unten oned reinforcement will su ce In
nos. or vice versa
Note:

l!:Span/6

6. Ribbed slab

II
II
II

II
II
II

~1rc

23

10.0

20

2.5

28

5.0

26

10.0

23

2.5

28

5.0

26

10.0

23

2.5

30

5.0

27

10.0

24

'

2.5

SLAB BEAM
45
25

II
II

II

r1

-.

1r-- -lr-II
II

7. one way slab with broad beam

11:..
1..

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

r1

-.

-~r

II

II

'I

---- ---- -II


II

Note:
The values of span/depth ratio can vary according to the width of the beam

... 1

5.0

-~r

I
r-I
I
._

- ----,
-~r-

jc=J

25

II

-~r--

5. Coffered flat slab with band beams

2.5

Additional
requirement

"

II

-~r

\r

Span/
depth
ret1o
6mSIS13m

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

5.0

40

22

10.0

35

18

8. One way slab with narrow beam

~
...I I

Span/15

I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I

2.5

SLAB BEAM
42
18

rt
r1

5.0

38

16

I I
I I
I I

10.0

34

13

"Additional requirements if no vibration check to be carried out for normal office conditions
I

A :2:4 panels and :l:250mm thick slab or :2:8 panels and :l:200mm thick slab
B :2:4 panels and MOOmm thick overall or :2:8 panels and <!:300mm thick overall
Note
1. All panels assumed to be square
2. Span/depth ratios not affected by column haad
THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUIP

..-,
I

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.....,

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(

'

4.3 Prestressed Concrete (3/6)

4.3.2 COMMON STRANDS 4


r ,

Nominal

Steel area

Mass

Nominal tensile

Characteristic

diameter

(mm 2 )

(kg/m)

strength

breaking load

elasticity

(N/mm')

(kN)

(kN/mm 2 or GPa)

(mm)
(

Standard

Modulus of

15.2

139

1.090

1670

232

195 10

12.5

93

0.730

1770

164

195 10

11.0

71

0.557

1770

125

195 10

9.3

52

0.408

1770

92

195 10

15.7

150

1.180

1770

265*

195 10

12.9

100

0.785

1860

186

195 10

11.3

75

0.590

1860

139

195 10

9.6

55

0.432

1860

102

195 10

8.0

38

0.298

1860

70

195 10

Compact/

18.0

223

1.750

1700

380

195 10

Dyform

15.2

165

1.295

1820

300

195 10

12.7

112

0.890

1860

209

195 10

L..
r \

Super

279 also available, details not yet published

4.3.3 COMMON TENDONS 1

I 1

No. strands per

70%

Internal

duct for 15.7mm

UTS

sheath

"super" strand

{kN)

(mm)

Anchor sizes

Jack

Length (mm)

tj> (mm)

Stroke (mm)

186

25

1299

65

175

210

270

630

350

150

12

2226

75

200

245

300

750

390

250

15

2783

85

750

390

250

19

3525

95

250

315

375

900

510

250

27

5009

110

300

365

450

950

610

250

37

6864

130

375

450

525

1000

720

250

1
I

..........
(

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR

I'

1....1

AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.


Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

'

'

L
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ARUJP

'

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4.3 Prestressed Concrete (4/6)

I'

4.3.4 EQUIVALENT LOADS 6

' J

Pe

WU&MV~r~P

Centroid of section

Anchorage

,....,

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Psine

'

'~

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8PA

---r

Parabolic drape

1""""1

.....,_~allow section
~

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Pe

_ _ _ _............

Centroid of dee section

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m
\ j

4.3.5 ALLOWABLE STRESSES AT SERVICE LOADS

Compression

beams:

0.33f,,

(0.4f'" at supports for indeterminate beams)

Class 1:

No tension

1.0 N/mm

Class 2:

2N/mm2 post-tensioned

0.45 v'(f,,)

'

3N/mm 2 pre-tensioned
Class 3:

bending: 0.5fcl
compression: 0.4fd

columns: 0.25f'"
Tension

'
At transfer

In service

i
I
)

SeeBS8110

0.36 v'(fcl)

4.3.6 ULTIMATE BENDING STRENGTH 6

',

'

For rectangular beams or T beams with neutral axis in flange:


0.25: -~~ -~~ ---~--r---r--~--~~--i-~+1
1

0.20

'

M,
f,.bd'

--r ,
'

0.10;

!
!

toy

0 05

'
, :o.7 '
'.
1~'=--r-I
IOBA~-

'

1"-o.4

!0.37!/

"i
I

---"Y'---+----1---+--+--~-+---+--+---+--~-f

I;'

0.05

i
0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

fpu

/~

"l(f

I
6
ood=O.BI ~---o. f
c:c- "-0.5 ~

'

0.15

'

-,

0.50

ARUJP

,....,

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4.3 Prestressed Concrete (5/6)

4.3.7 SHEAR
;

Require that

I
I

Except that inclined tendons may contribute to a reduced effective shear force on the concrete
provided the shear zone is not cracked in bending at N\.,11

Ultimate shear check at column face


Column (inc. head) 300 x 300
(

Note:

'-'
(

For column sizes other than 300 x 300, the slab depth should
be multiplied by the factor (column perimeter/1200)

Explanation

15
14
13 ::_::\ 1\ \ \\ \
12
1--i\ i\ \l5~o\
11
\~ \ \~ ~\
10

I....
( '

Total
9
Imposed 8
Load
(kN/m2) 7
6

1-----\

:~
~

).~

i\\1~

(mm)

5
4

--

\\
\

-------------

c--------

....

------

--'-------

....

\\\~\

\ i\\\\\ \
\ \ i\\~
!!~

-------

------ ----------

~\\
~\\\ \\

+---------

:----- ------- i ---- :-----------

---- ---------

------

-----

--

........

--

r--

---- 1-----

.....

:------

~~\''\
\
~\
i~"~ ~
!~"' ~
~~

3
(

l\W ,6~~

I ',

----r--r

n \ \\ \ \
~~~

---

----

-------

~~

.l

------

.i

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160


Area (m2)
(

Ir

'

Information to be used in conjunction with the graph:


1. feu = 40 N/mm2
2. Dead load factor= 1.4
3. Live load factor= 1.6
4. The value of d/h is assumed to be 0.85
5. The ratio of V.JV is assumed to be 1.15
6. These curves do not take account of elastic distribution effects
7. The maximum shear stress for feu= 40 N/mm2 and more is 5 N/mm 2 .
For feu< 40 N/mm2 the maximum shear stress is 0.8 vfeu
For feu = 35 N/mm 2 increase slab depth by a factor of 1.06
For feu = 30 N/mm2 increase slab depth by a factor of 1.14

I
~
(
I

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

r,
I

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

~
i

4.3 Prestressed Concrete (6/6)

i
I

Column 300 x 300


Punching shear check for preliminary design (vc = 0.75 N/mm)

~
I
i

15
14

5
4

-~

3
2

!"""'\

' J

13
12
11

10
9
Total
Imposed 8
Load
7

(kN/m

I,

0
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160

Area (m

Column 500 x 500


Punching shear check for preliminary design (vc

,..,

=0.75 N/mm)

--

15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Total
Imposed 8
Load
7
2
(kN/m ) 6
5
4
3
2

--

-r----r---~

-1-.._J ______ j
I

_j _____J____ J
i
:

' )

-+-"!"-----]
---~-- -i--- --1-----{

---~-\

----~-

:,

-r--r---~

. --i- -+---+---1

\ J

--1---r---1

,..,

-+---!----.___J
I

l J

"1
l )

"1

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160

Area (m 2 )

4.3.8 REFERENCES
1. PSC FREYSSINET, The 'K' Range
2. ARUP, Notes on Structures 29, June 1991

3. BRIDON ROPES, Ropes and Lifting Gear


4. BS 5896 : 1980, High tensile steel wire and strand for the prestressing of concrete

5. ARUP, Notes on Structures 18, June 1989


6. PALLADIAN PUBLICATIONS, Handbook to BS 8110 (1987)

!
I

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

[ '

r ,

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (1/21)

._.

4.4

'

STEEL (NON-COMPOSITE)

r '

4.4.1 RULES OF THUMB

1.

(_,

Choice of beam system

I
Element

15-18

up to 12m

(including floor slab)

'

Typical Span (m)

Floor Beams (US's)

r ,

Typical Span/depth

Plate girder

10-12

Slimfloor (steel only)

25-28

6-9m

Castellated UB's*

14-17

12-20m

Lattice girders (RSA's)+

12-15

up to 35m

Lattice girders (Tubular)

15-18

up to 100m

Roof trusses (pitch>20)

14-15

up to 17m

Space Frames

20-24

up to 60m

* Avo1d 1f h1gh pomt loads; Increase lreq by 1.3


+ Precamber by L/250

Initial scheming chart

~\

'

I,_,

One-or-two spans:
Read depth directly
from chart

'

Multiple spans:
Deduct 50mm from depth
estimated by chart

~~ ~

Residential

...

Offices

'

Shops

C\
__....

"C

CD

~
c.
E

:::J

en

1"\.

8 "[

...

"\

10 F

200

\~ ~ ~

l\\ ~ ~

"""'
,\l \\ ~ ~
\\1\ !'..

!\\\

'

1\ \

'

''

f"'... !'.....
...........

~\ \ \ 1\."" "
~

.......

~~

'\

.....

.........

~
\"57"'\ ~
-..,r-- ~

rI '

300

r--~- '1}""..5l

~ ~"\ '"\, ' .......

6 -'

>.

1\

I_,

_'I

II '

<::

0
"C

'\

..0

4 .!!!
en

'\ %"'a

~ ~

1\

~
z

c.

"\1"'1.

' 1\

\
...\.

...

20

~ r-..

__..

~"'

~ \'.~"' ~ ...
'!'..
~

40
60
80
Distributed load on Beam (kN/m)

Gi

&5
01

500 ~

g!

r-...

,
,
.......

!"-i"'---.

"'

400 ~

c:

:::l

'0
600 ~
Q)

...... 700

100

800

r:
I

!_.

r '

'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

'--'

"'~
-...
.........
r--....

r-- r-:::: r--

.......

.s

ARUP

I
'

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (2/21)

4.4.1 Rules of thumb (Cont'd)

' '
)

Steel grades

1""'1

Generally grade 50 (Fe 510) (S 355)is most economical for quantities over 40 tonnes.
Note:

' i

Grade 50 not readily available from stockholders. Therefore expect a 6 week additional lead in time.
Typically, grade 50B sections cost 5% by weight more than grade 43B -- see section 2.3.

' ;

Columns

Preliminary design based on a concentric axial load (see section 4.4.4).


'

'

',

'

Struts and ties

Slenderness limits:
(No longer in BS5950 (2000) but still of interest)

' II

For !QQ. storey:


Prelim. design axial load = total axial load

+ 4 x difference in Y-Y axis load


+ 2 x difference in X-X axis load

For intermediate storey:


Prelim. design axial load = total axial load

+ 2 x difference in Y-Y axis load


+ 1 x difference in X-X axis load

Typical maximum column sizes for braced frames:


- 203
- 254
- 305
-356

UC for buildings up to 3 storeys high.


UC for buildings up to 5 storeys high.
UC for buildings up to 8 storeys high.
UC for buildings from 8 to 12 storeys high.

- members resisting load other than wind: ~180


- members resisting self weight and wind only: ~250
- members normally acting as a tie but subject to load reversal due to wind:

'II

A.~350

'

Minimum CHS sections which satisfy slenderness limits


Effective Length (m)

Slenderness
Limit
180
250
350

10

12

76.1 X 3.2
60.6 X 3.2
42.2 x4.6

114.3 X 3.6
76.1 X 3.2
60.3 X 3.2

139.7 X 5.0
114.3 X 3.6
76.1 X 3.2

168.3 X 5.0
139.7 X 5.0
88.9 X 3.2

193.7 X 5.0
139.7 X 5.0
114.3 X 3.6

\ J
"i
I

I
\ J

"1I

Portal Frames

- Hauch length = span /1 0


- Haunch depth = rafter depth (same section)
- Minimum rafter slope= 2.5
-Rafter depth =span /60 (approx.)
-Stanchion depth =span /50 (approx. ---not high bay)

,...,
I

' J

"i
I
I

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

' J

,...,
I

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (3/21)

4.4.2 LOAD FACTORS


(

Load case

Dead Load

Wind

adverse

beneficial

adverse

beneficial

Temperature

1. Dead + imposed

1.4

1.0

1.6

(1.2)

2. Dead + Wind

1.4

1.0

1.4

(1.2)

3. Dead + imposed + Wind*

1.2

1.0

1.2

1.0

1.2

(1.2)

Notional horizontal load:

Imposed Load

0.5% of factored dead + live load at each level


Wind load to be at least 1% of factored dead load

4.4.3 DESIGN STRENGTH


(

BS EN 10025 : 2004
I

Thickness

'

s 275

'

1...1

'

Thickness

Py

(mm)

(N/mm 2 )

, 16

355

, 40

345

255

, 63

340

245

< 100

325

(mm)

Py
(N/mm 2 )

, 16

275

, 40

265

, 63
< 100

BS EN 10025: 2004

S355

4.4.4 BEAM DESIGN

1...1

Ultimate strength in bending


Compression flange restrained
Plastic & Compact

'I

Mc:x =pySx ::; 1.5 pyZx

I..

(simply supported +cantilever)


!

Mcx = pySx ::; 1.2 pyZx


'

Note : Mb obtained directly from graph (P.5/23)

Requirement :
~ mMmax (for beam not loaded between
restrained points)

Semi-compact

'-'

Mcx = pyZ*
{Sx > Self > Zx)

*Note: Code allows

where:

S.n to be used instead of Z for I

Requirement :

mLT

15M2 +0.5M3 +15M4

= 0.2 + _

___.;::....____.::.___--'Mmax

or H sections, but this must be calculated.

!.-t

''

Mb = pbSx (plastic & compact)


Mb = pbZ (semi-compact)

Mb

(continuous)
I

Compression flange unrestrained:

but:

mLT

~ 0.44

The moments M2 and M4 are the values at


the quarter points and the moment M3 is the
value at mid-length.

r '

r '

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


(

ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR


AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98
(

I
I

'
1.....1

ARUJP

'

>

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (4/21)


BENDING
Universal
Beams

GRADE43

DxbxMass
(mmxmm
xKa/m)

kNm

914x419x388
914x419x343
914x305x289
914x305x201
838x292x226
838x292x176
762x267x197
762x267x147
686x254x170
686x254x125
610x305x238
610x305x149
610x229x140
610x229x101
533x210x122
533x210x82
457x191x98
457x191x67
457X152X82
457X152X52
406x178x74
406x178x54
406x140x46
406x140x39
356x171x67
356x171x45
356X127X39
356X127X33
305x165x54
305x165x40
305x127X48
305X127X37
305x102x33
305x1Q2x25
254X146X43
254X146X31
254x102x28
254x102x22
203x133x30
203x133x25

4680
4100
3340
2220
2430
1800
1900
1370
1490
1060
1980
1460
1100
794
849
566
592
405
477
301
415
289
245
198
334
213
180
148
232
172
194
149
132
92.4
156
109
97.4
71.6
86.2
71.2

M~

L,
m
11.0\

L2
m
10.75\

L3
m
10.5\

3.9
3.8
2.7
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.2
2.3
2.1
3.0
2.8
2.1
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.6
1.3
1.2
1.6
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.6
1.5
1.1
1.0
1.6
1.5
1.1
1.1
0.9
0.8
1.4
1.3
0.9
0.8
1.3
1.3

7.7
7.3
5.1
4.7
4.8
4.6
4.6
4.3
4.3
4.0
6.0
5.6
3.9
3.6
3.7
3.3
3.5
3.1
2.5
2.3
3.2
2.9
2.3
2.2
3.1
2.8
2.0
2.0
3.1
2.9
2.3
2.1
1.7
1.5
2.8
2.5
1.7
1.6
2.6
2.4

12.5
12.0
8.2
7.2
7.7
7.0
7.1
6.4
6.9
6.3
10.2
9.0
6.3
5.5
6.1
5.2
5.8
4.9
4.3
3.7
5.1
4.5
3.5
3.3
5.3
4.5
3.3
3.0
5.2
4.7
3.7
3.3
2.7
2.3
4.9
4.2
2.8
2.5
4.4
4.1

GRADE 50

L
m
10.35\

P,
kN

3150
2810
2890
2180
2180
1860
1910
1550
1600
1260
1870
1150
1290
1050
1110
837
847
636
791
564
661
505
458
413
547
401
378
339
395
306
456
361
341
292
313
253
275
243
215
194

11.5
9.7
10.7
9.4
9.9
8.6
9.7
8.3
15.0
13.0
9.0
7.5
8.1
7.0
7.6
6.6
6.3
4.9
7.3
6.2
4.9
4.5
7.7
6.1
4.4
4.1
7.8
6.5
5.5
4.7
3.7
3.2
7.3
5.8
4.0
3.4
6.6
5.9

M"'
kNm
6020
5270
4280
2840
3110
2320
2440
1760
1910
1360
2540
1550
1410
1020
1090
731
777
523
622
389
536
373
316
255
430
244
232
192
300
222
251
192
170
120
202
125
127
93
111
82

L,
m
11.0\
3.4
3.4
2.4
2.2
2.3
2.1
2.1
2.0
2.0
1.9
2.6
2.5
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.5
1.6
1.4
1.1
1.1
1.4
1.3
1.1
1.0
1.4
1.3
0.9
0.9
1.4
1.3
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
1.2
1.2
0.8
0.7
1.1
1.1

L2
m
(0.75\

L3
m
(0.5)

L.
m
(0.35\

P,
kN

6.8
6.7
4.5
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.0
3.7
4.1
3.7
5.3
4.9
3.5
3.3
3.3
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.4
2.1
2.8
2.6
2.1
1.9
2.8
2.4
1.7
1.8
2.8
2.6
2.0
1.8
1.5
1.3
2.5
2.6
1.6
1.4
2.4
1.7

10.8
10.5
7.5
6.4
6.8
5.3
6.2
5.7
6.1
5.6
9.0
7.5
5.6
5.0
5.3
4.6
5.0
4.3
3.8
3.2
4.5
4.1
3.2
3.0
4.5
4.0
2.9
2.8
4.5
4.1
3.2
2.9
2.3
2.1
4.2
4.1
2.5
2.3
3.9
2.8

15.0
14.4
10.1
8.5
9.2
8.2
8.6
7.8
8.4
7.3
13.0
10.3
7.7
6.6
7.3
6.1
7.0
5.8
5.3
4.3
6.3
5.4
4.2
3.9
6.5
5.3
3.8
3.6
6.5
5.6
4.7
4.1
3.3
2.7
5.4
5.6
3.5
3.0
5.4
4.0

4100
3660
3760
2840
2840
2420
2490
2010
2080
1640
2440
1500
1670
1360
1440
1080
1100
821
1030
728
853
652
591
533
706
517
488
438
510
395
588
466
440
377
404
327
355
314
278
251

Intermediate
masses (kg/m)

253,224

194
173
152,140

-,

179
\

'

'

125,113
109,101,92
89,82, 74
74,67,60
67,60

l""j
I

57,51
l.

46

'l
I

42
28
37
25

\ j

'"l

-,
Universal
Columns

GRADE43

GRADE 50
l

DxbxMass
(mmxmm
xKo/m\

M"'
kNm

356x406x634
356x406x235
356X368X202
356x368x129
305x305x283
305x305x97
254x254x167
254x254x73
203x203x86
203x203x46
152x152x37
152x152x23

3490
1240
1050
601
1300
397
641
272
259
137
85
45.4

L,
m

L2
m

L3
m

(1.0\

(0.75\

(0.5\

8.7
5.0
4.8
4.1
4.8
3.2
3.3
2.3
2.7
2.2
1.8
1.5

12.0
10.5
9.8
14.0
6.8
10.3
6.0
7.0
4.8
4.1
3.3

12.2

11.0
14.0
8.7
8.1
5.6

L
m
(0.35\

P,
kN

Mox
kNm

L,
m
11.0

L2
L3
m
m
10.75\ 10.5J

3320
1120
1000
605
1500
503
883
360
459
245
216
153

4520
1620
1370
782
1730
512
834
318
338
159
110
58.6

6.8
4.2
3.9
4.8
4.4
4.0
3.0
3.4
2.2
2.7
1.7
2.0

16.0
9.0
8.7
11.5
6.0
8.7
6.2
5.9
5.0
3.5
3.5

13.7
8.8

L.
m
(0.35\

P,
kN

Intermediate
masses
lka/m\

4410
1460
1300
788
2000
649
1150
465
598
316
279
198

551' 467, 393,


& 340,287
177, 153

15.0
14.0
10.2

10.6
12.0
8.2
6.8
5.6

15.0
12.5
10.8
8.2

240, 198, 158


& 137,118
132,107,89
71,60,52

'"""'~
i
i

I)
!

' I

30
l""j
I

, I
THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUP

'

-,
\j

'
1.....1

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (5/21)

Approximate Mb calculation
Table is to used in conjunction with the table on P. 4/23 to calculate approximate rvj,.

r ,

''......_,

1
r ,
i

0.9

:\.
I
I

0.8

L.
r

0.7

.J 0.6

L
(

"":c

:2 0.5

I
I
I

''

0.4

'

L
r

0.2

0.1

'

~.,..,;

:
I

:
I

~,

"' "

~
I

'

' i'
I

L1
(

~
I

0.3

'

1,....1

L1 = Effective length when Mb = Mcx


L2 =Effective length when Mb = 0.75M
L3 = Effective length when Mb = 0.50M
L4 =Effective length when Mb =0.35Mcx

1'\

L2
L3
Effective Length

......... ......

L4

........

Example: 533x210x82UB (Py = 275 Mpa) with Le compression flange= 6m.


(

'

From table L4

I
'-

L3
M
From graph Mb

'

=?.Om= 0.35Mcx
= 5.2m = 0.50Mcx
= 566 kNm
= 0.43Mcx (approx.), for Le = 6m.
= 243 kNm

'-1

r ,

L....

ri
i

......,

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

L.

ARUP

J'

'

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (6/21)


Effective lengths of beam compression flanges
Rotational restraint on plan
Conditions of restraint at the ends
of the beams
Compression
flange
laterally
restrained;
beam fully
restrained
against
torsion

1. Flanges fully restrained on plan

(
~

2. Flanges partially restrained on plan


~~-

'f'

Compression
flange
laterally
unrestrained;
both flanges
free to rotate
on plan

Loading conditions
Normal

Destabilizing

Both flanges fully


restrained
against rotation
on plan

0.7L

0.85L

Both flanges
partially
restrained
against rotation
on plan

0.85L

Both flanges free


to rotate on plan

1.0L

Restraint against
torsion provided
only by positive
connection of
bottom flange to
supports

1.0L+2D

Restraint against
torsion provided
only by dead
bearing of
bottom flange on
supports.

1.2L+2D

1.0L

1.2L
I

1.2L+2D

' j

1.4L+2D

3. Flanges free to rotate on plan


Lateral torsional buckling -Stress of fabricated girders
400
T~

0/T= 5
350

Pb vs Urwfor symmetrical
compact fabricated girders.
2
Pv 350 N/mm

300

250
N

..

z
..c

200

'l

a..

150

100

I.

....,
50
0

50

100

150

200

250

' J

_....,
'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUP

J'

....,
I

';

r ,

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (9/21)

Castellated & cellular beams


r '

Imposed loading 5+1 kN/m 2

l....i

SECONDARY BEAM SPAN (m)


6

L
(

12

356 x 171 x45

Diameter

300

350

450

550

650

Spacing

450

525

675

825

975

0/A Depth

482

605

728

916

1116

457 X 191

67

533x210x92

686

254 X 125

838

292

176

MAIN BEAM SPAN (m)

18

Beam Size

r '

15

12

15

18

Beam Size

Beam Size

Beam Size

Beam Size

Beam Size

Secondary
Beam
Span (m)

Dia.l Spacing

457 X 191

,__.

0/A
Depth

Dia.

I I
Spacing

0/A
Depth

Dia.

I I
Spacing

0/A
Depth

Dia.

I I
Spacing

0/A
Depth

Dia

Spaci"J 0/A
g
Depth

914 X 305 X 253

67

610 X 229 X 125

762 X 267 X 173

914 X 305 X 201

400 1 600 1 627

500 1 750 1 828

700 11000 11078

700 11000 11219 100 l10ool1235

610 X 229 X 101

762 X 267 X 147

914 X 305 X 201

914 X 305 X 289

500 1 750 1 819

500 1 7501 970

610 X 229 X 113

838 X 292 X 194

914 X 305 X 289

500 1 750 1 824

700 110ool 1157

700 11000 11243

686 X 254 X 125

914 X 305 X 253

550 1 750 1 934

70011000 11235

762 X 267 X 173

914 X 305 X 289

'

''

12

15
(

700 1100011219 700-11000 11243

'

18

700 1100011078 100 110ool 1243

( '

Assumptions
1.
(

2.
3.
4.

'

Secondary beam spacing 3m


150mm thick concrete slab of normal weight concrete
All beams grade S355
Beams laterally restrained by concrete slab.

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR

1_.

AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98


(

'

ARUJP

'

'

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (9/21)

4.4.5 COLUMNS (AND BEAM COLUMNS)

'

~+ Mx +My :s;I
Agpy Mcx Mcy

Local capacity check:

Py = squash load
Buckling check: (minor axis failure)
(Simplified check from from 885950

4.8.3.3.1)

Fe+ mxMx +my My ::;;1


~
PyZx
PyZY

.....,,

Fe + mLTMLT + myMy ::;I


~y
PyZx
PyZY
0.1M +0.6M +0.1M

2 __-"-----'4
3
Where: m = 0.2 + __,;:_

but

'

'

0.8M24

m:?:--~

Mmax

Mmax

for mLTsee 4.4.4

Mb is obtained from the graph in 4.4.4


Pc is the buckling capacity from table below
Note:

For columns in simple construction use m = 1.0; when determining M, use


L = 0.5 H, where H = column height

1. ""
1.1
1.0

0. 9
0. 8

r-......

!'-....
...........

"'

'

0. 7

0. 6

0. 5

1'..

"'

1'.::

-,

..........

...........

' I

!'.

'

.............

0. 4

~,
'

0. 3
0. 2
i

0. 1

'
'

0
L1
Note:

....,

L2
EFFECTIVE LENGTH

L3

L4

This graph shows the approximate relationship


between axial capacity and effective length. --- see following tables.
L 1 =Effective length when Pc = Py.
l3 = Effective length when Pc = 0.50Py.

L2 =Effective length when Pc = 0.75Py.

L. =Effective length when Pc = 0.35Py.


' J

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION

----

ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR


AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

\_

,!'

r ,

r '

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (9/21)

I
I

I.....

COMPRESSION
Circular Hollow
Sections (CHS)

Outside
diameter
imm)

r '

Thickness
(mm)

88.9

139.7

168.3
193.7

I,
L

219.1
244.5
273.0
323.9

pcmax

kN

3.2
5.0
3.6
6.3
5.0
10.0
5.0
10.0
5.0
12.5
5.0
12.5
6.3
16.0
6.3
16.0
6.3
16.0
8.0
16.0

114.3

r ,

GRADE 43 (S275)

355.6

Only part of the range

L,,
m

L,,
m

L,3
m

L,.
m

_11.Ql

(0.75)

(0.5)

10.35\

237
363
344
589
583
1120
707
1370
814
1960
924
2230
1300
3160
1450
3550
1730
4260
2400
4700
IS

'

I....

'

1.r '

i
r '

I
I

I....

r '
I

I....

r ,

r '

NOTE:

LX "' 1.15

pcmax

kN

L,3
m

(1.0)

(0.75)

(0.5\

_i0.35)

2.1
2.1
2.8
2.7
3.4
3.3
4.2
4.0
4.8
4.5
5.4
5.1
6.0
5.8
6.8
6.5
8.0
7.7
8.7
8.5

3.0
2.9
3.8
3.7
4.6
4.5
5.6
5.7
6.7
6.3
7.3
7.1
8.2
7.9
9.2
8.9
11.0
10.6
12.0
11.7

3.7
3.6
4.8
4.6
5.8
5.7
7.0
6.7
8.0
7.7
9.1
8.7
10.1
9.7
11.3
10.9
13.5
13.0

<

19800
17200
15200
12800
11000
9690
7950
6840
5980
5180
4380
9190
8090
6690
5320
4620
3970
3390
5630
4470
3620
3010
2560
2920
2410
2090
1830
1620
1300
1060
816

L,.
m

Intermediate
thicknesses
(mm)
4.0
5.0
6.3, 8.0
6.3, 8.0
6.3, 8.0, 10.0
6.3, 8.0, 10.0
8.0, 10.0, 12.5
8.0, 10.0, 12.5
8.0, 10.0, 12.5

10.0, 12.5

GRADE 50

L,,
m

L,3
m

L,.
m

(1.0)

(0.75)

(0.5)

(0.35)

2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.1
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.7
0.7
0.7

5.5
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.6
5.9
5.9
5.6
5.7
5.5
5.7
4.6
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.5
4.5
4.4
3.9
3.9
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.1
3.1
3.0
2.9
2.9
2.1
2.2
2.1

9.2
9.3
9.1
9.5
9.4
9.6
9.6
9.0
8.9
8.9
8.8
7.5
7.7
7.6
7.4
7.3
7.3
7.2
6.3
6.3
6.2
6.2
6.0
5.0
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.7
3.5
3.5
3.4

12.8
12.7
12.3
12.6
12.5
12.7
12.5
11.8
11.7
11.6
11.5
9.9
10.0
9.8
9.7
9.6
9.6
9.4
8.3
8.3
8.1
8.1
7.9
6.6
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.2
4.7
4.6
4.5

pcmax

kN

26300
22800
20200
17000
14700
12600
10300
89000
7780
6750
5700
12300
10500
8710
6930
6010
5160
4380
7330
5820
4710
3920
3300
3800
3140
2700
2360
2090
1680
1360
1050

L,,
m

L,,
m

L,3
m

L,.
m

(1.0)

(0.75)

(0.5)

(0.35)

1.7
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.7
1.9
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.6

5.1
4.9
4.9
4.8
4.8
5.4
5.4
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.9
3.8
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.0
3.6
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.0
2.0
2.0

8.6
8.6
8.3
8.2
8.1
8.5
8.6
8.2
8.1
8.0
8.0
6.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
6.6
6.6
6.5
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.6
5.5
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.3
3.3
3.2
3.1

11.6
11.6
11.0
10.8
10.7
11.2
11.3
10.5
10.5
10.4
10.3
8.7
8.9
8.8
8.7
8.6
8.6
8.4
7.5
7.4
7.3
7.2
7.0
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.6
5.5
4.2
4.2
4.0

r I ~r LY

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

L,,
m

306
0.4
469
0.4
444
0.6
760
0.6
753
0.7
1440
0.7
912
0.8
1760
0.8
1050
1.0
2530
0.9
1190
1.1
2880
1.1
1670
1.2
4080
1.2
1870
1.4
4580
1.3
2230
1.7
5500
1.6
3100
1.8
6070
1.8
may be ava1lable

L,,
m

AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

L,,
m

GRADE43

356x406x634
356x406x551
356x406x467
356x406x393
356x406x340
356x406x287
356x406x235
356x368x202
356x368x177
356x368x153
356x368x129
305x305x283
305x305x240
305x305x198
305x305x158
305x305x137
305x305x118
305x305x97
254x254x167
254x254x132
254x254x107
254x254x89
254x254x73
203x203x86
203x203x71
203x203x60
203x203x52
203x203x46
152x152x37
152x152x30
152x152x23

kN

DxbxMass
(mmxmmxKg/m)

r ,

pcmax

0.4
2.3
3.3
4.1
0.4
2.2
3.2
4.0
0.6
3.1
4.3
5.3
0.6
3.0
4.3
5.2
0.7
3.7
5.2
6.4
0.7
3.6
5.0
6.2
4.5
0.8
6.3
7.9
4.4
0.8
6.1
7.5
1.0
5.2
7.3
9.0
0.9
5.0
7.0
8.6
1.1
6.0
8.3
10.0
1.1
5.7
8.0
9.9
1.2
6.7
9.3
11.4
1.2
6.5
8.9
11.0
1.4
7.6
10.3
12.7
1.3
7.2
9.9
12.3
1.7
8.8
12.3
1.6
8.6
12.0
1.8
9.7
13.5
1.8
9.5
13.1
g1ven For the larger sect1ons thicker tubes

Universal Columns

GRADE 50 (S355)

ARUJP

....,
' j
4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (10/21)

~
!

4.4.6 Portal Frame Sizing

' j

The following are simple charts for the sizing of pinned base portals.
Assumptions :

wind loading does not control design

hinges formed at the eaves (in the stanchion) and near the apex .

Moment at the end of the haunch is 0.87M P


Stability of sections is not addressed
Load W

\ j

i
J

'

=vertical load on rafter per meter

I
' J

J'

l
L

'

:
Horizontal base r~action H
Sc:~an t

caws ,aagnt

=HFR WL

I
I

L/11

....,
I

' J

i
I

' J

RJL
0101-+--l~o-'-+-~~~~~~~~~~~~---------1

....,
i.

' j

076

Horazontal forc:e at tlasa-

'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

'

ARUJP
..

'

'

r ,

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (11/21)

MP

required for rafter:

Mpratter

Soon 1 eaves nrzight

MP,

WL 2

L IH

r'

L
r

'

r ,

Mp rat1o riZQuJred tor r a t t e r - Mpr


MP

r ,

required for stanchion : Mpstanchion

Span 1 eavcrs ncr1ght

I....;

= MP1 WL2

LIH

85 75 6 5 55

9 I 8 1 7 I 6 I
r

L
I

:......
'

R/L

I
.......

r 005~------------~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1:

Q.
Ill

Mp ratio rrzQuJrfHI tor stancl'lron -

'

Mpt

L.
r ,

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION

L.

AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR


Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

r ,

ARUJP

'

,_,
j

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (13/21)

' J

4.4. 7 ELEMENT STIFFNESS


Serviceability check:

unfactored dead + imposed


unfactored dead + 0.8 x (imposed + wind)

'

'

Deflection limits under imposed load


Element

Limit

Cantilever

U180

Beam supporting plaster or brittle finish

U360

Beams supporting masonry


Crane beams

U500
U200
U500

Columns

H/300

Columns in multi-storey construction with movement sensitive

H/500

Other beams

'

'!
j

cladding.

,_,

Portal frames
Lateral at eaves

H/1 00 - H/300 *

Vertical at apex

U250- U500 *

i
'

'

* Depends on cladding system

Minimum I to satisfy deflection limit

Load case

aaaaa

U200

U360

U500

1.27 WL2

2.29 WL2

3.18 WL2

+p

2.03 PL2

3.66 PL2

.J.

.J.

'

5.08 PL2

t
P/2 P/2

'!

'J
1.73 PL2

3.12 PL2

4.33 PL2

'!

t
' J

Note:

For castellated beams, assume a 30% increase 1n deflection due to presence of web openings.
L in metres; W, P in kN; I in cm4
i

4.4.8 CONNECTIONS

Bolted
Assume S 275 fittings.
Simple connections -use grade 8.8, 20mm diameter bolts
fin plates}
t = 8mm for UB's < 457mm deep
partial depth end plates}
t = 1Omm for UB's > 457mm deep
web cleats}
Moment connections -use grade 8.8, 20mm or 24mm diameter. Assume end plate
thickness equal to bolt diameter (25 thick with M24)
Holding down bolts - assume grade 4.6 where possible.
M16 x 300
Standard sizes:
M20 X 450, 600
M24 x 450, 600
M30 X 450, 600
M36 X 450, 600, 750

'!
'

'
j
J

' J

' J

See Appendices C12, C13, C14 for more information on bolts and fastening.
When carrying out design, it is important to consult new SCI/BCSA guidelines (Ref 3.4.5)
THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

' J

l
'

r-

r-

r-

-~

r----::

.---~

c--=

r-

r-

-~

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (13/21)


Bolts
Non-preloaded ordinary bolts - GRADE 8.8 BOLTS
Shear Value
Dia

Tensile

Tensile

of

Stress

Cap

Bolt

Area

Single

Double

Shear

Shear

kN

kN

(Tension capacity= simple method with allowance for prying)

Bearing Value of plate at S275 and end distance equal to 2xbolt diameter

Bearing Value of plate at S355 and end distance equal to 2xbolt diameter

Thickness in mm of Plate Passed Through

Thickness in mm of Plate Passed Through

10

12

15

20

25

30

10

12

33.0

39.6

46.2

52.8

59.4

44.0

52.8

61.6

70.4

79.2

55.0

66.0

77.0

88.0

99.0

60.5

72.6

84.7

96.8

109

121

145

182

66.0

79.2

92.4

106

119

132

158

198

264

413

15

20

25

30

106

88.0

110

132

165

mm

mm2

kN

12

84.3

37.8

31.6

63.2

27.6

33.1

38.6

44.2

49.7

55.2

16

157

70.3

58.9

118

36.8

44.2

51.5

58.9

66.2

73.6

88.3

110

20

245

110

91.9

184

46.0

55.2

64.4

73.6

82.8

92.0

110

138

184

22

303

136

114

227

50.6

60.7

70.8

81.0

91.1

101

121

152

202

24

353

158

132

265

55.2

66.2

77.3

88.3

99.4

110

132

166

221

27

459

206

172

344

62.1

74.5

86.9

99.4

112

124

149

186

248

311

74.2

89.1

104

119

134

148

178

223

297

138

166

207

276

345

414

82.5

99.0

116

132

148

165

198

248

330

30

561

- ----

251

210

421

69.0

82.8

96.6

110

124

.. . G
- ------ ----- ---r .--- ------- GENERAL GRADE BOLTS
Slip Value

Dia

Proof

Tensile

of

Load

Cap

Bolt

of Bolt

mm

kN

kN

12

49.4

49.7

Bearing Value of Plate at S275 and end distance equal to 3xbolt diameter

Bearing Value of Plate at S355 and end distance equal to 2xbolt diameter

Thickness in mm of Plate Passed Through.

Thickness in mm of Plate Passed Though.

Single

Double

Shear

Shear

kN

kN

27.2

54.3

41.4

49.7

66.2

77.3

10

88.3

99.4

12

15

20

25

30

10

12.5

15

49.5

66.0

79.2

92.4

20

25

30

16

92.1

92.6

50.7

101

55.2

20

144

145

79.2

158

69.0

82.8

96.6

110

124

138

82.5

99.0

116

132

149

22

177

179

97.4

195

75.9

91.1

106

121

137

152

182

90.7

109

127

145

163

182

228

99.4

116

132

149

166

199

99

119

139

158

178

198

112

130

149

168

186

224

82.8

111

134

156

178

200

223

124

145

166

186

207

248

311

124

148

173

198

223

248

24

207

208

114

27

234

236

129

257

93.2

30

286

289

157

315

104

..

297

Note: f! = 0.5 in BS 5950-1: 2000

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.
IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

'

'

'

'

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (18/21)

Welded

Use 6mm fillet where possible.


1.0
2.0
3.0

6mm fillet in downhand position


6mm fillet in vertical position
6mm fillet in overhead position

Relative costs:

' J

For each additional run multiply above by 1.75.


Note:

.....,

1 run
2 runs
3 runs

6mm weld
8mm weld
10mmweld

' J

Single V butt weld in 1Omm plate


Double V butt weld in 20mm plate
Single U butt weld in 20mm plate
Double U butt weld in 40mm plate
Single J butt weld in 20mm plate9.0
Double J butt weld in 40mm plate
Single level butt weld in 1Omm plate
Double level butt weld in 20mm plate

6.0
12.0
10.0
20.0
18.0
5.0
10.0

'

"l

For each 5mm of plate thickness multiply above by 4.0.

' J

Weld design

Fillet welds - Grade S 275 steel, Grade E35 Electrodes


Leg
length
mm

Throat
thickness
mm

Longitudinal
Capacity at 250
N/mm 2 , PL.
kN/mm

Leg
length
mm

Throat
thickness
mm

Longitudinal
Capacity at 250
N/mm2 , PL.
kN/mm

3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
10.0

2.1
2.8
3.5
4.2
5.6
7.0

0.462
0.616
0.770
0.924
1.232
1.540

12.0
15.0
18.0
20.0
22.0
25.0

8.4
10.5
12.6
14.0
15.4
17.5

1.848
2.310
2.772
3.080
3.388
3.850

Note: Transverse Capacity, Pr = K PL, where K

' J

'

'

'

=1.25 for elements at goo to each other

Fillet welds- GradeS 355 steel, Grade E42 Electrodes


Leg
length
mm

Throat
thickness
mm

Longitudinal
Capacity at 250
N/mm2 , PL,
kN/mm

Leg
length
mm

Throat
thickness
mm

Longitudinal
Capacity at 250
Nlmm 2 ,PL,
kN/mm

3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
10.0

2.1
2.8
3.5
4.2
5.6
7.0

0.525
0.700
0.875
1.050
1.400
1.750

12.0
15.0
18.0
20.0
22.0
25.0

8.4
10.5
12.6
14.0
15.4
17.5

2.100
2.625
3.150
3.500
3.850
4.375

Note: Transverse Capacity, Pr = K PL. where K

=1.25 for elements at goo to each other

\ j

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug ga

'

ARUIP

'

\ J

ir '
I

l4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (13/21)

4.4.9 Corrosion protection


Notes:

'

'

Define the environment correctly.


The information given is typical. There are many alternatives depending on the
individual situations.
Avoid specifying too many schemes for any one job.
The table takes no account of fire resistance.
For further details, see Structural Guidance Note 5.1 (1997)

r ,

Environment
r '

I..,_

Typical protection solution

External

All

E-2 (three coat scheme)

Internal

Controlled (e.g. office)

1-1 (Do nothing)

Cavity and perimeter

1-3

Uncontrolled (e.g. warehouses)

1-4

Specials (e.g. swimming pools


kitchens)

1-5

r ,

L
r ,
'

r ,

iI....
External scheme E-2

r ,

Preparation

Blast clean to Sa 2.5 of BS7079 Pt A1

Primer

Epoxy Zinc Phosphate 75!-lm

Barrier

Epoxy Micaceous Iron Oxide 10011m

Finish

Acrylic/Urethane 50!-lm

r '

Internal scheme 1-3

Internal scheme 1-4

Internal scheme 1-5

Primer

Epoxy Zinc Rich 75!-lm

Epoxy Primer finish


125!-lm

Epoxy Zinc Phosphate


50J.lm

Barrier

Epoxy MIO 125!-lm

Finish

Acrylic/Urethane

r '

Preparation
r '
I

'--'

'

'

'
'---'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98
(

'

ARUIP

' j

'

'

'

'

'

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (16/21)

SECTION PROPERTIES
Universal Beams (1 of 2)
X-------

------ X

PROPERTIES
Designation

Moment
of

Mass
per
Metre

Axis

em'

em

388
343

719300
625200

289
253
224
201

838x292

Serial
Size

Radius
Of Gyration

Buck.
Para.

Tors.
Index

Axis
y-y

Axis

Axis
y-y

Axis

X-X

X-X

y-y

em

em

em'

em'

em'

em'

45440
39160

38.1
37.8

9.58
9.46

15630
13720

2161
1871

17670
15470

3342
2890

0.884
0.883

504800
436400
376300
325900

15610
13300
1240
9433

37.0
36.8
36.3
35.6

6.50
6.42
6.27
6.06

10900
9503
8268
7217

1015
871
739
622

12590
10940
9533
8372

1603
1371
1163
983

226
194
176

339700
279200
246000

11360
9066
7791

34.3
33.6
33.1

6.27
6.06
5.90

7985
6641
5892

773
620
534

9155
7640
6806

762x267

197
173
147

239800
205200
168800

8175
6850
5462

30.9
30.5
30.0

5.71
5.58
5.39

6232
5385
4478

610
514
412

686x254

170
152
140
125

170300
150400
136300
118000

6630
5784
5183
4383

28.0
27.8
27.6
27.2

5.53
5.46
5.39
5.24

4916
4375
3987
3481

610x305

238
179
149

207700
151500
124700

15850
11400
9308

26.1
25.8
25.6

7.22
7.08
6.99

610x229

140
125
113
101

111700
98500
87380
75820

4499
3932
3434
2915

25.0
24.9
24.6
24.2

533x210

122
109
101
92
82

76180
66800
61650
55330
47520

3388
2939
2696
2389
2004

457x191

98
89
82
74
67

45770
41140
37090
33430
29410

82
74
67
60
52

36250
32470
28600
25450
21370

mm
914x419

914x305

457x152

Axis

Plastic
Modulus

X-X

x-x

Axis
y-y

Elastic
Modulus

Warp.
Canst

Tors.
Canst

Area

Axis
H

dm6

em4

em2

26.7
30.1

88.8
75.7

1739
1193

495
437

0.866
0.866
0.861
0.853

31.9
36.2
41.3
46.7

31.2
26.4
22.1
18.4

930
626
422
294

369
323
286
257

1212
974
841

0.870
0.862
0.856

35.0
41.6
46.5

19.3
15.2
13.0

514
306
221

289
247
224

7164
6195
5169

959
807
648

0.869
0.864
0.857

33.2
38.1
45.1

11.3
9.39
7.40

404
267
160

251
220
188

518
455
409
346

5631
5001
4558
3994

811
710
638
542

0.872
0.871
0.868
0.862

31.8
35.5
38.7
43.9

7.42
6.43
5.72
4.80

308
220
169
116

217
194
178
159

6564
4907
4093

1018
742
611

7462
5515
4575

1576
1143
938

0.886
0.886
0.886

21.1
27.5
32.5

14.3
10.0
8.10

790
340
201

304
228
190

5.03
4.97
4.88
4.75

3619
3219
2878
2518

391
343
301
256

4139
3673
3287
2887

611
535
470
401

0.875
0.873
0.869
0.863

30.6
34.1
37.9
42.9

3.98
3.45
2.99
2.51

216
154
112
77.6

178
159
144
129

22.1
21.9
21.8
21.7
21.3

4.66
4.60
4.57
4.50
4.38

2798
2476
2297
2076
1799

320
279
257
228
192

3203
2827
2619
2366
2058

500
435
400
356
300

0.876
0.875
0.874
0.871
0.864

27.6
30.9
33.1
36.4
41.6

2.32
1.99
1.82
1.60
1.33

179
126
102
76.3
51.5

156
139
129
118
105

2347
2093
1871
1674
1452

19.1
19.0
18.8
18.7
18.5

4.33
4.28
4.23
4.20
4.12

1959
1775
1612
1462
1297

243
218
196
176
153

2234
2020
1832
1659
1472

379
339
304
273
237

0.881
0.879
0.877
0.876
0.872

25.8
28.2
30.9
33.8
37.9

1.18
1.Q4
0.923
0.820
0.706

121
91.3
69.2
52.2
37.1

125
114
105
95.1
85.5

1144
1013
879
795
645

18.6
18.5
18.3
18.3
17.9

3.31
3.26
3.21
3.24
3.11

1559
1408
1251
1119
950

149
133
116
104
84.6

1802
1624
1442
1283
1096

236
209
183
163
133

0.872
0.870
0.867
0.869
0.859

27.3
30.0
33.5
37.6
43.9

0.570
0.500
0.430
0.387
0.311

89.5
66.8
47.6
33.5
21.4

105
95.1
85.3
75.8
66.6

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

'

'""'!
I
'

'l

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

r .

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (17/21)

Universal Beams (2 of 2)

' '

PROPERTIES
Designation

Second
Moment
of Area

Serial
Size
I

Mass
per
Metre
kg

Axis

em

em

406x178

74
67
60
54

27430
24330
21540
18670

406x140

46
39

356x171

mm

'

Axis

x-x

Axis
y-y

Axis
X-X

Axis
y-y

Axis

x-x

Axis
y-y

Buck.
Para.

Tors.
Index

Warp.
Canst

Tors.
Canst

Area

dm'

em4

em'

em 3

em'

em'

em'

1551
1365
1201
1019

17.0
16.9
16.8
16.5

4.03
3.99
3.97
3.86

1329
1189
1060
927

173
153
135
115

1509
1346
1195
1051

268
237
209
178

0.880
0.880
0.881
0.872

27.5
30.5
33.8
38.4

0.610
0.533
0.465
0.391

63.7
46.1
33.0
22.9

95.3
85.5
76.1
68.6

15670
12410

540
410

16.3
15.9

3.03
2.89

779
625

75.9
57.8

889
718

119
90.7

0.870
0.859

38.8
47.6

0.207
0.155

19.2
10.5

59.0
49.2

67
57
51
45

19540
16060
14160
12080

1362
1106
968
810

15.1
14.9
14.8
14.6

3.99
3.91
3.87
3.77

1073
896
796
686

157
129
113
94.7

1213
1009
895
773

243
198
174
146

0.886
0.883
0.882
0.875

24.4
28.9
32.2
37.0

0.413
0.330
0.287
0.237

55.7
33.1
23.6
15.7

85.5
72.2
64.6
57.0

356x127

39
33

10100
8192

358
280

14.3
14.0

2.69
2.59

573
470

56.8
44.7

654
539

88.9
70.2

0.872
0.864

35.2
42.3

0.105
0.0810

14.9
8.65

49.4
41.8

305x165

54
46
40

11690
9935
8551

1061
896
766

13.1
13.0
12.9

3.94
3.90
3.85

752
647
563

127
108
92.8

843
722
626

195
166
142

0.891
0.891
0.888

23.7
27.2
31.0

0.234
0.195
0.165

34.3
22.2
14.9

68.2
58.8
51.6

305x127

48
42
37

9507
8159
7162

460
389
337

12.5
12.4
12.3

2.75
2.70
2.67

613
532
471

73.5
62.6
54.6

706
612
540

116
98.4
85.6

0.874
0.872
0.871

23.3
26.5
29.6

0.101
0.0843
0.0724

31.5
21.1
14.9

60.9
53.4
47.4

305x102

33
28
25

6501
5439
4364

194
158
119

12.5
12.2
11.8

2.15
2.08
1.96

416
352
286

37.9
30.9
23.5

481
408
336

60.0
49.2
37.8

0.866
0.859
0.844

31.6
36.9
44.1

0.0442
0.0355
0.0265

12.2
7.69
4.57

41.8
36.4
31.2

254x146

43
37
31

6554
5547
4428

677
571
448

10.9
10.8
10.5

3.51
3.47
3.35

505
433
352

92.0
78.0
61.3

568
435
395

141
119
94.2

0.890
0.889
0.879

21.1
24.3
29.5

0.103
0.0857
0.0660

24.0
15.4
8.65

55.0
47.4
39.9

254x102

28
25
22

4013
3420
2853

178
149
119

10.5
10.3
10.0

2.21
2.15
2.06

308
266
225

34.9
29.2
23.5

354
307
260

54.8
46.1
37.3

0.873
0.865
0.854

27.4
31.3
36.1

0.0279
0.0230
0.0182

9.68
6.52
4.23

36.3
32.3
28.3

203x133

30
25

2888
2349

384
309

8.72
8.54

3.18
3.10

279
231

57.4
46.3

313
259

88.0
71.2

0.882
0.876

21.5
25.5

0.0373
0.0295

10.2
6.05

38.0
32.2

203x102

23

2091

163

8.49

2.37

206

32.1

232

49.5

0.890

22.5

0.0153

6.87

29.0

178x102

19

1357

138

7.49

2.39

153

27.2

171

41.9

0.889

22.6

0.00998

4.37

24.2

152x89

16

838

90.4

6.40

2.10

110

20.3

124

31.4

0.889

19.5

0.00473

3.61

20.5

127x76

13

477

56.2

5.33

1.83

75.1

14.7

85.0

22.7

0.893

16.2

0.00200

2.92

16.8

'

Axis
y-y

Plastic
Modulus

em

x-x

Elastic
Modulus

em

I
'

! \

Radius
Of Gyration

'

(
I

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

l...

ARUJP

'

'

'

'

......,

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (18/21)

Universal Columns
!

JE'
y

PROPERTIES
Designation

Serial
Size

mm
356x406

Second
Moment
of Area

Radius
Of Gyration

Elastic
Modulus

' J

Plastic
Modulus

Mass
per
Metre
kg

Axis

Axis

Axis

Axis

Axis

Axis

Axis

Axis

x-x

y-y

x-x

y-y

X-X

y-y

x-x

y-y

em'

em'

em

em

em'

em'

em'

em'

634
551
467
393
340
287
235

275000
227000
183100
146700
122500
99930
79150

98190
82670
67930
55370
46850
38680
31040

18.5
18.0
17.5
17.1
16.8
16.5
16.2

11.0
10.9
10.7
10.5
10.4
10.3
10.2

11590
9964
8388
7001
6029
5077
4155

4631
3951
3295
2721
2325
1939
1572

14240
12080
10010
8225
6997
5814
4691

7112
6057
5040
4154
3543
2949
2386

Buck.
Para.

Tors.
Index

0.843
0.841
0.839
0.837
0.836
0.835
0.834

5.46
6.06
6.86
7.87
8.85
10.2
12.1

Warp.
Canst

Tors.
Canst

Area
I

, I

dm6

em'

em'

38.8
31.1
24.3
18.9
15.5
12.3
9.55

13730
9232
5817
3545
2340
1441
813

808
702
595
501
433
366
300

COL CORE

477

172500

68090

16.9

10.6

8078

3209

9704

4981

0.815

6.90

23.8

5705

607

356x368

202
177
153
129

66330
57110
48640
40300

23630
20450
17510
14580

16.0
15.9
15.8
15.6

9.57
9.52
9.46
9.39

3541
3101
2687
2266

1262
1099
946
792

3978
3455
2970
2485

1917
1667
1433
1198

0.843
0.844
0.844
0.843

13.4
15.0
17.0
19.8

7.14
6.07
5.10
4.17

561
382
252
154

258
226
196
165

283
240
198
158
137
118
97

78800
64150
50860
38690
32770
27610
22200

24540
20220
16240
12500
10650
9006
7272

14.8
14.5
14.2
13.9
13.7
13.6
13.4

8.25
8.14
8.02
7.89
7.82
7.76
7.68

4314
3639
2993
2365
2045
1756
1443

1525
1272
1034
805
690
587
477

5101
4243
3438
2675
2293
1952
1589

2337
1945
1577
1225
1049
892
724

0.855
0.854
0.854
0.852
0.851
0.851
0.850

7.65
8.74
10.2
12.5
14.2
16.2
19.3

6.33
5.01
3.86
2.85
2.38
1.97
1.55

2034
1270
735
376
249
160
91.1

360
305
252
201
174
150
123

167
132
10 7
89
73

29920
22550
17500
14280
11370

9792
7506
5894
4835
3880

11.9
11.6
11.3
11.2
11.1

6.79
6.67
6.57
6.52
6.46

2070
1632
1312
1097
895

740
575
456
378
306

2418
1872
1484
1225
990

1131
877
695
574
463

0.852
0.850
0.848
0.849
0.849

8.49
10.3
12.4
14.5
17.3

1.62
1.18
0.893
0.714
0.558

625
321
173
103
57.5

212
169
137
114
92.9

203x203

86
71
60
52
46

9461
7634
6103
5254
4565

3114
2530
2047
1767
1539

9.27
9.16
8.96
8.90
8.81

5.32
5.28
5.19
5.16
5.12

851
707
582
510
449

298
245
199
173
151

979
801
654
567
497

455
373
303
263
230

0.849
0.852
0.847
0.848
0.846

10.2
11.9
14.1
15.8
17.7

0.317
0.249
0.195
0.166
0.142

138
81.0
46.9
31.9
22.2

110
90.9
76.0
66.4
58.8

152x152

37
30
23

2213
1748
1258

706
560
402

6.84
6.75
6.51

3.87
3.82
3.68

274
222
165

91.5
73.3
52.7

309
248
184

140
112
80.5

0.848
0.848
0.837

13.3
16.0
20.5

0.0399
0.0307
0.0213

19.3
10.6
4.82

47.3
38.4
29.7

305x305

254x254

'

'

I'

......,
I
'

'

'

'

'

......,
i

'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUP

......,
'

! \

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (23/21)

Circular Hollow Sections


r '.

DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES

r ,

Outside
Dia.
D(mm)

'

Designation

Area

Ratio
For
Local
Buck.

cm

kg

0/t

358
448
550
673
837
1011
1210

6692
8320
10150
12290
15070
17910
21040

548
680
830
1006
1232
1466
1720

0.768
0.768
0.768
0.768
0.768
0.768
0.768

273.0

6.3
8.0
10.0
12.5
16.0
20.0
25.0+

41.4
52.3
64.9
80.3
101
125
153

52.8
66.6
82.6
102
129
159
195

43.3
34.1
27.3
21.8
17.1
13.6
10.9

4696
5852
7154
8697
10710
12800
15130

9.43
9.37
9.31
9.22
9.10
8.97
8.81

344
429
524
637
784
938
1108

448
562
692
849
1058
1283
1543

9392
11700
14310
17390
21420
25600
30260

688
858
1048
1274
1568
1876
2216

0.858
0.858
0.858
0.858
0.858
0.858
0.858

323.9

6.3
8.0
10.0
12.5
16.0
20.0
25.0+

49.3
62.3
77.4
96.0
121
150
184

62.9
79.4
98.6
122
155
191
235

51.4
40.5
32.4
25.9
20.2
16.2
13.0

7929
9910
12160
14850
18390
22140
26400

11.2
11.2
11.1
11.0
10.9
10.8
10.6

490
612
751
917
1136
1367
1630

636
799
986
1213
1518
1850
2239

15860
19820
24320
29700
36780
44280
52800

980
1224
1502
1834
2272
2734
3260

1.02
1.02
1.02
1.02
1.02
1.02
1.02

355.6

8.0
10.0
12.5
16.0
20.0
25.0.

68.6
85.2
106
134
166
204

87.4
109
135
171
211
260

44.5
35.6
28.4
22.2
17.8
14.2

13200
16220
19850
24660
29790
35680

12.3
12.2
12.1
12.0
11.9
11.7

742
912
1117
1387
1676
2007

967
1195
1472
1847
2255
2738

26400
32440
39700
49320
59580
71360

1484
1824
2234
2774
3352
4014

1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12

406.4

10.0
12.5
16.0
20.0
25.0+

97.8
121
154
191
235

125
155
196
243
300

40.6
32.5
25.4
20.3
16.3

24480
30030
37450
45430
54700

14.0
13.9
13.8
13.7
13.5

1205
1478
1843
2236
2692

1572
1940
2440
2989
3642

48960
60060
74900
90860
109400

2410
2956
3686
4472
5384

1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28
1.28

457.0

10.0
12.5
16.0
20.0
25.0+
40.0

110
137
174
216
266
411

140
175
222
275
339
524

45.7
36.6
28.6
22.9
18.3
11.4

35090
43140
53960
65680
79420
114900

15.8
15.7
15.6
15.5
15.3
14.8

1536
1888
2361
2874
3475
5031

1998
2470
3113
3822
4671
6977

70180
86280
107900
131400
158800
229800

3072
3776
4722
5748
6950
10060

1.44
1.44
1.44
1.44
1.44
1.44

508.0

10.0
12.5
16.0
20.0
25.0+
40.0+
50.0+

123
153
194
241
298
462
565

156
195
247
307
379
588
719

50.8
40.6
31.7
25.4
20.3
12.7
10.2

48520
59760
74910
91430
110900
162200
190900

17.6
17.5
17.4
17.3
17.1
16.6
16.3

1910
2353
2949
3600
4367
6385
7515

2480
3070
3874
4766
5837
8782
10530

97040
119500
149800
182900
221800
324400
381800

3820
4706
5898
7200
8734
12770
15030

1. 60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60

i....

'
i....

Check availability of section

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION

......
'

ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR


AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98


'

I...,.

m2

274
340
415
503
616
733
860

I '

'

cm 3

8.42
8.37
8.30
8.21
8.10
7.97
7.81

i
1.-o

cm 4

cm

s3

3346
4160
5073
6147
7533
8957
10520

'

z3

Surf.
Area
Per
Metre

38.8
30.6
24.5
19.6
15.3
12.2
9.78

r ,

r
em

I
4
cm

Tors. Const

47.1
59.4
73.7
91.1
115
141
172

......

'

Plastic
Modulus

37.0
46.7
57.8
71.5
90.2
111
135

Elastic
Modulus

6.3
8.0
10.0
12.5
16.0
20.0
25.0.

L
1.-o

Radius
Of
Gyration

A
2
cm

'

Second
Moment
of Area

244.5

r ,

'

Thickness
t
mm

Mass
Per
Metre

ARUIP

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (23/21)

Rectangular Hollow Sections


DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES
Designation

Size

Mass
Per
Metre

Area

Ratios
for
Local
Buck.

Thickness

Axis

mm

Second
Moment
of Area

kg

kg

em'

d/t

bit

Axis

Radius
Of Gyration

Axis

Axis

Elastic
Modulus

Plastic
Modulus

Axis

Axis

Axis

Axis

y-y
em 3

x-x
em 3

em3

X-X

y-y

x-x

y-y

X-X

em4

em4

em

em

em3

y-y

Tors. Canst

J
em4

Surf.
Area

......,

c
em3

m'

150x100

5.0
6.3
8.0
10.0
12.5.

18.7
23.3
29.1
35.7
43.6

23.9
29.7
37.1
45.5
55.5

27.0
20.8
15.7
12.0
9.00

17.0
12.9
9.50
7.00
5.00

747
910
1106
1312
1532

396
479
577
678
781

5.59
5.53
5.46
5.37
5.25

4.07
4.02
3.94
3.86
3.75

99.5
121
147
175
204

79.1
95.9
115
136
156

121
148
183
220
263

90.8
111
137
164
194

806
985
1202
1431
1680

127
153
184
215
246

0.489
0.486
0.483
0.479
0.473

160x80

5.0
6.3
8.0
10.0
12.5

18.0
22.3
27.9
34.2
41.6

22.9
28.5
35.5
43.5
53.0

29.0
22.4
17.0
13.0
9.80

13.0
9.70
7.00
5.00
3.40

753
917
1113
1318
1536

251
302
361
419
476

5.74
5.68
5.60
5.50
5.38

3.31
3.26
3.19
3.10
3.00

94.1
115
139
165
192

62.8
75.6
90.2
105
119

117
144
177
213
254

71.7
87.7
107
127
150

599
729
882
1041
1206

106
127
151
175
199

0.469
0. 466
0. 463
0.459
0.453

200x100

5.0
6.3
8.0
10.0
12.5
16.0.

22.7
28.3
35.4
43.6
53.4
66.4

28.9
36.0
45.1
55.5
68.0
84.5

37.0
28.7
22.0
17.0
13.0
9.50

17.0
12.9
9.50
7.00
5.00
3.25

1509
1851
2269
2718
3218
3808

509
618
747
881
1022
1175

7.23
7.17
7.09
7.00
6.88
6.71

4.20
4.14
4.07
3.98
3.88
3.73

151
185
227
272
322
381

102
124
149
176
204
235

186
231
286
346
417
505

115
1473
1802
2154
2541
2988

1202
1473
1802
2154
2541
2988

172
208
251
296
342
393

0.589
0.586
0.583
0.579
0.573
0.566

5.0
6.3
8.0
10.0
12.5.

24.2
30.3
37.9
46.7
57.3

30.9
38.5
48.3
59.5
73.0

37.0
28.7
22.0
17.0
13.0

21.0
16.0
12.0
9.00
6.60

1699
2087
2564
3079
3658

767
937
1140
1356
1589

7.42
7.36
7.28
7.19
7.08

4.98
4.93
4.86
4.77
4.67

170
209
256
308
366

128
156
190
226
265

206
255
316
384
464

144
178
220
266
319

1646
2025
2491
2997
3567

210
256
310
367
429

0.629
0.626
0.623
0.619
0.613

5.0
6.3
8.0
10.0
12.5
16.0

30.5
38.2
48.0
59.3
73.0
91.5

38.9
48.6
61.1
75.5
93.0
117

47.0
36.7
28.2
22.0
17.0
12.6

27.0
20.8
15.7
12.0
9.00
6.38

3382
4178
5167
6259
7518
9089

1535
1886
2317
2784
3310
3943

9.33
9.27
9.19
9.10
8.99
8.83

6.28
6.23
6.16
6.07
5.97
5.82

271
334
413
501
601
727

205
252
309
371
441
526

326
405
505
618
751
924

229
284
353
430
520
635

3275
4049
5014
6082
7317
8863

337
413
506
606
717
851

0.789
0. 786
0. 783
0.779
0.773
0.766

300x200

6.3
8.0
10.0
12.5
16.0

48.1
60.5
75.0
92.6
117

61.2
77.1
95.5
118
149

44.6
34.5
27.0
21.0
15.7

28.7
22.0
17.0
13.0
9.50

7880
9798
11940
14460
17700

4216
5219
6331
7619
9239

11.3
11.3
11.2
11.1
10.9

8.30
8.23
8.14
8.04
7.89

525
653
796
964
1180

422
522
633
762
924

627
785
964
1179
1462

475
593
726
886
1094

8468
10550
12890
15650
19230

681
840
1016
1217
1469

0. 986
0. 983
0.979
0. 973
0.966

400x200

8.0
10.0
12.5
16.0

73.1
90.7
112
142

93.1
116
143
181

47.0
37.0
29.0
22.0

22.0
17.0
13.0
9.50

19710
24140
29410
36300

6695
8138
9820
11950

14.5
14.5
14.3
14.2

8.48
8.39
8.29
8.14

985
1207
1471
1815

669
814
982
1195

1210
1492
1831
2285

746
916
1120
1388

15720
19240
23410
28840

1135
1377
1657
2011

1.18
1.18
1.17
1.17

450x250

8.0
10.0
12.5
16.0

85.7
106
132
167

109
136
168
213

53.2
42.0
33.0
25.1

28.2
22.0
17.0
12.6

30270
37180
45470
56420

12200
14900
18100
22250

16.7
16.6
16.5
16.3

10.6
10.5
10.4
10.2

1345
1653
2021
2508

976
1192
1448
1780

1630
2013
2478
3103

1086
1338
1642
2047

27060
33250
40670
50480

1629
1986
2407
2948

1.38
1.38
1.37
1.37

500x300

10.0
12.5
16.0
20.0.

122
152
192
237

156
193
245
302

47.0
37.0
28.2
22.0

27.0
21.0
15.7
12.0

54120
66360
82670
100100

24560
29970
37080
44550

18.7
18.5
18.4
18.2

12.6
12.5
12.3
12.1

2165
2655
3307
4006

1638
1998
2472
2970

2609
3218
4042
4942

1834
2257
2825
3442

52400
64310
80220
97310

2696
3282
4046
4845

1.58
1.57
1.57
1.56

200x120

250x150

......,
I

i
I

I
I

Check availability of section

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Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

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...,
i
I

',

'-'

'

4.4 Steel (Non-composite) (21/21)

4.4.11 References
r ,

'
'-'

'

r.....

4.

SCI, Guide to BS 5950: Part 1: 1990, Volume 1

5.

ARBED, Structural shapes, 1990

6.

Simple Connections, Volume 1: Design Rules, SCI/BCSA

7.

Simple Connections, Volume 2: Practical Applications

8.

Moment Connections, SCI BCSA

'

L
r .
i

.......
'

L
'

(
I

.......
'

'-'
r

'

!
I
........

'

i,

"-'

( '

L
r ,
'

I ,

L
(

'

'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

I,

ARUP

'

'

'

4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (1/11)

4.5

COMPOSITE STEEL AND CONCRETE

4.5.1

RULES OF THUMB

Typical starting point


Overall concrete depth
130mm (Grade 30)
Depth of profiled decking
60mm
Size beam with Z = ( Z for non-composite beam ) x F where F = 1.6 - 2.0

Typical maximum slab spans (m}

Decking
gauge

'

'

'

'

'

'

Normal Weight Concrete

Lightweight concrete

Slab depth
(mm)

Simply
Supported

Continuous

Simply
Supported

Continuous

0.9 (A142
mesh)

130
150

2.95
2.88

3.11
3.22

2.78
2.66

3.03
3.00

1.2 (A193
mesh)

130
150

3.20
3.08

3.73
3.62

3.02
2.89

3.55
3.41

Design assumes 60 m1nute fire resistance, provided that the slab

"Ribdeck AL" (Richard Lees Ltd)


2
Imposed load of 4+1 kN/m (unfactored)
2
(including floor, ceiling and services= 6.7 kN/m )
Unpropped
For other profiles see section D2

Figures based on:

'

IS

..

cont1n1ous (decking need not be)

Choice of beam system

Scheme

Likely span range

Economic and

Accommodation

Estimated unit cost

(m)

practical

of major

index for fabricated

maximum

services.

and erected

As primary

As secondary

ratios of span

Maximum x-

steelwork

beams

beams

to structural

sectional area

depth

for 15m span


m2

Simple
construction with

6-10.5

sections
Haunched
Beams
Parallel Beam
approach
Castellated
sections
Stub girders

Composite

Above 12

Above 12

Above 12

Above 12

Spans up
to 10.5

Ribs up to 15

N/A

up to 16

10-15

N/A

15

1.9

25

0.9

25 (support)

5.3

32(midspan)

3.6

21

14

5.0

18

2.8

30

17

1.5

20

1.3

13

3.0

16

2.5

12

1.5

16

1.0

Above 12

Above 12

Slimfloor

4.5 to 9

20

Slimdek

5 to 7

trusses

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

1.0
1.3 with reinforced

28

rolled sections
Fabricated

1.7

20

8-18

' j

openings
1.2
1.3
I

0.9

1.3
I

1.4

1.5

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, I

4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (2/11)


4.5.1

RULES OF THUMB (CONT'D)

Preferred beam layoue


Inefficient

Efficient

For maximum
structural efficiency:

tf-_-

-~1-----,-,..--,--l
1

-Pri-""'""'

'

'

Lsecondary

=4/3

Lprimary

Secondafy beam

...

-ri__J__J__j__r_
r

'

J t~._,~. . ,.

r ,

Initial scheming chart


Universal beams, 125mm concrete slab
(Dotted Line on upper graph indicates that a 150mm slab may be required).

I
I

i....o

1\ ~

r ,

Rasidantial

r ,

Officas

-~Q,

~'z.

.9!
~

\I\

'

la>,,

'~
1\~

Shops

.12._

\
_l

'-

~
~

!
(

L
.s~,~

\\
~

r ,

"
~

L
r ,

'""~

~
r" ~".,..S

~ ~II)

!.,.;

!'""'<.

~ ~

........ "'e.
I'

I"- 61,-.....;

""

!'...

..:.1~~

"

L
L

10

20

30

40

Distributed load on Beam (kN/m)

r,

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AOND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR


Ver 3.1 I Oct 00

200

........
700
50

ARUJP

4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (3/11)


4.5.1 RULES OF THUMB (CONT'D)
Fabricated beams

Castellated cellular beams (not very good for


point loads):
Span/depth < 20
hole
= 0.670
Castellated beams,
centres = 0.720
diameter = 0.60 - 0.80
Cellular beams holes
centres = 1.1 -1.5
diameter

'"'il
I

Haunched beams (use as part of frame action):


D = midspan depth
Span/depth:;;; 35 (span/depth including slab = 26
-28)
Maximum overall depth at haunch = 2D
Haunch length typically 7 - 10% of span

'

Tapered beams:
D = midspan depth
Span/depth 15 - 25
Depth at support= 0.50 or maximum taper of 6
degrees

'
j'

'

Openings in beams (non-seismic applications)


r-'1

Geometrical constraints :
- Limit unstiffened openings to 0.60 depth by 1.50 length
-Limit stiffened openings to 0.70 depth by 20 length
- Space > D apart
- Ideally positioned between L/5 and L/3 from support for beams with UDL
- Position > D from any point load
-Position> 20 (or L/10) from support
- Openings should ideally be located mid-height. If not, the depths of the upper and lower
sections of web should not differ by more than a factor of 2.

\
I

i
l

.....,
I

i
J

I
I

' J
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' J

l
'

4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (4/11)

4.5.2

'' '

LOAD FACTORS
As .for non-composite steel (see section 4.4.2)

r '
I
'
I

4.5.3

BENDING RESISTANCE (composite condition) 3

Approximate moment resistance calculation

2.6

r ,

2.4

0::::

.2
0

Glo::::
UJo

r ,

oUJ

C..-

1.6

0~

1.4

-01/J

'

"

2.0
1.8

Ea>

c'

2.2

Q):;:;

-o
;;; Q)

00

1.2

.;,~
'(3'(3

1.0

c.. c..

0.8

1--

0.6
'E'E
Q)Q)

I--

tutu
00

EE

00

::2:::2:

I'...

1.
Obtain Mp for steel
r-beamfrom section 4.4.
2.
Use multiplier to obtain
r-Mp of composite beam.

1'---

B. - 5(D8 +Dp) ':!> 3m

tutu

ConcretE C30 Ste el


py = 35f Be = L/4 3m

_'\.

0.4 r--

:t

I~

0.2 I--

~..-.~

i~

...

=II7o
Dp=50
r----

ASSUMED SECTION
I

r ,

150

100

50

200

Weight of steel section (kg/m)

'.....

Be

250

1/

r'

L
I

Deck

Shear connector

'

DECK PARALLEL TO

DECK PERPENDICULAR TO
SECONDARY BEAM

'I

PRIMARY BEAM

'-'

r ,

~p
I

'

'

~
YP IN SLAB

Yp IN STEEL FLANGE

r,
Case (c)

Case (b)

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ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
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r ,

Ver 3.1/ Oct 00

yP IN STEEL WEB
Case( c)

ARUIP

4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (5/11)

Bending Resistance Formulae (Assuming 100% interaction)


Rs = pyA
Rc = 0.45 feu (Ds - Dp)Be

CASE (a): Rc > Rs (P.N.A. in concrete slab)

'

' J

-~

Mvc

'

'l

CASE (b) : Rs > Rc > Rw (P.N.A. in steel flange)


=

Be = 0.25 L D b eam spacing

_ Rs [ l+DsD
Rs
MpcRc ( Ds-Dv)]
2

'

I'

D +
(Ds+DvJ _ (Rs-Rc) T
Rs 2
Rc
Rr
2
4

where T =flange thickness


R1 = axial capacity of ~steel flange
CASE (c): Rc < Rw (P.N.A. lies in web)

_
(Ds+Dv+D)
Mvc- Ms+Rc
2

'

'

'

R~ D
-4
Rw

where Ms = plastic capacity of steel section


Rw = axial resistance of web only

4.5.4

' j

SHEAR CONNECTORS4
Design strength of headed studs in normal weight concrete (kN)

Dimensions of stud shear connectors (mm)


Diameter

Nominal

As-welded

height

height

Design strength of concrete (N/mm


25

30

35

100

95

117

123

129

134

100

95

95

101

106

111

19

100

95

76

80

83

87

19

75

70

66

70

73

77

16

75

70

56

59

62

66

13

65

60

35

38

39

42

For concrete of characteristic strength greater than 40 N/mm2 use the values for 40 N/mm2
For connectors of heights greater than tabulated use the values for the greatest height
tabulated.

---r;:-

min 0.8 (N = 2 )
min 0.6 (N = 3 )

= no studs/trough
= stud height
=average trough width
= depth profile

Design resistance= Design strength X rcan x rprafile

40

22

_ 0.85 b. (h- Dv)


- -JN Dv

25

= 0.9 for lightweight concrete


= 1.0 for normal weight concrete

'

'

'

'

'

'

Spacing
Minimum longitudinal
transverse

= 6<p
= 4<p

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Maximum longitudinal = 600mm

ARUJP

'

L
r ,

4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (6/11)

r ,

4.5.5

BENDING STRENGTH (DURING CONSTRUCTION)

Conform with requirements in section 4.4 for non-composite sections.

Decking perpendicular to beam (secondary) provides restraint to top flange.

Decking parallel to beam (primary) does not provide restraint.

4.5.6

STIFFNESS 3

L.....

Approximate ratio of second moment of area of composite section to that of the steel section.

r ,
j

Be = 5(D8 +Dp)

3m

4.0

r ,

I~-.
3.6

r ,

ASSUMED SECTION

I......

Normal weight concrete


U= 1 0

3.2
2.8

L
r '

2.4

Lightweight concrete
U= 1 5

2.0

r '

20

r.

40

60
Weight of section (kg/m)

I-.

r ,
I
I

r ,

L
r.
I

-i

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ARUJP

'

4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (7/11)


4.5.7

SAFE LOAD TABLES


Concrete grade

C35

Modular ratio

15

Overall concrete
depth

130 mm

'"""'I

Depth of decking

60mm

Partial interaction

60%

Flange width

as large as possible

Deflection limit

DL: 1/200

Dead Load

4.5.8

'"""'I

LL : 1/350

'j

steelwork
- self weight
decking
-0.18 kPa
-3.12 kPa
slab (dense)
slab (lightweight) - 2.34 kPa
services + ceiling - 1.00 kPa

I
' J

REFERENCES
1. RICHARD LEES Ltd, Steel Deck Flooring Systems

l.

2. STEEL CONSTRUCTION INSTITUTE, Steel Designers Manual


3. STEEL CONSTRUCTION INSTITUTE, SCI-P-055 Design of Composite Slabs and Beams with Steel Decking
4. BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building Part 3: Design in composite construction

' j

1.

' j

I
I

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ARUJP

i
i

'

4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (8/11)


SAFE LOAD TABLES (1)
GRADE 43 DENSE CONCRETE SLAB
Imposed load = 4.0 + 1.0 kN/m 2

Minimum Weight

r '

r,

r '

'-

'

'

r ,

r '

r '

r ,

Minimum Depth

Bay size
(mxm)

No. sec.
Beams
per grid

Spacing
of sec.
beams

Secondary
Beams

Primary
Beams

Weight
( kg/m 2)

Secondary
Beams

Primary
Beams

Weight
(kglm 2 )

6.0 X 6.0
6.0 X 7.2
6.0 X 7.5
6.0 X 8.0
6.0 X 9.0
6.0 X 10.0
6.0 X 12.0
6.0 X 15.0
6.0 X 18.0

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305 x 102 x28


356x 127 x 39
356x 127x39
406x 140x39
457 x 152 x52
457x 152x60
533 X 210 X 82
610x229x113"
762x267x147"

406x 140x46
457 X 152 X 52
457 X 152 X 60
457x152x60
457x191 x74
533x210x82
533x210x92
610x229x101
610 X 229 X 125

17.00
20.22
21.00
20.50
25.56
28.20
35.00
44.40
55.94

203 x 203 x46


203 x203 x60
203 x203 x 71
203 x203 x 86
254 x254 x 89
254 X 254 X 107
254 X 254 X 167"
305 X 305 X 240"
356 X 406 X 340"

254 X 254 X 89
254x254x 107
254x254x 107
254 X 254 X 132
254 X 254 X 132
254 X 254 X 167
305 X 305 X 158
305 X 305 X 198
305 X 305 X 240

30.17
34.86
37.93
45.17
44.33
52.37
68.83
93.20
126.67

7.2 X 6.0
7.2 X 7.2
7.2 X 9.0
7.2 X 12.0
7.2 X 18.0

3
3
3
3
3

2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40

305x 102x25
305x 102x33
356x171x45
457 x 152 x67
686 X 254 X 125"

457 X 152 X 60
457x152x67
533 X 210 X 82
610 X 229 X 101
762 X 267 X 147

2D.42
23.06
27.86
36.33
60.25

152 X 152 X 37
203 x203 x 46
203 x203 x 71
254 x 254 x132"
356 X 406 X 287"

254 X 254 X 107


254 X 254 X 132
254 X 254 X 167
305 X 305 X 198
356 X 406 X 287

33.25
37.50
48.14
71.50
135.53

7.5 X 6.0
7.5 X 7.5
7.5 X 9.0
7.5 X 12.0
7.5 X 15.0
7.5 X 18.0

3
3
3
3
3
3

2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50

305x 102x25
356x127x33
356x171x45
457 X 152 X 67
610 X 229 X 101
686x 254 x 140

457 X 152 X 60
533x210x82
533x210x92
610x229x 113
686 X 254 X 125
762 X 267 X 147

20.00
24.13
28.22
36.22
48.73
64.17

203x 203 x46


203x 203 x 52
203 X 203 X 86
254 x 254 x132"
305 X 305 X 198"
356 X 406 X 287"

254x254x 132
254x254x 167
305 X 305 X 158
305 X 305 X 240
305 X 305 X 283
356 X 406 X 340

40.40
43.07
51.96
72.80
98.07
133.69

8.0 X 6.0
8.0 X 8.0
8.0 X 9.0
8.0 X 10.0
8.0 X 12.0
8.0 X 15.0
8.0 X 18.0

3
3
3
3
3
3
3

2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67

305x 102x25
356 X 127 X 39
406x 140x46
457 X 152 X 52
457 X 191 X 74
610 X 229 X 101
686x254x140"

457x152x74
533x210x82
610x229x 101
610 X 229 X 101
610 X 229 X 125
762 X 267 X 147
762 X 267 X 173

21.71
24.88
28.47
29.60
38.17
47.68
62.11

203 x 203 x46


203 x203 x 71
203 X 203 X 86
254 x254 x 89
254 x 254 x132"
305 X 305 X 198"
356 X 406 X 287"

254 X 254 X 132


305x305x 158
305x305x 198
305x305x 198
305 X 305 X 240
356 X 406 X 287
356 X 406 X 393

39.25
46.38
54.25
53.18
69.50
93.38
129.46

9.0 X 6.0
9.0 X 7.2
9.0x 7.5
9.0 X 8.0
9.0 X 9.0
9.0x 10.0
9.0 X 12.0
9.0 X 15.0
9.0 X 18.0

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305 x 102 x28


356x 127x39
356x 127x39
406 X 140 X 39
457x 152x52
457x 152x60
533 x 210 x82
610x229x113"
762 X 267 X 147"

533 X 210 X 82
610 X 229 X 101
610 X 229 X 101
610 X 229 X 101
610x229x 113
610 X 229 X 125
686 X 254 X 140
762 X 267 X 173
838x 292 x 194

23.00
27.03
26.47
25.63
29.89
32.50
39.00
49.20
59.78

203 x203 x46


203 X 203 X 60
203 x203 x 71
203 x203 x 86
254 X 254 X 89
254x254x 107
254 X 254 X 167"
305 X 305 X 240"
356 X 406 X 340"

254 x 254x 167


305 X 305 X 198
305 X 305 X 198
305x305x 198
305 X 305 X 240
305 X 305 X 240
356 X 406 X 287
356 X 406 X 393
COLCORE x 477

43.17
47.50
50.07
53.42
56.33
59.67
79.58
106.20
139.83

10.0 X 6.0
10.0 X 8.0
10.0 X 9.0
10.0 X 10.0
10.0 X 12.0
10.0 X 15.0
10.0 X 18.0

4
4
4
4
4
4
4

2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50

305x 102x25
356x 127x39
356x171x45
457 X 152 X 52
457 X 152 X 67
610 X 229 X 101
686x 254 x 140

610x229x 101
686 X 254 X 140
762 X 267 X 147
762 X 267 X 147
838 X 292 X 176
914 X 305 X 201
914 X 305 X 253

26.83
33.10
34.33
35.50
41.47
53.80
70.06

203 x203 x46


203 X 203 X 71
203 X 203 X 86
254x 254 x 89
254 X 254 X 132"
305 X 305 X 198"
356 X 406 X 287"

305 X 305 X 198


356 X 406 X 287
356 X 406 X 287
356 X 406 X 340
356 X 406 X 393
356 X 406 X 551
356 X 406 X 634

51.40
64.28
66.29
69.60
85.55
115.93
150.02

12.0x6.0
12.0x 7.2
12.0 X 7.5
12.0 x8.0
12.0 X 9.0
12.0 X 10.0
12.0 X 12.0
12.0 X 15.0
12.0 X 18.0

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305x 102x28
356x 127 x 39
356 X 127 X 39
406 X 140 X 39
457 X 152 X 52
457 X 152 X 60
533 X 210 X 82
610x229x 113"
762x267x147"

686 X 254 X 140


686 X 254 X 170
762 X 267 X 173
762 X 267 X 173
838 X 292 X 194
914 X 305 X 201
914 X 305 X 224
914 X 305 X 289
914x419x388

32.67
36.61
36.07
34.63
38.89
40.10
46.00
56.93
70.56

203 x203 x46


203x203 x 60
203 X 203 X 71
203 x203 x 86
254 x254 x 89
254 X 254 X 107
254 X 254 X 167"
305 X 305 X 240"
356 X 406 X 340"

406 X 406 X 287


356 X 406 X 340
356 X 406 X 393
356 X 406 X 393
COL CORE x 477
356 X 406 X 467
356 X 406 X 551
914x419x343
914x419x388

63.17
67.22
76.07
77.79
82.67
82.37
101.58
102.87
134.89

15.0 X 6.0
15.0x7.5
15.0 x8.0
15. Ox9.0
15.0 X 10.0
15. 0 X 12.0
15.0 X 15.0
15.0 X 18.0

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305 X 102 X 28
356x127x39
406 X 140 X 39
457 X 152 X 52
457 X 152 X 60
533x210x82
610x229x113"
762 X 267 X 147"

838 X 292 X 176


914 X 305 X 224
914 X 305 X 224
914 X 305 X 253
914 X 305 X 289
914x419x343"

38.67
42.87
41.00
45.44
48.90
55.92

203x 203 x46


203x203x71
203 X 203 X 86
254 X 254 X 89
254x254x 107
254 X 254 X 167"
305 X 305 X 240"
356 X 406 X 340"

COL CORE x 477"

94.83
97.13
97.54
100.11
64.57
88.00

18.0 x6.0
18.0 X 7.2
18.0 X 7.5
18.0 X 8. 0
18.0x9.0
18.0 X 10.0
18.0 X 12.0
18.0 X 15.0
18.0 X 18.0

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305x 102x28
356x127x39
356 X 127 X 39
406 X 140 X 39
457 X 152 X 52
457 X 152 X 60
533x210x82
610x229x113"
762 X 267 X 347"

914 x305 x253


914x419x343"
914x419x343"
914 X 419 X 343"

FAIL
FAIL

51.50
60.64
58.73
55.88

FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL

203 X 203 X 46
203 X 203 X 60
203 X 203 X 71
203 x203 x86
254 x 254 x89
254x254x 107
254 X 254 X 167"
305 X 305 X 240"
356 X 406 X 340"

356 X 406 X 551


356 X 406 X 551
356 X 406 X 634"
914 X 305 X 289"
914 X 419 X 388"
FAIL
FAIL

356 X 406 X 634"


914 X 419 X 343"
914 X 419 X 343"
914x419x388"
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL

(*) Natural frequency of the beam is less then 4.5Hz.

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AOND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.1/ Oct 00

ARUIP

121.00
67.64
69.40
77.17

4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (9/11)


SAFE LOAD TABLES (2)
GRADE 43 LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE SLAB
Imposed load = 4.0 + 1.0 kN/m 2
Minimum Weight
Bay size
(mxm)

No. sec.
beams

n"nrin

'

Minimum Depth
'"""'I

Spacing
of sec.
beams

Secondaoy
Beams

Primaoy Beams

Weight
2
(kg/m

Secondaoy Beams

Primaoy Beams

Weight
(kg/m 2 )

6.0 X 6.0
6.0 X 7.2
6.0 X 7.5
6.0 X 8.0
6.0 X 9.0
6.0 X 10.0
6.0 X 12.0
6.0 X 15.0
6.0 X 18.0

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

3.00
3.00
3 00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305x102x25
356x 127x33
305 X 102 X 37
356 X 127 X 39
406 x 140 x46
457x152x52
457x191x74
610x229x101
686 X 254 X 140'

406 X 140 X 46
457 X 152 X 52
457x152x52
457 x 152 x60
457 X 152 X 67
457x 191 x74
533x210x82
610 X 229 X 101
610x229x 113

16.00
18.22
19.27
20.50
22.78
24.73
31.50
40.40
52.94

203 X 203 X 46
203 X 203 X 52
203 X 203 X 60
203 X 203 X 71
203 x203x86
254x254x 107
254 X 254 X 167
305 X 305 X 198'
356 X 406 X 340'

203 x203 x 86
254 x254 x 89
254x254x107
254 X 254 X 107
254 x254 x 132
254x254x 132
254x 254 x 167
305 X 305 X 198
305 X 305 X 240

29.67
29.69
34.27
37.04
43.33
48.87
69.58
79.20
126.67

7.2 X 6.0
7.2 X 7.2
7.2 X 9.0
7.2 X 12.0
7.2 X 18.0

3
3
3
3
3

2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40

254x 102x22
305 X 102 X 28
356x127x39
457 X 152 X 60
610 X 229 X 125'

457 X 152 X 52
457 X 152 X 67
533x210x82
610x229x 101
686 X 254 X 140

17.83
20.97
25.36
33.42
59.86

152x152x37
203 x 203 x46
203 X 203 X 71
254x254x 107
356 X 406 X 287'

254x254x 107
254 X 254 X 132
254 X 254 X 167
305 X 305 X 198
305 X 305 X 287

33.25
37.50
48.14
61.08
135.53

7.5 X 6.0
7.5 X 7.5
7.5 x9.0
7.5 X 12.0
7.5 X 15.0
7.5 X 18.0

3
3
3
3
3
3

2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50

305x 102x25
305 X 102 X 33
406 x 140 x39
457x152x60
533x210x92
610x229x125'

457 x 152 x60


457x 191 x74
533x210x82
610 X 229 X 101
610x229x 125
762 X 267 X 147

20.00
23.07
24.71
32.42
45.13
58.17

152x 152x37
203 x 203x46
203 X 203 X 71
254 X 254 X 132
305 X 305 X 198'
356 X 406 X 287'

254 X 254 X 107


254 X 254 X 132
254x254x 167
305x 305 x 198
305 X 305 X 283
356 X 406 X 287

32.63
36.00
46.96
69.30
98.07
130.74

8.0 X 6.0
8.0 X 8.0
8.0 X 9.0
8.0 X 10.0
8.0 X 12.0
8.0 X 15.0
8.0 X 18.0

3
3
3
3
3
3
3

2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67

305 X 102 X 25
356 X 127 X 39
406 X 140 X 39
457 x 152 x52
457 x 152 x67
610 X 229 X 101
686 X 254 X 125'

457 X 152 X 67
533 x210 x 82
533x210x92
610x229x101
610x229x113
686 X 254 X 140
686x254x 170

20.54
24.88
24.85
29.60
34.54
47.21
56.32

152x152x37
203 X 203 X 60
203 X 203 X 86
254 x254x 89
254x 254 x 132
305 X 305 X 198'
356 X 406 X 287'

254 x 254x 132


254 X 254 X 167
305 X 305 X 158
305x305x 198
305 X 305 X 240
356 X 406 X 287
356 X 406 X 340

35.88
43.38
49.81
53.18
69.50
93.38
126.51

9.0 x6.0
9.0 X 7.2
9.0 X 7.5
9.0 X 8.0
9.0 x9.0
9.0 X 10.0
9.0 X 12.0
9.0 X 15.0
9.0x18.0

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305x 102 x25


356 X 127 X 33
305 X 102 X 37
356x 127x39
406x 140x46
457x152x52
457x191x74
610x229x101
686 X 254 X 140'

533x210x82
533 X 210 X 92
533 x210 x 92
610 x229 x 101
610x229x101
610 X 229 X 125
686 X 254 X 140
686x254x 170
838 X 292 X 176

22.00
23.78
24.60
25.63
26.56
29.83
36.33
45.00
56.44

203 x 203 x46


203x 203 x 52
203 X 203 X 60
203x203x71
203 x203 x 86
254 X 254 X 107
254x254x 167
305 X 305 X 198'
356 X 406 X 340'

254x254x 167
305x 305 x 158
305 X 305 X 198
305x305x 198
305 x305 x 198
305 X 305 X 240
356 X 406 X 287
356 X 406 X 340
COL CORE x 477

43.17
39.28
46.40
48.42
50.67
59.67
79.58
88.67
139.83

10.0 X 6.0
10.0 X 8.0
10.0 X 9.0
10.0x 10.0
10.0 X 12.0
10.0 X 15.0
10.0x 18.0

4
4
4
4
4
4
4

2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50

305x 102x25
356 X 127 X 33
406x 140x39
406 x 140 x46
457 X 152 X 60
533x210x92
610 X 229 X 125'

610 x229 x 101


610x229x 125
686 X 254 X 140
762 X 267 X 147
762 x267 x 173
914 X 305 X 201
914 X 305 X 253

26.83
28.83
31.16
33.10
38.42
50.20
64.06

152x 152x37
203 x 203x 60
203x 203 x 71
203 x203 x86
254x254x 132
305 X 305 X 198'
356 X 406 X 287'

305 X 305 X 198


305 X 305 X 283
356 X 406 X 287
356 X 406 X 287
356 X 406 X 393
356 X 406 X 467
356 X 406 X 634

47.80
59.38
60.29
63.10
85.55
110.33
150.02

12.0 X 6.0
12.0 X 7.2
12.0 X 7.5
12.0 X 8.0
12.0 X 9.0
12. 0 x10.0
12.0x 12.0
12.0 X 15.0
12.0 X 18.0

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305x 102x25
356x 127x33
305x 102 x37
356x127x39
406x 140x46
457x 152x52
457 X 191 X 74
610 x229 x 101
686 X 254 X 140'

686 X 254 X 125


762 X 267 X 147
762 X 267 X 147
762x267x 173
838 x292 x 176
838 X 292 X 194
914 X 305 X 224
914 X 305 X 289
914x419x343

29.17
31.42
31.93
34.63
34.89
36.73
43.33
52.93
65.72

203 x 203x 46
203x 203 x 52
203 X 203 X 60
203 X 203 X 71
203 x203x 86
254 X 254 X 107
254x254x 167
305 X 305 X 198'
356 X 406 X 340'

305 X 305 X 283


356 X 406 X 287
356 X 406 X 340
356 X 406 X 340
356 X 406 X 393
COL CORE x 477
356 x406 x 511
356 X 406 X 634
914x419x388

62.50
57.19
65.33
66.17
72.33
83.37
98.25
108.27
134.89

15.0 X 6.0
15.0 X 7.5
15.0 X 8.0
15.0x 9.0
15.0 X 10.0
15.0 X 12.0
15.0x 15.0
15.0 X 18.0

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305 x 102 x25


305x 102x37
356 x 127 x39
406 x 140 x46
457 X 152 X 52
457x 191 x74
610x229x101
686 X 254 X 140'

762x267x 173
914 X 305 X 201
934 X 305 X 224
914 x 305 x253
914 X 305 X 289
914x419x343
FAIL
FAIL

37.37
39.13
41.00
43.44
46.23
53.25

203 x 203x46
203x 203 x 60
203 X 203 X 71
203 x 203 x86
254x254x 107
254 X 254 X 167
305 X 305 X 198'
356 X 406 X 340'

356 X 406 X 393'


356 X 406 X 551
356 X 406 X 551
356 X 406 X 634'
356 X 406 X 634'
914x419x343
FAIL
FAIL

80.83
93.47
92.54
99.11
99.07
84.25

18.0 X 6.0
18.0 X 7.2
18.0 X 7.5
18.0x8.0
18.0 X 9.0
18.0x 10.0
18.0x 12.0
18.0 X 15.0
18.0x 18.0

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305x 102x25
356x 127x33
305 X 102 X 37
356 X 127 X 39
406x 140x46
457x152x52
457x191 x74
610x229x 101
686 x 254 x140'

914x305x253'
914 x305 x289
914x419x343'
914x419x343'
914x419x388'
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL

50.50
51.14
58.07
55.88
58.44

203 x203 x46


203x 203 x 52
203 x203 x 60
203 x203 x 71
203x 203 x 86
254x254x 107
254x254x 167
305 X 305 X 198'
356 X 406 X 340'

356 X 406 X 634'


914 X 305 X 289'
914x419x343'
914x419x34'
914x419x388'
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL

121.00
57.47
65.73
66.54
71.78

'

'"""'I

' J

' j
'"""'I

'

'

'

'"""'

' i

J'

'"""'
'

'

'

(*) Natural frequency of the beam is less then 4.5Hz.

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.1 I August 00

'"""'I

ARUIP

'

' J

.....,

4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (10/11)

SAFE LOAD TABLES (3)


GRADE 50 - DENSE CONCRETE SLAB
Imposed load = 4.0 + 1.0 kN/m 2

L
'

Minimum Weight
Bay size
(mxm)

L
r ,
I

'

r '

r '

.....
'

No. sec.
beams
per grid

Spacing of
sec. beams

Secondary
Beams

Minimum Depth

Primary
Beams

Weight
2
(kg/m

Secondary
Beams

Primary
Beams

Weight
2
(kg/m )

6.0 X 6.0
6.0 X 7.2
6.0 X 7.5
6.0 X 8.0
6.0 X 9.0
6.0 X 10.0
6.0 X 12.0
6.0 X 15.0
6.0 X 18.0

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305 x 102 x25


305x102x33
305x102x33
356x127x33
406 X 140 X 39
457 X 152 X 52
457x191 x67
533x210x92
686 X 254 X 125

406x 140x39
406 x 140 x46
457 X 152 X 52
457 X 152 X 52
457x152x60
457x152x67
533x 210 x 82
533x 210 x 92
610x229 x 101

14.83
17.39
17.93
17.50
19.67
24.03
29.17
36.80
47.28

152 X 152 X 37
203 X 203 X 46
203 x 203 x52
203 x 203 x60
203 x 203 x86
254 x 254x 89
254 x 254 x132"
305 X 305 X 198"
356 X 406 X 340"

203 X 203 X 86
254 x254x 89
254 x254 x 89
254 X 254 X 89
254 X 254 X 107
254 X 254 X 132
254x254x 167
305 X 305 X 158
305x305x 198

26.67
27.69
29.20
31 .13
40.56
42.87
57.92
76.53
124.33

7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2

6.0
7.2
9.0
X 12.0
X 18.0

3
3
3
3
3

2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40

254 X 102 X 22
305 X 102 X 25
305x127x37
457 X 152 X 52
610 x229x 101

457 X 152 X 52
457 X 152 X 60
457 X 152 X 74
533x210x92
610x229x125

17.83
18.75
23.64
29.33
49.03

152x 152x30
203 x 203 x46
203 X 203 X 60
254 X 254 X 107"
356 X 406 X 287"

254 x 254x 89
254 X 254 X 107
254 X 254 X 132
254 X 254 X 167
305 X 305 X 283

27.33
34.03
39.67
58.50
135.31

7.5 X 6.0
7.5 X 7.5
7.5 X 9.0
7.5 X 12.0
7.5 X 15.0
7.5 X 18.0

3
3
3
3
3
3

2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50

254x102x22
305x102x28
356 X 127 X 39
457 x 152 x52
533 X 210 X 82
610x229x 113"

457x152x52
457 x 152 x67
457 X 152 X 74
533x210x92
610x229x113
686 X 254 X 125

17.47
20.13
23.82
28.47
40.33
52.14

152x152x30
203x 203 x46
203 X 203 X 60
254x 254 x 107"
305 X 305 X 198"
356 X 406 X 287"

254 X 254 X 89
254x254x 132
254x254x 167
305 X 305 X 198
305 X 305 X 240
305 X 305 X 283

26.83
36.00
42.56
59.30
95.20
130.52

8.0 X 6.0
8.0 x8.0
8.0 X 9.0
8.0 X 10.0
8.0 X 12.0
8.0 X 15.0
8.0 X 18.0

3
3
3
3
3
3
3

2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67

254 x 102 x22


305 X 102 X 33
356 X 127 X 39
406 x 140 x46
457 X 152 X 60
533x210x82
610x229x125"

457 X 152 X 60
457 X 152 X 74
533x210x82
533x210x92
610x229x101
610x229x 125
762 X 267 X 147

18.25
21.63
23.74
26.45
30.92
39.08
55.04

152 X 152 X 37
203 X 203 X 52
203 X 203 X 71
203 x 203 x86
254 X 254 X 132"
305 X 305 X 198"
356 X 406 X 287"

254x254x 107
254 X 254 X 167
254 X 254 X 167
305 X 305 X 158
305 X 305 X 198
305 X 305 X 240
356 X 406 X 287

31.71
40.38
45.18
48.05
66.00
90.25
123.57

9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305 x 102 x25


305x102x33
305x102x33
356x127x33
406 x 140 x39
457 X 152 X 52
457 X 152 X 67
533x210x92
686 X 254 X 125"

457x191x74
533 X 210 X 82
533x210x82
533x210x92
610x229x101
610x229x101
610x229x125
762 X 267 X 147
762 X 267 X 173

20.67
22.39
21.93
22.50
24.22
27.43
32.75
40.47
51.28

152x 152x37
203 X 203 X 46
203 x 203 x52
203 x 203x60
203 x 203 x86
254 x 254 x89
254 X 254 X 132"
305 X 305 X 198"
356 X 406 X 340"

254 X 254 X 132


254 X 254 X 167
254 X 254 X 167"
305 X 305 X 158
305 X 305 X 198
305 X 305 X 198
305 X 305 X 240"
356 X 406 X 287"
356 X 406 X 340"

34.33
38.53
39.60
39.75
50.67
49.47
64.00
85.13
132.22

10.0 X 6.0
10.0 X 8.0
10.0 X 9.0
10.0 X 10.0
10.0 X 12.0
10.0 X 15.0
10.0 X 18.0

4
4
4
4
4
4
4

2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50

254 x 102 x22


305 X 102 X 33
356x127x39
406 X 140 X 39
457 x 152 x52
533 X 210 X 82
610x229x 113

533x210x92
610x229x113
610 x229 x 125
686 X 254 X 140
762 X 267 X 147
838 x292 x 176
914 X 305 X 201

24.13
27.33
29.49
29.60
33.05
44.53
56.37

152x 152x30
203 X 203 X 52
203x 203 x 60
203x 203 x 86
254 X 254 X 107"
305 X 305 X 198"
356 X 406 X 287"

305 X 305 X 158"


305 X 305 X 240"
305 X 305 X 240"
305 X 305 X 283"
356 X 406 X 393"
COLCORE x 4 77"

38.33
50.80
50.67
62.70
71.13
1 05.40
141.30

12.0 X 6.0
12.0 X 7.2
12.0 X 7.5
12.0 X 8.0
12.0 X 9.0
12.0 X 10.0
12.0 X 12.0
12.0 X 15.0
12.0 X 18.0

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305 X 102 X 25
305 X 102 X 33
305 x 102 x33
356x 127x33
406x 140x39
457x152x52
457x152x67
533 X 210 X 92
686 X 254 X 125

610 x229 x 125


686 X 254 X 140
686 X 254 X 140
762 X 267 X 147
686 X 254 X 170
762 X 267 X 173
838 x292 x 194
914 X 305 X 253
914 X 305 X 289

29.17
30.44
29.67
29.38
31.89
34.63
38.50
47.53
57.72

152x 152x37
203 x 203 x46
203 X 203 X 52
203 X 203 X 60
203 X 203 X 86
254 x254x 89
254 X 254 X 332"
305 x 305 x198"
356 X 406 X 340"

305 X 305 X 240"


305 X 305 X 283"
305 X 305 X 283
356 X 406 X 287"
356 X 406 X 340"
356 X 406 X 340"
COLCORE x 4 77"
356 X 406 X 551
914 X 419 X 343

52.33
54.64
55.07
55.88
66.44
63.67
83.75
102.73
132.39

15.0 X 6.0
15.0 X 7.5
15.0 X 8.0
15.0 X 9.0
15.0 X 10.0
15.0 X 12.0
15.0 X 15.0
15.0 X 18.0

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305 X 102 X 25
305 X 102 X 33
356. X 127 X 33
406 X 140 X 39
457 X 152 X 52
457 X 152 X 67
533x210x92
686 X 254 X 125

762x267x147"
838 x292 x 176
838 x292 x 194
914x305x201"
914x305x224"
914x305x289"
914x419x343"
FAIL

32.83
34.47
35.25
35.33
39.73
46.42
53.53

152x 152 x37


203 x 203 x52
203 x 203 x60
203 x 203 x86
254 x 254 x89
254 x 254 x132"
305 x 305 x198"
356 X 406 X 340"

356 X 406 X 393"


COL CORE x 477"
356 X 406 X 467"
356 X 406 X 551
356 X 406 X 634"
914 X 305 X 289"
914x419x343"
FAIL

77.83
80.93
78.38
89.89
93.07
68.08
88.87

18.0x6.0
18.0 X 7.2
18.0 X 7.5
18.0 x8.0
18.0 X 9.0
18.0 X 10.0
18.0 X 12.0
18.0 X 15.0
18.0 X 18.0

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

305x 102x25
305x102x33
305x102x33
356 X 127 X 33
406x140x39
457x152x52
457x 152x67
533 x210 x 92
686 X 254 X 125

914x305x201"
914x305x253"
914x305x253"
914 x 305 x289
914x419x343"
914x419x343"
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL

41.83
46.14
44.73
47.13
51.11
51.63

152 X 152 X 37
203 X 203 X 46
203 x 203x 52
203 X 203 X 60
203 x 203x 86
254 x 254x 89
254 X 254 X 132"
305 X 305 X 198"
356 X 406 X 340"

356 X 406 X 634


914 X 305 X 253"
914 X 305 X 253"
914 X 305 X 289"
914 x 419 x343"
914 X 419 X 343"
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL

118.00
50.47
51.07
56.13
66.78
63.97

X
X
X

6.0
7.2
7.5
X 8.0
X 9.0
X 10.0
X 12.0
X 15.0
X 18.0
X
X
X

3% X 406 X 340*

(*) Natural frequency of the beam is less then 4.5Hz.

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
{

Ver 3.1 I August 00

ARUJP

4.5 Composite Steel and Concrete (11/11)


SAFE LOAD TABLES (4)
GRADE 50 - LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE SLAB
Imposed load = 4.0 + 1.0 kN/m 2
'

Minimum Weight
Bay size
(mxm)

No. sec.
beams
per grid

Minimum Depth

Spacing
of sec.
beams

Secondary
Beams

Primary
Beams

Weight
(kg/m2

Secondary
Beams

Primary
Beams

Weight
(kg/m 2 )

6.0 X 6.0
6.0 X 7.2
6.0 X7.5
6.0 X 8.0
6.0 X 9.0
6.0 X 10.0
6.0 X 12.0
6.0 X15.0
6.0 X 18.0

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

254 X 102 X 22
305x 102x28
305 X 102 X 28
305x102x33
356x 127x39
406 X 140 X46
457 X 191 X 60
533x210x82
610 X 229 X 125'

356 X 127 X 39
406 x 140 x46
406 X 140 X 46
457 X 152 X 52
457 X 152 X 52
457 x 191 x60
457x 191 x74
533x210x82
610 X 229 X 101

13.83
15.72
15.47
17.50
18.78
21.33
26.17
32.80
47.28

152 X 152 X 37
203 x 203 x46
203 x 203 x46
203 X 203X 52
203x 203 x 71
254x254 x 73
254 x 254 x132'
305 X305 X 198'
356 X 406 X 340'

203 x203 x 71
203 x203 x 86
254 x254 x 73
254x 254 x 89
254x254x 107
254 X254 X 107
254 X254 X 132
254x254x 167
305 X 305 X 198

24.17
27.28
25.07
28.46
35.56
35.03
55.00
77.13
124.33

7.2 X 6.0
7.2 X 7.2
7.2 X 9.0
7.2 X 12.0
7.2 X 18.0

3
3
3
3
3

2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40

254 X 102 X 22
305 X 102 X 25
305x102x33
457x152x52
610x229x 101

406 X 140 X 46
457 X 152 X 52
457 X 152 X 67
533x210x82
610x229x 125

16.83
17.64
21.19
28.50
49.03

152x 152x30
152x 152 x37
203x 203 x 52
254 X254 X 107'
356 X 406 X287'

254x254 x 73
254 X 254 X 107
254x254x 132
254 X254 X 167
305 x305 x240

24.67
30.28
36.33
58.50
132.92

7.5 X 6.0
7.5 X 7.5
7.5 X 9.0
7.5 X 12.0
7.5 X 15.0
7.5x18.0

3
3
3
3
3
3

2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50

254x 102x22
305 X 102 X 25
356x127x33
457 X 152 X 52
533 X 210 X 82
610 x229 x 101

457 X 152 X 52
457 x 152 x60
457 X 152 X 74
533x 210 x 92
610 X 229 X 101
610x229x 125

17.47
18.00
21.42
28.47
39.53
47.34

152 X 152 X 30
203 x 203 x46
203 x203 x60
254 x 254 x132'
305 X 305 X 198'
356 X 406 X28]'

254 x254x 89
254 X254 X 107
254 X254 X 132
305 X 305 X 158
305 X 305 X 198
305 X 305 X 283

26.83
32.67
38.67
65.97
92.40
130.52

8.0 X 6.0
8.0 x8.0
8.0 X 9.0
8.0x10.0
8.0 X 12.0
8.0 X 15.0
8.0 X 18.0

3
3
3
3
3
3
3

2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67
2.67

254 X 102 X 22
305 X 102 X 33
356x127x33
406 X 140 X 39
457 X 152 X 52'
533 X 210 X 82'
610 X 229 X 101'

457 X 152 X 52
457 X 152 X 74
533x210x82
533 x210 x 82
610 X 229 X 101
610 X 229 X 125
686 X254 X 140

16.92
21.63
21.49
22.83
27.92
39.08
45.65

152 X 152 X 30
203 x 203 x46
203 X 203 X 60
203 x203 x86
254 x 254 x132'
305 x 305 x198'
356 X406 X287'

254 X 254 X 107


254x254x 132
254 X254 X 167
254x254x 167
305 X 305 X 198
305 X 305 X240
305 X 305 X283

29.08
33.75
41.06
48.95
66.00
90.25
123.35

9.0 X 6.0
9.0 X 7.2
9.0 X 7.5
9.0 x8.0
9.0 X 9.0
9.0 X 10.0
9.0 X 12.0
9.0 X 15.0
9.0 X 18.0

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

254 X 102 X 22
305 X 102 X 28
305x 102x28
305 X 102 X 33
356 X 127 X 39
406x 140x46
457x152x60
533x210x82
610x229x 125

457x 191 x67


533x 210 x 82
533 x210 x 82
533x210x82
533x210x92
610x229x 101
610x229x 113
686 X254 X 140
686x254x 170

18.50
20.72
20.27
21.25
23.22
25.43
29.42
36.67
51.11

152x 152x37
203x203 x46
203 x 203 x46
203 x 203 x52
203 X 203 X 71
254x 254 x 73
254 x 254 x132'
305 x 305 x198'
356 X 406 X 340'

254 X 254 X 132


254x254x 167
254 X254 X 167
254 X 254 X 167
305 X 305 X 158
305 X 305 X 198
305 X305 X240
305 X 305 X283
356 X406 X 340

34.33
38.53
37.60
38.21
41.22
44.13
'64.00
84.87
1 32.22

10.0 x6.0
10.0 X 8.0
10.0 X 9.0
10.0 X 10.0
10.0 X 12.0
10.0x 15.0
10.0 X 18.0

4
4
4
4
4
4
4

2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50

254 X 102 X 22
305 X 102 X 28
356x 127x33
356x 127x39
457 x 152x 52
533x210x82
610x229x 101

533 x210 x 82
610 X 229 X 101
610 X 229 X 125
686x254x 125
762 X267 X 147
762 X 267 X 173
838 X 292 X 194

22.47
23.83
27.09
28.10
33.05
44.33
51.18

152x 152x30
203 x203 x46
203 X 203 X 60
203 x203 x 86
254 X254 X107'
305 X 305 X 198'
356 X 406 X287'

254 X254 X 167'


305 X 305 X 198'
305 X 305 X 240
305 X305 X283
356 X 406 X287'
356 X406 X 393
COL CORE x 477'

39.83
43.15
50.67
62.70
66.72
105.40
141.30

12.0x6.0
12.0 X 7.2
12.0 X 7.5
12.0 x8.0
12.0x 9.0
12.0 X 10.0
12.0x 12.0
12.0x 15.0
12.0 X 18.0

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

254 x 102 x22


305x 102x28
305 X 102 X 28
305 X 102 X 33
356 X 127 X 39
406x 140x46
457x152x60
533x210x92
610x229x 125

610 X229 X 101


686 X 254 X 125
686 X254 X 125
686 X254 X 140
762 X 267 X 147
686 x254 x 170
838x292x 176
914 X 305 X224
914 x 305 x289

24.17
26.69
26.00
28.50
29.33
32.33
34.67
45.60
57.72

152x152x37
203 x 203 x46
203 x203 x46
203 x203 x 52
203 X 203 X 71
254 x254 x 73
254 x 254 x132'
305 x 305 x198'
356 X406 X340'

305 X 305 X 240'


305 X 305 X283'
305 X 305 X283'
356 X406 X 287"
356 X406 X287
356 X 406 X340'
356 X406 X 393'
356 X406 X 551
356 X 406 X 634'

52.33
54.64
53.07
53.21
55.56
58.33
76.75
102.73
148.56

15.0x6.0
15.0 X 7.5
15.0 X 8.0
15.0x 9.0
15.0 X 10.0
15.0 X 12.0
15.0 X 15.0
15.0 X 18.0

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

254x 102x22
305x 102x28
305 X 102 X 33
356 X 127 X 39
406x 140x46
457x152x60
533 X210 X 82'
610 X 229 X 125'

762 X 267 X 147'


762 X267 X 173'
838 X292 X 176'
838x 292 x 194'
914 X 305 X224'
914 X305 X 253'
914x419x343'
914x419x388'

31.83
32.40
33.00
34.56
37.73
41.08
50.20
63.22

152 X 152 X 37
203x203x46
203 X203 X 52
203 X 203 X 71
254 x254 x 73
254 X 254 X 132'
305 X 305 X 198'
356 X406 X340'

356 X406 X 393'


COLCORE x 477'
356 X406 X467'
356 X406 X 551
356 X 406 X 634'
914 X 305 X 289
914x419x343'
914x419x388'

77.83
78.93
75.71
84.89
87.73
68.08
88.87
134.89

18.0 X6.0
18.0 X 7.2
18.0 X 7.5
18.0x 8.0
18.0 X 9.0
18.0 X 10.0
18.0x 12.0
18.0 X 15.0
18.0 X 18.0

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

254x 102x22
305 X 102 X 28
305x 102x28
305x 102x33
356 X 127 X 39
406 x 340 x46
457 X 152 X 60
533 X 210 X 82
610 X229 X 125

838 x292 x 194'


914 X 305 X 224'
914 X 305 X253'
914 X 305 X253'
914 X 305 X 289'
914x419x343'
914x419x388'
FAIL
FAIL

39.67
40.44
43.07
42.63
45.11
49.63
52.33

152 X 152 X 37
203 x203x 46
203x203 x46
203 X 203 X 52
203x203x71
254x254 x 73
254 x 254 x132'
305 X 305 X 198'
356 X406 X 340'

356 X406 X 634'


914 X 305 X 224'
914 X 305 X 253'
914 X305 X253'
914 X 305 X 289'
914x419x343'
914x419x388'
FAIL
FAIL

118.00
46.44
49.07
48.96
55.78
58.63
76. 33

'

'

'

'

'

(*) Natural frequency of the beam is less then 4.5Hz.

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.1 I August 00

ARUIP

'

r ,

4.6 Timber (1/9)

4.6
'

TIMBER
ALL THE INFORMATION IN THIS SECTION APPLIES TO SOFTWOOD IN
DRY LOCATIONS. For temperate or tropical hardwoods, or timber in external locations,
Refer to BS 5268 Pt 2.

4.6.1

RULES OF THUMB
Span/depth ratios:

principal members
load-sharing systems
rectangular trusses
triangular trusses

r '

15
20
10
8

(e.g. floor/roof joists)

Individual members of assemblies such as trusses should be set at only half capacity on initial
sizing, otherwise the connections (eg bolts) will be overloaded. Trussed rafters, with pressed
metal plate fasteners, are an exception to this rule.

r '

rI

-up to
-up to
-up to
-up to

4.6.2

'

MATERIALS SUPPLY

I
I

Sizes of solid timber (based on table NA. 2 of BS EN 336)

"r

'

'

Width in mm

'

Thickness

100

125

150

175

200

225

300

(97)

(120)

(145)

(170)

(195)

(220)

(295)

38 (35)

./

./

./

./

./

./

./

47 (44)

./

./

./

./

./

./

./

./

(:;;100mm)

-1,3

63 (60)

./

./

./

./

./

./

(>100mm)

-2,4

75 (72)

./

./

./

./

./

./

Planed

100 (97)

(:;;100mm)

1.0

150 (145)

(> 100mm)

1.5

r'

r '

'

./

Tolerances (mm)

75
(72)

(mm)

Sawn

Readily available (lengths up to 5.7m)


Can be obtained in limited species (check with suppliers)
Can be cut from larger sections

Douglas Fir- available up to 400 x 400 x 15m

I.....

NOTES

'

1.

Planed and regularised sizes shown in brackets. Regularised refers to members planed 2 sides only.

2.

When calculating A, Z or I for plane members use the appropriate reduced sizes (e.g.: Values of 'I'
are reduced by about 20% by planning all round).

Glued laminated timber (Giulam)


Laminates

- normal finished depth:


45mm (reduce when curved - ensure r/t :2: Emean/70)
- normal max. width:
250mm
Length/depth - limited only by the question of transport

'

i
I

There is a limited range of straight stock sizes. Most members (straight/curved} are specially
fabricated. Fabricators have generally standardised on grade C24 Whitewood. Most glulam
is fabricated abroad, to standards similar to BS EN 386, the UK standard for fabrication.
Fasteners
(

'

r .

Nails: to BS 1202: Part 1


Black Bolts: to BS EN 20898-1

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR

'-

AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.


Updated July 2002

'

Screws: to BS 1210
Washers: to BS 4320

'

ARUJP

'

'

'

'

4.6 Timber (2/9)

4.6.3

GRADE STRESSES
Solid timber
Timber should be specified either by species and visual grade in accordance with BS 4978
(eg: whitewood/SS) or by strength class in accordance with BS 5268.
Grade stresses and moduli of elasticity: dry exposure condition (extracted from table 2, 7 & 8 of BS 5268 Pt 2)
Compression

parallel to

parallel to

parallel to

perpendicular

parallel

grain

grain

grain

2
(N/mm )

(N/mm 2)

(N/mm 2)

to grain
(N/mm 2)*

to grain
(N/mm2)

Strength

Bending

Grade to

class to

BS 4978

BS 5268

(Redwood/

Compression

Modulus of elasticity

Tension

Visual

Shear

Average
density

Mean
(N/mm 2)

Minimum
(N/mm 2)

~
I

(kg/m 3 )

'

whitewood/
sprucepine-fir/
J

Douglas
Fir/Larch)
GS

5.3

C16

3.2

6.8

2.2

1.7

0.67

8800

5800

370

I
I

ss

C24

7.5

4.5

7.9

2.4

1.9

0.71

10800

7200

420

C27

10.0

6.0

8.2

2.5

2.0

1.10

12300

8200

450
J

When the specification specifically prohibits reductions at bearing areas, the higher values may be used.

+Grades better than C24 can only be justified by machine grading to BS EN 519.

Glulam
J

For C24 timber, the grade stresses above are modified by the following factors:

Modification factors K1s, K,e, K17, K18 , K,g, K2o for single grade glued laminated members and horizontally
glued laminated beams (extracted from table 21 of BS 5268) Pt 2.

Number of

Bending

Tension

Compression

Compression

Shear

Modulus

laminations

parallel to

parallel to

parallel to

perpendicular

parallel to

of

the grain

the grain

the grain

to the grain K18

the grain

elasticity

K,e

K11

K,g

K2o

K,s
4

1.26

1.26

1.34

1.34

1.39

1.39

10

1.43

1.43

15

1.48

1.48

~20

1.52

1.52

'

' j

1.04

1.55

2.34

1.07

\
)

Thereafter design members as in the method given in 4.6.5-8. Refer to BS 5268 Pt.2 for
radial stresses in curved beams.

J
THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Updated July 2002

ARUJP

' l

' J

.......
4.6 Timber (3/9)

4.6.4

SIZING OF ELEMENTS IN DOMESTIC CONSTRUCTION


Information taken from BS 8103 Pt 3 Tables 7, 26, 27, 32, 33, 64.
Loading in kN/m 2 .

JOISTS FLOORS
C24
Size of joists
f

DL = 0.5

DL = 1.25

LL 0.75
DL = 0.75

Spacing of joists (mm)

(mm)

'

FLAT ROOFS

LL 1.5 (inc. partitions)

DL = 1.00
Purlln supported by

Spacing of joists (mm)

(planed on 2

450

faces)

'

'

'

600

450

600

600

450

450

600

47x 97

1.92

1.68

1.71

1.50

1.91

1.83

1.83

1.74

47

122

2.55

2.29

2.27

2.01

2.55

2.43

2.43

2.30

47

147

3.06

2.78

2.75

2.50

3.21

3.04

3.04

2.87

47

170

3.54

3.21

3.18

2.88

3.81

3.54

3.61

3.36

47

195

4.05

3.68

3.64

3.30

4.44

4.05

4.22

3.85

47 x220

4.55

4.14

4.10

3.72

5.00

4.56

4.76

4.33

75

122

2.97

2.71

2.68

2.43

3.08

2.93

2.93

2.77

75

147

3.57

3.25

3.22

2.93

3.84

3.57

3.64

3.40

75

170

4.11

3.75

3.71

3.38

4.50

4.11

4.29

3.92

75

195

4.69

4.29

4.25

3.86

5.14

4.70

4.90

4.48

75 x220

5.11

4.78

4.74

4.35

5.77

5.28

5.50

5.04

Take the clear span for the purlin


as the clear dimension between
support struts and/or walls

PURLINS
r ,

\......

(roof pitch between 22.5"- 30")


DL = 0.75

Size of

DL= 0.75

DL = 1.00

sawn

LL = 0.75

sawn

LL = 0.75

LL = 0.75

rafters

Spacing of purlins (mm)

(mm)

'

1500

1800

2100

2400

2700

(mm)

'

175

2.08

1.95

1.84

47

200

2.38

2.23

2.10

1.97

1.85

47

225

2.68

2.50

2.36

2.20

2.07

63

150

1.97

1.86

63

175

2.32

2.17

2.05

1.95

1.87

63 x200

2.64

2.48

2.34

2.23

2.13

2.04

63 x225

2.97

2.78

2.63

2.51

2.40

2.28

1.96

C24

450

600

38

100

1.96

1.82

1.82

1.68

38

125

2.66

2.44

2.46

2.25

38

150

3.21

2.92

3.04

2.72

47

100

2.28

2.10

2.12

1.95

47

125

2.88

2.62

2.73

2.48

47

150

3.44

3.13

3.27

2.97

C24

150

1.87

47x175

2.18

2.04

1.93

1.83

38

100

2.24

2.03

2.12

1.93

47

200

2.49

2.33

2.20

2.10

2.00

1.92

38

125

2.79

2.53

2.65

2.40

47

225

2.80

2.62

2.47

2.35

2.25

2.16

38

150

3.34

3.04

3.17

2.88

63

150

2.08

1.95

1.84

63

175

2.42

2.27

2.15

2.04

1.96

1.88

47

100

2.40

2.18

2.27

2.07

63 x200

2.76

2.59

2.45

2.33

2.24

2.15

47

125

2.99

2.72

2.84

2.58

63

3.10

2.91

2.75

2.62

2.51

2.42

47

150

3.58

3.26

3.40

3.09

'

600

C16

47

47

Spacing of rafters (mm)


450

3000

C16

(pitch between 22.5" & 30")

Size of
purlins

RAFTERS

225

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' j

4.6 Timber (4/9)

4.6.5

OUTLINE OF DESIGN RULES FOR TIMBER MEMBERS

'

',

The Code (UK)


BS 5268: Part 2. This is a permissible stress code- all analysis is carried out under 'working'
loads. No y factors are used.

,....,

Notation
'

SUBSCRIPTS

SYMBOLS

a Stress

Compression

Shear Stress

m Bending

Rad. of Gyration

Direction

Applied

II

Parallel

adm

Permissible

j_

Perpendicular

Angle to the grain

Tension

compressive stress

eg: crc,adm II

Significance

Types of Force

permissible

parallel to the grain

I
'

'

'

Design procedure

4.6.6

1.

Determine GRADE stresses cro,grade relevant to applied stress conditions (see 4.6.3).

2.

Modify GRADE stresses by relevant factors (K(n)) (see 4.6.6) to obtain PERMISSIBLE
stresses cr*,adm {> o*,a ).

SELECTED TIMBER MODIFICATION FACTORS


K3

' J

Duration of Load
Loading

K3

(e.g. dead + permanent imposed )

1.00

'

Long term
Medium term

(e.g. dead +snow)

1.25

Short term (e.g. dead+ snow+ wind, when largest


diagonal dim. of loaded area > 50m)

1.50

Very short term (e.g. dead+ imposed+ wind, when largest


diagonal dim. of loaded area:<> 50m)

1.75

Note: 1.5 kN/m imposed load for domestic buildings should be treated as long term.
I

'

'

'

'

'
)

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4.6 Timber (5/9)

K7

Depth in bending
Width (greatest dimension) for axial tension only

K14
(

1.175
1.150
(

L\

1.125

1\

1.100

1.075

'

olj

1.050

:0:

1.025

\.

""

f!

.
0

1.000

LL

0.975

:g

0.950

K1

,~

"""

K1

I~

'\.

0.900

r ',

K,

~
~

0.925

:;;

K,.

1'---~

0.875

......._

0.850
I

--- -

r- r--

t:::::::.......

0.825

'

0.800
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Depth or Width, h (mm)


(

'

Ks

Load Sharing systems 1.1


(eg: 4 or more floor joists, rafters, wall studs)

K12

Slenderness
For slenderness ratio A (=le I i) < 5
A;:::5

=1
K12 is a function of A and E I

K12

For solid members, including load sharing systems


For horizontally laminated C24 members
The value of Oc, 11 is the grade stress multiplied by K3
(

E
E

aG,II

= Emin
= E mean

0.9
(

0.8

i"'
'

'""'

"'

0.7

..: 0.6

.s

".

I
C241ong term (i.e E/cr=1370)

~ ~24
~
~~

medium term (i.e E/cr=1140)

LL

c 0.5
.!2

'1ii

( '

"""

:0

0.4

C24 short term (i.e E/cr-910)

~~~

:;;

0.3

Limit A=180 for long &


medium term loading

~ ~ t::::--.~*"'

0.2

0.1

-...::::::-

t:===:---~
r---= t------.::::::__-::-

0
(

'

'

50

100

150

200

250

Slenderness Ration, A

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II
I

J
4.6 Timber (6/9)

4.6.7

MODIFICATION FACTOR COMBINATIONS (Examples)

For solid timber:


Bending

II

Om,grade
eg:

K3

K7

C24

Medium

200mm

7.5

1.25

1.05

(Ks)

O'm,adm

9.8 N/mm

'

"'""""
J

Tension

Ot,grade

K14

(Ks)

Ot,adm

eg:

C16

Short

150mm

3.2

1.5

1.08

5.2 N/mm 2
~

'

Com(2ressionac ,grade
eg:

Shear

K3

K12

C24

Long

{A.=100)

7.9

1.0

0.40

Tgrade

K3

(Ks)

Oc,adm,ll

3.2 N/mm

(Ks)

Tadm

'

eg:

C24

Long

0.71

1.0

0.7 N/mm 2

For rectangular sections, a parabolic stress distribution is assumed


i.e. max shear stress = 3F/2ht

'

4.6.8

DEFLECTION
Generally, BS 5268 Pt. 2, Cl 2.1 0. 7 recommends that total deflection under dead and
imposed load:

<i

Notes:

<= 0.003 L
<= 14 mm

to limit vibration of floors

' )

'J

1.

Deflection must include bending and shear components. For a central


point load, shear deflection= 3 WU8Ght (where G = E/16).

2.

For glulams, dead load component can be reduced by precambering.

3.

E = Em;n (individual members on which integrity of structure depends)


\ J

= Emean {load-sharing systems)

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'

4.6 Timber (7/9)

4.6.9

FASTENERS
This section deals only with lateral loads on nails, screws and bolts in timber of strength class
C16 (capacity of fixings in C24 and C27 timber are up to 20% higher- see BS 5268 Pt. 2).
Design procedure
1.

Determine

2.

Determine BASIC fastener capacity


below).

3.

Modify BASIC capacity by relevant factors

4.

Check that

APPLIED fastener shear loads (Fa)


(for bolts) angle of loads to grain (a)
member thicknesses/nail or screw penetrations
Fb

(for bolts, this is a function of a- see diagram

(K(nJ)

to obtain PERMISSIBLE loads

Fadm

Fa::; Fadm

Selected modification factors

Load Duration

'

r '

Nails K.s /Screws

Long Term

1.00

Medium Term

1.12

Short Term

1.25

Number of Fasteners in Line

Bolts

Effect of load duration is included in


table of capacities below.

Nails Kso/Screws K54

Bolts Ks1

n < 10

1.0

1 - 0.03 (n- 1)

n >= 10

0.9

0.7

Timber fixed to steel plate

r '

Ks2

Nails/Screws K.s

Bolts K.s

Where lp1ate;, 1.2mm & 0.3 dia

When tprare ;, 2.5mm & 0.3 dia


1.25 (a= 0')

1.25

r ,

1.00 (a= 90')

Fastener spacing
Key: N
N/St
NPr
Sc
t

-nails
- nails through steel plates
-nails in pre-drilled holes
-screws
-timber thickness

NAILS AND SCREWS


( '

IIll

20d

20d

NISI

14d

NISI

14d

NPr/Sc

10d

NPr/Sc

10d

I
....

'"
I

N
NISI
NPrfSc

~~~~~7d(loadedend) ..

1
5d

10d
7d
3d

(edgadiStanee)

'

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Nails - lateral strength

'

Fadm = Fb x ~s x K5o (x ~ 6 ) (x 1.15 if pre-drilled holes)

,--1

4.6 Timber (8/9)


'

Basic single shear lateral loads for round wire nails driven at right angles to the grain (from table 61 BS
5268 Pt. 2)

Diameter of Nail

Standard penetration

Basic lateral load per nail

(mm)

(mm) headside and

in C16 timber

Stock Sizes of Nails

pointside

2.7

32

258

65 60 50 45 40

3.0

36

306

65 60 50

3.4

41

377

75 65 60

3.8

46

453

75

4.2

50

534

100 90 75

4.6

55

620

100

5.0

60

712

125115 100

5.5

66

833

125

6.0

72

962

150

'

Screws - lateral strength

Basic single shear lateral loads for wood screws inserted into pre-drilled holes at right angles to the grain (from
table 66 in BS 5268 Pt. 2)

Screw shank diameter (mm)

Standard penetration

Basic lateral load per


screw in C16 timber

Headside (mm)

Pointside (mm)

11

21

205

14

28

361

18

35

550

' J

21

42

765

25

49

1011

28

56

1286

10

35

70

1608

'

,-,
I

'

Non-standard penetrations
Where the penetrations are less than the standard values above, the basic load
should be multiplied by the smaller of:
(a) actual to standard headside penetration, or
(b) actual to standard pointside penetration
For nails, neither ratio should be < 0.66
For screws, minimum headside member thickness = 2 x shank diameter

!
' J

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'

'-'
r '

4.6 Timber (9/9)

r ,

Basic single shear loads for one bolt in a two-member joint (from table 70 in BS 5268 Pt. 2)

Basic shear load for one bolt in C16 timber as a function of

Actual Thickness of

Nominal bolt size

load duration

thinner member*
Parallel to grain

47

( '

60

r,

72

'

97

Perpendicular to Grain

LT

MT

ST

LT

MT

ST

M8

1.22

1.44

1.59

1.13

1.33

1.47

M10

1.54

1.95

2.20

1.36

1.72

1.96

M12

1.80

2.29

2.61

1.56

1.98

2.26

M16

2.30

2.91

3.32

1.91

2.42

2.76

M20

2.73

3.47

3.95

2.19

2.78

3.17

M24

3.12

3.95

4.51

2.41

3.06

3.49

M12

2.30

2.91

3.19

1.99

2.53

2.88

M16

2.93

3.72

4.24

2.44

3.09

3.53

M20

3.49

4.43

5.05

2.80

3.55

4.05

M24

3.98

5.05

5.75

3.68

3.90

4.45

M16

3.52

4.46

5.09

2.93

3.71

4.23

M20

4.19

5.31

6.06

3.36

4.26

4.85

M24

4.77

6.06

6.90

3.69

4.68

5.34

M16

4.63

5.46

6.03

3.94

4.77

5.25

M20

5.64

7.16

8.16

4.52

5.74

6.54

M24

6.43

8.16

9.30

4.97

6.31

7.19

M24

9.74

11.46

12.64

7.54

9.52

10.45

147

*The loads for intermediate thicknesses may be obtained by linear interpolation.

Bolts - lateral strength

i....,

!
~

Basic load for bolts at an angle to the grain a

L-

F;;
'

Grain direction

F
a

F;;Fj_

r1711

2
sm
a+ F j_ cos 2 a

i.....
(

F.L

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4.7 Masonry (1/9)

4.7

MASONRY

4.7.1 RULES OF THUMB


Ultimate resistances in compression
Wall sizing: e < 0.05 t ; grade (iii) mortar
(Note: For cavity walls load is applied to inner leaf only.)
BS 5628 : Pt 1 Cl 28.1. limits slenderness ratio to 27

' )

BOO

'E1so
-..

'

~ 700

-6so
~ 600
r::::

/215 brick wall (35N brick)

.fl
II)

550
"iii 500
(J)
.... 450
~ 400
-~ 350

r---

(J)

a. 300

E
250
0

(.) 200
(J)
(ij 150
E 100
:;:::;
5 50
0
1.0

- --........

100 brick+ 140 block {10N block ~

Jl..

2.0

2.5

-:I

~
...........

/1100 brick + 100 block (3.5N block)l

...

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

-- --- --- -- -----...


.....

;/

1.5

6.0

Effective wall height (m)


Pier sizing: e < 0.05 t; 20N brick; grade (iii) mortar
BS 5628 : Pt 1 Cl 28.1. limits slenderness ratio to 27

,...._
I

300

-z

\ J

275

~250

/L440x327 ier

(J)

g 225

co
ti

"

200

'iii
~ 175
(J)

r-- r--.._

.2::
150
II)

'

......

--......

II)

215x 327 pier

~ 125

c..

,.. /

100

215x215pier

(.)

$ 75
co
~ 50

Ji

---

25

0
1.0

' J

,...,
:,

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

Effective pier height (m)

,.,
I

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I

4.7 Masonry (2/9)

Initial sizing rules


Trial wall thicknesses:
For compressive loading only:

Supported top and bottom

Supported at base only

Solid

H/16

H/8

Cavity*

H/11

H/5.5

H is wall height

Min. leaf thickness 100mm

Wall thickness is sum of leaf thickness


( '

For lateral loading:


solid walls, Height = 1/40 distance between supports
cavity walls, Height= 1/30 distance between supports

4.7.2 LOAD FACTORS (From BS 5628 Part 1 Clause 22)

Load Combination

Load Type

(Including Earth

Dead, G,

Imposed,

a,

and Water Loading

Earth and

Wind,

Water, E,

w,

Adverse

Beneficial

Adverse

1.4

0.9

1.6

1.4

2. Dead and Wind

1.4

0.9

1.4

1.4*t

3. Dead, Imposed

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2t

Where Present)
1. Dead and

Beneficial

Imposed

and Wind
t Use 0.015G, if greater than factored W,.

'

A partial factor of 1.2 may be used for freestanding walls and laterally loaded walls panel, whose

......

removal would in no way affect the stability of the remaining structure .

'

4.7.3 MATERIAL FACTORS (From BS 5628 Part 1 Table 4)


(

Partial safety factors for material strength


Construction Control

Manufacturing
(

Control

Special

Normal

Special

2.5

3.1

Normal

2.8

3.5*

Use for initial sizing


Note particular requirements for use of 'Special' category

( '

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ARUP

4.7 Masonry (3/9)

4.7.4 MODULAR DIMENSIONS (Brickwork)


102.5, 215, 327.5, 440
~~=-~--~~--~~~~~

' J

' i

Mortar Thickness

= 1Omm

(n x225)- 10

4.7.5 TYPICAL UNIT STRENGTHS


Material and BS

Class

Typical unit compressive


strength (N/mm2 )
'

Fired-clay bricks (BS 3921)

Calcium silicate bricks (BS187)

Engineering At

> 70

Engineering Bt

>50

Facing brickst

10-50

Common bricks

10-30

Class 7

48.5

Class 6

41.5

Class 5

34.5

Class 4

27.5

Class 3

20.5

Reconstructed stonet (BS 6457)

'

'

J'

7-20

Concrete bricks (BS 6073: Part 1)


Concrete blocks (BS 6073: Part 1)

Dense solidt

7,10-35

Dense hollowt

3.5, 7, 10

Lightweightt

2.8, 3.5, 4, 7 (10)

Dense solid

As dense solid concrete


blocks

Natural stonet (BS 5390 and BS

Structural quality

15-100

8298)

{dependent on stone type,


bed, location, etc.)

t These are often selected by client or architect for appearance or thermal performancecheck this, and establish strength, before starting to size members.
~
'

,...,
c

~
'

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'I

4.7 Masonry (4/9)

4.7.6 MASONRY COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (BS 5628, Pt. 1, Table 2)


(

Characteristic compressive strength of masonry' f.k in N/mm2

(a) Constructed with standard format bricks


Mortar

NOTE TO TABLE OF fk

Compressive strength of unit (N/mm')

1. For piers, columns, and short

desig-

walls with plan area A (in m') ~


5

10

15

20

27.5

35

50

70

100

(i)

2.5

4.4

6.0

7.4

9.2

11.4

15.0

19.2

24.0

(ii)

2.5

4.2

5.3

6.4

7.9

9.4

12.2

15.1

18.2

(iii)

2.5

4.1

5.0

5.8

7.1

8.5

10.6

13.1

15.5

(iv)

2.2

3.5

4.4

5.2

6.2

7.3

9.0

10.8

12.7

nation

'

0.2m', multiply fk by (0.7 + 1.5A).


2. For 'half-brick thick' brick
walls, multiply Table (a) values
by 1.15.
3.

For 90

modular

90mm section

bricks,

multiply the

Table (a) values by:


(b) Constructed with blocks having a ratio of height to least horizontal dimension
f

of0.6

Mortar
nation

2.8

3.5

5.0

7.0

10

15

20

35 or greater

(i)

1.4

1.7

2.5

3.4

4.4

6.0

7.4

11.4

(ii)

1.4

1.7

2.5

3.2

4.2

5.3

6.4

9.4

i '

4. For unfilled hollow blocks,


interpolate between Tables (b)
and (c) as necessary.

I
I

i,...,.

5. For solid and concrete-filled

r ,

r '

(iii)

1.4

1.7

2.5

3.2

4.1

5.0

5.8

8.5

(iv)

1.4

1.7

2.2

2.8

3.5

4.4

5.2

7.3

(c) Constructed from hollow blocks having a ratio of height to least horizontal

Mortar

0.6 and 2.0, interpolate between


Tables (b) and (d) as necessary.
6. For squared natural stone and
between Tables (b) and (d) as

Compressive strength of unit (N/mm')

necessary.

designation

2.8

3.5

5.0

7.0

10

15

20

35 or greater

(i)

2.8

3.5

5.0

5.7

6.1

6.8

7.5

11.4

(ii)

2.8

3.5

5.0

5.5

5.7

6.1

6.5

9.4

7. For random rubble natural

'

I'"-

hollow blocks, with height:least


horizontal dimension between

reconstructed stone, interpolate

dimension of between 2.0 and 4.0

.......

= brick

Compressive strength of unit (N/mm')

desig-

1.25 if wall thickness


width, 1.1 otherwise

stone, take 75% of squared


natural stone values. If using
lime mortar, take 50% of strength
for grade (iv) mortar.

(iii)

2.8

3.5

5.0

5.4

5.5

5.7

5.9

8.5

(iv)

2.8

3.5

4.4

4.8

4.9

5.1

5.3

7.3

IL....
r ,

MORTAR STRENGTHS

(d) Constructed from solid concrete blocks having a ratio of height to least

Desig-

horizontal dimension of between 2.0 and 4.0

nation

Mortar

Compressive strength of unit (N/mm 2 )

(i)

designation

2.8

(i)

2.8

3.5
3.5

5.0
5.0

7.0
6.8

10
8.8

15
12.0

20

35 or greater

14.8

22.8

Cement:Lime:Sand

1:0-)1.,:3

(ii)

1 : Y:z: 4 -4Y:z

(iii)

1:1:5-6

(iv)

1:2:8-9

Pure lime 0 : 1 : 3

r ,
I

(ii)

2.8

3.5

5.0

6.4

8.4

10.6

12.8

18.8

(iii)

2.8

3.5

5.0

6.4

8.2

10.0

11.6

17.0

(iv)

2.8

3.5

4.4

5.6

7.0

8.8

10.4

14.6

See also Section 4.7.12, and


BS 5628, Pt1, Table 1.

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'

4.7 Masonry (5/9)

Wp

t1

~..

t2

te = t max

Sp

or 2/3 (t1 + t2)

te = t

tP
''

'

te = t x k

[whichever greater]

Values of K for the design of piers (From BS 5628, Pt. 1, Table 5)


Ratio of pier spacing

' j

Ratio of pier thickness to actual thickness of wall or leaf (t, I t)

(centre-to-centre) to
1

3 and thicker

1.4

10

1.2

1.4

20 (or more)

pier width (s, I w,)


6 (or less)

Reduction factor 13 (From BS 5628, Pt. 1, Table 7)


Capacity reduction factor,
Slenderness

:/
/

~
/

Eccentricity at top of wall, e

Up to

:;;

Pt

ratio:
l.ft.

0.11

0.21

0.31

1.00

0.88

0.66

0.44

1/~

1.00

0.88

0.66

0.44

1.00

0.88

0.66

0.44

10

0.97

0.88

0.66

0.44

12

0.93

0.87

0.66

0.44

14

0.89

0.83

0.66

0.44

16

0.83

0.77

0.64

0.44
0.44

18

0.77

0.70

0.57

20

0.70

0.64

0.51

0.37

22

0.62

0.56

0.43

0.30

24

0.53

0.47

0.34

26

0.45

0.38

27

0.40

0.33

'i

l
I

'

0.051

'

'

Le= 0.75L

Le=2L

'

'

L
DPC
Le= 1.0L

\ J

Linear interpolation between eccentricities and

slenderness ratios is permitted

Vertical load resistance of wall or column per unit length:


13tfk

P=--

Ym
where

', J

13 = capacity reduction factor from above table


t =actual wall, column, or leaf thickness
fk = characteristic compressive strength from table
Ym =partial safety factor for material from Table 4.7.3- use 3.5 for sizing.

'

''

' J
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' J

'

4. 7 Masonry (6/9)

4.7.7

SIZING EXTERNAL WALL PANELS

r '

Walls in buildings up to four storeys high and subject only to lateral loads may be sized as
below. Gravity stresses generally improve capacity to resist wind, and so thickness may be
guesstimated for higher load bearing walls.
Applicable only in areas with many windbreaks (cities, towns, woodland etc.) within the
defined wind zones.
Thickness of wall should be at least:
For solid wall:
1/40th of distance between supports
total thickness 1/30th of distance between supports; each leaf
For cavity wall:
min. 1OOmm thick; cavity width 1OOmm max; wall ties
900 x 450mm spacing; mortar grade (i), (ii) or (iii)
Treat pitched gable walls as rectangular panels with height taken at mid-height of roof
slope.
Openings (windows, doors, etc.) only if either:
-Openings are entirely framed by lateral restraints (floors, roof, crosswalls, etc.)
or
-(a) the total area of openings is less than the lesser of
10% of the maximum tabulated area
25% of the actual wall area
and
-(b) no opening is less than half its maximum dimension from any edge of the wall
panel (other than its base) and from any adjacent opening.
If above conditions not satisfied, calculate wind forces and use Table in 4.7.8 or design to
BS 5628: Part 1.

r ,

Maximum permitted areas of certain walls

'

Wind Height

------

zone

Cavity 190mm Cavity 90mm Cavity 90mm Cavity


wall
(

wall

3
;

4
(

wall

solid

wall

solid

wall

wall

wall

F
90mm Cavity 190mm

solid

solid

wall

wall

wall

wall

solid

90mm Cavity

solid

avity 90mm Cavity 90mm Cavity 90mr


solid
wall
solid
wall
solid

wall

wall

wall

wall

wall

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

m'

5.4

11.0

13.5

17.5

19.0

26.5

28.5

20.5

29.0

32.0

41.0

32.0

41.0

8.5

10.0

14.0

19.0

19.5

30.5

10.8

9.0

11.5

13.0

15.5

17.5

21.5

15.5

23.5

24.0

32.5

32.0

41.0

7.0

8.0

10.0

14.5

15.5

21.5

5.4

9.5

12.0

14.0

17.0

21.0

24.0

17.5

25.5

27.0

35.5

32.0

41.0

7.5

8.5

10.5

16.5

17.0

24.5

10.8

8.0

9.5

11.5

14.0

13.5

17.5

13.0

20.5

19.0

28.5

28.0

36.5

6.0

7.0

9.0

11.0

13.0

17.5

5.4

8.5

10.5

12.5

15.0

15.5

20.0

14.5

22.5

22.0

31.0

30.5

40.5

6.5

7.5

9.5

13.5

14.5

20.0

10.8

7.0

8.5

10.0

12.0

11.5

15.5

11.0

17.5

14.5

24.5

24.5

31.5

5.0

6.0

7.5

9.0

11.5

15.0

5.4

8.0

9.5

11.0

13.5

13.0

17.0

12.5

19.5

18.0

27.5

27.0

35.0

6.0

6.5

8.5

10.5

12.5

17.0

10.8

6.5

7.5

9.0

11.0

10.5

13.5

9.5

14.5

12.5

21.0

21.5

27.5

4.0

5.5

6.5

7.5

10.0

12.5

Notes:

1. Cavity wall:

100mm outer leaf (any bricks or blocks not less than 14.0 N/mm')
1OOmm inner leaf (any bricks or blocks not less than 3.5 N/mm').
If either leaf is increased to 140mm, increase the areas by 20%

2. Solid walls:

Single leaf, collar-jointed, grouted cavity.


Any bricks or blocks not less than 3.5 N/mm'

3. Wind zones:

As BS 5628 Part 3 Figure 1.

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'"""'

'

4.7 Masonry (7/9)

4.7.8

'"""'l

FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF MASONRY

' J

Characteristic Flexural Strength of Masonry, f"", in N/mm'

Mortar designation

Plane of failure parallel to bed

Plane of failure perpendicular to

joints (spanning vertically)

bed joints (spanning horizontally)

(i)

(i)

(ii) and

(iv)

(ii) and

(iii)

' J

(iv)

(iii)

'

'

'

'

Clay bricks having a water


absorption:
less than 7%

0.7

0.5

0.4

2.0

1.5

1.2

between 7% and 12%

0.5

0.4

0.35

1.5

1.1

1.0

over 12%

0.4

0.3

0.25

1.1

0.9

0.8

Calcium silicate bricks

0.3

0.2

0.9

0.6

Concrete bricks

0.3

0.2

0.9

0.6

Concrete blocks (solid or


hollow) of compressive
strength in N/mm':
2.8

used in wall

3.5

thickness* up

7.0

to 100mm

2.8

used in wall

3.5

thickness* of

7.0

0.25

0.15

0.2

0.4

0.45

0.4

0.60

0.5

0.25

0.2

0.25

0.2

250mm

0.35

0.3

10.5

used in walls of

0.75

0.6

14.0

any thickness*

0.90t

0.7t

0.25

0.1

0.40

0.2

and

',

' '

over
The thickness should be taken to be the thickness of the wall, for a single leaf wall, or the
thickness of the leaf, for a cavity wall. For concrete blocks 100-250mm thick, interpolate.
t When used with flexural strength in parallel direction, assume the orthogonal ratio ~=0.3

'

'

'

I
J

Note: Mortar designation as in Table 4.7.6

4.7.9

INTERNAL NON-LOADBEARING MASONRY WALLS


For single-leaf wall of length Land height H, with adequate lateral restraint. calculate
the minimum thickness required from the graph:

' j

Extract from BS5628:


Part 3, figure 6.

Note:
This graph only applies
where significant
internal wind pressures
cannot occur.

20

40
60
80
100
Length I thickness ratio

120

'

'

'

J'

140
I

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-.

r '

4. 7 Masonry (9/9)

For cavity wall with wall ties, sum of leaf thicknesses to be not less than 1Y2t where t is
calculated as above.
Note that the presence of openings, chases, and movement joints may demand greater
thickness and/or additional intermediate restraints.
r

4.7.10 FREESTANDING MASONRY WALLS

'

Thickness of freestanding walls (Single leaf, unstiffened by piers)


(

Wind zone

Max. ratio of height (above

Max. ratio of height {above

lateral restraint): actual

d.p.c.t): actual thickness

thickness
'

(
I

'

8.5

6.4

7.5

5.6

6.5

4.9

6.0

4.5

t Assume d.p.c. cannot res1st flexure.


Notes:

1. Unit compressive strength

3.5 N/mm 2, density

1400 kg/m 3

2. Applicable only in areas with many windbreaks (cities, towns, woodland, etc.)- elsewhere calculate wind

r .

forces and design as gravity wall or to BS 5628: Part 1.

3. Wind zones as BS 5628 Part 3 Figure 1

4.7.11 JOINTS
r '
'

Recommended Vertical Joints in Masonry

'-"

Material

Max. joint spacing (m)t

Joint width (mm)

Max. aspect ratio*

1.3 x spacing in

3:1 (suggested)

Fired-clay bricks

15
12 (preferable)

r ,

Calcium silicate (sand-

lime) bricks

Concrete blocks and

metres (minimum)

7.5-9

10 (typical)

3:1

10 (suggested)

2:1

10

3:1 (suggested}

bricks

l.,..

Natural stone cladding


in cement-based mortar

'

(
I

t Use max of half these values for joint nearest corner (Internal or External)
* Ratio of panellength:panel height for solid panel; if openings, check each sub-panel separately and consider

reinforcement for ratios beyond max. value.

Horizontal joints in non-loadbearing masonryt (BS 5628 Part 1 Cl 29.2.2)

'

Uninterrupted wall height

Joint spacing (m)

Joint width (m)

Multi-storey

9m or every third storey (whichever

Allow 1mm per metre between

is less), but can omit if building is

masonry support and top of

less than 12m with four or fewer

masonry below; minimum 10mm

storeys

Storey-high
t

At head of wall

Allow 1mm per metre

Consider also other requirements for joint (acoustic and thermal insulation, weathertightness, fire separation, etc)
when selecting joint filler.

i
~

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4. 7 Masonry (9/9)
I

4.7.12 OTHER ISSUES

' J

Non-structural issues influencing decisions on material strength, wall thickness, and mortar grade:
Issue

Influence on

Weathertightness

Wall thickness

Recommendation
Use cavity construction (min. 90mm thick outer leaf), or assume min. solid wall
thickness for Sheltered/Moderate exposure (Table 11, BS 5628: Part 3):
Rendered
Clay/calcium silicate/dense concrete/reconstructed stone- 190mm;
',

Lightweight concrete- 140mm.

,...,

Unrendered
440mm
Durability

' j

Material, strength,

See Table 13 BS 5628: Part 3.

mortar grade.

For unrendered external walls with high [and low] risk of saturation:

Conservatively, for

Fired-clay units - FL,FN [ML,MN] in (i), (ii),[iii] grade mortar;

sizing, choose lowest

Calcium silicate units- classes 2-7 in (iii),[iv] mortar*;

unit strength and mortar

Concrete bricks

grade to satisfy

Concrete blocks (any strength) in (iii), [iv] mortar*.

durability

For internal walls and inner leaves of cavity walls:

'

~ J

15 [7] N/mm' in (iii) mortar;

~
I,

Fired-clay units - any in (i)-(iv) mortar;

l
I

Calcium silicate units- classes 2-7 in (iii) or (iv) mortar;


Concrete bricks -

7N/mm' in (iv) mortar;

,...,

Concrete blocks (any strength) in (iii) or (iv) mortar.

See remarks on table 13C for mortar grade (iv).


Fire resistance

Material and whether

See Table 16, BS 5628: Part 3.

solid/perforated/hollow;

A 1OOmm unplastered wall or leaf of a cavity wall will give 2 hour fire resistance

thickness

in all materials and loading conditions (sometimes conservatively) except:


Fired-clay bricks/blocks with voids or perforations (75-1 00% solid - use min.
170mm thickness);
Hollow concrete blocks with gravel or natural stone aggregate (limestone OK)min. 200mm thickness with vermiculite-gypsum plaster. Pay attention to joints
around panels.

Thermal

Material, strength,

This often dictates use of cavity wall with lightweight/hollow- hence WEAK-

insulation (and

thickness of external

concrete blocks, typically 2.8-7 N/mm 2 and 100-150mm min. thickness; this

avoidance of

walls

may be a problem on multi-storey loadbearing wall construction. Applied


insulation in cavity or on inner [or outer] face may be used. This must be

condensation)

resolved with architect/service engineer EARLY in design.

I
I

'

,...,
I

Sound absorption

Material, strength,

See Building Regulations Approved Document E1

and noise

thickness

Airborne sound resistance where necessary (e.g. between dwellings) is typically

reduction

'i

'

achieved by:
Single leaf walls- 215mm plastered brickwork (min. density 1610kg/m 3 ) or
dense blockwork (min. density 1840kg/m 3 ), or 190mm unplastered concrete
(min. density 2200kg/m

);

Cavity walls -two 102mm leaves of plastered brickwork (min.density


1970kg/m 3 ), two 100mm leaves (50mm cavity) of plastered dense blockwork
(min. density 1990kg/m 3 ), or two 1OOmm leaves (75mm cavity) of plastered drylined lightweight blockwork (max. density 1600 kg/m 3 ). Pay attention to joints
aroud panels.

' J

,...,
I

Appearance

Material, strength

Architect's choice- must be resolved EARLY as it profoundly influences


structural design.

Health and safety

Thickness of unit

Units weighing more than 20kg should not be used if one-man laying is intended
(which is normal). E.g. max. thickness dense blockwork at 2000kg/m

thicker wall required ( tcheck strength with manufacturer).

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'

,...,

is 105mm

(standard 440x215 block). Consider collar-jointed wall or blocks laid on side t if

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i
l

,...,

4.8 Aluminium (1/2)

'

I
I

4.8

ALUMINIUM

4.8.1 MAIN STRUCTURAL ALLOYS


Typical uses:

r ,

Curtain walling
Rainscreen cladding
Glazing arms/rails

Alloy

Condition

Product

Range of

Dura-

thickness

bility.

(mm)
Heat-

6063

T4

Extruded

0-150

treatable

(H9)

T6

Extruded

0-150

\__.

6082

T4

Extruded

0-150

(H30)

T6

Extruded

20-150

5083

Sheet, plate

0.2-80

(N8)

H22

Sheet, plate

0.2-6

Limiting stress (N/mm 2 )


Po

Pa

Pv

65 (65]

85 (85]

40 [40]

160 [80]

175 [87]

95 [47]

115 [115]

145 [145]

70 [70]

270 [135]

290 [145]

160 (80]

NonI-<

heattreatable

105 [105]

150 [150]

65 [65]

235 [105]

270 [121]

140 [63]

'
where:

\__.

Po is the limiting unfactored stress for bending and overall yielding


Pa is the limiting unfactored stress for local capacity of the section in tension or compression
Pv is the limiting unfactored stress in shear

Note :

A material factor up to 1.3 must be used with these numbers

I-<

Figures in square brackets [] apply to all material within 25mm of a weld zone.
For durability see corrosion protection table below.

r
'--'

4.8.2 DURABILITY (General corrosion protection of aluminium structures)

I-<

P = Protection is required (see BS 8118 Part 2)


Alloy

Material

durability

thickness

rating

(mm)

Protection needed according to environment

Rural

\__.

Industrial/urban
Moderate

Severe

'

'--'
(

Immersed

Atmospheric

Marine
Non-

Moderate

Severe

Fresh

Sea

water

water

industrial
A

All

None

None

None

None

None

None

<3

None

~3

None

None

None

None

I...

4.8.3 TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

'

Density
Young's modulus
Thermal coefficient

2710 kg/m 3
70 kN/mm 2
23 X 106 C

r ,

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I

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4.8 Aluminium (2/2)

4.8.4 DESIGN
Design in accordance with BS 8118: 1991
BS 8118 : 1991 uses the limit state for design.

I
'

Aluminium comes in the following forms:


-extrusion
-cast
-plate
-sheet

I
' j

Usually buckling in compression is critical.

'

'

'

'

.......I
'

' j

't

'

'

'

'

'

,....,
I

'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


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AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

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ARUJP
--

r ,

r ,

4.9 Stainless Steel (1/3)

4.9

STAINLESS STEEL
As described in Notes on Materials: 190 the system of designation for stainless steel has been
changed by the introduction of BS EN 10088. The mechanical properties given below are for
the grades in BS EN 10088. The nearest equivalent old designation is also given.

r '

4.9.1

MATERIAL GRADES
For structural use with high resistance to corrosion use austenitic or duplex stainless steels
Suggested grades for atmospheric applications

r '

Location
Steel
I

grade

Rural

Urban

Industrial

Marine

304L

,/

,/

,/

,/

,/

( ,/)

( ,/)

316L

,/

,/

duplex

( ,/)

,/

( ,/)

,/

,/

( ,/)

,/

,/

( ,/)

,/

,/

2205
I

'

L - Least corrosive conditions within that category.

WARNING: Consult Arup Swimming Pool Design Guide

M -Typical of that category.

where appropriate.

H - Corrosion higher than typical.


I

0 - Potentially over-specified for corrosion .


./-The optimum choice for corrosion resistance.
X- Likely to suffer excess corrosion.
( ./ ) - Can be considered if precautions are taken.

r '

4.9.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


'

'

Old

Material Name

designation

Material

0.2% proof stress

UTS

number

(N/mm')

(N/mm 2 )

r,
L

Hot

Bars,

Hot

Bars,

Hot

Rolled

rods

Rolled

rods

Rolled

rods

Plate

+sectio

Plate

+secti

Plate

+secli

ons

ns
(

Elongation(%)

Bars,

ons

'
304L

X2CrNi19-11

1.4306

200

180

304 S11
316L

X2CrNiMo17-12-2

1.4404

220

200

316S11
316L

X2CrNiMo18-14-3

1.4435

220

200

316S13
Duplex

X2CrNiMoN22-5-3

1.4462

460

450

2205
r

500 to

460to

650

680

520 to

500 to

670

700

520 to

500 to

670

700

640to

650 to

840

880

45

45

45

40

45

40

25

25

'

L
r ,

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1

'r

ARUJP

'

4.9 Stainless Steel (2/3)

4.9.3 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


Old

Material

Density

Thermal expansion

Thermal

Heat capacity

designation

Number

(kg/m 3 )

20-100'C
(1ot C)

conductivity

(J/kg'C)

(W/mC)

304L

1.4306

7900

16

15

500

316L

1.4404

8000

16

15

500

duplex 2205

1.4462

7800

13

15

500

4.9.4 DESIGN STRENGTH

.)

I
')

The basic design strength, Py, may generally be taken as the 0.2% proof stress given in 4.9.2
as those are minimum values. The exception is Duplex 2205 where a maximum of 450N/mm 2
should be used and this should be verified by mill certificates. For duplex 2205 with thickness
1O<t<20mm a material safety factor of 1.05 should be used.
Alternatively based on tensile tests Py=o0 _i1.1 where 0 0 _2 is the average test value of the 0.2%
proof stress. If mill certificates are used Py=Omo.i1.2 where omo. 2 is the average value of the
0.2% proof stress as given on the mill certificate or release note.

4.9.5 ELASTIC PROPERTIES


Design values of elastic properties

'

'

Values of constants to be used for


determining secant modulus (see

'

'

over)
Grade

Young's modulus, E (N/mm 2 )

Shear

Transverse

Longitudinal

direction

direction

modulus, G
(N/mm

Transverse

Longitudinal

direction

direction

304L

200 000

200 000

76 900

316L

195 000

190 000

74 000

duplex 2205

205 000

200 000

77 900

2.22

7.50

2.22

5.50

2.05

8.00

2.00

6.00

0.91

4.00

0.89

4.00

1
' )

Deflection calculations
For estimating deflections, use the secant modulus:

'

'

'

P1 and Pc are the values of pin the tension and compression flange respectively.
k and m are constants obtained from the previous table.

'

'

' j
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ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
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'

.....,
'

'

(
I

'

4.9 Stainless Steel (3/3)

4.9.6 AVAILABILITY
Sheet, plate, bar and tubes widely available for 304L and 316L.
Similar for duplex 2205 but not as widely stocked.
Certain rolled sections available for 304L and 316L. None for duplex 2205.
UTS

fv
High tensile rod
(

'

i_,

Weldable

Sizes (mm)

1350

4- 11 !jl

1100

950

12-19$
19-25 !jl

Reinforcing bar and

300

500

6-50 !jl plain

plain rod

460

625

6 - 32 !jl deformed

180

N
y

180+

l,c,L 250-300
100 !jl
0

Structural sections

6-50 !jl

400 !jl

4.9.7 REFERENCES
r ,

1. SCI, Concise guide to the structural design of stainless steel.


2. BS EN 10088: 1995, Stainless steels, Parts 1-3

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5. Foundations (1/7)

5.

FOUNDATIONS

5.1

GENERAL PRINCIPLES

'

'

All foundations should be taken down to an adequate bearing stratum, which ensures
the settlement under load will be acceptable to the structure.
Settlement under loads should always be considered. This may be done by
calculation and/or by reference to successful use of similar foundations in similar
materials, preferably in the local neighbourhood of the site. Advice from Building
Control Engineers is helpful in this respect.
'

In assessing settlement the interaction between foundations needs to be considered


plus the overall load of the complete structure as well as the loading of an individual
foundation.
Settlement arises from the following:
Undrained elastic settlement which occurs on loading and hence during
construction
Consolidation settlement of clays as porewater pressures dissipate (time
dependant)
secondary consolidation of soft clays and peat (time dependant)
creep of fill (time dependant)
settlement induced by construction vibration, seismic loading or inondation
creep of natural granular deposits (time dependant but usually small)
Foundations should be taken to a depth at which they will not be affected by seasonal
changes, including both frost and action and swelling and shrinkage due to changes of
water content. Frost action is particularly important in silty soils, including chalk, and
shrinkage is important in many clays, especially if there are trees nearby. BRE Digests
and NHBC guidelines provide advice on foundations in clay deposits which have
become desiccated due to vegetation.
It is important that all foundation designs are reviewed by a geotechnical engineerpreferably in advance of any design decisions. In addition advice may be required to
determine the geological character of the founding strata and whether any unusual
features may be present.

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5. Foundations (2/7)

5.2

APPROPRIATE FOUNDATION SOLUTIONS


APPROPRIATE FOUNDATION TYPE
SOIL CONDITIONS

AND LOCATION

1.

DESIGN COMMENTS

-It
Lbti., boOW,.Udop~"
r< . . ..
'

. oence nrui1Ugreatdepth '. ..

r ,

. . . .

Spread footings most appropriate


for conventional foundation needs.
A deep foundation such as piles
could be required if uplift forces
were to act.

where erosion might occur

r ,
Spread footings most appropriate

2.

solution in many cases, depending


on settlement considerations

--- C:aonbolow~tdop:or8-----

ground turface
Firm clay or firm tilt
- and clay to great depth

r .

bolowmno whore ohrinkago and

'I.....

expansion due to change In water

canbtnt could ocCI.I'

'

Spread footings would be


appropriate for low to medium

3.
'

range of loads if not installed too


close to soft clay. Take care to not

o.. ~_

_ a..

......
'

'

Finn clay -

_ -

_ 3m-

~-

Soft clay to great depth

'

_ -

e
.

:men! as for 2 above

4.

overstress the soft clay. If


settlements become excessive
deep foundation might be required.
Cyclic loading may cause larger
settlements.

Spread footings may settle


excessively or require use of very
low bearing pressures. Any later
disturbance to the sand by
vibration, groundwater changes or
seismic loading for example, may
cause large settlements. Consider
mat (raft) foundations or consider
compacting sand by vibroflotation
or other method then use spread
footings. Driven piles could be
used and would density the sand.

r ,

Also consider continuous flight

auger piles.

r .

~.....
r

r .

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5. Foundations (3/7)
APPROPRIATE FOUNDATION TYPE
SOIL CONDITIONS

AND LOCATION

DESIGN COMMENTS

5.

Spread footings probably not


Om~----~g_ro_un_ds~

Soft

Om

Bm.~______b_u_ts_tr_e_n_g_th_________

Bm

increasing with depth


to very great depth

Soft firm
_16m

appropriate. Friction piles or piers


would be satisfactory if some

Softclay

settlement could be tolerated.


Long piles would reduce

16m

firm

settlement problems. Also

'

consider mat or floating


foundation.

6.

Om

____9!P~-~-~~-~a_c_~
-

Softclay -

Dftl

Deep foundations - piles, piers,


caissons- bearing directly on or in

the rock. Downdrag (negative skin


2D_ra

friction) may add to the loads on

the piles. The weathering, infill etc.


Rock

design of the socket

7.

of the rock may be critical in the

..-,

For heavy loads, spread footings in


upper sand layer would probably
experience large settlement
because of underlying soft clay
layer. Consider straight shafted

Softtn firm clay-

~
Stiff clay to great depth

piles or piles with bells in the stiff


clay layer. Bells may be difficult to
form in some clay strata. If time is
available preloading might make

tt

possible to use shallow


foundations.

Deep foundations best, continuous


flight auger piles suitable.

8.

Expanded base piles into sand


layer not common. Bored piles

water table - - - - - - - -

bentonite (if not) to balance water

. Medium i:lense sand.:


to great depth
'

pressures.

0 <:

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require water (if cased) or

ARUP

,-,

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5. Foundations (4/7)

'

.....

SOIL CONDITIONS

APPROPRIATE FOUNDATION TYPE


DESIGN COMMENTS

AND LOCATION

'

L..

Deep foundation types extending

9.

miscellaneo.usmade aro 1.1nd


1
~
1~01 1, non-101)
Sm loose sand, soft clay

r '

1m medium dense sand

into medium dense sand, or


preferably into compact glacial till.
Strong possibility for drilled pile
bored under bentontte. Also
consider cast-in-place and driven
concrete pile, steel piles,CFA

...

stiff/dense glacial till

r ,

piles. (Cannot underream in till.)

Negative skin frcition should be


considered

r r r R~ck r r

f '

L...

I.
L

10.

~
Miscellaneous loose Made Ground

~
: :' .. ~.: .

~ _:.-.~:.<: :/.>-.

.;-' ... _~. :


>/

;.., ,: ,.

:':,. . />"

ldeilii.mdenseeli~::> ,.

'.... :

'

(
I

"<.,-~:

. .. . .

<- .. <-:._:-.

:. .. : .. ..

:. -~~-: .:,...

Dm

2.5rrr .

.-~-

Deep foundations penetrating


through fill are appropriate. With
..

piles or piers consider stopping in

-, . / :~N~~r~tiii~~~'iriem<)"':
:,-:: .. .., 'fill well comp.acted

. ' '
. :-:::<:,
.->
'. ,

;.

_, ..

~- .,. ::. ..;- .:

12.:n,.-'::_ >L_.-:_~ ---~- -::

.....
I

,...

j:.

upper zone of sand layer to limtt


consolidation of clay layer. Also
consider replacing poor fill wtth
new imported, compacted, fill, then
use spread footings in the new fill.
Calculate settlements due to
consolidation of clay under
complete load of new structure.

r .

Firm Clay

L...
r

Rock
Rock

r .

r
~~

r.

r.
1.

L...

r ,

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5. Foundations (5/7)
SOIL CONDITIONS

APPROPRIATE FOUNDATION TYPE

DESIGN COMMENTS

AND LOCATION

....,
If foundation loads are not too

11.

heavy, consider using piles or


Om

piers bearing in the upper zone of

Ground Surface

- - ---------------~--------- - -

~oft

sand layer and check for


settlement. If foundation loads are

Cley - - - - -

heavy, consider driven piles (steel)

12m-

or caissons to rock. Also consider

~:

floating foundation. Nature of rock


is very important. Driving can

induce positive pore presures and


negative skin friction.
- :::sottS:Iay

M!rlr

' j

Rock
For light to
medium heavy loading

' J
For heavy
loading

....,

I
I

'

12.
Foundations should bear directly

Om

ground sn1: __ _

on the rock which is relatively


close to the ground surface. If no
basement areas are needed for the
building consider piers. If

5m

Loose sand
and soft clay

basement areas are useful,

....,
'

I
J

consider full excavation to rock


Rock

and construction of two basement


levels.

'J

..,

' J

' J

I
I

' J

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5. Foundations (6/7)

......

5.3

'

PRESUMED ALLOWABLE BEARING VALUES UNDER STATIC, NONECCENTRIC STATIC LOADING

'

f
I
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Bearing values relate to characteristic loads.


Further values are given in BS8004.
This information is given for preliminary assessment purposes only.

i-

Foundations in non-cohesive soils at a minimum depth of 0.75m below ground level

r ,
Description of soil

N-value in standard

Presumed bearing value

penetration test

(kN/m' or kgf/cm' x 100)


for foundation of width

r ,
1m

2m

4m

>50

600

500

400

Dense sands and gravals

30-50

350-600

300-500

250-400

Medium-dense sands and gravels

10-30

150-350

100-300

100-250

Loose sands and gravals

5-10

50-150

50-100

50-100

L
Very dense sands and gravels
f

'

Ir

'

The allowable bearing pressure is defined as that causing 25mm settlement under the
foundation width.

r ,

'

If the water table is within a depth equal to the width of the foundation and the depth of the
foundation is small in relation to its width, the settlements will be doubled.
If settlements must not exceed 25mm, the allowable bearing values should be halved.
Foundations in conhesive soils at a minimum depth of 1m below ground level

i-

Description

r,

Presumed bearing value (kN/m2 or kgf/cm2 x

(kN/m' or kgf/cm'

100) for foundation of width

Hard boulder clays, hard fissured clays


('

Cohesive strength
100)

1m

2m

4m

>300

800

600

400

150-300

400-800

300-500

150-250

75-150

200-400

150-250

75-125

40-75

100-200

75-100

50-75

20-40

50-100

25-50

Negligible

(e.g. deeper London and Gault clays)


Very stiff boulder clay, very stiff 'blue'
London Clay

r ,

.....

Stiff fissured clays (e.g. stiff 'blue' and

brown London clay), stiff weathered


boulder clay

r ,
Firm normally consolidated clays (at
depth), fluvio-glacial and lake clays, upper
weathered 'brown' London clay

I '

Soft normally consolidated alluvial clays


(e.g. marine, river and estuarine clays)

r ,

r! '

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..,
:
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5. Foundations (7/7)
Chart for estimating allowable bearing pressure for foundations in sands

SPT 'N' values are shown as


belows per 300mm

'

' J

If the water table is within a depth


equal to the width of the foundation
and the depth of the foundation is
small in relation to its width, the
settlements will be doubled.

'

If settlements must not exceed 25mm,


the allowable bearing values should
be halved.

'I
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0

5.4

'"l

1 2
3
4
5
6
Width offoundation B (m)

' J

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
Area offoundation _ __:C:.:..h:.::a::...:ra::.:c:..:.te::.:fi.:..:is:..::tJ:..:..c:.:..lo:..:a::.:d:___
Allowable bearing pressure

5.5

l_

'

\_

_j

'

'

PILED FOUNDATIONS
Working load on pile< 0.25fcu (0.1fcu for continuous flight auger)

Warning: The following relationships apply only to bored cast in place concrete piles in
London clay. For all other piles check with Geotechnics (which should always be done
anyway).

Working bearing capacity of straight shafted piles (

0.5c x perimeter
u

Working bearing capacity of large undero reamed piles (

x base area

9c
) (

u,base

0.35c x perimeter
u

x base area

9c
) (

u,base

f1

f2

For straight sided piles higher capacities may be available by following the guidelines for Site
Investigations and pile tests in the London District Surveyors Association Publication, Guide
Notes for the Design of Straight Shafted Piles in London Clay (1996)

Cu = undrained shear strength of London Clay


Typically diameter of under-ream = 3 x diameter of shaft
Factor of safety:

f1 = f2 = 2.5
or f 1 = 1

f2 = 3

'"""I
I

whichever gives the lower capacity

' J

Minimum spacing of pile shafts= 3 x diameter (ensure under-reams do not encroach)

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6. Water Resistant Basements (1/6)

i......
r ,

6.

WATER RESISTANT BASEMENTS

6.1

RULES OF THUMB
Minimum thickness

L
f

Preferred minimum thickness of walls and slabs: 300mm


Where thicker consider surface zones of 200mm each face for reinforcement to control
shrinkage/thermal cracking.

I
!.....

Reinforcement

r '

Typically for water resistant walls: T16 @ 200 c/c in both faces and in both directions
or T12@ 150 c/c in both faces and in both directions
Standard cover

L
r ,

Assumed concrete grade 35 (This should be a minimum)


Put the horizontal reinforcement furthest from earth face.
r'

Face

Cover (mm)

'

I.-

Earth face of walls where shuttered

50

r ,

Earth face of walls (cast against

75

earth)

I.-

External exposed faces of walls

40

Bottom and sides to base

75

Internal faces

Greater of 25
or bar diameter

r '
!

Waterstops I waterbars

'

I.-

r,

Required by BS 8102 for grade 1 basements with concrete design to BS 8110


Give extra "comfort" at construction joints, otherwise total reliance on workmanship
Not essential but often desirable
Use external waterstop for basements (preferred)
Can use centrestop in vertical construction if necessary (e.g. swimming pool), must be
carefully supported/kept in place.

L
r,

L
:

6.2

ESTABLISH CLIENT'S REQUIREMENTS I EXPECTATIONS


These can vary even for the same type of space. Tables 6.1 and 6.2 (from CIRIA Report
139) will help.

I
i

Establish {for example}: a). Does small amount of leaking {liquid) matter (for people and
contents)?
b). Do stains matter? (aesthetics)
c). What level of (vapour) ingress is acceptable/tolerable (for
people and contents)?
Note. Some of the requirements for a particular performance will not be within our control
{heating, ventilation etc).

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6. Water Resistant Basements (2/6)

6.3

CONSTRUCTION OPTIONS
Structural concrete can prevent ingress of liquid water, except at joints and cracks.
It will not, generally, prevent the passage of moisture vapour.
Steel sheet piling can prevent ingress of liquid water, except at joints.
It will also reduce the passage of moisture vapour. Consider welded sheet piling- low
carbon type.
Construction option
Cut & cover

Sheet piling
Post and panel

Diaphragm wall
&
Secant piles

Contiguous piles

Disadvantages

Advantages

.
...
.
..
.
...

..

Allows easy inclusion of membrane


to the structure

external

Deep basements not easy

Not always sufficient room (e.g.

Enhanced quality of concrete elements

inner city sites)

'

~
I

Continuous construction
I

'

Good finish
Straightness of line of walls
Provides restraint to the ground
Provides restraint to water flow (both
short

and long term)

Can be used as a shutter for the concrete

Provides restraint to the ground


Provides some restraint to water flow
Can build deep basements

Provides restraint to the ground


Cost

.
.
.
.

.
..
..
..
.

Provides restraint to concrete increased risk of cracking


Difficult to install a membrane on
external face of structure

'\
j

Difficult to install a membrane on


external face of structure
Allows water through the joints
(use drained cavity?)

Difficult to get an effective


connection with the slab

'\
I

Poor appearance
Expensive

Little restraint to water flow


Difficult to get an effective
connection with the slab
Difficult to install a membrane
Poor appearance
Expensive

Table 6.2 (from CIRIA report 139) gives examples of types of basement.

6.4

WATERPROOFING OPTIONS (Combined with options of structure)


Tanking (Type A)

Preformed membranes or liquid applied


Can prevent liquid and vapour passage
Best installed by open cut construction
Best installed external to construction (outside face of structural wall)

.....,
:
'

Structurally Integral Protection (Type B)

Reinforced concrete with calculated crack widths to BS8110 Part 2 possible for Type 1
Concrete design to BS8007 required for type 2 and 3
If used, particularly for type 2 and 3 basements, there must be careful consideration of
mix design and the workmanship required as well as a strategy for dealing with leaks.

'\

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,.....,
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6. Water Resistant Basements (3/6)


Drained cavity (Type C)

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6.5

'-"'

CRITICAL POINTS

'I

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6.6

'

Re-entrant corners- keep plan form simple


Penetrations e.g. pipe services (group together), earthing pits
Wall/slab junctions- particularly in non-open excavation
Changes in section/depth e.g. lift pits
Pile/slab junctions
"One column per pile" junctions, e.g. steel columns into top of pile.

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

I '

Provide channels to allow drainage of water


Ventilate cavity externally to reduce vapour and build up of other gases
Ventilate basement to reduce vapour
Automatic pump may be required in sump
Design inner leaf as free-standing or restrained at top by slab
Beware vermin

Need to control the effects of temperature and shrinkage


The fewer, the better
Arrange the sequence of castings to reduce restraint from adjacent pours
Recommended spacing of joints (principally to control workmanship, not cracking):

r '
Construction

Max. area (m? )

Max. dimension (m)

Watertight walls

25

Watertight slabs

100

10

May be reviewed for particular cases


'

6.7

MOVEMENT JOINTS

Rarely necessary below ground level


Potential weak points. Only consider providing them if essential to control movements
e.g. between tower and podium blocks above.

r,
I,_.

r.

6.8

REFERENCES
CIRIA Report 139 Water- resisting basements 1995
CIRIA, Guide 5, Guide to the design of waterproof basements
BS 8007: 1987: Design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids
BS8102: 1990: Protection of structures against water from the ground

'

I
~

BS8110: Part 1: 1997: Structural use of concrete: Code of Practice for design and construction
BS8110: Part 2: 1985: Structural use of concrete: Code of Practice for special circumstances
OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP: Structural Typical details for use in buildings

OVE ARUP & PARTNERS, Reinforcement detailing manual


Notes on Materials 86, 138, 145
Notes on Structures 4, 24, 29

r:
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6. Water Resistant Basements (4/6)


Table 6.1

Guide to level of protection to suit basement use from table 2.1 of CIRIA 139
(The first four columns are from table 1 of BS81 02)

""'"'\

i
Grade of

Basement

basement
Grade 1 (basic
utility)

usage
Car parking;
plant rooms
(excluding
electrical
equipment);
workshops

Performance level

Form of protection

Commentary on Table 1 of 858102: 1990

Some seepage
and damp patches
tolerable

Type B. Reinforced
concrete design in
accordance with
BS8110

Unless there is good ventilation, or local drainage,


visible water may not be acceptable even for the
suggested uses.

Calculated crack widths less than 0.3 mm to BS8110


Part 2

,..,

BS8110: Part 1 contains only limited guidance on


crack control and lacks consideration of early
thermal movement. Using Part 1 may result in the
formation of cracks with widths unacceptable in
permeable ground. There is no guidance on control
of thermal cracking in BS8110.

i
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""'"'\
I
I
I

Groundwater should be checked for chemicals,


which may have a deleterious effect on the structure
or internal finishes.

Grade 2
(better utility)

Grade3
(habitable)

Grade 4
(special)

Workshops
and
Plantrooms
requiring
drier
environment
; retail
storage
areas

Ventilated
residential
and working
areas
including
offices,
restaurants
etc., leisure
centres
Archives
and stores
requiring
controlled
environment

No water
penetration but
moisture vapour
tolerable

Type A
Type B. Reinforced
concrete design in
accordance with
BS8007

The performance level defined in BS8102 for


workshops is unlikely to meet the requirements of
the Building Regulations, approved Document C for
workshops, which are more likely to require a Grade
3 (habitable) environment.
Membranes may be applied in multiple layers with
well-lapped joints.

The performance level assumes no serious defects


in workmanship, although these may be masked in
dry conditions or impermeable ground.
Groundwater should be checked as for Grade 1.

Dry environment

Totally dry
environment

Type A.
Type B. With
reinforced concrete
design to BS8007.
Type C. with wall
and floor cavity and
DPM

Type A.
Type B. With
reinforced concrete
design to BS8007
plus a vapour-proof
membrane.
Type C. With
ventilated wall cavity
and vapour barrier
to inner skin and
floor cavity with
DPM

A high level of supervision of all stages of


construction is necessary.
As Grade 2
In highly permeable ground multi-element systems
(possibly including active precautions) will probably
be necessary.

I
J

As Grade 3

' j

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6. Water Resistant Basements (5/6)

Table 6.2

'

Guidance on the functional environments requirements for basement usage (Table 2.2 of CIRIA 139)

Performance level
Grade of

Relative

basement

humidity

Grade 1 (basic
utility)

>65% normal
UK external
range

'

Grade 2 (better
utility)

i \

'

Grade 3
(habitable)

35-50%

40-60%

55-60%
for a restaurant
in summer

Wetness

Car parks: atmospheric

Visible damp patches


may be acceptable

Minor seepage may be


acceptable

None acceptable

Electrical plantrooms 42C max

No visible damp
patches, construction
materials to contain
less than the air-dry
moisture content

Offices: 21-25C

None acceptable

Residential: 18-22C

Active measures to
control internal
humidity may be
necessary

Workshops: 15- 29C.


Mechanical plantrooms: 32C max,
at ceilina level
Retail storage: 15C max

Restaurants:
18-25C

Kitchens 29C max

r
Grade 4
(special)

50% for art


storage

Art storage: 18-22C

>40% for
microfilms and
tapes

i '

35% for books


I

Dampness

Leisure centres:
18C for spectators
1ooc for squash courts
22C for changing rooms
24-29C for swimming pools

r ,

Temperature

Active measures to
control internal
humidity probably
essential

Book archives: 13-18C

'

(N.B. The limits for a particular basement application should be agreed with the client and defined at the design approval
staae).

L
r ,
I

.......
r .

I1.(

'

I '

i
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1.-

( '
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.._

'

1.

L,

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.1 I January 99

ARUJP

6. Water Resistant Basements (6/6)


Table 6.3

Construction methods and examples of passive precautions available to achieve the required Grade of
internal environment in deep or shall basements. (Table 3.1 of CIRIA 139)

Basement depth and


construction materials

Shallow (assumed no
hydrostatic pressure, i.e.
groundwater level below
basement floor or
drainage provided) likely
to be residential

Target internal environment I examples of construction methods andpassive_m-ecautions


Grade 3*
Grade 4*
Grade2
Grade 1
(special)
(better utility)
(habitable\
(basic utiliM
Complete
Limited environment control
environment control
normally required
possibly adequate
(Low cost, low reliability)
Some water penetration
Acceptable
Grade not usually
acceptable for
residential basements

Masonry, reinforced
masonry, plain or
reinforced (pre-cast or insitu) concrete or steel
sheet piling
Shallow (with permanent
hydrostatic pressure)
Masonry, reinforced
masonry, plain or
reinforced (pre-cast or insitu) concrete or steel
sheet piling

Deep (with permanent


hydrostatic pressure)
Reinforced concrete
including piled or in-site
perimeter wall.

Water penetration
Unacceptable
Masonry or plain
concrete plus
tanking (Type A) or
drained cavity (Type
C) protection

Reinforced concrete
box (Type B)
protection

Masonry, plain or
reinforced concrete box
construction plus tanking
(Type A) or drained
(Type C) protection

Reinforced concrete box


(Type B) protection

Steel sheet piling in


conjunction plus drained
(Type C) protection
Reinforced concrete box
(Type B) protection

Concrete piled wall


possibly requiring
drained cavity (type C)
protection

Masonry, plain or
reinforced concrete
box construction
plus tanking (Type
A) or drained (type
C) protection

(Hiqh cost, hiqh reliability)


Increasing requirements for vapour control
Masonry or plain
concrete plus
tanking (Type A)
protection and/or
Type C protection

Reinforced concrete
box (type B) plus
tanking vapour
barrier (Type A) or
drained (type C)
protection
Masonry or plain
concrete plus
tanking (vapour
barrier, Type A) and
drained (Type C)
protection

If grade required the


methods and
precautions for
shallow basements
with permanent
hydrostatic pressure
should be followed

Reinforced concrete
box (type B) with
tanking (vapour
barrier, Type A), plus
drained (Type C)
protection

1"""'"1
I

Reinforced concrete
box (Type B)
protection

Reinforced concrete
box (Type B)
protection

Concrete piled wall


or reinforced
concrete box (Type
B) plus drained
(Type C) protection

Reinforced concrete
box (Type B) plus
tanking (vapour
barrier, Type A) or
drained (Type C)
protection

Passive precautions
alone are not likely to
be sufficient

Concrete piling or
reinforced concrete
box (Type B) plus an
internal vapour
barrier (Type A) or
drained (Type C)
protection

Concrete piling or
reinforced concrete
box (Type B) plus
tanking (vapour
barrier, Type A) and
drained (Type C)
protection

Passive precautions
alone are not likely
to be sufficient

Achieved only at high


cost

Passive precautions
alone are not likely to
be sufficient
Notes: When tanking is required, external or sandwich tanking systems are recommended for both new and existing basements
where it is possible to use them. Such systems become feasible either by virtue of an existing permanent external surface
(including faced sheet piling) or where working space is created through open excavation. The choice of tanking system also
requires an assessment of the external hydrostatic pressure and its effect on the basement wall design and construction. For
deeper basements, or where excavation is impracticable, internal protection by cavity construction with internal or reverse
tanking may be used. This implies a reduction in usable volume or increased excavation volume. Integral protection must not
be damaged by wall fixings. The costs of available options and associated risks will need to be evaluated. Where significant
quantities of water are likely to accrue in sumps on a regular basis the drainage authority should be approached at an early
stage to request acceptance of the discharge.
*

1"""'"1

The design for Grade 3 or Grade 4 should take account of the contribution of active precautions (heating and
ventilation, etc.) in achieving the required internal environment.

'"'""I

'"'""I

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.1 I January 99

ARUJP

.
I

'

i
i_,

7. Fire (1 /3)

7.

FIRE

7.1

MINIMUM PERIODS OF FIRE RESISTANCE. (UK Practice only)

'

Table A2 from the approved document 8 to Building Regulations (1991). Other British Standards or
Local Acts may set higher standards.

r ,

Purpose group of building


I

Minimum periods (hours) for elements of structure in a:


Basement storey( )

Ground or upper storey

including floor over

'

Depth (m) of a lowest

Height (m) oftop floor above ground, in building or

basement

separating part of building.

more than

not more

not more

not more

not more

more than

10

than 10

than 5

than 20

than 30

30

r ,

1. Residential (domestic):
(a) flats and maisonettes

1Y.

X*

1**

1%**

2**

(b) & (c) dwelling houses

not

%*

Ya*

not relevant

not relevant

relevant
2. Residential:

c '

(a) Institutional(-)

1Y.

%*

1Y.

2#

(b) other residential

1Y.

%*

1Y.

2#

- not sprinklered

1Y.

%*

1Y.

permitted

- sprinklered (2)

%*

%*

2#

- not sprinklered

1Y.

1Y.

permitted

- sprinklered (2)

%*

2#

- not sprinklered

1Y.

1Y.

permitted

- sprinklered (2)

Ya*

2#

- not sprinklered

1Y.

1Y.

permitted

- sprinklered(2)

%*

1Y.

2#

- not sprinklered

1Y.

1Y.

permitted

- sprinklered (2)

1Y.

%*

1Y.

2#

3. Office:

not

4. Shop and commercial:

'

f -,

not

not

5. Assembly and recreation:

not

6. Industrial:

\,...I

'

7. Storage & other non-residential:


not

a. building or part not described above:

b. Car park for light vehicles:

not

not

i) open sided park (3)

applicable

applicable

%*+

%*+

%*+

ii) any other park

1Y.

Ya*

1Y.

2#

The floor over a basement (or if there is more than 1 basement, the floor over the topmost basement) should meet the
provisions for the ground and upper storeys if that period is higher.

* Increased to a minimum of 1 hour for compartment walls separating buildings


Reduced to Y, hour for any floor within a maisonette. but not if the floor contributes to the support of the building
# Reduced to 1Y. hours for elements not forming part of the structural frame

+ Increased to Y, hour for elements protecting the means of escape


I

'

'

Multi-storey hospitals designed in accordance with the NHS Firecode documents should have a minimum 1 hour standard

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUP

'

'

7. Fire (2/3)

7.2

FIRE PROTECTION TO STEEL ELEMENTS (UK Practice only)


Fire resistance
period

Section Hp/A

240

2 hr

220
200
180

'

160
1.5 hr

' j
25\l~bo\---

/:/

140
120

'

'

'

Board systems

1 hr

Note: some systems


require framing
elements: allow
upto 20mm on each
face
Blanket systems:
use board thicknessX 1.5

100
90

80

70
60
Unprotected beam directly
supporting concrete slab

0.5 hr

50

' j

40

Unprotected column
in simple construction

'

'

30
Approximate thickness (mm) of protection for fully loaded steel members based on a range of manufacturers' test
data (Fire protection for structural steel in buildings, ASFPCM, (1988), also see revised 2nd edition (1992))
For the example line given:

HP/ A= 130
Fire resistance period = 1Y:z hours

Line intersects zones:

Board 20 and 25

'

Spray 20 and 25
Solution:

' J

Spray 20mm to 25mm depending on system used


Board 25mm to 30mm depending on system used

r'-1

' j

Blanket 38mm to 45mm depending on system used

7.3

FIRE PROTECTION FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE

'

:,

For cover details, see Section 4.2 Reinforced Concrete

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ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
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Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

' !

'

r,
I

'-"'

7. Fire (3/3)

7.4

r .

See Table 16, BS 5628: Part 3.


A 1OOmm unplastered wall or leaf of a cavity wall will give 2 hour fire resistance in all
materials and loading conditions (sometimes conservatively) except:
Fired-clay bricks/blocks with voids or perforations (75-100% solid- use min. 170mm
thickness);
Hollow concrete blocks with gravel or natural stone aggregate (limestone OK) - min.
200mm thickness with vermiculite-gypsum plaster.

I
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r,

7.5

I
......
(

'

i..-

I
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L..
rI '

f \
I

Period of fire resistance


The Regulations also define specific periods of fire resistance for elements of structure
(although generally no period is required for roofs). This requirement is often satisfied for
walls and floors by applying protective materials to the frame, and these are described in BS
5268: Part 4; Section 4.2.

1....1
'

Alternatively, the fire resistance of the members themselves may be calculated by the method
given in BS 5268: Part 4; Section 4.1, based on charring rates. Timber will ignite when
subjected to temperatures of around 270C, if a pilot flame is present to ignite the gases given
off during the 'cooking' process. The insulation value of the outer charred layer, however,
means that timber which is just a few millimetres inside the burning zone is only warm. Thus
timber burns at a predictable speed, known as the 'charring rate', which, for common
softwoods with a density of about 450kg/m' is defined in section 4.1 as 20mm (or 25mm for
columns), in 30 minutes.

r ,
I

!....
\

I..-

r,

The reduced section (ie. the full section minus the charred zone) is checked for strength and
deflection. Increased stresses are allowed (of the order x2 to x2.25), together with more
generous deflection limits (1/30 span). The charring rates quoted for solid timber may be
applied without modification to glulams made with the conventional adhesives.

i
I
.......

r,

In addition, it is necessary to look at the overall stability of the charred structure, and to protect
any metal (including bolts) which forms part of the structural system, either by ensuring that
the component lies with the residual section, or that it is suitably protected by a fire resistant
cladding or sacrificial timber.

r .
I

7.6
I

(82) Spread of flame


(83- (1)) Period of fire resistance

Spread of flame
The Regulations define spread of flame classes for walls and ceilings for various building
purpose groups and sizes. Spread of flame is determined by tests described in
BS 476: Parts 6 & 7 which allocate materials into classes, related to the extent of travel of a
flame front under standard conditions in a given time. Most timber (>400kg/m') falls into Class
3. A lower class rating can be achieved by impregnation, or by surface treatment. Structural
elements, because of their size, are generally given surface coatings. Many are moisture
sensitive, and can discolour if they get wet.

r .,

FIRE REQUIREMENTS FOR TIMBER (UK Practice only)


The requirement of the Building Regulations with respect to timber fall under two headings:

FIRE PROTECTION FOR MASONRY (UK Practice only)

FURTHER INFORMATION

'

The requirements above relate to standard furnace tests, and assume the member is fully
stressed. If the fire load is small and/or the member is lightly stressed, significant
improvements may be obtained. Contact Arup Fire for more information.
(

w
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THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR

AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.


Ver 3.0 I Aug 98
(

'

.._.
(

ARUIP

I
I

Appendix A- Mathematical formulae (1/5)


I
I

APPENDIX A- MATHEMATICAL FORMULAE


Version 3.1. Jan 99. A.5. corrected equation for trapezium inertia.
Version 3.2. May 2000. A.5. corrected equation for trapezium inertia.
Version 3.3 March 2004. A.5. corrected equation for triangle section modulus.

' J

A.l Trigonometric functions


eix- e-ix
sinx=---

2i
sin(AB)= sinAcosB cosAsinB
tanA tanB
tan (A B) =
1 +tan A tanB
. A

sm

. A+B

A-B

+smB= 2 sm--cos-2
2
A+B
A-B
cos A+ cos B = 2 cos-- cos-2
2
sin A sin B = ![cos(A- B)- cos(A+ B)]

COS X

2
cos(A B)= cos A cosB +sin A sinE

. A
. B
A+B . A-B
sm -sm = 2 cos--sm-2
2
. A+B . A-B
cos A - cosB =- 2sm-- sm-2
2

sin 2 x = ![1- cos2x]


2

,...,
i

' J

'"""':
I
I

cos A cosB = ![cos(A +B)+ cos(A- B)]

'

sin A cos B = ![sin(A +B)+ sin(A- B)]

cos 2 x = ![1 + cos2x]


2
1

' J

cos 3 x =-[3 cosx + cos3x]

sin 3 x =..!_[3 sinx- sin3x]

' j
A.2 Hyperbolic functions
I

ex +e-x

coshx=--2

cosh ix = cos x
sinhix = isinx
2

ex- ex
smhx=--2
cos ix = cosh x

sin ix = i sinh x

cosh x- sinh x = 1
cosh(x y) = coshx cosby sinhx sinhy
sinh (x y) = sinh x cosh y cosh x sinh y
cosh(x iy) = coshx cosy isinhx siny
sinh (x iy) = sinhx cosy icoshx siny

'

'

' )
THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.3 I Mar 04

ARUJP

'

'

Appendix A - Mathematical formulae (2/5)

A.3 Standard indefinite integral

'

I ,

Integrand

Integral

Integrand

Integral

sin x

-cos x

sinh x

cosh x

COS X

sin x

cosh x

sinh x

tan x

-In (cosx)

tanhx

In (coshx)

cosecx

In(tan xI 2)

cosechx

secx

In (tanx + secx)

sechx

In (tanhx I 2)
2 tan- 1(ex)

cotx

In (sinx)

cothx

In (sinhx)

'

sec x

tanx

sech x

tanhx

tanx secx

secx

tanhx sechx

-sechx

cotx cosecx

-cosecx

coth x cosech x

-cosechx

sin- 1 (~)

~a2 -x2

or

X)
-cos -1( ~

!,_.,

~x2 + a2

'

~x2- a2

h-1( -X)
sm
a

or

2
ln(x + ~ x + a 2 )

cosh-1 (~)

or

1n(x+~x 2 -a 2)

r .
1

~tan

x 2 +a 2
'

'!

-1(~
X)

A.4 Standard substitutions for integration


If the integrand is a function of :
Substitute:

(a2 -x2)

or

~a2 -x2

x=asinO

or

x =a cosO

(a2 + x2)

or

~a2 +x2

x=atanO

or

x= a sinh(;}

(x2 - a2)

or

~x2 -a2

x=asecO

or

x =a cosh(;}

or of the form:

{(ax+b}~t
(

'

px+q=u 2

{(ax+b)~px 2 +qx+rr

ax+b=u

or a rational function of:

r .

sin x and I or cos x

.
2t
whence sm x = - 1 + !2

t =tan2
1- !2
cosx=--2
1+ t

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
( '

Ver 3.3 I Mar 04

ARUJP

,_,
I

'

Appendix A- Mathematical formulae (3/5)

A.5 Geometric properties of plane sections


section

Area

'"'"i
!

Position of
centroid

Moments of inertia

)..

"r~:-,
~
I

Xt-.
I

zxx

=hb /48

base= bh 2 112

apex= bh 2 /24

/xx=bh /36
h
e =x
3

A= bh
2

lyy

/aa=bh /4

f--b-JTLI

Section Moduli

=bh 112

/bb

:1...

= hb 2 124

zyy

' J

\ J

~
1.

'

'

'

/xx=bd /12
h

A=bd

I yy =db !12

Zxx =bd /6

e =-

Zyy

=db /6

=bd 13

/bb

d--'

x~x
:a~
j,..

oxls

A=bd

z,, =

6J

b2d2
b2 + d2

On di0!/0110/

I,,=

A=bd

bsin(} + d cos(}
2

bd(b 2 sin 2 (} + d 2 cos 2 (})


12
6(bsin (} + d cos(})

fxx =fyy

=s 4 /12

Ihh

=s4 /3

Ivv

= s 4 112
'
3

A= d(a+b)
2

XX

d(2a+b)
e, 1 = 3(a+b)

=d (a +4ab+b
36(a+b)
2

bd 3
I=xx
48

d
e =-

e,

= 0.866s
d
2

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Ver 3.3 I Mar 04

I,,

z =~
dXX

eX

''

2/

-~v

XX

= ---'2:..
b
'

'

'

bd 2
=24
2

db
48

I=-

zyy =db24-

= Iv_v = Ivv

z,, = 0.1203d3
zxv = zvv

J:v

A= 0.866d 2

(two values)
2

d(a +a b+ab +b
48

I YY =
3

A= bd
2

I
)

= 0.060Id 4

= 0.1042d 3

ARUIP

Appendix A - Mathematical formulae (4/5)

Geometric properties of plane sections (cont.)

r ,

Section

t)

r'
i

Moments of inertia

v~
'~ev

Position of
centroid

Area

T'

A= 0.8284d 2

X-'tl

1 :'.

= 0.4142d

ex

=l

zxx = zyy

I"'= IYY =Ivy


= 0.0547d

ev = 0.541d

Section Moduli

= 0.1095d3

Zvv = 0.10lld

;.s.o~\

:... v

l....J

'1.

n sirle:s

r '

A= ns' cotB

e =ror R

/1 =I,

A=nr tanB

depending on

A(6R' -s 2 )

A= nR'sin2B

the axis and


=

A(12r + s

4
2

\ ''t.

24

value of n

Regultlf' liguf'e

A= ;rr 2
A= 0.7854d

48

7r d4
1=-64

d
e =r=2

7r d3
Z=-32
Z = 0.7854r 3

I= 0.7854r 4

r,
!

z"

(1)

u
.!:=

'-

A= 1.5708r

ex= 0.424r

r'(Jt8

Z180o -sine

(1)
l

crown= O.I907r 3

I" = ~(Jteo
-sinze)
16 90

A=

8
b.()

I yy = 0.3927r 4

Zw = 0.3927r 3

11

l....i

base= 0.2587r 3

if.)

r .
I

ex =eo- rcos2

if.)

zxx
base= Ixx I e1

20r 4 (1- cos B)'


Jt8-180sin8
I,. =

crown=~

t_r~~:J
48 8sinB+sin2B

b-e1

z = 2Ivy
vv

'

eo 2
A=--7rr
360

e =-rx
3 a

r 2c
e =x
3A

'

2 c

I
l....

I
.u

360
B 4r
=l ---sin 2 - 87t
2 9
0

=.C("
r'("(}

I
yy

8 180

A= 7rr
4

1
x:r:
e,

crown=~
r-e.t

! 0 = - -+sin()
8 180

I xx =IYY = 0.0549r
r '

centre=

-sineJ

z,,,

!XX = 0.1098r 4

ex= 0.424r

ev = 0.6r
e, = 0.707r

Ihh

= 0.1963r

Minimum Values

zxx = zyy = 0.0953r

Z,, = 0.1 009r

I,, = 0.0714r 4

Zw = 0.064r 3

Ivy = 0.0384r 4

r '
A= 0.2146r 2

r ,
:1.. I
(

Y'tJ

ex= 0.777r
ev = l.098r
e, = 0.707r
e" = 0.316r
eh = 0.391r

!,, = 0.012r 4
Ivy= 0.003Ir 4

Minimum Values
Zxx

= z,. = 0.0097r 3

Z,, =0.017r 3

Zw = 0.0079r 3

.......
r

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ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

r ,

Ver 3.3 I Mar 04

I xx =IYJ' = 0.0076r

ARUIP

< z
)>Q-i
zi

co

...,
~

w
-..

s::

.,
o
-""

Dl

cn-<o
I:!Eo
o-()
c:i!c
-~
ozm
Z-iz
QI -i
-imCJOcn
m<C1
;umo
m)>"U

1 kg
1 tonne

= 0.4536 kg
= 1.016 tonne

lib
1 ton

= 2.205lb
= 0.9842 ton

Length
lmm
lm
lm
Area
1 mm2
1m2
1m2
Volume

c;:g;t;

~-uG)
c-ui
-u)>-i
o::U)>
z-iz
CJ!fio
-<;u(ii
)>cn-u
z~c
-<-uCJ
-i:....C
I-icn
;;J(iiffi
0 zo
-uo,.,
)>-iO
;u_;u

= 25.40 mm
= 0.3048 m
= 0.9144 m

1 in
1 ft
1 yd

= 0.03937 in
= 3.281 ft
= 1.094 yd

= 645.2 mm2
= 0.09290m2
= 0.8361 m 2

1 in2
1 ft 2
1 yd2

= 0.00155 in2
= 10.76 ~
2
= 1.196 yd

= 16390mm3
= 0.02832 m3
= 0.7646m 3

1 in3
1 ft 3
1 yd3

Density
3

1 kg/m
1 tonne/m3

= 0.06242 lb/ft
= 0.7524 ton/yd3

1 lb/ft
1 ton/yd3

= 16.02 kg/m
= 1.329 tonne/m3

>

1 N/mnl
1 N/m2
1 kgf/m2
1 N/m2
2
1 kN/m
1 N/mm2

1 N/m
1 kgf/m
1 kN/m
1 kN/m

llbf/in
1 kgf/m2
1 lbf/ft2
1 lbf/ft2
1 tonf/ft2
1 tonf/in2

==
<

= 0.006895 N/mm
= 9.807N/m2
= 4.882 kgf/m2
=47.88 N/m 2
2
= 107.3 kN/m
2
= 15.44 N/mm

Q
~
'"I ~
.... '"I

"CC

-....

= 0.102 kgf
= 0.2248lbf
= 0.1004 tonf

1 kgf
llbf
1 tonf

"'Q

~
.....
'"I

f)

~=~
f)
f)

=
<
Q

1 kgf/m
1 lbf/ft
1 lbf/ft
1 tonf/ft

= 0.102 kgf/m
= 0.6720 lbf/ft
= 68.53 lbf/ft
= 0.03059 tonf/ft

...."'
'"I

;'
f)
.....
Q

'"I

"'

lNm
1 kgf.m
lNm
lNm
lkNm

1 kgf.m
llbf.in
llbf.in
1 lbf.in
1 tonf.in

= 0.102 kgf.m
= 86.80 lbf.in
= 8.85llbf.in
= 0.7376lbf.ft
= 3.951 tonf.in

=9.807Nm
= 0.01152 kgf.m
= 0.1130Nm
= 1.356 Nm
= 0.2531 kNm

"C
"C

(I)

:s
a.

Modulus of Elasticity

1 mm

)("

= 145.00 lbf/in

llbf/in

= 6.895

10- N/mm

s:
Ill

:T
(I)

= 61.01

10- in

1 in

= 16390 mm

Ill

(;"

!!!..

Second Moment of Area


1 mm4

= 2.403

1m
. 4

10-6 in4

0'
..,

=416200mm4

s:::

iii
(I)

-~

_]

=-~J

Q
'"I
"'

= 9.807N/m
= 1.488 kgf/m
= 0.0146 kN/m
= 32.69 kN/m

Section Modulus

= 9.807N
=4.448 N
= 9.964 kN

.........

Moment

1 N/mm2

Force
IN
IN
1 kN

'"'"t""l

= 145.0 lbf/in2
= 0.102 kgf!d
= 0.2048lbf/ff
= 0.02089 lbf/ft2
= 0.009324 tonf/ft2
= 0.06475 tonf/in2

Strip Loading

= 0.000061 in3
= 35.32
= 1.308 yd3

1 mm3
1m3
1m3

.~~0
mzen
o-i
m;:Q
oCJ
,.,c
o::!
;uO
z

?>

0\

Stress

Mass

Or-(j)

-9

- _]

---- J

=--

~}

_]

:_J

___ ]

-J

r ,
I'

!....<

r ,
Appendix B- Analysis formulae (1/8)

APPENDIX B-ANALYSIS FORMULAE

'

B.1 Elastic bending formulae


I

'

Bending about a principle axis:

I
1..,.1

-=-=EK

1
R

1
R0

K=---

In general, bending moment is section modulus Z times maximum bending stress.


Longitudinal shear force S on material of area A, , due to transverse shear force F on the
beam.

r ,
I

1I

curvature-change

'

S = F f dA = F As y
I JA/
I

per unit length of beam.

I ,

L
B.2 Elastic torsion formulae

r ,
I
i

'-'

Round shafts:

r ,

i
I

T __ Gd.
'f/

where ~ is the angle of twist per unit length


and J

I.....

7r

'

T __
-

= Jr 2 dA

R4

Circular area, radius R: J = - -

'-'

Thin circular tube, radius R thickness t:


(

is the polar moment of area.

J = 2 1r R 3 t

'

Thin walled tube of arbitrary cross-section:


r '\
\

l_;

where Ae is the enclosed area to mid thickness, t is


the wall thickness. and s is the distance round the
permiter.

'

r ,

'

!....<

I
I

'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 I Dec 04

ARUlP

'
'

'

'

Appendix 8- Analysis formulae (2/8)

B.3 Taut wires, cables or chains


Uniformly loaded cables with horizontal chords

s = span length
f= cable sag
n = f/s = sag ratio
L = length of cable curve
Ms = cable elongation due to axial stress
M, = cable elongation due to
temperature change, t
A = area of cable
E = modulus of elasticity of cable
e= thermal coefficient of linear expansion
t = temperature change in F
p = load per unit length
a. y = : { (sx- x

Uniformly loaded cables


with inclined chords

Hs(3sec
e. ,1Ls =
..t

f.&,

:n

sec(}
)

AE +

d. L=s(l+%n'-

32 4
n + ... )
5

e. L\L,

~ ;;(l+~n')

f. L\L,

=EIL~Ets(l+%n')

a.y=.f

~&t{1+-3s-8e:-:-(}}ecB

'

'

'

'

'

I-s;,')
2

b.H = ps /24/

V~illi.I.!:...:;:=--D!II[WWIWiv~Tmo~Tm~ =(JI+I836n'

HTrs;:

1 2
1
1 -3s-ec2-(} sec(}

' j

c. Tmax =HJI+16n

-....~ ....n!II!II!!!!P

L~s( 1+~

~ (sx-x')

s-

b.H=S.f

/Tmax

Triangular loading on cables


with horizontal chords

1+(~+ 4nr

ps2

ff[!Jr

'

b.H= ps 1~8f_ _ _.,.

d:

'!iiliiiiii"milii""iiii"""m"m"l'v-
I

c.Tmax =H

a. y=

)
E7i~~H d.L=s 1+-(S n -18n) +...
e. L\L, ~ ; ; I+ 3: n'
s
.f.L\L, ~&IS(!+ 158n')
/

Hh ps
g.VR =--_;-+]

1""'1

I
I

'

'

* Exact expression for L:


B.4 Vibration
!

Typically

for most structures

JY

Where: f is in cycles per second


y is the static deflection in mm

Simply supported
Mass concentrated in centre

Simply Supported
Mass and stiffness distributed

!=~

Cantilever
Mass concentrated at end

Cantilever
Mass and stiffness distributed

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 I Dec 04

= 15.8

' j

JY

JY

f-

'

l
I

15.8

-JY

f-

19.7

-JY

"'i

ARUJP

\ J

r ,

Appendix B- Analysis formulae (3/8)

B.5 Design formulae for beams- cantilever


!

'

CANTILEVER

UNIFORM LOAD
ON PART OF SPAN

A~

a,~0
b C e :

t::::::.:~~~:=:.~~

'

R ~r:

'

Span

Uniform Load

Uniform Load

RA

RA

lllllllililllllll'tl!nnnnn..

c = 10 = 6~1 13a'+3ab+b'l
6o = .: !S.'+18a 1 b+12ab1 +3b3 +4c:(3a'+3ab+b1ll
2 1
I

= -w(a+~)

MA

SPECIAL CASE: UNIFORM


LOAD ON FULL SPAN
b

w
w

=
=-!!!h
2

MA

WL'

io

iET

6o

iEf

WL'

'

CANTILEVER

TRIANGULAR LOAD
ON PART OF SPAN

A~:a
...----- ___ ____
_..

Span

b _..,.:c

Soln

TFtangular Load

'

"A r---.
I.._.W!!!!l.!.!:!!!!!IIIWIIIIIIII------i
'

= w

........ ---------

SPECIAL CASE: TRIANGULAR


LOAD ON FULL SPAN

Triaf111ular Load =

w
w

RA

RA

MA

=-~a

MA

=-~L

&c:

=15EI
wa {L!!)
4

6c

'
r
I
I

'

'C

Wa'

WL'

ic

= 12EI

WL'

i5Ei
ffii

! '

POINT LOAD
AT ANY POSITION

CANTILEVER

'

!_.

w
A

~;-------.:.---..,
a
I,

r-------------;

AA

=L

Span

C
1

=w

Po1nt Load

r-~mmmm1mmm1mmnm1
I

SPECIAL CASE: POINT LOAD


AT FREE END

Point Load

w
w

=w

=-Wa

=-WL

WL
=m

r '

SpanL=a

18

..

ic

Wa~

=m

ic

WL~

=rer

r '

......
i

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 I Dec 04

\'
\

ARUJP

_,
l

' J

Appendix B- Analysis formulae (4/8)

_,
I

B.6 Design formulae for beams - fixed both ends


UNIFORM LOAD ON FULL SPAN

BEAM FIXED AT BOTH ENOS

Span
"
Total Uniform Load =

~#1&Af?u1f1!uia

---,

\.

~
WL'

3iiEi

,_t

E"'4UIJII

WL

- - ..
~---:~Me

r:

'

=-~~

==

A.(-~c
:
'liC
~_,Ao
.... ...
ML .Ill"
1111llP'o

w
2

r-------------

Me

at X
from A

=-

J'!..{L'-6LX+6X'I
12L

2iffill-XI

wx

' J

....!!!...tL'-3LX+2X 11
12EIL

at 0211l from eother end Mo = Me = 0

POINT LOAD AT MID-SPAN

Span
Poon1 Load

RA

' J

w
w
= 2

Rg

MA

I
i

BEAM FIXED AT BOTH ENDS

=- ~L

Me

A.

WL

= 8

at modSPan (Me
6rna

-: l'CIIIill!lli!i!!iilllllllll ~ :A 8

~.----~-r
,,.,.
' ;Me
M ~- ~0
.
E'""ij. M

~f4X -Ll

8
WX'
4iEJf3L-4XI

A.

t. -

- .l

' )

wx
= ffifl-2Xl

'X

r-il!lllll!!lll!llllllllll\

I.----

WL'
= i92ei
':

at X from A
between
llx
A&C

'

at 0 25L from en her end Mo

= Me = 0
I

' j

BEAM FIXED AT BOTH ENOS

POINT LOAD AT ANY POSITION


Span
Poont Load
R _ Wb'IL 2al
At:

,.. --X

M. 1

-lllillliJii""

t.~

:Ra

_ Wa'IL2bl
8L

Wa'b
Mg=-7

at C. under load. Me ::.

.1

~-J'M

between
AlrC

When a :> b the muimum deflectoon os at X =

W.a,' Wb 1L 2aiX
=-v
I?

llx

2 La
l+ 2a

&....,.=

' j

Mx
111 X from A

'I

2Wa'b'

~--t
1
~
Me

_j

w
R

Wab'
MA=-Ll

-,
,

Wb1 X'(3La-ll 2a1XI


6EJL'
Wb 1 X(2La-IL 2a1XI
2EJL'
2Wa'b'
3EICL+2al 1

' j

1i
'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 I Dec 04

ARUIP

I
I

'

'

I
I....
I

'

Appendix B- Analysis formulae (5/8)

B.7 Design formulae for beams- simply supported

'

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

r ,
~

:--- ..!.
A'

--r.. w

= l.

Span
Point Load

L-.,

POINT I.OAD AT MID-SPAN

=W
w

=2

18

------------

r ,

'

R [

Wt.

~ Jillllllllllllllllllllll~
:

=4

:_

_111111111111111111111111_

1 wt.'
= 4i'il

j RB

~---------~-~

'A

~UIUIIII!IIIIniiii~M"u
o .1

Mx

ox

= 4~;J IlL' -4X'I

ix

= ,;: 1 IL'-4X'I

at X from A

bet-en
A Be centre

WL'

1iii

rI '

!
1..-1

POINT LOAD AT ANY POSITION

r .

Span
Point Load

=L

=w

RA:~

Ra

r ,

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

A ...

=~
L

+
L C
+B
-----------....

=~

L
Wa'b'

at C
under load

'

Wab
'A"' &Eit(L+bl;
1

!
\.._,

....

'-

W b W a
r-----r---T---~

A!

._ ___ --~I

r ,

.J

IS 81

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

'"I

--X -

-~.--f
Mtt~ax

a ('"'ax

Wh6en > b
max
X fro"' A

A [_ -.~l!ili!ll!ii!l!ii!i!i!li!i!i!i!-,

= 'Jei"L

I
,_.

a
W b
------r--~

Ra[JilDJI

---- _.,iB
I

TWO EQUAL SYMMETRICAl. POINT lOADS

Two Point Loads. each


R~~o
= Rg
Mmaa owr length II
b..,8 at mrdSDan
A under tl!ther load

I....

r .

=L
=W

=W

= Wa
a ~= 1 13L'-4a'J
2
Wa'
= iii
13L-4al

'A

Wa
= ffiiL-al

If a ,. b

=j. 6ma,.

_ 23 WL3

- iiiii'Er

1..-1

r ,

L
r ,
I

I....

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 I Dec 04

ARUIP

""""

Appendix B- Analysis formulae (6/8)

'

[B.7 Design formulae for beams- simply supported (cont..)]

Span
Total Uniform Load

UNIFORM LOAD ON FULL SPAN

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

'

=W
:!!

M,ax = ~l
at md-span

:.... ~-

'

....,

Wl>

&max

= 384e.

Wl
= 24ii

Mx

=~!L-XI

~x

= 24EIL
.J!lL IX'-2X'L+L'I

'A

.L

at X from A

2L

...1L.t4X'-6X'L+L'l
24EIL

-,
I
I

'
SIMPlY SUPPORTED BEAM

UNIFORM LOAO ON PART OF SPAN


:: L

Total Unotorm Load


Let r

... ~---- _b- I

=W
=-

-r--

Q-Sb+c

0
$
,. - - - - - -1.- - - - - - .,

AA.r~
~

= Wrla+OSrbl

'A.: :el IL -c'-Lbrl;


1

&

....,
i

X-

Ra = WU-rl
at X=- aorb Mmax

i
c ......

Wff:ff1/!J4

..

.)

'

.... --- -...


1

a "W~~~riiL'-'-Lbll-rll

"44llDddlliill. ] As

a ... rb

'I
I
'

Equauon to elasttc 1tn11 betWGI!n C and D . e. a"' X.;; a tb

6 :.. ...!!.. {x' -41a+rblX' +6a 1 X1 41rb{L'-c'-cb- ~)


" 24Eib
2

-~ J X +a' J
' J

' J

TRIANGULAR LOAD ON FULL SPAN

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

,..----------..,
W
'
I

Al~ia
.. ----L-'

AA l .
t -

JJDnnrrrn,.,
'

~---

Span
Total Load

RA

Ra

=~

Mmax

=~L

'A

WL3

( 6max

= 66Ei

SWl'
=-96EI

Mx

= ~ 13L' -4X'I

at X from A
betWIIIIn
&x
A & centr11 (

ix

Ver 3.2 I Dec 04

lJ
I

_!!L ft6X' -40X't:' +25L'I

480EIL 2

=96EIL:
_!!__ 116X' -24X' C s.: I

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

6L""

....,
I

=W

atmd-span

'"'4UIIIUliiDII".aRe
1

=L

ARUJP

'

'""''

\J

I .
Appendix B- Analysis formulae (7/8)

B .8 Design formulae for beams - propped cantilever

r .

PROPPED CANTILEVER

UNIFORM LOAD ON FULL SPAN


Span
Total Uniform Load

r ,

r '

RA=Iw

Ra

at A

Mmax

at

1w
8
WL
=-8

~L. from A

9
i2ijWL

iiSEi

at 8

4iEI

WL'

'8

'

WL'

at 05785L. from A 6ma><

=- ~IL'-5LX+4X'I
8L

at X

WX' (3L'-5LX+2X'I
48EIL

from A

~16L'-15LX+8X 2 1

at tL from A, Me= o

r ,

48EIL.

\_,

'

POINT LOAD AT MIDSPAN

Span

Point Load
(

RA=

llw
16

at A

Fla

=
=
=

PROPPED CANTILEVER

w
5

i6w

3
Mmax =- i6WL.

32WL

at m!CIspan
under load

7WL

768EI
WL.3

at 05528L from A. ~>mao

iOffi

at B

ffii

'

WL 1

'8

at

~ l from A. M = 0

'

"-'
POINT LOAD AT ANY POSITION

PROPPED CANTILEVER
I
I

'

\__,

Span

Point Load

Wbl3L 1 -b 1 1

RA::.
r '

2L'

__ WabCL+bl

2L'

A-

Wa'I2L.+bl
2L'
_ Wa'bi2L+bl
Mc2L'

Rs

Wa'b

'B "'
(

'

4ii'L

AbSolute max deflection


is under the load

when a~

b../2 = 05858L
When a>b../2

\__,

max defler;toon is between


AandC

I '

'

iL.

at n

L+b
= eLlL'-bl
from A,

=0

When a<b../2
max deflection iS bet-n
CandB

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

r :

Ver 3.2 I Dec 04

WL'

lomax max ::.

i02Ei'

Wa'b

Cl+bl'

hmax

= 3Ef'I3L'-b'l'

6ma"

Wa'b ~
6EI

11/n+b

ARUJP

Appendix 8- Analysis formulae (8/8}

[B.8 Design formulae for beams- propped cantilever (cont..)]


MOMENT APPLIED AT ANY POINT

PROPPED CANTILEVER
a
................

Span

t. ..... /!~... ;8
~------

A
R.

f ~ v::::::~: ::!mm:mln!lltii!''"'

'

::

M2

.@ a:o42265 t .. .. .. .. : -m
a
, -- ...
- - -b - - - . ., . . r

a =4;~L 12b-al

=m

"""'

-!!!.(a
.. la'b+b')
L'
2

M,

!!:!!!2/b+

M,

= -042265 m

M,

1.'

f!t?::::::,.... .....

Applied Moment

m+MA
FIA = -Ra =- 31L'-b'l
-n'"" m = - - L -

R. ,

~M,

L'-3b'

""'2C'm

M,

M A' 0 :

I
I

\1

!)
=m+M '
2

\ j

057735 m

'!
I
l

;'l
UNIFORM LOAO ON LENGTH BEYOND PROP
Span

=L

Uniform Load

=- W

Ra

:;

Full Length

= ~(s-!)

Ra

.1.
3

Slape at C

........

"'"'"!
I

'

M"f: l:>,

WL'a

6
neg

=- 54EI

'C

Span

=L
Pornt Load W

A~~-----L----a~lP,
. --.. . --s -.. --:---.~fC
. -:

,. ................................... ..
X
:
~-JDDI!I""'
'
.R,
: ~ :~rrnm@ii!U:i!ltil!i@liii!!!:.:::;.... 1
I

~~

Full Length =

MAf::prr.r.,.: . . . ,
}..

at X

,M 8

~----

= ~ from

A, M

=0

rMs

'!
I
I

RA=-~
2L

Wa

= -wa

Oeflectron at C

= ~fs.!)

MaK. Negative Oeflectron }


at X :. ~ L
hneg

= -2ffi

SlOPe at C

4EI \'

'

: ~ :~IIIIIIW-fUV

.....

:,.. } . .;~.--1
at X .. ~from A. M =0
I

POINT LOAD AT FREE END

'

\.

PROPPED CANTILEVER

..

------------X

BET

Max. Negative Oeflectron}

A4

Wa'S

Dellectron at C

=-T

~c=J
B
a :C

~-----------

Wa

Wa

at X=

S
A;."l

-~
4L

I
' J

PROPPED CANTILEVER

WL'a

Wa IS+el

ffi

l
~

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.2 I Dec 04

ARUIP

lJ
l

\. .J

I '

'

Appendix C- Useful Design Data (1/12)

APPENDIX C- USEFUL DESIGN DATA

r .
!

L
r

C.l Road transport limitations (simplified) (in the UK)


'

I
I

'-'

Upto 2.9m

Upto 18.3m

r
L

Movements ofloads within these


parameters do not require Police
notification etc.

Up to
4.975m

rI '
i

I...
r ,

L
r!

L
2.9m to5.0m

18.3m to 27.4m

r.

Movements ofloads within these parameters


require notification of all Police forces at least 2
clear days in advance.

'--'

00
r ,
I

L
r )

L
r

Greater than 27.4m

Greater than5.0m

Movements ofloads exceeding these parameters requires


special pennits from the DoT, normally needing 8 weeks
prior notice; additional plans and drawings of routing may
be requested

00

I....

I '

L
r

L
THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

r '

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

I
I

Appendix C- Useful Design Data (2/12)

>-i
I

C.2 Craneage data - double girder

....,,
j

Double gifr/erpend11111 conllOJied cranes tor kNiding class 021o BS

446-

BS 2573: PBII 11 11

I
I

Capacity
tonnes

10

25

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Span

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

920
920
920
920
920
920
950
950
950
950

1250
1250
1278
1280
1375
1375
1535
1715
1715
1865
1650
1650
1650
1800
1800
1950
1950
2100
2100
2125

1225
1225
1255
1255
1325
1325
1485
1665
1665
1815
1540
1540
1540
1690
1690
1840
1840
1990
1990
2035

metres
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26

1650

Crab
wt.
tonnes

~
2500

'25oo
970

1150

200

220
220
220
220
220
220
220
220
235
235

430

500
500
500
500
500
500
500
520
600
600

9700

~
~
3700

1.70

: 3700
I 3700
4300
4300
4300

8000

~
4300
43oO
43oO
4300

~
~
4900

49oo

4.00

Crane
wt.
tonnes
5.18
5.84
7.98
8.82
10.68
11.60
11.11
12.67
13.65
15.17
11.40
11.97
13.14
14.36
15.22
18.83
20.03
22.54
24.53
27.78

Wheel
load
tonnes
6.19
6.47
6.98
7.26
7.77
8.04
7.91
8.30
8.61
8.99
14.90
15.04
15.62
16.13
16.49
17.52
17.92
18.64
19.20
20.08

Dimension B is based upon construction where end carriages are built into bridges member for
maximum rigidity and compact headroom dimension. Alternative end constructions can be
provided to either increase or reduce dimension B to suit existing building condition
The height oflift, H or hook path dimension, is based upon a standard crab unit. Alternative
crabs are available in ail capacities for extended heights oflift.
Crane weights include the crab.
Weights of crane and crab are with unloaded hooks.
Wheel loads are for static conditions with maximum working load and minimum crab
approach.
Above information is approximate only and is intended for guidance. Exact information should
be obtained from manufactures' publication.

I
' J

'I

....,
THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

'

I
I!

r ,
I

I....

rI '

Appendix C- Useful Design Data (3/12)

L..
C.3 Craneage data- double hoist

r,

,.
I

r ,

CD

c.

t.:l

>-

I
L...

CD

Cl

CD

"'

'tJ
~

.J

rI '
i

1....

r ,
i
I

I.,...

<

r ,

c:

ru

C/J

r ,

..

CD

C>

r '

L
r ,

......
'

'

r '

L
'

Capacity
tonnes

A
m

B
mm

10
12.5
16
20
25
32

330
330
330
340
340
340

2.6
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.7
2.7

D
m

E
m

F
m

G
m

H
m

K
m

L
m

0.6

0.8
1.0
1.1
1.3
1.4
1.6

4.3
4.6
4.7
4.9
5.0
5.2

5.5
5.8
5.9
6.1
6.2
6.4

M
M

'

'L
50/10

1.
2.
3.
''

'

4.

1.5

2.0

16

1.1

Crab

Crane

wt.

wt.

tonnes

tonnes

Wheel
load
tonnes

21.0
35.0
30.0
35.0
41.0
50.0

30.0
32.0
34.2
37.0
40.0
43.0

20

Wheels
in end
carriage

Crane weights include the weight of the crab.


Weights of crane and crab are with unloaded hooks.
Wheel loads are for static conditions with maximum working load and minimum crab
approach.
Above information is approximate only and is intended for guidance. Exact information should
be obtained from manufactures' publication.

' .

'
'

! :

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUIP

I
' J
Appendix C- Useful Design Data (4/12)

' J

C.4 Standard rail sections

i
Dimension mm
Head
Base
Height
Section
width
width
c
B
A
13 bridge
13.31
36.0
92
47.5
108
54.0
44.5
16 bridge
15.97
19.86
50.0
127
55.5
20 bridge
28 bridg_e
28.62
50.0
152
67.0
76.0
35 bridge
35.38
58.0
160
50.18
58.5
165
76.0
50 bridge
56 bridge
55.91
76.0
171
102.0
89 crane
88.93
102.0
178
114.0
100.38
100.0
101 crane
165
155.0
164 crane
165.92
140.0
230
150.0
For A, Band C see figure below
Mass/
unit length
Kg/m

Area
cm

Iyy

Ixx
4

mm

cm

21.5
24.3
25.8
28.9
34.4
29.3
43.8
53.3
73.9
67.7

39.01
64.01
82.10
167.45
265.67
325.83
794.38
1493.04
3410.78
4776.95

Zxx

Zyy

cm 3

cm

cm

74.38
116.34
192.76
371.37
505.23
719.67
685.90
1415.91
1266.34
5121.70

14.70
21.55
27.66
44.05
63.79
69.81
141.24
245.91
420.47
580.59

16.17
21.54
30.36
48.86
63.15
87.23
80.67
159.09
153.50
445.37

Maximum lengths for individual


Bridge and crane rail sections
Section
Length (m)
13 bridge
9.144
16 bridge
9.144
20 bridge
9.144
28 bridge
15.000
35 bridge
15.000
50 bridge
15.000
56 bridge
15.000
89 crane
15.000
101 crane
12.192
164 crane
9.144

Rail dimensions

AJRL.Jnl~~J"L
56 kg/m
Crane rail

89 kg/m
Crane rail

20 kg/m
Bridge rail

101 kg/m
Crane rail

'

'j
' J

....,

y
B

16 kg/m
Bridge rail

16.95
20.34
25.30
36.46
45.06
63.92
71.22
113.29
127.88
211.37

13 kg/m
Bridge rail

28 kg/m
Bridge rail

35 kg/m
Bridge rail

50 kg/m
Bridge rail

164 kgtm
Crane rail

Profiles of bridge and crane rails

i
i

'

'

I
J

....,
I

'

'

l
'

_,
I
I

'J

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

r '
I

I.....

r ,
I

Appendix C- Useful Design Data (5/12)

'
,_.

r ,

C.5 Typical bend radii- rolled sections

Typical recommended bend radii


Typical possible bend radii
X-X Axis
Y-Y Axis
(metres)
(meters)

Serial size

L
533 X 210 X 122 UB
406x 178x74UB
305 X 165 X 54 UB
254 X 146 X 43 UB
203 X 133 X 30 UB
178x 102x 19UB
152x89x16UB
127 X 76 X 13 UB

25
18
7
5
4
4
2.5
2

2.5
2.25
2
1.75
1.5
1.25
1
1

254 X 203 X 81.85 RSJ


203 X 152 X 52.09 RSJ
152 X 127 X 37.20 RSJ

4
2.5
1.5

2.25
1.75
1.5

305 X 305 X 283 UC


254 X 254 X 167 UC
203 X 203 X 86 UC
152 X 127 X 37 UC

6
4.5
3
2

3.5
3
2.25
1.75

250 X 250 X 16 SHS


200 X 200 X 12.5 SHS
200 X 100 X 10 RHS
150 X 100 X 10 RHS
120 X 80 X 10 RHS

10
7
4
2.5
2

10
7
6
4
3

219.1 X 12.5 CHS


168.3 x 10 CHS
114.3 x 6.3 CHS
60.3 x 5 CHS

3
1.5
1.25
0.75

3
1.5
1.25
0.75

r,

L
f

'

r,

r.

. .

r ,
I......

C.6 Safe load for 25 tonne capacity mobile crane


Main boom capacities (tonncs)- through full360 circle slew- with outriggers fully

extended

,,'
'

load curve tor each

/ ~

~~CII;-----

1
'

I
1000

copocily
(lonnos)

Boom length

r '
!
I.....

..

The examples shown are not the mm1mum radu possible

given jib lenqth

''
'' '

t
I
I

''
''

15.00m

17.50m

20.00m

to
15.00m

to
17.50m

to
20.00m

22.50m

to

20.70

20.10

20.10

22.00

20.00

19.00

18.80

16.00

''

4.0m

19.50

18.00

17.80

17.60

15.50

4.5m

17.00

16.80

16.70

16.50

14.90

12.70

5.0m

15.30

15.30

15.30

15.00

13.90

12.30

10.40

6.0m

13.00

12.80

12.40

12.40

12.20

11.60

9.80

7.0m

10.50

10.50

10.50

10.50

10.50

10.50

9.40

8.0m

8.30

8.30

8.30

8.30

8.30

8.30

lO.Om

5.35

5.35

5.35

5.35

5.35

5,35

3.85

3.85

3.85

3.85

3.85

2.80

2.80

2.80

2.80

2.15

2.15

2.15

18.0m

1.70

1.70

20.0m

1.30

I
I
I
I
I

_.,
..-"",;

1'
I

.I

12.0m
14.0m

mon

max.

rod ius

rod ius

16.0m

22.0m

r ,

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

1.30
0.90

' '

22.50m
to
24.57m

25.40

overload

outriggers extended
&. wheels off ground

12.50m

3.5m

... ~ ......

...............
,

10.07m
to
12.50m

3.0m

I
I
I
.........

10.07m
fully
retracted

I
I
I

''

Radius
in
meters

ARUJP

Appendix C- Useful Design Data (6/12)

....,
I
I

C. 7 Standard durbar plate sections


Standard Sizes
Thickness range on plain
Width
mm
mm
8.0
10.0
4.5
6.0
1000
10.0
4.5
6.0
8.0
1250
6.0
8.0
10.0
1500
4.5
8.0
10.0
4.5
6.0
1750
6.0
8.0
10.0
1830

Mass per square metre of durbar plates


Thickness on plain
Kg/m2
mm*
4.5
37.97
6.0
49.74
8.0
65.44
10.0
81.14
12.5
100.77

12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5

Consideration will be given to reqmrements other than standard sizes


where they represent a reasonable tonnage per size, i.e. in one length and
one width. Lengths up to I 0 meters can be supplied for plate 6mm & over

Depth of pattern rangmg from 1.9 mm to 2.4 mm.


*Thickness as measured through body of the plate

' j

~'
i

' J

""'i
'

i
'

2
(kN/m )

Ultimate load capacity


for plates simply supported on
two sides , stressed to 275 N/mm2
Thickness
on plain
mm
4.5
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.5

Span (mm)
600
20.48
36.77
65.40
102.03
159.70

800
11.62
20.68
36.87
57.42
89.85

1000
7.45
13.28
23.48
36.67
57.40

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

5.17
9.20
16.38
25.55
39.98

3.80
6.73
11.97
!8.70
29.27

2.95
5.20
9.23
14.45
22.62

2.28
4.07
7.23
11.30
17.68

1.87
3.30
5.93
9.25
14.50

I
'J

....,

Stiffeners should be used for spans m excess of II OOmm to avmd excessive deflectiOns

i
'

....,
!

C.8 RHS sections - standard lengths


Length ranges and tolerances for rectangular hollow sections (RHS)
Size
Square
mm

Rectangular

mm

Welded
Standard
Special mill
mill lengths
lengths m
m

20 X 20

6.4

25

6.4& 7.5

25 & 30 X 30

Seamless
Standard
lengths m

Maximum exact
lengths m

Length
tolerance

mm

' j

""'i
I
J

5.4- 7.5

50 x25

7.5

40 x 40 up to
100x100xS

50 x 30 up to
120 X SO X S

7.5, 10 & 12

5.4- 13.7

100 x 100 x 10 up to
150x 150x 12.5

120 x SOx 10 up to
200 X J00 X 12.5

7.5, 10 & 12

6.1-14.6

l50x l50x 16

200x100xl6

ISO x ISO up to
400 X 400 X 16

250 x !50 up to
500 X 300 X J6

10& 12

400 X 400 X 20

500 X 300 X 20

S.5-9.0 random

+150-0

""'i

' J
10- 11.2

9-14.S

5.6- 11.2

+300- 0
+300- 0

' J

'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

I
J

ARUJP

r.
I

L...
'

Appendix C- Useful Design Data (7/12)

!...,.

C.9 CHS sections- standard lengths


Length ranges and tolerances for circular hollow section (CHS)
Size (mm)

Welded

'

'

Seamless

Thickness

Standard mill
lengthsm

Special mill
lengths m

21.3 & 26.9

All

6.0 & 6.4

5.4- 7.5

+150- 0

33.7-48.3

All

6.0, 6.4 & 7.5

5.4-7.5

+150- 0

60.3- 114.3

All

6.0, 6.4, 7.5 & 10

5.4- 12

+150- 0

139.7- 168.3

All

7.5, 10 & 12

6.1- 14.6

+150- 0

Up to 12.5

7.5, 10, & 12

6.1- 14.6

+150- 0

193.7

16.0
Up to 12.5

219.1

r .
244.5

10 & 12

16.0
20.0
6.3- 16
8- 12.5

10 & 12

'

6.3- 16
273

r '

9- 14.8

'

r ,

+300- 0

8, 10
6, 8 & 10

+300- 0

8, 10 & 12
10, 12 & 14

+300- 0

9- 14.8

10 & 12

10 & 12

10 & 12

6, 8 & 10
4, 6&8

+300- 0

6, 8 & 10
4, 6&8

+300- 0

6, 8 & 10
4, 6&8

+300- 0

8, 10 & 12
4,6&8
2,4&6

+300- 0

9- 14.8

9- 14.8

20.0
25.0
10.0- 16.0

406.4

10 & 12

20.0
25.0
8.0- 16.0

355.6

8, 10 & 12

6, 8 & 10

20.0
25.0
6.3- 16.0

323.9

Standard mill
lengths m

9- 14.8

20.0
(

Length
tolerance mm

O.D.

9- 14.8

20.0
25.0
32.0

10.0- 16.0

:....

r.
(

457

508
r ,

9- 14.8
8,10&12
6, 8 & 10
4, 6 &8
2,4&6

20.0
25.0
32.0
40.0
10.0- 16.0

'

10 & 12

10 & 12

+300- 0

9- 14.8

20 &25
32
40
50

6, 8 & 10
4, 6&8
2,4&6
3,4&5

+300- 0

r .

L...
r '
I

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

, I

'

Appendix C- Useful Design Data (8/12)

'

C.l 0 Carbon steel plate sections - British Steel standard sizes


Typical size range of carbon steel plates (maximum length in m)
Width 1220 1250 1300. 1500 1600. 1750 1800. 2000. 2100- 2250- 2500- 2750- 3000- 3050- 3250- 3460- 3500- 37501250 1300 1500 1600 1750 1800 2000 2100 2250 2500 2750 3000 3050 3250 3460 3500 3750 3960
(rum)
Thickness

:
1:

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

12

12

13.5

13.5

13.5

12.5

12.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

12

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

13.5

II

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

10

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

18.3

10

19

19

19
19

12.5

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

15

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

20

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

25

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

30

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

' '

,....,

35

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

40

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

45

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

50

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

16.3

15.4

60

15.3

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

16.9

15.6

15.6

14.6

14.6

13.6

12.8

65

13.1

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

15.9

14.6

13.4

13.4

12.5

12.5

11.6

11

70

13.1

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

15.9

14.6

13.4

13.4

12.5

12.5

11.6

II

75

8.4

17

17

16.8

16.8

17

17

17

17

15.3

13.9

12.7

11.6

11.6

10.9

10.9

10.2

9.7

80

7.9

17

17

16.8

16.8

17

17

17

17

15.3

13.9

12.7

11.6

11.6

10.9

10.9

10.2

9.7

90

17

17

15

15

17

17

15.1

15.1

13.6

12.4

11.3

10.5

10.5

9.7

9.7

9.1

8.6

15.7

15.7

13.5

15.3

15.3

13.6

13.6

12.2

11.1

10.2

9.4

9.4

8.7

8.7

8.7

8.2

7.7

13.1

13.1

11.2

11.2

12.7

12.7

11.3

11.3

10.2

9.3

8.5

7.8

7.8

7.3

7.3

6.8

6.4

140

11.2

11.2

9.6

9.6

10.9

10.9

9.7

9.7

8.7

7.9

7.3

6.7

6.7

6.2

6.2

5.8

160

9.8

9.8

8.4

9.6

9.6

8.5

8.5

8.5

7.6

6.9

6.4

5.9

5.9

5.5

5.5

5.1

100
120

180

8.7

8.7

7.5

7.5

8.5

8.5

7.5

7.5

6.8

6.2

5.7

5.2

5.2

4.9

4.9

4.5

200

7.9

7.9

6.7

6.7

7.6

7.6

6.8

6.8

6.1

5.6

5.1

4.7

4.7

4.4

4.4

4.1

250

3.9

3.5

3.2

3.6

3.6

3.2

3.5

3.5

3.1

3.1

300
350

. I

'

'

'

'

'

'

indicates size not available

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

,....,
I
I

L
r '

'

r '

Appendix C- Useful Design Data (9/12)

I......

C.ll Carbon and carbon manganese wide flats- British Steel standard sizes

r,
!

Typical size range of carbon and carbon-manganese wide flats (max length in m)

\._,

r ,

(mm)

10

12

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

90

100

L
[

L...

r .
',

r,
'

L
l

L...
r ,

'

D
(

Not available

Development range- please consult

May be available with dimensions and material properties by arrangement

L...

Not normally available except by special arrangement on straightness and flatness tolerances

'

'L...

'

r,

r ,

r ,
THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION
ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

r ,

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

Appendix C- Useful Design Data (10/12)

.....,
i

C.12 Fasteners- mechanical properties and dimensions of ordinary bolts


1"""1

Ml2
1.74
84.3

Ml6
2.00
157

M20
2.50
245

M24
3.00
353

M30
3.50
561

M36
4.00
817

10.863

14.701

18.376

22.051

27.727

33.402

33.1
18.7
66.2
48.1

61.6
34.8
123
89.6

96.1
54.3
192
140

138
78.2
277
201

220
124
439
321

321
181
641
466

30
36
49

38
44
57
24

46
52
65
30

54
60
73
36

66
72
85

78
84
97

19.0
21.9
8.0
10.0

24.0
27.7
10.0
13.0

30.0
34.6
13.0
16.0

36.0
41.6
15.0
19.0

46.0
53.1
19.0
24.0

55.0
63.5
23.0
29.0

Metric coarse threads


Pitch (mm)
Tensile stress area
Basic effective diameter (pitch
diameter) (mm)
Grade4.6
Grade 8.8

Ultimate load kN
Proofload
Ultimate load kN
Proof load

Length of threads
= 125mm
> 125mm and= 200mm
>200mm
= 125mm (short thread length)

\ j

.....,
I
I

\ J

'l

Dimensions (mm)
Maximum width across flats
Maximum width across comers
Nominal head depth of bolts
Nominal depth of nuts

1"""1
I

'

C.13 Fasteners - clearance for tightening


Up to and including M20 diameter, tightening is usually best done by hand

3.2.
bolt

.....,

aiameter

I
\ J

I
Hand Spanner

tor Ordinary Bolts

Size ofbolt

d- power

Ml2
Ml6
M20
M24
M30
M36

23
30
30
36
49
49

27
46
46
65
78
97

30
60
60
60
70
100

500
500
600
600
700
700

'

I'
J

Impact wrench for HSFG bolts

Size
of
bolt

w*

M24

65

250
500
270
600
300
600

60

M30

78

M36

97

65
65

min.y
to
max.y
82
210
89
260
89
260

Note that the clearances given are the


minimum values for convenient working.
Lesser values than these may be used
where necessary, after consultation with
the equipment manufacturer.

...,
I

'

\ J

Torque multiplier for HSFG bolts

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUIP

'

\ J

'-'

Appendix C- Useful Design Data (11/12)

1...,.,

C.14 Fasteners- high strength friction grip bolts


Dimensions for high strength friction grip bolts and nuts to BS 4395 parts 1 and 2
(

Nominal
diameter

Diameter of
unthreaded
shank

r,
mm
(Ml2)
Ml6
M20
M22
M24
M27
M30
M33
M36

r ,
~
1

Max

Min

mm

mm

12.70
16.70
20.84
22.84
24.84
27.84
30.84
34.00
37.00

I 1.30
15.30
19.16
21.16
23.16
26.16
29.16
32.00
35.00

mm
1.75
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0

Max

Min

mm

mm

22
27
32
36
41
46
50
55
60

21.16
26.16
31.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
49.00
53.80
58.80

mm
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

Thickness of
*Dia
hexagon head ofCsk.
Head

Diameter of
washer face

*Dept
h of
Csk.
Flash

Max.

Min.

mm

mm

8.45
10.45
13.90
14.90
15.90
17.90
20.05
22.05
24.05

7.55
9.55
12.10
13.10
14.10
16.10
17.95
19.95
21.95

mm
24
32
40
44
48
54
60
66
72

Max.

Min.

mm

mm

22
27
32
36
41
46
50
55
60

19.91
24.91
29.75
33.75
38.75
43.75
47.75
52.55
57.75

mm
2.0
2.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.0

Thickness of nuts Addition to


grip length
to give
length of
bolt
required**
E
Max.

Min.

mm

mm

11.55
15.55
18.55
19.65
22.65
24.65
26.65
29.65
31.80

10.45
14.45
17.45
18.35
21.35
23.35
25.35
28.35
30.20

mm
22
26
30
34
36
39
42
45
48

HEXAGON HEAD

'

Depth
of
washer
face

See figures below for the dimensiOns used m the table


Size shown in brackets is non-preferred
* Countersunk head
** Allows for nut, one flat round washer and sufficient thread protrusion beyond nut.

L
(

Width across
flats

Pitch
(coarse
pitch
series)

Po
0

General grade

r ,

'

....

II
'

Length

r.

'

Higher grade
Pt 2

L
(

{~
c-EJ

L...
(

COUNTERSUNK HEAD

'

L
r ,

Grip length
Length

General grade Pt 1
countersunk head

([)

General grade
Pt 1

Higher grade
Pt 2

Higher grade Pt 2
countersunk head

I
!

.......
(

'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

r ,

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

L...
r '

ARUJP

'

Appendix C- Useful Design Data (12/12)

~
I,

'

C.15 Staircase dimensions


~

Go Tread

/
Rise

dr

.._Riser,
.~~:;== where
/
applicable

' J
Rise of
stair

-=

'

Pitch line- -"""'==

-ll-overlap

' J

or rake

I
I
'

Stairway terms
\

Single rung
90 ladders

Companion,step
i

75 or ship type ladders

II

'

50
Exceptional cases only

45

STAIRS

1
' j

' j

1co Limited use


ramos

....,
i

'

200

250

300

'

350

Tread 'Go' in millimetres

c I

'

I
i
'

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

i
' J

' J

'

I
I

1,....1

r ,

Appendix D- Proprietary Components (1/9)

1,....1

APPENDIX D

r ,

D .1 Macalloy Bars
Bar dia.

mm

Stressing
ties

Stainless steel
stressing ties

18
20

Stainless steel
architectural
ties

High strength
precision ties

43

50

17m

79

80

36

49

58

52

71

83

82

114

132

144

198

229

219

303

351

147

22

r '

24
r ,

Tie rods grades

92

153

27

112

187

30

138

230

195

322

25

241

26.5

270

232

u
I

'

L
'

32

394

'--'

36

500

40

618

L.

45

379

591

50

959

60

398

525

636

r ,

72

574

758

918

75

2056

r ,
I

90

709

1022

i......

100

892

1286

'

Approximate safe working loads (kN)

'--'

I
I

'

L
r

!
L

'

r ,

r '

I .

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

r '

ARlUIP

Appendix D - Proprietary Components (2/9)

Super Holorib Z28

D.2 Composite decking [Richard Lees ltd.]


.h
Load ::SJan !able- Normal Weig
SUPPORT
CONDITION

SLAB
DEPTH
mm

0.9mmGAUGE
IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m')

Permanent
-+Temporary

100
120
130
150
175
200
100
120
130
150
175
200
100
120
130
150
175
200

SINGLE

1.\

MULTIPLE

IS

1.\

PROPPED

1.\

2.55
2.41
2.35
2.23
2.12
2.02
3.00
2.82
2.75
2.61
2.47
2.35
3.55
4.25
4.60
5.30
5.04
4.82

I.OMMGAUGE
IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m')

5.0

6.7

10.0

2.55
2.41
2.35
2.23
2.12
2.02
3.00
2.82
2.75
2.61
2.47
2.35
3.55
4.25
4.60
5.18
5.04
4.82

2.55
2.41
2.35
2.23
2.12
2.02
3.00
2.82
2.75
2.61
2.47
2.35
3.55
4.16
4.33
4.63
4.96

2.55
2.41
2.35
2.23
2.12
2.02
3.00
2.82
2.75
2.61
2.47
2.35
3.17
3.50
3.65
3.92
4.23

2.79
2.63
2.57
2.44
2.31
2.20
3.22
3.07
3.00
2.85
2.70
2.56
3.55
4.25
4.60
5.30
5.44

I~ ~

1.2mmGAUGE
IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m')

5.0

6.7

10.0

2.79
2.63
2.57
2.44
2.31
2.20
3.22
3.07
3.00
2.85
2.70
2.56
3.55
4.25
4.60
5.30
5.44

2.79
2.63
2.57
2.44
2.31
2.20
3.22
3.07
3.00
2.85
2.70
2.56
3.55
4.25
4.53
4.83
5.17

2.79
2.63
2.57
2.44
2.31
2.20
3.22
3.07
3.00
2.85
2.70
2.56
3.34
3.68
3.83
4.11
4.42

_5.2~ ~.20

~0

.
3.09
2.92
2.85
2.71
2.57
2.45
3.51
3.35
3.28
3.14
2.99
2.84
3.55
4.25
4.60
5.30
5.95
5.69

5.0

6.7

10.0

3,09
3.09
2.92
2.92
2.85
2.85
2.71
2.71
2.57
2.57
2.45
2.45
3.51
3.51
3.35
3.35
3.28
3.28
3.14
3.14
2.99
2.99
2.84
2.84
3.55
3.44
4.25
4.01
4.60
4.18
5.22
4.47
4.79
5.56
5.~ __J.69_ ~08

3.09
2.92
2.85
2.71
2.57
2.45
3.51
3.35
3.28
3.14
2.99
2.84
3.55
4.25
4.60
5.30
5.95

Notes (On tables to left)


I.
*depicts maximum spans when deck used as permanent shuttering only.
2.
The spans indicated assume clear span+ IOOmm to the centreline of supports.
3.
A span to depth ratio of35:1 for normal weight and 30:1 for lightweight concrete is imposed in deriving the above spans.
4.
For calculating deflections an additional loading of0.5 kN/m2 is included by RLSD Ltd to allow for non-recoverable deflection due to
construction personnel. Maximum deflections are limited to span/130 after taking account ofponding.
5.
All other construction stage design checks include an allowance of 1.5 kN/IW for construction loading.
6.
Tables are based on grade C30 concrete of wet density 2,400 kglml and 1900 kg/m2 for lightweight.
7.
The dead weight of the slab has been included in the development of the spans shown. However, consideration should be given to
finishes, partition walls, etc when reading from these tables.
8.
Composite slabs are designed as simply supported irrespective of the deck support configuration. A nominal crack control mesh is
required over the supports in accordance with clause 6.7, 6.8 and 6.9 ofBS 5950:Part 4.
9.
Decking is manufactured from material meeting the following specification: BS EN 10147 designated in accordance with BS EN 10025

S280 GD + Z275 NA-C.

s---FIRE
RATING
hrs

_____ --o---
. htC- - - - - - - - Ligh --o--LoadS oan Tab!
----1.0
SUPPORT
CONDITION

SLAB
DEPTH
mm

0.9mmGAUGE
IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m')

Permanent
-+Temporary

SINGLE

1.\

MULTIPLE

IS

1.\

PROPPED

1.\

100
120
130
150
175
200
100
120
130
150
175
200
100
120
130
150
175
200

2.74
2.60
2.53
2.42
2.30
2.19
3.05
3.05
2.97
2.83
2.69
2.56
3.05
3.65
3.95
4.55
5.30
5.21

l.OMMGAUGE
IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m')

5.0

6.7

10.0

2.74
2.60
2.53
2.42
2.30
2.19
3.05
3.05
2.97
2.83
2.69
2.56
3.05
3.65
3.95
4.55
5.30
5.21

2.74
2.60
2.53
2.42
2.30
2.19
3.05
3.05
2.97
2.83
2.69
2.56
3.05
3.65
3.95
4.55
5.12
5.21

2.74
2.60
2.53
2.42
2.30
2.19
3.D4
3.05
2.97
2.83
2.69
2.56
3.04
3.55
3.71
4.55
4.32
4.61

3.00
2.84
2.77
2.65
2.52
2.40
3.05
3.28
3.21
3.09
2.94
2.80
3.05
3.65
3.95
4.00
5.30
5.62

1.2mmGAUGE

IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m')

5.0

6.7

10.0

3.00
2.84
2.77
2.65
2.52
2.40
3.05
3.28
3.21
3.09
2.94
2.80
3.05
3.65
3.95
4.55
5.30
5.62

3.00
2.84
2.77
2.65
2.52
2.40
3.05
3.28
3.21
3.09
2.94
2.80
3.05
3.65
3.95
4.55
5.30
5.62

3.00
2.84
2.77
2.65
2.52
2.40
3.05
3.28
3.21
3.09
2.94
2.80
3.05
3.64
3.89
4.19
4.52
4.82

3.05
3.14
3.08
2.94
2.80
2.67
3.05
3.57
3.50
3.37
3.22
3.10
3.05
3.65
3.95
4.55
5.30
6.05

5.0

6.7

10.0

3.05
3.14
3.08
2.94
2.80
2.67
3.05
3.57
3.50
3.37
3.22
3.10
3.05
3.65
3.95
4.55
5.30
6.05

3.05
3.14
3.08
2.94
2.80
2.67
3.05
3.57
3.50
3.37
3.22
3.10
3.05
3.65
3.95
4.55
5.30
6.05

3.05
3.14
3.08
2.94
2.80
2.67
3.05
3.57
3.50
3.37
3.22
3.10
3.05
3.65
3.95
4.55
4.89
5.20

1.5

2.0

SLAB
DEPTH
mm

100
120
130
150
175
200
105
110
130
150
175
200
130
140
150
175
200

lified
---

Fire
-. D

MethodC
-

-o--

A142
6.7
2.50
3.00
3.07
3.19

2.77 2.50 2.14


3.30 3.00 2.59
3.42 3.12 2.71

A252
6.7
2.50
3.00
3.64
3.78
3.94
4.08

A193
6.7
2.50
3.00
3.64
3.78
3.94
4.08

10.0
2.14
2.58
3.14
3.28
3.44
3.58

5.0
2.78
3.31
4.01
4.10
4.10
4.10

2.77 2.50
3.30 3.00
4.06 3.71
4.10 3.86
4.10 4.00

2.14
2.59
3.22
3.38
3.52

2.77 2.50
3.30 3.00
4.06 3.71
4.10 3.86
4.10 4.00

3.30
3.35
3.48
3.50

2.59 3.30
2.65 3.98
2.79 4.10
2.90 4.10

10.0 5.0
2.14 2.78
2.58 3.31
2.64 4.01
2.76 4.10
4.10
4.10

3.00
3.06
3.19
3.30

10.0
2.14
2.58
3.14
3.28
3.44
3.58

5.0
2.79
3.43
3.50
3.50

3.00 2.59
3.63 3.15
3.79 3.31
3.93 3.45

~--)

=---]

~--J

::___)

~---)

:_ ___ j

=-J

~----J

..

10.0
2.12
2.63
2.70
2.84

5.0
2.79
3.60
3.90
4.10
4.10
4.10
2.79
2.83
3.90
4.10
4.10
4.10
3.33
3.40
3.46
3.50
3.50

A193
6.7
2.50
3.60
3.69
3.85
4.02
4.02
2.50
2.54
3.64
3.80
3.98
4.10
3.00
3.07
3.13
3.28
3.41

10.0
2.12
3.07
3.15
3.31
3.48
3.63
2.12
2.16
3.12
3.27
3.44
3.59
2.57
2.63
2.69
2.84
2.96

5.0
2.79
3.60
3.90
4.10
4.10
4.10
2.79
2.83
3.90
4.10
4.10
4.10
3.90
4.08
4.10
4.10
4.10

A252
6.7
2.50
3.60
3.69
3.85
4.02
4.10
2.50
2.54
3.64
3.80
3.98
4.10
3.60
3.68
3.76
3.93
4.09

10.0
2.12
3.07
3.15
3.31
3.48
3.63
2.12
2.16
3.12
3.27
3.44
3.59
3.08
3.16
3.23

3.40
3.56

Notes (on table above)


I.
The simplified fire design method is based on fire tests on composite slabs incorporating steel meshes with 15-45mm top cover. This
method is applicable for any construction where the mesh may act in tension over a supporting beam or wall (negative bending). This
includes all end bay conditions.
2.
All figures in the table are derived strictly in accordance with guidance given in SCI publication 056-'The fire resistance of composite
floors with steel decking' (2nd edition), 1991.
3.
Loads shown here are unfactored working loads and should include all imposed dead and live loads, excluding only the self weight of
the slab. An ultimate load factor of 1.0 is assumed throughout.)
4.
The mesh should satisfy the minimum elongation requirement given in BS4449 : 1998.
5.
For conditions outside the scope of these tables, including all isolated spans, consult the appropriate fire engineering chart.

ARUIP

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

=_j

A142
6.7
2.50
3.08
3.16
3.30

2.79 2.50 2.12


2.14 2.83 2.54 2.16
2.59 3.41 3.07 2.63
3.22 3.50 3.20 2.76
3.38
3.52

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.
IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

--

LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE SPAN (m) FOR


GIVEN
IMPOSED LOAD (kN/m')

NORMAL WEIGHT CONCRETE SPAN (m) FOR


GIVEN INPOSED LOAD (kN/m2)

5.0
2.78
3.31
3.38
3.49

~---

~--.J

~---]

.J

_j

_j

:_._J

--J

r-

r-

r-

r-

r-

r-

r----: r

--

Appendix D - Proprietary Components (2/9)

Composite Decking cont. [Ward Multideck 60- Normal weight concrete]


Lo~._.

...

........ ""' .......... "-' ...............~ .....

Span Type
(Support
Condition)

---------

Slab
Depth

Min
Mesh

(mm)

Size

120
130
140
150
160
175
200
250
120
130
140
150
160
175
200
250

A98
A142
A142
A142
A142
A193
A193
A252
A98
A142
A142
A142
A142
A193
A193
A252

...,.,.._.,.._.,,a:.&...,.A.O.&,..A.JU'-'.O.~"-'""

t-0.9

4.0
2.48
2.40
2.32
2.25
2.19
2.10
1.98
1.79
2.88
2.78
2.68
2.60
2.52
2.42
2.28
2,06_

t-0.9

Slab
Depth

Min
Mesh
Size

120
130
140
150
160
175
200
250

A98
A142
A142
A142
A142
A193
A193
A252

4.0
4.19
4.42
4.61
4.78
4.94
4.79
4.56
4.12

200

A193

250

A252

oc

X
X

4'

X+ X

+ +X

10.0
3.01
2.90
2.80
2.71
2.63
2.53
2.37
2.14
3.15
3.22
3.13
3.05
2.96
2.84
2.67
2.40

12.0
2.81
2.90
2.80
2.71
2.63
2.53
2.37
2.14
2.80
3.03
3.13
3.05
2.96
2.84
2.67
2.40

14.0
2.54
2.73
2.80
2.71
2.63
2.53
2.37
2.14
2.53
2.72
2.92
3.05
2.96
2.84
2.67
2.40

4.0
3.36
3.26
3.17
3.09
3.01
2.89
2.71
2.44
3.66
3.55
3.45
3.36
3.28
3.16
3.00
2.69

10.0
3.31
3.26
3.17
3.09
3.01
2.89
2.71
2.44
3.31
3.51
3.45
3.36
3.28
3.16
3.00
2.69

12.0
2.93
3.16
3.17
3.09
3.01
2.89
2.71
2.44
2.93
3.16
3.38
3.36
3.28
3.16
3.00
2.69

Total Applied Load (kN/m 1)

14.0
2.65
2.86
3.05
3.09
3.01
2.89
2.71
2.44
2.65
2.86
3.05
3.23
3.28
3.16
3.00
2.69

4.0
3.50
3.40
3.31
3.22
3.14
3.03
2.85
2.56
3.82
3.71
3.60
3.51
3.42
3.30
3.13
2.83

6.0
3.50
3.40
3.31
3.22
3.14
3.03
2.85
2.56
3.82
3.71
3.60
3.51
3.42
3.30
3.13
2.83

t=l.l

t-1.0
Total Applied Load (kN/m 2)

Total Applied Load (kN/m1)

. . .
.. .. ...
.

6.0
3.54
3.78
4.00
4.18
4.33
4.53
4.56
4.12

-(See note 6)
8.0
10.0
3.03
3.23
3.43
3.62
3.20
3.79
3.36
4.04
3.59
4.40
3.94
4.12
4.12

2.89
3.04
3.25
3.57
4.12

2.98
3.27
3.81

(See note6)
6.0
4.0
4.20
3.75
3.99
4.55
4.90
4.21
5.09
4.40
4.61
5.25
4.82
5.47
5.14
5.34
4.80
4.80

5.45

4.83

4.40

3.93

3.55

3.27

5.79

5.91

5.30

4.87

4.52

. .

or

X+ P++X

8.0
3.01
2.90
2.80
2.71
2.63
2.53
2.37
2.14
3.31
3.22
3.13
3.05
2.96
2.84
2.67
2.40

(See note 6)
6.0
8.0
3.36
3.36
3.26
3.26
3.17
3.17
3.09
3.09
3.01
3.01
2.89
2.89
2.71
2.71
2.44
2.44
3.66
3.63
3.55
3.55
3.45
3.45
3.36
3.36
3.28
3.28
3.16
3.16
3.00
3.00
2.69
2.69

-(see note 6)
8.0
10.0
3.50
3.32
3.40
3.40
3.31
3.31
3.22
3.22
3.14
3.14
3.03
3.03
2.85
2.85
2.56
2.56
3.77
3.32
3.71
3.57
3.60
3.60
3.51
3.51
3.42
3.42
3.30
3.30
3.13
3.13
2.83
2.83

12.0
2.94
3.15
3.31
3.22
3.14
3.03
2.85
2.56
2.94
3.15
3.38
3.51
3.42
3.30
3.13
2.83

14.0
2.65
2.85
3.05
3.22
3.14
3.03
2.85
2.56
2.65
2.85
3.05
3.24
3.42
3.30
3.13
2.83

....................................................................

(mm)

14.0
2.39
2.40
2.32
2.25
2.19
2.10
1.98
1.79
2.39
2.58
2.68
2.60
2.52
2.42
2.28
2.06

(See note6)
6.0
4.0
3.01
3.01
2.90
2.90
2.80
2.80
2.71
2.71
2.63
2.63
2.53
2.53
2.37
2.37
2.14
2.14
3.31
3.31
3.22
3.22
3.13
3.13
3.05
3.05
2.96
2.96
2.84
2.84
2.67
2.67
2.40
2.40

t-1.2

Total Applied Load (kN/m 2)

Total Applied Load (kN/m 1)

12.0
2.48
2.40
2.32
2.25
2.19
2.10
1.98
1.79
2.65
2.78
2.68
2.60
2.52
2.42
2.28
2.06

au,..,.o.&AJ&.I

Condition)

6.0
2.48
2.40
2.32
2.25
2.19
2.10
1.98
1.79
2.88
2.78
2.68
2.60
2.52
2.42
2.28
2.06

-(See note 6)
8.0
10.0
2.48
2.48
2.40
2.40
2.32
2.32
2.25
2.25
2.19
2.19
2.10
2.10
1.98
1.98
1.79
1.79
2.88
2.85
2.78
2.78
2.68
2.68
2.60
2.60
2.52
2.52
2.42
2.42
2.28
228
2.06
2.06

t-1.1

t-1.0

Total Applied Load (kN/m 1)

(Support

Span Type

. ...

&u&'-'<'&&.-..A"-'TA&._,.,_, ._.._..LI._..&

12.0

14.0

6.27

. .. .. ..
.. ..
.
8.0

10.0

3.42
3.62
3.80
3.98
4.23
4.61
4.80

3.20
3.37
3.53
3.76
4.11
4.73

12.0

3.19
3.41
3.37
4.31

14.0

3.13
343
3.97

. . . . .
. . .
5.63

5.15

t-1.2

Total Applied Load (kN/m 1)


See note 6)

4.0
4.20
4.55
4.90
5.25
5.53
5.76
6.00
5.38
6.07

6.58

6.0
3.91
4.15
4.37
4.50
4.78
5.06
5.40
5.38

. .. .. ..
.. ..
8.0

10.0

12.0

3.56
3.76
3.95
4.13
4.39
4.77
5.38

3.33
3.57
3.67
3.90
4.26
4.88

3.32
3.54
3.87
4.45

14.0

..
. . . . .
. . .
5.92

3.56
4.11

5.42

Total Applied Load (kN/m 1)

4.0
4.20
4.55
4.90
5.25
5.60
5.98
6.26
5.66
6.32

6.86

6.0
3.91
4.15
4.37
4.58
4.78
5.06
5.47
5.66

-(see note 6)
8.0
10.0

12.0

14.0

3.76
3.95
4.13
4.38
4.77
5.42

3.54
3.87
4.45

3.25
3.56
4.11

.. .. .. ..
.. ... ...
3.67
3.90
4.26
4.88

. . . . .
. . . .
6.16

Notes:

1
2

All tabulated figures include the self weight of the slab.


All tabulated figures include a construction allowance of
1.5kN/m1 for spans of 3m and over, or 4.5/span kN/m1 for
spans less than 3m in accordance with the recommendations
ofBS 5950: Part4l994.
The suggested maximum ratios of slab span to slab depth are
30 for LWC and 35 for NWC to control deflections.
Deflection under construction loading (wet concrete etc.)

has been limited to that stipulated in BS 5950: Part 4 1994. For the
purpose of calculating the span/depth ratio, the distance between the
centre-lines of the supports of an end span may be used.
4
Minimum reinforcement mesh sizes provide 0.1% of the
gross cross-sectional areas of the concrete at the support.
The composite slabs should meet the requirements ofBS
5950; Part 4 1994 with regard to their composite behaviour
under normal imposed loads.
Total applied load referred to in the above table is a working

Load based on factored combinations of live loads, finishes, ceilings,


services and partitions, divided by a load factor of 1.60 (excluding
slab self weight).
Temporary supports should remain in place until the concrete
7
has achieved its 28 day cub strength.
The addition of props gives no further benefit in these cases.
Propped loads assume props are equally spaced.

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.
IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

10

Deck must lie flat on all support beams. Point only contact
will affect design loading.

ARUJP

r---~

--

Appendix D - Proprietary Components (3/9)

Composite Decking cont. [Ward Multideck 60- Lightweight concrete]


JYJ..n.."l....1U I,.JJU C &:,n.JUA.::>O:JJ.D.Lo.l!< .:OJ: n.l'l

&..O.&'U".&.&AOTL<.U.... .&.&&'-''U'H"-'.I'U:.<.&.A'<

Span Type
(Support
Condition)

a....a"Ur.a.aan.ao..a'-".&.1.& '-''-""'-'

Span Type

120
130
140
150
160
175
200
250
120
130
140
150
160
175
200
250

A98
A142
A142
A142
A142
A193
A193
A252
A98
Al42
A142
Al42
A142
Al93
A193
A252

'.&L<

..

4.0
2.67
2.58
2.50
2.43
2.37
2.28
2.15
1.79
3.08
3.00
2.91
2.82
2.74
2.63
2.48
2.25

Total Applied Load (kN/m1)


See note_!}_
10.0
12.0
6.0
8.0
2.67
2.65
2.67
2.39
2.58
2.58
2.58
2.58
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.43
2.43
2.43
2.43
2.37
2.37
2.37
2.37
2.28
2.28
2.28
2.28
2.15
2.15
2.15
2.15
1.96
1.96
1.96
1.96
3.08
3.08
2.39
2.65
3.00
2.58
2.85
3.00
2.9
2.91
2.77
2.91
2.82
2.82
2.82
2.82
2.74
2.74
2.74
2.74
2.63
2.63
2.63
2.63
2.48
2.48
2.48
2.48
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25

n.vraa:...-

IU~IUUIU

120
130
140
150
160
175
200
250

A98
A142
Al42
A142
Al42
Al93
A193
A252

4.0
3.66
3.92
4.20
4.50
4.94
5.25
4.95
4.50

3.89
4.13
4.32
4.80
4.71
4.95
4.50

... K

200

A193

5.76

5.05

P+Of'K

250

A252

6.30

5.59

...

or

X+ X+ X
...

3.55
3.76
4.48
4.23
4.55
4.50

--

3.30
3.95
3.72
4.11
4.50

3.48
3.35
3.70
4.20

14.0

3.38
3.71

. . . .
. .
5.06

t~1.1

Total Applied Load (kN/m1)

C.l!.n..LVII.3.:;u_oa.,, ,;,crt..n

. .. .. .. ..
. .. ..
.
4.68

t~I.2

t~1.0

Total Applied Load (kN/m:)


(See note 6)
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
3.19
3.19
3.19
3.17
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.03
3.03
3.03
3.03
2.95
2.95
2.95
2.95
2.86
2.86
2.86
2.86
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.59
2.59
2.59
2.59
2.35
2.35
2.35
2.35
3.51
3.51
3.51
3.17
3.42
3.40
3.42
3.42
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.18
3.18
3.18
3.18
3.08
3.08
3.08
3.08
2.92
2.92
2.92
2.92
2.63
2.63
2.63
2.63

12.0
2.81
3.03
3.03
2.95
2.86
2.75
2.59
2.35
2.81
3.03
3.24
3.25
3.18
3.08
2.92
2.63

14.0
2.54
2.73
2.92
2.95
2.86
2.75
2.59
2.35
2.54
2.72
2.92
3.11
3.18
3.08
2.92
2.63

4.0
3.55
3.44
3.38
3.30
3.22
3.12
2.97
2.72
3.87
3.77
3.68
3.59
3.51
3.40
3.23
2.96

8.0
3.55
3.44
3.38
3.30
3.22
3.12
2.97
2.72
3.60
3.77
3.68
3.59
3.51
3.40
3.23
2.96

6.0
3.55
3.44
3.38
3.30
3.22
3.12
2.97
2.72
3.60
3.77
3.68
3.59
3.51
3.40
3.23
2.96

10.0
3.32
3.44
3.38
3.30
3.22
3.12
2.97
2.72
3.30
3.57
3.68
3.59
3.51
3.40
3.23
2.96

12.0
2.94
3.16
3.38
3.30
3.22
3.12
2.97
2.72
2.94
3.16
3.68
3.59
3.51
3.40
3.23
2.96

14.0
2.66
2.86
3.05
3.24
3.22
3.12
2.97
2.72
2.66
2.86
3.05
3.24
3.43
3.40
3.23
2.96

14.0
2.65
2.86
3.05
3.24
3.36
3.26
3.10
2.82
2.65
2.86
3.05
3.24
3.43
3.55
3.38
3.10

4.0
3.95
4.21
4.47
4.73
4.98
5.35
6.00
6.20

t=1.2
Total Applied Load (kN/m1)
_(See note~_
8.0
10.0
12.0
6.0

14.0

3.90
4.20
4.50
4.80
5.24
5.82
6.20

3.67
4.11

7.32

6.50

4.0
3.71
3.61
3.52
3.44
3.36
3.26
3.10
2.82
3.97
3.94
3.84
3.75
3.67
3.55
3.38
2.96

Ill

t~l.l

Total Applied Load (kN/m1 )


(See note 6)
6.0
8.0
10.0
4.0
3.79
3.60
4.05
3.53
3.90
4.31
3.74
3.33
4.20
4.56
4.47
3.95
3.47
3.65
4.81
4.77
4.14
3.90
5.25
5.01
4.42
5.31
4.82
4.29
5.84

3.29
3.51
3.87

3.21
3.54

6.00

5.36

4.83

4.28

3.87

3.54

6.00

6.51

5.93

5.38

4.97

4.37

3.87

7.02

. .. .. ..
.. ...
12.0

14.0

4.0
3.90
4.15
4.41
4.67
4.92
5.28
5.98
5.92

Total Applied Load (kN/m1 )


See note 61_
10.0
12.0
8.0
14.0

. .. .. .. ..
. . .. .. ..
. .. .. ..
.. ..
. ..
. .
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .
. . .
6.0

3.90
4.20
4.50
4.80
5.25
5.63
5.92

3.66
3.88
4.10
4.30
4.58
5.01
5.66

6.23

5.65

3.43
3.61
3.79
4.04
4.44
5.14

3.65
4.01
4.52

3.34
3.67
4.00

4.10
4.30
4.57
5.01
5.76

...

NOTES
I
All tabulated figures include the self weight of the slab.
2
All tabulated figures include a construction allowance of
1.5kN/rrt for spans of 3m and over, or 4.5kN/m2 for spans
less than 3m in accordance with the recommendations of
855950: Part 4 1994.
The suggested maximum ratios of slab span to slab depth are
30 for

Total Applied Load (kN/m1)


isee note 6l
10.0
6.0
8.0
12.0
3.60
3.60
3.32
2.94
3.61
3.57
3.16
3.61
3.52
3.38
3.52
3.52
3.44
3.44
3.44
3.44
3.36
3.36
3.36
3.36
3.26
3.26
3.26
3.26
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10
2.82
2.82
2.82
2.82
3.60
3.60
3.32
2.94
3.94
3.94
3.57
3.16
3.84
3.84
3.38
3.84
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.55
3.55
3.55
3.55
3.38
3.38
3.38
3.38
3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10

See not~(;)

t~I.O

Total Applied Load (kN/m1)


-(See note 6)
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0

or

K...

14.0
2.39
2.58
2.50
2.43
2.37
2.28
2.15
1.96
2.39
2.58
2.77
2.82
2.74
2.63
2.48
2.25

t~0.9

Min
Mesb
Size

IU

t~0.9

Slab
Depth
fmml

(Support
Condition)

(mm)

Min
Mesh
Size

Slab
Depth

L WC and 35 for NWC to control deflection. Deflection under


construction loading (wet concrete etc. ) has been limited to that
stipulated inBS5950: Part 4 1994. For purpose of calculating the
span
/depth ratio, the distance between the centre-lines of the supports of
an end span may be used.

Minimum reinforcement mesh sizes provide 0.1% of the gross


cross -sectional area of the concrete at the support.
The composite slabs should meet the requirements ofBS
5950: Part 4 1994 with regard to their composite behaviour
under normal imposed loads.
Total applied load referred to in the above table is a working
load based on factored combinations oflive loads, ceilings,
finished, services and partitions, divided by a load factor of
1.60 (excluding slab self weight).

-J

__ ]

__j

~---J

~--

_j

L__

Temporary supports should remain in place until the


concrete has achieved its 28 day cube strength.
*The addition of props gives no further benefit in these
cases.
Propped loads assume props are equally spaced.
Deck must lie flat on all support beams. Point only contact
will affect design loading.

9
10

ARUJP

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

_]

3.63
4.01
4.65

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.
IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

3.79
4.03
4.43
5.12

:_____ __

__ j

=---J

~--~J

__ j

r~~~

~-~-=

r-

--~

c--~

r~-~

r-

r-

r-

r--= r ----=

r---~

Appendix D -Proprietary Components (4/9)

Composite Decking cont. [Ward Multideck 60- Fire resistance]


,,....,

........

Slab
Depth
(mm)

H~Jl\.JUJl.O.

Min

Mesh

.._VI''-'"'-'"'-"-"'

Fire ratine: 1.0 hour s


Total Applied Load (kN/m 2)
See note 6 (page 8)

...

UUUIU... AJ.O.'UU._>Jo.;:r'-LIO ... &O>"'Jln.i\

Ill

Fire ratin2: 1.5 hour s


Total Applied Load (kN/m 2)
See note 6 (page 8)

Fire ratine: 2.0 hour s - end span


Total Applied Load (kN/m 2)
See note 6 (page 8)

Fire rating: 2.0 hour(s


internal span
Total Applied Load (kN/m 2)
See note 6 (page 8)

Size

4.00
130
3.85
142
130
193
4.18
130
252
4.51
140
142
4.01
140
193
4.36
140
252
4.71
!50
142
4.06
!50
193
4.44
!50
252
4.80
160
142
4.13
!60
193
4.49
!60
252
4.86
175
142
4.19
175
193
4.55
175
252
4.93
*142
200
4.29
200
193
4.65
5,03
200
252
*142
250
4.44
250
*193
4.81
250
252
5.19
ciGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE
Fire
Slab
Min
Depth
Mesh
(mm)
Size

6.00
3.43
3.74
4.03
3.60
3.91
4.23
3.67
3.99
4.32
3.73
4.05
4.39
3.80
4.13
4.47
3.92
4.25
4.59
4.10
4.43
4.79

4.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
6.00
2.73
2.96
3.20
3.63
2.98
2.77
2.87
3.25
3.02
3.12
3.95
3.54
3.25
4.28
3.84
3.51
3.26
3.37
3.13
2.91
2.95
3.78
3.40
4.13
3.72
3.41
3.17
3.20
4.02
3.69
3.43
4.47
3.46
3.23
3.00
3.89
3.52
3.01
4.26
3.85
3.54
3.29
3.26
4.62
4.17
3.83
3.57
3.53
3.31
3.08
3.95
3.58
3.09
4.33
3.62
3.38
3.35
3.92
4.69
3.92
3.65
3.62
4.25
3.42
3.21
4.04
3.69
3.21
4.03
3.74
3.50
4.42
3.48
4.05
3.80
4.79
3.76
4.38
3.60
3.42
4.18
3.86
3.39
4.56
3.93
3.70
3.70
4.21
4.01
4.26
3.99
4.95
4.56
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SPAN m
ratine: 1.0 houris
Fire ratine: l.S hour s
Total Applied Load (kN/m2)
Total Applied Load (kN/m2)
See note 6 (page 8)
See note 6 (page 8)

4.00
120
142
3.60
120
193
3.60
120
252
3.60
130
142
3.90
130
193
3.90
130
252
3.90
140
142
4.20
140
193
4.20
140
252
4.20
!50
142
4.31
!50
193
4.50
!50
252
4.50
160
142
4.37
160
193
4.76
160
252
4.80
175
*142
4.45
175
193
4.84
175
252
5.19
*142
200
4.57
200
193
4.97
200
252
5.38
*142
250
4.76
250
*193
5.16
250
252
5.58
Spans of3.5m and over are based on

6.00
10.00
8.00
12.00
3.43
2.87
2.68
3.11
3.60
3.12
3.39
2.91
3.37
3.14
3.60
3.60
3.63
3.04
3.30
2.84
3.32
3.10
3.90
3.60
3.59
3.90
3.89
3.35
3.77
3.17
3.43
2.97
4.12
3.46
3.75
3.24
3.76
3.51
4.20
4.07
3.84
3.24
3.50
3.04
4.19
3.82
3.54
3.31
4.50
3.83
4.14
3.59
3.91
3.57
3.31
3.10
4.26
3.89
3.60
3.38
3.91
4.62
4.22
3.66
3.40
3.19
3.99
3.66
4.35
3.98
3.70
3.47
4.01
4.71
4.31
3.76
4.13
3.54
3.80
3.33
4.49
3.85
4.13
3.61
4.16
4.86
4.47
3.91
3.77
4.34
3.56
4.03
4.09
4.71
4.37
3.86
5.10
4.72
4.42
4.17
12mm deck only. For single span conditions use the

8.00
3.15
3.41
3.68
3.30
3.58
3.87
3.37
3.66
3.97
3.43
3.72
4.03
3.51
3.81
4.12
3.63
3.94
4.25
3.83
4.14
4.47

10.00
2.92
3.16
3.41
3.06
3.32
3.59
3.14
3.41
3.69
3.20
3.47
3.75
3.27
3.55
3.84
3.40
3.69
3.98
3.60
3.90
4.21

4.00

6.00

8.00

3.63
3.22
2.92
3.90
3.54
3.22
3.52
3.90
3.87
3.83
3.40
3.10
4.20
3.42
3.75
3.74
4.20
4.11
3.93
3.19
3.50
4.35
3.88
3.53
4.50
3.88
4.25
3.97
3.56
3.25
4.40
3.93
3.59
3.94
4.80
4.31
4.04
3.62
3.32
4.45
4.00
3.67
4.02
4.89
4.39
4.13
3.44
3.73
4.56
3.79
4.12
5.00
4.52
4.15
4.28
3.62
3.91
4.72
3.99
4.31
5.17
4.72
4.37
Ward Multideck Software (see page 6)

10.00

12.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

12.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

2.60
2.83
3.06
2.73
2.98
3.22
2.83
3.10
3.36
2.91
3.18
3.45
3.03
3.31
3.58
3.22
3.51
3.80

3.13
3.48
3.85
3.26
3.65
4.03
3.38
3.78
4.19
3.45
3.86
4.28
3.53
3.96
4.39

2.82
3.14
3.47
2.95
3.30
3.64
3.07
3.43
3.80
3.15
3.53
3.90
3.26
3.66
4.05

2.59
2.88
3.18
3.72
3.03
3.35
2.83
3.17
3.50
2.92
3.27
3.62
3.05
3.41
3.78

2.41
2.68
2.96
2.53
2.83
3.12
2.65
2.96
3.27
2.74
3.06
3.39
2.87
3.22
3.56

2.27
2.52
2.78
2.38
2.66
2.93
2.49
2.79
3.08
2.59
2.89
3.20
2.73
3.05
3.38

3.73
4.16
4.60
3.95
4.42
4.87
4.15
4.66
5.15
4.31
4.86
5.40
4.55
5.15
5.74

3.36
3.75
4.14
3.56
3.99
4.40
3.76
4.22
4.67
3.94
4.44
4.93
4.20
4.75
5.30

3.09
3.44
3.80
3.28
3.67
4.04
3.47
3.90
4.31
3.65
4.11
4.56
3.92
4.44
4.94

Fire rating: 2.0 houris -end soan

4.00

2.70
2.52
2.97
2.77
3.03
3.25
2.86
2.68
3.39
3.80
3.16
2.96
3.23
3.46
4.20
2.96
2.77
3.56
3.06
4.00
3.27
3.36
4.43
3.59
2.82
3.63
3.01
3.33
3.12
4.09
3.42
4.53
3.65
3.08
2.89
3.67
3.41
3.20
4.14
3.50
4.59
3.74
3.20
3.01
3.74
3.32
4.21
3.53
3.64
3.87
4.67
3.21
3.85
3.39
3.53
4.33
3.74
4.09
3.86
4.80
or contact Ward Technical Services.

6.00

8.00

10.00

3.01
3.38
3.73
3.17
3.56
3.95
3.25
3.66
40.5
3.30
3.72
4.12
3.39
3.81
4.22
3.52
3.95
4.38

2.74
3.07
3.40
2.90
3.25
3.60
2.97
3.34
3.70
3.03
3.41
3.77
3.12
3.50
3.88
3.26
3.66
4.06

2.54
2.84
3.14
2.68
3.01
3.34
2.76
3.10
3.43
2.81
3.16
3.50
2.91
3.27
3.62
3.06
3.43
3.80

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.
IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

2.87
3.20
3.53
3.06
3.42
3.75
3.24
3.64
4.02
3.42
3.85
4.27
3.70
4.18
4.65

12.00

2.70
3.01
3.31
2.87
3.21
3.54
3.05
3.43
3.78
3.23
3.64
4.03
3.50
3.96
4.41

Fire rating: 2.0 hour s internal span


Total Apptied Load (kN/m 2)
Sec note 6 (page 8)

Total Applied Load (kN/m 2)


See note 6 (page 8)

12.00

10.00

12.00

2.38
2.66
2.94
2.51
2.82
3.12
2.58
2.90
3.21
2.64
2.97
3.29
2.73
3.07
3.40
2.89
3.24
3.59

4.00

6.00

8.00

4.09
4.20
4.20
4.35
4.50
4.50
4.48
4.80
4.80
4.59
5.17
5.25
4.76
5.40
5.00
5.02
5.70
6.37

3.63
4.08
4.20
3.87
4.37
4.50
4.01
4.53
4.80
4.12
4.67
5.17
4.30
4.87
5.43
4.58
5.21
5.81

3.31
3.72
4.11
3.53
3.98
4.42
3.66
4.14
4.59
3.77
4.27
4.75
3.96
4.48
4.99
4.24
4.82
5.38

10.00

3.06
3.43
3.80
3.27
3.68
4.09
3.39
3.83
4.25
3.51
3.97
4.40
3.68
4.17
4.64
3.97
4.51
5.04

12.00

2.86
3.21
3.55
3.06
3.45
3.82
3.18
3.59
3.96
3.29
3.72
4.13
3.46
3.92
4.36
3.75
4.26
4.75

ARUJP

r~--:

r----

....,
i

~ J

Appendix D- Proprietary Components (6/9)


'

I
j

D.3 Purlin Systems- Zed purlin sleeved system [Metsec]


SECTION
REFEREN
CE

1000

1200

1500

6.14
8.29
9.29

1.02
1.3!1

0.85

1.55

172.Z.I6
202.2.15
202.Z.I6
202.Z.I!I
202.Z.20
232.Z.I6

9.97
11.02
12.20
14.47
16.62
14.68

1.66
1.84
2.03
2.41
2.77
2.45

1.29
1.39
!.53

0.68
0.92
1.03

1.69
2.01
2.31
2.04

1.36
1.61
!.liS
1.63

172.Z.IS
172.Z.I6
202.Z.IS
202.Z.I6
202.Z.I8
202.Z.20
232.Z.l6
232.Z.I8

3.85
4.ll
4.21
4.49
5.03
5.57
5.11
5.37

8.01
8.52
10.13
11.23
13.32
15.20
13.51
16.39

1.23
1.31
1.56
1.73
2.05
2.34
2.08
2.52

1.03
1.09
1.30
1.44
1.71
1.95
1.73
2.10

0.82
0.87
1.04
1.15
1.37
1.56
!.39
1.68

202.Z.IS
202.Z.16
202.Z.I8
232.Z.I6
232.Z.18
232.Z.20
262.Z.I!I

4.21
4.49
5.03
5.11
5.73
6.34
6.25

9.37
10.39
11.!19
12.51
15.17
17.75
17.45

1.34
1.4!1
1.70
1.79
2.17
2.54
2.49

1.12
1.24
1.41
1.49
!.HI
2.11
2.08

0.89
0.99
1.13
1.19
1.45
1.69
!.66

262.Z.18
262.Z.20

4.49
5.03
5.11
5.73
6.34
7.26
6.25
6.92

9.26
10.37
11.63
14.12
16.51
19.62
16.24
19.18

1.23
1.38
1.55
1.811
2.20
2.62
2.17
2.56

!.03
1.15
1.29
!.57
).83
2.18
1.80
2.13

0.82
0.92
1.03
1.25
1.47
1.74
1.44
1.70

202.2.20
202.Z.23
232.Z.I6
232.Z.III
262.Z.18
262.Z.20
262.Z.23
262.Z.25

5.57
6.35
5.11
5.73
6.25
6.92
7.92
8.59

IO.o?
11.50
111.611
13.19
15.17
17.92
21.83
24.32

1.26
1.44
1.36
).65
1.90
2.24
2.73
3.04

!.OS
1.20
1.13
1.37
l.S8
1.87
2.27
2.53

0.84
0.96
0.91
1.10
1.26
1.49
1.82
2.03

232.Z.I!I
232.Z.20
262.Z.I8
262.Z.20
262.Z.23
262.Z.25

5.73
6.34
6.25
6.92
7.92
8.59

12.11
13.40
14.23
16.81
2CJ.48
22.55

1.42
1.58
1.67
1.98
2.41
2.65

1.19
1.31
1.39
1.65
2.01
2.21

0.95
!.OS
1.12
1.32
1.61
1.77

232.Z.l8
232.Z.20
262.Z.18
262.Z.20
262.Z.23
262.Z.25
302.Z.23
302.Z.25

5.73
6.34
6.25
6.92
7.92
8.59

10.79
11.94
13.38
1582
18.59
20.13
23.84
26.86

1.20
!.33
1.49
1.76
2.07
2.24
2.65
2.98

1.00
1.11
1.24
1.46
1.72
1.86
2.21
2.49

0.80
0.88
0.99
1.17
1.38
1.49
1.77
1.99

262.2.111
262.Z.20
262.2.23
262.Z.25
302.Z.23
302.Z.25

6.25
6.92
7.92
8.59
9.80

12.63
14.59
16.68
18.06
22.51
25.36

1.33
).54
!.76
1.90
'l.37
2.67

1.11
1.211
1.46
1.58
1.97
2.22

0.89
1.02
1.17
1.27
1.58
1.7!1

262.Z.I8
262.Z.20
262.Z.23
262.Z.25
302.Z.23
302.Z.25

6.25
6.92
7.92
8.59
9.114
9.80

11.88
13.15
15.03
16.27
21.31
"4.01

1.19
1.31
!.50
1.63
2.13
2.40

11.99
1.10
1.25
1.36
1.78
2.00

0.79
0.88
1.00
1.08
1.42
1.60

7.92
8.59

13.60
14.72
20.22
22.20
27.24

1.29
1.40
!.93
2.11
2.59

1.08
1.17
1.60
1.76
2.16

0.86
0.93
1.28
1.41
1.73

13.36
18.64
20.20
25.91
32.02

1.21
1.69
1.84
2.36
2.91

1.01
1.41
1.53
1.96
2.43

0.81
1.13
1.22
1.57
1.94

172.Z.14
172.Z.IS

f
~

]
il

.
"'

,;;

:~

-5

g.
~

l{

<ll

'll

g ] ]
~
""]
]
]
.;'
"li 1 1
""
~
l ."'
.... ~

"' "'

li

g .9

"li

.9

] .g

~ ~

j cl
Q

WORKING LOAD
TOTAL
ALLOWABLE LOADNG in kN/m'
PURLIN CENTRES In millimetre!
U.D.L
kN

3.60
3.60
3.85
4.11
4.21
4.49
5.03
5.57
5.11

142.2.16

WEIG
liT
kglm

202.Z.I6
202.Z.IR

9.04
9.80

9.04

9.04
1302.Z.25
342.Z.25
262.Z.25
302.Z.23
302.Z.25
342.Z.25
342.Z.29

9.80
10.98
8.59

9.04
9.80
10.98
12.68

LIS

I.ll
1.22

SPAN

180

360

1800

2400
0.43
0.5!1
0.64
0.69
0.76
0.85
1.00
1.15
1.02

6.35
8.98
9.60
10.22
13.72
14.60
16.35
18.08
21.61

3.18

4.!10
S.ll
6.86
7.30
8.17
9.04
10.81

0.51
0.55
0.65
0.72
0.85
0.97
0.87
1.05

8.25
8.78
11.80
12.56
14.06
15.55
18.61
20.85

0.56
0.62
0.71
0.74
0.90
1.06

1000
SPAN6.0m
0.51
0.69
0.77
0.92
O.!B
1.02
0.92
1.13
1.02
1.34
1.21
1.54
1.38
1.36
1.22
SPAN 6.5m
0.68
0.62
0.73
0.66
0.87
0.78
0.96
0.86
1.02
1.14
1.30
1.17
1.15
1.04
1.40
1.26
SPAN7.0m
0.74
0.67
0.!12
0.74
0.94
0.!15
0.99
0.89
1.20
1.08
1.41
1.27
1.39
1.25
SPAN7.5m
0.69
0.62
0.77
0.69
0.116
0.78
1.05
0.94
1.10
1.1"'
1.45
1.31
1.20
!.OR
1.42
1.28
SPANB.Om
0.70
0.63
0.80
0.72
0.75
11.68
0.92
0.82
1.05
0.95
1.24
1.12
1.52
1.36
1.69
1.52
SPAN8.5m
0.79
0.71
0.88
11.79
0.93
0.84
1.10
0.99
1.34
1.211
1.47
1.33
SPAN9.0m
0.67
0.60
0.74
0.66
11.!13
0.74
0.98
0.8!1
1.15
1.03
1.24
1.12
1.47
1.32
1.66
1.49
SPAN9.5m
11.74
0.66
O.KS
0.77
0.98
0.88
1.06
0.95
1.32
1.18
1.48
1.33
SPANlO.Om
0.66
0.59
0.73
0.66
0.84
0.75
0.90
0.81
1.18
1.07
1.33
1.20
SPANlO.Sm
0.72
0.65
0.78
0.70
1.07
0.96
1.17
1.06
1.30
1.44
SPANll.Om
0.67
0.61
0.94
0.85
1.02
0.92
1.31
1.18
1.62
1.46

ULTIMATE U.D.L.INkN/SPAN
DOWN
Uplift- Metal Cladding
LOAD

SPAN

0.57
0.77
0.86

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

DEFLECTION

Number of Anti Sags

831

13.09
!3.56
!6.17

16.73

19.89
23.57
27.04
23.92

9.45
8.78
9.46
10.74
11.92
13.66

13.09
13.56
15.17
16.73

17.97
19.89
23.57
27.04
23.92

17.97
19.89
23.57
27.04
23.92

....,

4.13
4.39
5.90
6.28
7.03
7.78
9.30
10.42

14.01
15.44
16.59
18.36
21.75
24.96
22.08
26.74

7.91
8.51
7.85
8.47
9.62
10.68
12.19
14.311

14.01

14.01
15.44
16.59
18.36
21.75
24.96
22.0!1
26.74

'

15.44
16.59
18.36
21.75
24.96
22.08
26.74

1.04

10.27
10.92
12.23
16.19
18.14
20.07
24.43

5.13
5.46
6.12
8.10
9.07
10.04
12.22

15.40
17.05
20.20
lO.SO
24.83
29.01
28.53

7.11
7.67
8.71
11.02
13.02
15.00
13.90

15.40
17.05
20.20
20.50
24.113
29.01
28.53

15.40
17.05
20.20
lO.SO
24.83
29.01
28.53

0.51
0.58
0.65
0.78
0.9'
1.09
0.90
1.07

5.59
10.74
14.22
15.94
17.63
20.15
21.47
23.77

4 .. 79
5.37
7.11
7.97
11.82
10.08
lll.74
11.118

15.92
18.85
19.13
23.17
27.08
32.58
26.62
31.40

12.65
14.64

15.92
18.85
19.13
23.17
27.08
32.58
26.62
31.40

15.92
18.85
19.13
23.17
27.08
32.58
26.62
31.40

0.52
0.60
0.57
0.69
0.79
0.93
1.14
1.27

10.51
12.00
12.60
14.11
19.03
21.06
24.08
26.07

5.25
6.00
6.30
7.06
9.51
10.53
12.04

13.03

20.28
24.110
17.94
21.73
24.96
29.43
35.80
39.85

10.28
24.1111
17.94
21.73
24.96
29.43
35.110
39.85

20.28
24.011
17.94
21.73
24.96
29.43
35.08
39.85

11.59
0.66
0.70
0.82
1.00
1.11

12.59
13.93
16.98
1879
21.48
23.26

6.29
6.96
8.49
9.39
10.74
11.63

20.45
23.89
23.49
27.70
33.70
37.51

20.45
23.89
23.49
27.70
33.70
37.51

20.45
23.89
23.49
27.70
33.70
37.51

0.50
0.55
11.62
0.73
0.86
0.93
1.10
1.24

11.30
12.50
15.24
16.87
19.29
20.89
28.63
31.111

5.65
6.25
7.62
8.44
9.64
10.44
14.31
15.51

19.31
22.56
22.19
26.16
31.82
35.42
39.26
44.18

0.55
0.64
0.73
0.79
0.99
1.11

13.76
15.23
17.42
18.K6
25.86
2K.02

6.88
7.62
8.71
9.43
12.93
14.01

21.02
24.79
30.15
33.56
37.19
41.85

0.49
11.55
11.63
0.68
11.89
1.00

12.49
13.83
15.81
17.12
23.4S
25.44

6.25
6.91
7.90
8.56
11.74
12.72

0.54
0.58
11.80
0.88
1.08

14.41
15.61
21.42
23.21
32.69

0.51
0.71
0.77
0.98
1.21

14.29
19.62
21.25
29.65
34.54

4.49

13.Q9
13.56
15.17
16.73

17.97

8.10
!UW

39.26
44.18

19.31
22.56
22.19
26.16
31.82
35.42
39.26
44.18

37.19
41.85

21.02
24.79
30.15
33.56
37.19
41.85

19.97
23.55
28.64
31.88
35.33
39.76

35.33
39.76

19.97
23.55
28.64
31.88
35.33
39.76

7.21
7.80
10.71
11.611
16.35

27.28
30.36
33.65
37.87
45.16

33.65
37.87
45.16

27.28
30.36
33.65
37.87
45.16

7.14
9.81
10.63
14.98
17.27

28.98
32.12
36.15
43.11
53.15

32.12
36.15
43.11
5315

28.98
32.12
36.15
43.11
53.15

..

' :

I""'\
r
'r

j'

'

'

....,
I

'

ARUJP
....,

I
I

l.....i
I ,

Appendix D - Proprietary Components (7/9)

Zed purlin butt system [Metsec]


'

(
j

l.....

J"'
0

0
0

r .
!

1'!

1'!

\....,

:;;

.g
.9

fl
~
~

L
L

:E

:fe

"

lI

-~

I]

~
.,~

g B

] ] .g
] ] ] ]
!.... ]Cl ...c ]Cl . .~ ~ ~ ~~
=
"

'0

r,
I

'-'

r ,

L
r .

j
~

"'
c
Cl

WEIG
HT
kglm

WORKING LOAD
TOT
ALLOWABLE LOADNG In kN/m
AL
PURLIN CENTRES In milllmetres
U.D.L
kN
1000
1200
1500
1800

142.Z.l4
142.Z.IS

3.16
3.38

8.63
9.58

l.....i

L
r ,

L
r '

L
(

.,

2.05
2.28

1.64
1.82

137
1.52

3.16
3.38
3.60
4.03

6.99
7.42
7.94
8.87

1.75
1.85
1.98
222

1.46
1.55
1.65
1.85

!.Hi
1.24
1.32
1.48

0.97
1.03
1.10
1.23

142.2.15
172.2.14
172.2.15
172.2.16

3.38
3.60
3.85
4.11

5.82
8.39
9.40
10.30

1.29
1.86
2.09
2.29

1.08

0.86
1.24
1.39
l.S3

0.72
1.04
1.16
1.27

172.2.14
172.2.15
172.2.16
202.2.15
202.2.16
202.2.18

3.60
3.85
4.11
4.21
4.49
5.03

7.29
7.79
K.29
9.99
11.07
13.13

1.46
1.56
1.66
2.00
2.21
2.63

2.19

0.97
1.04
1.11
1.33
1.48
1.75

0.81
0.87
0.92
1.\1
1.23
1.46

172.2.14
172.2.15
172.2.16
102.2.15
202.2.16
202.2.18

3.60
3.K5
4.11
4.21
4.49
5.03

5.98
6.39
6.80
9.05
9.98
11.17

1.09
1.16
1.24
1.65
1.81
2.03

0.91
0.97
1.03
1.37
1.51
\.69

0.72
0.77
0.82
1.10
1.21
1.35

0.60
0.65
0.69
0.91
1.01
1.13

202.2.15
202.2.16
202.2.18
232.2.16
232.2.18
232.2.20

4.21
4.49
5.03
5.11
5.73
6.34

7.82
8.32
9.32
11.D2
13.37
15.64

1.30
1.39
1.55
1.114
2.23
2.61

1.09
1.16
1.29
1.53
1.86
2.17

0.87
0.92
1.04
1.22
1.49
1.74

0.72
0.77
0.86
1.02
1.24
1.45

202.2.18
202.2.20
232.2.16
132.2.18
262.2.1K
262.2.20

5.03
5.57
5.11
5.73
6.25
6.92

7.78
8.71
10.13
11.99
14.15
16.71

1.21
1.34
1.56
1.84
2.18
2.57

1.01
1.12
1.30
1.54
1.81
2.14

0.81
0.89
1.04
1.23
1.45
1.71

0.67
0.74
0.87
1.02
1.21
1.43

232.2.16
231.2.18
262.2.18
262.2.20
262.2.23

5.11
5.73
6.25
6.92
7.92

9.16
10.26
13.08
15.46
17.89

1.31
1.47
1.87
2.21
2.56

1.09
1.56
1.84
2.13

0.117
0.9!1
1.25
1.47
1.70

0.73
0.81
1.04
1.23
1.42

I!
262.2.25

5.73
6.25
6.92
7.92
8.59

8.86
12.16
13.54
15.48
16.76

l.l8
1.62
1.81
2.06
2.23

0.98
1.35
1.50
1.72
1.116

0.79
1.08
1.20
138
1.49

0.66
0.90
1.00
1.15
1.24

10.66
11.80
13.49
14.61
20.22

L33
1.48
1.69

1.11
1.23
1.41

302.2.23

6.25
6.92
7.92
S.59
9.04

2.53

2.11

0.89
0.98
1.12
1.22
1.68

0.74
O.H2
0.94
1.01
1.40

262.2.20
262.2.23
262.2.25
302.2.23
302.2.25

6.92
7.92
8.59
9.04
9.80

10.36
11.84
12.K2
18.12
19.63

1.22
L39
1.51
2.13
2.31

1.02
1.16
1.26
1.78
1.92

0.!11
0.93
1.01
1.42
1.54

0.68
0.77
0.84
1.18
1.211

262.2.25
302.2.23
302.2.25

8.59
9.90
9.04
9.80

11.32
13.03
16.04
17.37

1.26
1.45
1.78
1.93

1.05
1.21
1.48
1.61

0.84
0.97
1.19
1.29

0.70
0.80
0.99
1.07

302.2.23
302.2.25
342.2.25
342.2.29

9.04
9.80
10.98
12.68

14.27
15.46
22.3H
25.80

1.50
1.63
2.36
2.72

1.25
1.36
1.96
2.26

t.no
1.08
1.57
1.81

0.83
0.90
1.31
1.51

302.2.23
302.2.25
342.2.25
342.2.29
342.2.32

9.04
9.80
10.98
12.68
13.94

12.75
13.81
20.04
23.11
25.38

1.28
1.38
2.00
2.31
2.54

1.06
1.15
1.67
1.93
2.11

0.85
0.92
1.34
1.54
1.69

0.71
0.77
1.11
1.28
1.41

302.2.25
342.2.25
342.2.29
342.2.32

9.80
10.98
12.68
13.94

12.39
18.02
20.78
22.82

1.18
1.72
1.98
2.17

0.98
1.43
1.65
1.81

0.79
1.14
1.32
1.45

0.66
0.95
1.10
1.21

342.2.25
342.2.29
342.2.32

10.98
12.6S
13.94

16.27
18.76
20.60

1.48
1.71
1.87

1.23
1.42
1.56

0.99
1.14

1.25

0.82
0.95
1.04

342.2.25
342.2.29
342.2.32

10.98
12.68
13.94

14.73
16.98
18.65

1.28
1.4K
1.62

1.07
1.23
1.35

0.85
0.98
1.08

0.71
0.82
0.90

342.Z.29
342.2.32

12.68
13.94

15.42
16.93

1.28
1.41

1.07
1.18

0.86
0.94

0.71
0.78

262.2.29

r.

2.46
2.74

142.2.14
142.Z.15
142.Z.l6
142.2.18

L
(

SECTION
REFEREN
CE

un

J.S5
1.74
1.91
1.21
1.30
1.38
1.67

1>5

1.22

J.S1

DEFLECTION
SPAN
SPAN
180
360

2000

2400

SPAN3.5m
1.23
1.03

1.37

ULTlMATE U.D.L. IN kN/SPAN


DOWN
!:!J!!ift MetaiCiaddln~
LOAD
Number of Anti Sags

1.14

SPAN4.0m
0.87
0.73
0.93
0.77
0.99
O.K3
1.11
0.92
SPAN4.5m
0.65
0.54
0.93
0.78
1.04
0.87
1.)4
0.95
SPANS.Om
0.73
0.61
0.78
0.65
0.83
0.69
1.00
0.83
1.11
0.92
1.31
1.09
SPANS.Sm
0.54
0.45
0.58
OAK
0.62
0.51
0.82
0.69
0.91
0.76
1.02
0.85
SPAN6.0m
0.65
0.54
0.69
0.58
0.78
0.65
0.92
0.77
1.11
0.93
1.30
1.09
SPAN6.5m
0.61
0.50
0.67
0.56
0.78
0.65
0.92
0.77
1.09
0.91
1.29
1.07
SPAN7.0m
0.65
0.55
0.73
0.61
0.93
0.78
1.10
0.92
1.28
1.07
SPAN7.5m
0.59
0.49
0.81
0.68
0.90
0.75
1.03
0.86
1.12
0.93
SPANB.Om
0.67
0.56
0.74
0.61
0.84
0.70
0.91
0.76
1.26
1.05
SPAN8.5m
0.61
0.51
0.70
0.58
0.75
0.63
1.07
0.89
0.96
1.15
SPAN9.0m
0.63
0.52
0.72
0.60
0.89
0.74
o.so
0.97
SPAN9.5m
0.75
0.63
0.81
0.68
1.18
0.98
1.36
1.13
SPAN lO.Om
0.64
0.53
0.69
0.5S
1.00
0.84
1.16
0.96
1.27
1.06
SPANlO.Sm
0.59
0.49
0.86
0.72
0.99
O.K2
1.09
0.91
SPANll.Om
0.74
0.62
0.85
0.71
0.94
0.78
SPANll.Sm
0.64
0.53
0.74
0.62
0.81
0.6S
SPAN n.om
0.64
0.54
0.71
0.59

9.29
9.86

4.64
4.93

13.95
15.49

8.19
9.11

13.95
15.49

7.11

3.56
3.77
4.04
4.52

12.21

K.08
9.03

13.55
14.83
17.25

7.25
8.07
8.84
10.24

12.21
13.55
14.83
16.98

12.21
13.55
14.83
16.98

5.97
9.22
9.85
10.48

2.98
4.61
4.93
5.24

12.05
13.65
15.27
16.84

7.20
7.40
8.32
9.20

12.05
13.65
15.27
16.84

12.05
13.65
15.27
16.84

7.47
7.98
8.49
11.62
12.37
13.85

3.73
3.99
4.25
5.81
6.18
6.92

12.28
13.75
15.15
16.28
18.02
21.35

6.65
7.49
8.28
7.94
8.83
10.49

12.28
13.75
15.15
16.2K
Ut02
21.35

12.2K
13.75
15.15
16.28
18.02
21.35

6.17
6.60
7.02
9.61
10.22
11.44

3.09
3.30
3.51
4.80
5.11
5.72

11.17
12.50
13.78
14.80
16.38
19.41

6.02
6.77
7.49
7.18
7.98
9.48

11.17
12.50
13.78
14.80
16.38
19.21

11.17
12.50
13.7K
14.80
16.3K
19.41

8.07
8.59
9.62
12.94
14.50
16.04

4.04
4.29
4.81
6.47
7.25
8.02

13.57
15.02
17.19
18.05
21.87
25.55

6.52
7.25
8.62
8.39
10.22
11.92

13.32
14.11
15.78
18.05
21.87
25.55

13.57
15.02
17.43
18.05
21.87
25.55

lU9
9.06
11.03
12.36
16.90
18.70

4.10
4.53
5.51
6.18
!1.45
9.35

16.42
18.85
16.67
20.19
23.19
27.35

7.87
9.00
7.69
9.37
10.03
11.83

12.89
14.24
16.67
20.19
23.19
27.35

14.91
16.45
16.67
20.19
23.19
27.35

9.51
10.65
14.57
16.13
18.44

4.75
5.33
7.28
8.06
9.22

15.4!1
18.74
21.53
25.39
30.89

7.07
8.63

9.24
10.90
13.14

15.25
17.06
21.40
23.64
26.90

15.48
1!1.74
21.53
25.39
29.92

9.28
12.69
14.05
16.06
17.39

4.64
6.35
7.02
8.03
8.70

17.49
20.10
23.70
28.83
32.09

8.54
10.08
12.15
13.39

14.26
17.97
19.85
22.59
24.43

16.67
20.10
22.94
26.11
28.22

11.15
12.35
14.12
15.28
21.31

5.58
6.17
7.06
7.64
10.65

llt84
22.22
27.03
30.09
33.34

Ut01
19.89
22.62

13.31

15.12
16.72
190.3
20.59
29.73

33.34

10.94
12.50
13.54
18.87
20.45

5.47
6.25
6.77
9.44
10.22

20.91
25.44
28.32
31.38
35.31

14.16
16.13
17.46
25.43
27.38

17.18
19.54
21.11
29.64
31.95

12.08
13.90
16.84
IR.24

6.04
6.95
H.42
9.12

26.74
31.96
29.64
33.35

21.82
23.50

18.24
20.83
26.05
28.06

15.11
16.37
23.40
26.98

7.56
8.18
11.70
13.49

28.08
31.60
37.68
46.45

18.81
20.27
29.95
34.29

22.84
24.60
35.28
40.40

13.64
14.77
24.35
26.74

6.82
7.39
10.56
12.17
13.37

26.67
30.02
35.80
44.13
50.o7

1&.31
17.58
26.07
29.H7
32.H4

10.04
11.57
31.32
35.S5
39.34

13.40
19.16
22.09
24.26

6.70
9.58
11.04
12.13

28.59
34.09
42.03
47.69

15.34
22.80
26.1J
28.74

18.96
27.77
31.77
34.88

17.45
20.12
22.10

8.73
10.06
11.05

32.54
40.12
45.52

20.03
22.96
25.28

24.64
28.19
30.95

15.97
18.41
20.22

7.98
9.21
10.11

31.13
38.38
43.54

17.68
20.28
22.34

21.90
25.06
27.52

16.91
18.57

8.45
9.29

36.78
41.73

18.00
19.83

22.33
24.53

7.55

21.11

L.

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

I
!

l_..,

ARUJP

'
13.95
15.49

24.45

\ j
Appendix D - Proprietary Components (8/9)

D.4 Precast hollow composite concrete floors [Bison]

LOAD I SPAN TABLE


Overall

structural
depth mm

Available fire
period

Unit
depth

SelfWt
KN/m'
0.75

200
250
300
375
425
475
525

150
200
250
300
350
400
450

1 Hour or 2 Hours
2 Hours or 4 Hours
2 Hours
2 Hours
2 Hours
2Hours
2 Hours

3.6
4.1
4.5
5.7
6.2
6.6
7.1

8.2
10.5
12.0
14.2
15.7
16.7
18.0

Spans indicated below allow for characteristic service load (live load)
Plus self weight plus 1.5 kN/m' for finishes
Characteristic service loads kN/m1
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
10.0
I
I 4.0 I 5.0
Effective span in metres
8.2
8.2
8.1
7.9
7.1
7.5
5.8
10.1
9.8
9.6
9.3
8.5
8.9
6.9
11.6
11.3
11.0
10.7
10.1
9.6
7.9
13.7
13.4
13.2
12.9
12.4
12.0
10.3
15.2
14.6
14.9
14.3
13.7
13.3
11.5
16.2
15.9
15.6
15.3
14.7
14.2
12.4
17.4
16.8
17.1
16.5
15.9
15.4
13.4

15.0

5.0
6.0
6.8
9.2
10.3
11.1
12.1

' J
i
I

' j

The above data ts based upon 50 or 75mm structural toppmg ofC30 concrete whtch should be regarded as a mmtmum. Other
topping depths may be recommended in some circumstances. Design data for alternative combinations are available from Bison
Design Offices. Topping reinforcement, daywork and movement joints should be considered in relation to the overall structural
concept of the building.

r-!

Composite Profiles
-r-

uooo

Composite depth
200mm
250mm

300mm
_________ j __

Composite depth
375 mm
425mm
475 mm
525mm

'

150mm Thick
200111111
250mm

75 mm

1<Minimum slructur.d '

300mm Thick
350mm

deplh 50mm at cemre '


of span. Ovemll
thickness at bearing

4!Klmm
450mm

50 or 75 rnm

must tak~ account of

' J

the camh:r of tl~ slab.

___L_ _ _ _ __

1200 mm Nominal width

Simple bearing on top flange of steelwork

Insitu construction

Nominal support reinforcement and/or daywork joints


Determined by general layout and site operation

Solid composite floors may be placed on insitu beam


downstands or supported on shutters before pouring site concrete

~-------------~------------

I
' J
50111111

;\'I in. hearing

Nominal 50 mm
hearing ror

'I

pn:cast clcmcnls I

1j
l

!
I

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.

Ver 3.0 I Aug 98

ARUJP

1I
\

,-.
I

L
r

'L..
Appendix D - Proprietary Components (9/9)

r ,
I

D.S Heavy duty anchors (Hilti HSL) [Hilti- feb 1994]


Features:

high loading capacity


force controlled expansion
reliable pull-down of part fastened
suitable for dynamic loading
no rotation when tightening bolt

Bolt material:

8.8, ISO 898 Tl


Galvanised to min 5 )lm

!.,....

r .

r ,

L
r ,

Versions:
Hilti HSLB heavy-duty anchor with inspection control
Features: -Automatic torque control
Hilti HSLG heavy-duty anchor with threaded rod
Feature: -Various threaded rod lengths
Settine; Details

M 8/20

Anchor
Setting details
d" rrnn Drill bit diameter
h 1 mm Hole d~Qth
hnom mm) Min. d9?th of embedment
tnx mm Max. thickness fastened
I mm Anchor len~tth
hn mm) Head wei ht + washer

I M 8/40

20
95

dh nun Max. clearance hole


dw mm Washer diameter

r ,

I.......

Drilling system

M 16/251M 16/50

M 20/30 I M 20/60

M 24/301M 24/60

18
100
80

24
125
105

28
155
130

32
180
155

40
115

20
107

4
13

17

25
120

50
145

25
148

II
80

14
20
120
TE-C-12/20
TE-Y-12/34
TEIO, TEI4,
TE18-M
TE24, TE54

Drill bit

40
127
10
50

HSL
HSLB

h mm) Min. base material thickness

M 12/25 I M 12/50

15
90
75

7.5
25

Max. gap mm

Sw (mm) Width across flats

Bolt/rod material
HSLG 8.8, ISO 898 Tl, galvanised to min 5 )lm
HSLG-R: X5CrNi Mol810, 1,4401, A4-70 DIN 267 Til
(stainless steel)

M 10/20 IM 10/40

12
80
65

" torque:~
T;n,1(Nm) T
1g h
temng
HGSGL-R

FatJgueJ

8
19
24
20
30
160
TE-C-18/20
TE-Y-18/34

17
25
140
TE-C-15/25
TE-Y-15/34

50
173

14
200
120
9
24
30
26
40
180
TE-C-24125
TE-Y-24132
TE24, TE54,
TE74

TE 14, TE 18-M, TE24


TE54

30
183

60
213

17
380
200
12
30
36
31
45
220
TE-Y-28/37

30
205

60
235
19
500

16
36
41
35
50
270
TE-Y-32137

TE54, TE74
TE54, TE74

r '

\..-

Recommended load F,o, in kN, non-cracked


Concrete f = N/mm', V= 3 0

"
Anchor size

Tensile N

Combined
Load
ShearV

0
30
45
60
90

M8
6.9
7.9
8.4
8.8
9.8

MIO
10.4
12.5
13.6
14.6
16.7

Ml2
15.0
18.2
19.8
21.3
24.5

Ml6
25.7
31.3
34.2
37.0
42.6

M20
34.6
42.6
46.6
50.6
58.6

Recommended load for specific application:


F"~ = F30 fa fr fA fR
Influence of concrete strength fs
Fa= I+ 0.02 (I -a/90) (f"'"- 30)
For (20 ~ f""'' ~ 55)
Influence of depth embedment fT
fT =h!!f!

M24
45.5
55.9
61.1
66.2
76.6

hnom

Limiting depth of embedment


hlim = 1.5 hnom
h," actual embedment depth

r ,
I

L
Influence of anchor spacing and ed2e distance fA, fR
Reduction Factors Anchor ~pacing) fA
Tensile/Shear
Anchor size
s
MS
MIO M12 M16 M20 M24
(mm)

Spacing

r.
L....
r.

L
r,
i

......

Edge
Distance M8

Reduction Factors Ed e Distance fR


Tensile r RN
Shear _!Ry_
Anchor size
Anchor size
MIO Ml2 M16 M20 M24 M8
MIO M12 M16 M20

65
75
80
105
130
155
175
195
225
240
275
315
350
395
430
470

0.70
0.72
0.73
0.79
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.0

0
0.70
0.71
0.76
0.81
0.86
0.90
0.94
1.0

0
0.70
0.74
0.79
0.84
0.87
0.91
0.97
1.0
1.0

0
0.70
0.73
0.77
0.80
0.82
0.87
0.89
0.94
1.0

0
0.70
0.73
0.77
0.80
0.82
0.87
0.89
0.94
1.0

0
0.70
0.71
0.73
0.76
0.78
0.81
0.85
0.88
0.92
0.96
1.0

65
75
80
105
130
155
162
187
200
225
265
275
300
325
350
390

0.70
0.73
0.75
0.82
0.90
0.97
1.0

0
0.70
0.71
0.78
0.85
0.91
0.93
1.0

0
0.70
0.76
0.83
0.88
0.90
0.96
1.0
1.0

0
0.70
0.74
0.79
0.80
0.85
0.88
0.92
1.0
1.0
1.0

0
0
0.73
0.75
0.78
0.80
0.84
0.91
0.92
0.96
1.0
1.0

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION


ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR
AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.
Ver 3.0 I Aug 98
lI

I-

M24

mml

0.70
0.71
0.74
0.75
0.79
0.84
0.85
0.88
0.92
0.95
1.0

0.30
0.37
0.40
0.59
0.77
0.95
1.0

0
0.30
0.33
0.49
0.64
0.80
0.84
1.0

0
0.30
0.44
0.59
0.74
0.78
0.92
1.0
1.0

0
0.30
0.41
0.52
0.55
0.66
0.72
0.83
1.0
1.0
1.0

0
0.30
0.39
0.41
0.50
0.55
0.64
0.79
0.82
0.91
1.0
1.0

0
0.30
0.32
0.39
0.43
0.51
0.63
0.66
0.73
0.81
0.89
1.0

ARUJP

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