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Technical Standard On Operation Norms

For Coal/Lignite Fired Thermal Power Stations




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11. FINALIZED OPERATION NORMS

Based on the analysis, the following norms are recommended for coal/lignite fired
thermal power stations for thermal power stations.

11.1 200-500 MW SIZE UNITS (Coal Based)

I) HEAT RATE
a) Existing Units

1. 500 MW units with turbo BFP 2425Kcal/KWh.
2. 200/210/250 MW KWU Units 2460Kcal/KWh.
3. 200/210 MW LMZ Units 2500 kcal/kWh.
Note

1) The above heat rates are for an average station PLF of 80% and
accordingly for each 1% reduction in operating PLF, an additional
heat rate of 2.5 kcal/kWh shall be allowed.
* The station PLF for the month shall be computed based on
operating units only. Units under planned maintenance or long
shut down (exceeding 1 day) shall not be considered for station
PLF.
2) Existing Unit means a generating unit declared under commercial
operation from a date prior to 1.4.2004.
3) Normative heat rates to be increased by 1% for units more than 25
years old.
4) This settlement of additional heat rate based on PLF is recommended
to be made on monthly basis.
It is also seen that number of stations are operating at heat rates significantly
higher than the proposed normative heat rates. These stations may be asked to
submit the reasons for such abnormally high heat rates to the respective
regulatory commissions and if need be an energy audit may be carried out to
identify the causes of losses. Based on the above, a target for reductionof heat
rate over a period of 3-5 years could be assigned to the stations.

Technical Standard On Operation Norms
For Coal/Lignite Fired Thermal Power Stations


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b) New Units :
For all future units of 210/250 MW & 500 MW, the normative gross unit
heat rate corresponding to station PLF of 80% shall be 5% over the design
gross unit heat rate.
Note:
1) The normative heat rate shall be applicable for a station PLF of 80%.
2) New Unit - means a generating unit declared under commercial
operation from a date after 1.4.2004.
3) Additional heat rate of 2.5 kcal/kWh shall be allowed for each 1%
reduction in station PLF.
4) The design heat rate to be considered shall be the guaranteed heat rate
at 100% nameplate rating of the unit, 0% make up, design ambient
conditions. 5) Lower of the guaranteed value of heat rate or actual
obtained during PG test shall be considered
6) To prevent induction of machines with higher heat rates, it is
recommended that the maximum allowable design turbine cycle heat
rates at 100% load, 0% make up shall not exceed the following :-

210/250 MW Units - 1980 kcal/kWh
500 MW units with TBFP 1965 kcal/kWh


II) AUXILIARY POWER CONSUMPTION


The average of auxiliary power consumption for 500 & 200/210/250 MW
units is found to be 6.82% and 8.6% respectively. Most members of the
committee however, were of the view that the record for auxiliary power
consumption is not being maintained accurately at the stations because of
interconnection between various stages, variations in practices on accounting
transformer losses, etc. The large variations in auxiliary power consumption
reported by the stations from 6% to 11% further corroborate the above facts.
Also, the segregated data need to be obtained with open/closed cycle CW
system and type of mills used so as to fine tune the normative parameter. It is,
Technical Standard On Operation Norms
For Coal/Lignite Fired Thermal Power Stations


37
therefore, recommended that for the time being the auxiliary power
consumption as proposed earlier by CEA and also proposed by CERC in its
present tariff notification may be adopted . Accordingly, the following norm
for auxiliary power consumption is recommended for 200/210/250 MW units
& 500 MW units with motor driven BFPs

- 8.5% with open cycle CW system
- 9.0% with cooling towers

Note:

A reduction of 1.5% shall be made for units having turbine driven BFPs


III) SECONDARY FUEL CONSUMPTION

The average secondary fuel consumption (SFC) for these categories has been
about 0.8-0.9 ml/KWh. Most stations have reported very low secondary fuel
consumption of the order of 0.4 to 0.5 ml/KWh barring some stations, which
have reported exceedingly high SFC for which reasons will have to be
investigated. A number of stations have also reported extremely low SFC of
0.1 to 0.2 ml/KWh. It is therefore felt that SFC for 500 and 200/210/250 MW
units (category E, C, D) needs to be reduced from the present normative level
Most of the stations have operated at very high PLFs of the order of 80-85%
and above during the period for which data have been collected and analysed
and therefore the SFC is normally expected to be the lower as indicated.
However, members expressed that with ABT regime, the schedules may be
affected adversely forcing the stations to operate at lower PLFs in future,
which would entail higher secondary fuel consumption. Accordingly the
following norms for SFC are for 200-500 MW units recommended.

PLF SFC
PLF Up to 80% & above: 1.5 (one and half) ml/KWh for each unit KWh
generated.
PLF Below 60% 2 (two) ml/KWh for each unit KWh generated.
PLF Between 80% and
60%
On prorata basis with PLF

Technical Standard On Operation Norms
For Coal/Lignite Fired Thermal Power Stations


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11.2 SMALLER CAPACITY UNITS - Less than 200 MW (Coal Based)

I HEAT RATE
The following norms of heat rate are recommended for old smaller size
units of various sizes from 30 MW to <200 MW:-
a) Old units (existing)

Normative Heat Rate = 10% above the design heat rate of the units.
b) New Units
The normative heat rate shall be 5% above the design heat rates.
Notes
1) The normative heat rate shall be applicable for a station PLF of 80%.
* The station PLF for the month shall be computed based on
operating units only. Units under planned maintenance or long
shut down (exceeding 1 day) shall not be considered for station
PLF.
2) Additional heat rate of 2.5 kcal/kWh shall be allowed for each 1%
reduction in station PLF.
3) Existing Unit means a generating unit declared under commercial
operation from a date prior to 1.4.2004.

4) New Unit - means a generating unit declared under commercial
operation from a date after 1.4.2004.

5) The design heat rate to be considered shall be the guaranteed heat rate at
100% name plate rating of the unit, 0% make up, design ambient
conditions.
6) Lower of the guaranteed value of heat rate or actual obtained during PG
test shall be considered.

However, the fact is that the performance of most of the smaller units is
extremely poor for various reasons attributable to basic design
deficiencies, lack of appropriate R&M, ageing, coal quality deterioration
etc. The average variation in GHR at present is up to 60% from design
heat rates.

Technical Standard On Operation Norms
For Coal/Lignite Fired Thermal Power Stations


39
In view of the above and foregoing discussions at para 10.4, it is proposed
that average existing heat rate may be allowed as normative heat rate for
these units for some time and certain time frame of 3-5 years may be
allowed to attain the recommended normative performance level of 110%
of guaranteed heat rate. Targets for specific improvement each year may
be fixed by the respective regulatory commission.

II) AUXILIARY POWER CONSUMPTION

The average auxiliary power consumption for units in 100-200 MW range
and for less than 100 MW units are 12.01% and 11.29% respectively.
Large variations up to 15% are reported from various power stations and
most of the units are very old. The norms recommended for auxiliary
power for these units are :

- 11.5% with open cycle CW system
- 12.0% with cooling towers.
However, it is proposed that more exhaustive data with detailed breakup
would need to be obtained for working out the Auxiliary Power
consumption norms in future.

III) SECONDARY FUEL CONSUMPTION

The average Secondary Fuel Consumption (SFC) for category B units (100
to 200 MW) is 7.47 ml/KWh. However this includes certain units with
exceedingly high SFC of 8 to 19 ml/KWh which is rather abnormal. Thus
excluding such abnormally high SFC the average SFC for this category
works out to 3.9 ml/KWh. For category A (< 100 MW ) the average SFC
considering all units is 6.96 ml/KWh. However after excluding abnormally
high SFC data the average works out to 3.2 ml/KWh. Also the above
values of SFC are at a comparatively lower PLF of about 55 to 65% and
accordingly the SFC at higher PLF is expected to be lower. Further, with
improved performance after R&M activities, the SFC shall get reduced
Technical Standard On Operation Norms
For Coal/Lignite Fired Thermal Power Stations


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substantially. The recommended norms for SFC for units of less than 200
MW are :

PLF SFC
PLF Up to 80% & above: 2 (two) ml/KWh for each unit KWh generated.
PLF Below 60% 2.5 (two and half) ml/kWh for each unit KWh
generated.
PLF Between 80% and
60%
On prorata basis with PLF

It is also seen that number of stations are operating at specific fuel
consumption significantly higher than the proposed normative heat rates.
These stations may be asked to submit the reasons for such abnormally
SFC to the respective regulatory commissions. Based on the above, a
target for reduction of SFC over a period of 3-5 years could be assigned to
the stations.

11.3 LIGNITE FIRED UNITS

The summary of data received from lignite fired stations is furnished in Table-2.

Lignite Based Units

AGE
Category
No.
Of
Units
Avg.
GHR
Minm.
GHR
Maxm.
GHR
Avg.
GHR_var
Minm.
GHR_var
Maxm.
GHR_var
Avg.
(APC)
Minm.
APC
Maxm
. APC
Avg.
(SFC)
Minm.
SFC
Maxm
. SFC
A 12 3677 3421 3932 137.44% 124.51% 150.37% 11.82 11.44 12.21 2.82 1.27 4.64
B 2 2561 2561 2561 106.78% 106.78% 106.78% 11.73 11.73 11.73 2.11 2.11 2.11
C 0 0 0 0 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
D 7 2928 2915 2942 111.88% 111.38% 112.39% 9.56 9.45 9.67 1.43 1.27 1.59
Total All units 21 3154 2561 3932 121.09% 106.78% 150.37% 10.90 9.45 12.21 2.82 1.27 4.64

Table 2 Performance summary for lignite fired units

Data from a total of 21 units at 3 power stations has been received and
considered for lignite-fired units. As can be seen from table 2, these units are
of different sizes and fall under different age groups with extremely old units
at Neyveli A TPS ( 6x50 MW+3x100 MW) and very recently commissioned
units at GIPCL, TPS (2x125 MW, category B). As such clubbing all the units
together for norms would therefore not be appropriate. When different units
are considered based on their age groups, then with total number of units
Technical Standard On Operation Norms
For Coal/Lignite Fired Thermal Power Stations


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/station under each category is very small (just one or two station). Thus, the
approach of considering average performance of the capacity growth for
norms as done for coal fired units would also not serve the requisite purpose.
With just one or two stations in each category, the average data would also not
be representative and basing norms on above data would employ passing on
the operational deficiencies in the norms.

The turbine cycle for both the coal fired units and lignite fired units is exactly
similar and only difference lies in the boiler side (mainly milling, fuel
handling and ash handling areas). The boiler efficiency in lignite is lower on
account of higher moisture content of lignite and the auxiliary power for draft
system is higher whereas for milling and fuel and ash handling systems it is
lower. Thus, one possible approach for norms for these units would be to
adopt norms as applicable for coal fired units of respective categories and
allow for variations on account of fuel change from coal to lignite. Another
possible way could be to specify the norms with respect to the design heat
rates as this would allow all the variations on account of lignite firing to be
incorporated in the norms as these variations automatically get accounted for
in the design heat rates. Based on the above two approaches, the
recommended norms for various categories of lignite-fired units are as
follows: -

I) HEAT RATE

a) Category A ( Up to 100 MW)

A total of 12 units in two stations fall under this category. Of these, 6
Nos.. 50 MW units and 3 nos.. 100 MW units are at Neyveli A TPS &
3 nos. 70/75 MW units are at Kutch Lignite TPS. A wide variation is
observed in the performance of two stations. While the average gross
heat rate for Neyveli over last 3 years has been 50% higher than the
design heat rate for the station, it has been about 25% higher than
design for the Kutch Lignite TPS. The Kutch Lignite TPS is of
comparatively recent origin.

Technical Standard On Operation Norms
For Coal/Lignite Fired Thermal Power Stations


42
The Neyveli units are old but have undergone extensive life extension
and refurbishment works. Thus the extremely high heat rates of these
stations are not expected and the reasons for such abnormally high heat
rates may have to be examined for identifying remedial methods.
Thus, as proposed for small sized coal fired units, the recommended
norms of heat rate for these stations may be adopted as 110% of their
design heat rates. However, the time frame of years may be allowed
to the stations for identifying the remedial methods and formulating a
time bound gradual heat rate improvement targets which be monitored
by the respective regulatory commission.

Thus Normative Heat Rate : 110% of design heat rate with time
frame of 3-5 years for remedial
measures.

b) Category B ( 100 to less than 200 MW)

One station (GIPCL) having two units of 125 MW each are covered
under this category. These are new units recently installed and have
Circulating fluidized bed combustion boilers. Unlike the other
110/120 MW old units, these new 125 MW turbines have operating
parameters of 130 kg/cm2 and have turbine cycle heat rates
comparable to 210 MW LMZ turbines. The gross average heat rate for
this station is 2561 kcal/kWh, which is about 6.78 % higher than the
design heat rate. The proposed normative heat rate (80% PLF) is 2560
kcal/kWh.

c) Category D (200/210 MW Units)

Under this category 7 nos. 210 MW units of Neyveli TPS II Stage I &
II are covered. All these units are comparatively new and fall under
the age group to ( 5-15 years). The average heat rate for this category
works out to 2928 kcal/hr., which is about 12% higher than the design
heat rate. It is noteworthy that the average heat rate for coal fired units
of similar design is 2458 kcal/kWh. which is about 7.5% higher than
Technical Standard On Operation Norms
For Coal/Lignite Fired Thermal Power Stations


43
the design heat rate. Also for some good operating stations, the
operating heat rates have been much lower in the range of about 3%
higher than the design heat rate. NLC have reported that the heat rates
of these units are partly attributable to design changes incorporated in
the boiler like water lancing etc. A possible way to specify equitable
norm for these units is to adopt the normative heat rate of 2450
kcal/kWh as recommended for D type coal fired units and allow
suitable escalation based on lignite firing and considering the above
approach the heat for lignite fired units works out to 2750 kcal/kWh.
However, considering and specific and design/operation constraints
brought out by NLC. Heat rate of 2850 kcal/kWh is recommended for
NLC-II station..

As for coal-fired stations, additional heat rate of 2.5Kcal/KWh may be
allowed for each 1% reduction in station PLF from normative PLF of
80%.

II) AUXILIARY POWER CONSUMPTION
Due to higher moisture content in fuel & other operational constraints,
the auxiliary power consumption as stipulated by CERC is
recommended for these units.
Less than 200 MW units - 12% (with cooling tower)
> = 200 MW units - 10% (with cooling tower)

III) SECONDARY FUEL OIL CONSUMPTION
Same as for Coal Based Stations of corresponding unit size.
Technical Standard On Operation Norms
For Coal/Lignite Fired Thermal Power Stations


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12. FUTURE ACTION PLAN

As can be seen that despite enormous efforts to standardize the process of data
collection from the stations by providing standard formats for data collection and
provision of elaborate guidelines, there have been some variations in the data
furnished by the stations. These variations were however imminent in view of the
varying practices of coal accounting and sampling/analysis being followed at stations.
However there is a considerable convergence in the figures of coal transit losses and
variation between measured coal consumption and stock verifications reported by the
stations. All stations have been reporting GCV corrected to total moisture basis. Some
differences however exist in sampling practices.

As the stations were asked to furnish past data, the same has been furnished as per
their records and no attempts have been made by the stations to analyze and reconcile
the discrepancies. Also data has not been received from many of the stations.

With a view to streamline the whole exercise and make it more uniform, it is proposed
to bring out elaborate guidelines for recording of data to be furnished to CEA. It is
proposed to collect this data regularly on yearly basis with a view to enable
continuous analysis and bring out revisions in the norms when required. Certain key
operational parameters of the units would also be incorporated in the data to be called
for from the units so as to correlate the heat rate figures based on coal consumption
with the unit performance anticipated.

The power station authorities while furnishing the data should make their own
analysis for variations and avoid inconsistencies. Also the data should be utilized by
plant management for improvement every month as it affects the plant performance.
The data furnished to CEA would be compiled and made available to all utilities for
comparison of their performance with others and bring healthy competition among
utilities.



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