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ABSTRACT

In the service industry, the success or failure of the organisation


depends on how they fulfill consumers needs and wants. The main purpose
of this study is to determine the impact human resource management on total
quality management. This study in an assessment of the purpose used
deductive approach in which qualitative and quantitative surveys were carried
out on the employees and patients in the U.I.T.H. The survey was intended to
get their responses on what they feel about the quality of services they get
from the hospital. In this light, the study sets to identify the perception of
employees and patients about the implementation of TQ by H!.
" sample si#e of $%% respondents comprising both in and outpatients
was chosen from whom information to measure their perception about
services quality in the UITH as a result of impact of human resource
management on total quality management were captured. &imilarly, a sample
of '% staffers of the institution was also selected to elicit data on the views of
employees towards the implementation of total quality management through
human resource management. " biased sample of one hundred patients, i.e.
fifty in and out patients was selected until the desired sample si#e is reached
depending on the condition and disposition of the patients. (hile fifty staffers
were randomly selected from the staff population. &imple random sampling
involves selecting cases )staffers* until the desired sample si#e is reached.
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The result of the study indicates that there is a positive linear
relationship between se+ of patients has effect on their perception towards
the quality of service received. The co,efficient of correlation)r-%.%./* is
wea0. Though, the relationship is wea0 but it is positive, H! on Total Quality
anagement raises the level service received by patient variance is being
e+plained only $1 )r
2
- %.%$%*, though significant at 3 %.%'.
The analysis from the empirical findings showed that irrespective of
cadre of the employee, it does not affect their perception about the impact of
H! on TQ. It was also discovered that the area of specialty of employee
had effect on their perception on the impact H! has on TQ. 4atients,
irrespective of their status i.e. inpatients or outpatients has no effect on how
they perceive the impact of H! on TQ. ost patients agree to the fact that
service quality has improved in the hospital when compared to previous
years before the implementation of TQ through H!. It was also
discovered that the mortality rate had drastically reduced when comparing
mortality rates from previous years to rates obtainable since the
implementation of TQ through H!. 5rom the analysis of the survey
results, some recommendations for University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital
&ervice Improvement program will be made to help the organi#ation manage
its brand better and to sustain and improve the quality of its services.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS
PAGE
Title page i
6ertification ii
7edication iii
"c0nowledgement iv
"bstract v
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
$.$ 8ac0ground of the study $
$.2 &tatement of the problem '
$.9 :b;ectives of the study <
$.= >ustification of the study <
$.' Hypotheses of the study ?
$.< &ignificance of the study /
$.? &cope of the study .
$./ @imitation of the study $$
$.. &tudy 4lan $=
CHAPTER TWO 16
LITERATURE REVIEW 16
3
2.% Introduction $<
2.$ "n :verview of Total Quality anagement $<
2.2 Human !esource anagement in Aarious :rganisations 2$
2.9 The H! 7epartment in Total Quality anagement 2?
2.= Theoretical 5ramewor0 99
2.' 6onceptual 5ramewor0 9/
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
9.$ &tudy "rea =2
9.2 7escription of !esearch 4opulation =2
9.9 7escription of !esearch &ample and &ampling Technique =9
9.= !esearch Instrument =9
9.=.$ Interviews ==
9.=.2 Questionnaire ==
9.' !eliability and Aalidity of Instrument ='
9.< ethod of 7ata 6ollection =<
9.? &tudy Aariables and easurements =?
9./ 7ata 4rocessing and "nalysis =?
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
=.$ Introduction =.
=.2 7escriptive "nalysis =.
4
=.2.$ 7escriptive "nalysis of Bmployees !esponses =.
=.2.2 7escriptive "nalysis of 4atients !esponses =.
=.9 Qualitative "nalysis of H! &trategies in "chieving TQ6arried out in
the UITH'<
=.= Quantitative "nalysis </
=.=.$ Quantitative "nalysis of !esponses from Bmployees </
=.=.2 Quantitative "nalysis of !esponses from patients ?2
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
'.$ &ummary ?=
'.2 6onclusion ?<
'.9 !ecommendation ??
!B5B!BC6B& /%
"44BC7ID
5
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The concept of quality has e+isted for many years, though its meaning
has changed and evolved over time. In the early twentieth century, quality
management meant inspecting products to ensure that they met
specifications. In the $.=%s, during (orld (ar II, quality became more
statistical in nature. &tatistical sampling techniques were used to evaluate
quality, and quality control charts were used to monitor the production
process. In the $.<%s, with the help of so,called Equality gurus,E the concept
too0 on a broader meaning. Quality began to be viewed as something that
encompassed the entire organi#ation, not only the production process. &ince
all functional were responsible for product quality and all shared the costs of
poor quality, quality was seen as a concept that affected the entire
organi#ation.
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(il0inson )2%%/*, the meaning of quality for businesses changed
dramatically in the late $.?%s. 8efore then, quality was still viewed as
something that needed to be inspected and corrected. However, in the
$.?%s and $./%s many U.&. industries lost mar0et share to foreign
competition for e+amples in the auto industry, manufacturers such as Toyota
and Honda became ma;or players. In the consumer goods mar0et,
companies such as Toshiba and &ony led the way. These foreign competitors
were producing lower,priced products with considerably higher quality.
The term used for todayFs new concept of quality is total quality
management or TQ. Gou can see that the old concept is reactive, designed
to correct quality problems after they occur.
Bmployees in a service organi#ation and particularly, those who have
frequent contacts with the customer usually serve as representatives of both
the organi#ation and their products or services to the customer at contact
point. The quality of the service and the satisfaction the customer may derive
will be an assessment of the entire service e+perience.
Bmployees who are empowered in an organi#ation can either portray a
positive or negative picture to the customers. 6onsidering that, a satisfied
customer and employee are of important value to the organi#ationH it
therefore, becomes the duty of the management to put in place a system that
7
would ultimately generate either satisfaction, or dissatisfaction from their
customers and employees.
&ince the employees have a ma;or role to play in determining, whether
a customer would en;oy the e+perience or turn to their competitors for better
solutions.
This according to 8aruch )$../*, forces organi#ations to re,thin0 their
strategyI because as Jeithaml )2%%<* points out, companies today recogni#e
that they can compete more effectively by distinguishing themselves with
respect to service quality and improved customer satisfaction.
7evelopments in clinical procedures, technologies, laws have called
for hospitals to search for new strategies and structures. 7ecreasing
mar0ets, increasing demands, and changed customer attitudes,
regulations, as well as the growing global competition in recent years, ma0e
up the causes of change in the mar0ets hospitals are competing on.
4roduct and service quality are ran0ed high, private and public
companies providing quality certificates and total quality management
deriving from this development. (il0inson )$../*. :thers have
e+pressed the quality development as the end of mass and the start of a
new production paradigm, based upon fle+ible speciali#ation 4iore and
&abel ) $./=*. In view of the prevailing trend, increased service quality and
a higher degree of liability towards customers no longer remain a mere
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possibility but are essential if mar0et shares are to be retained and further
developed.
"ccording to :a0land )$..9*, quality management is driven by the
competitive environment and is universal for all types of organi#ationsKI
Whatever type of organizations you are working in
a hospital, universities, bank, insurance company, airline company,
students, or whatever company you are working in competition is
common: Competition among customers, resources etc. Very few
organizations do not see uality as a most important element in the
battle for competitive advantages.!
The management interest in quality is not new but using quality as a
0ey element in the battle for competitive advantages is of recent date.
:a0land )$./.* claims that after the industrial revolution, and the computer
revolution in the beginning of the $./%s, we are now in the midst of a
quality revolution. &urveys conducted by various organi#ations have
revealed an increase in quality movements. These include the
movement best 0nown as total quality managementH this has been widely
ac0nowledged as a ma;or innovation in management theory. The approach
to or the philosophy of total quality management is, however, not
obvious. Bven 7eming ac0nowledged that he did not 0now what it meant
precisely 8o;e )$..9*. There are a number of reasons for this ambiguity.
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The first problem is to define the concept quality. &econdly, the large
variation in activities, practice, and techniques renders it hard to define
what total quality management really means. Lnutton )$..=* claims that
even though the introduction of total quality management may be similar in
different organi#ations, organi#ations may well have very different ways of
wor0ing with total quality management.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
(hen service interaction are not properly controlled and handled, or
not even handled at all, the outcome is poor perception or service quality and
customer dissatisfaction, Hence the need for properly managed total quality
management frame. Hence what role has human resource management to
play in the implementation of total quality management and improving the
service quality in the university of Ilorin teaching hospitalM
$. (hat are the perceptions of employees towards the impact of human
resources management on total quality management in the hospitalM
2. (hat are the perceptions of patients towards the impact of human
resources management on total quality management in the hospitalM
9. (hat are the perception of patients towards the quality of services they
receive in the hospital as compared to the before the implementation of
TQM
10
=. Have the human resources management strategies implemented in the
hospital led to improvement in service delivery in the hospitalM
'. (hat strategic role did the human resource management play in the
implementationM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this research is to ascertain the e+tent to which total quality
management has being attained through human resource management in
the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital.
The specific ob;ectives of the study are toK
$. To determine the importance of Total quality management in
University of Ilorin teaching hospital.
2. To e+amine the impact of human resources management on
employee through the use of Total quality management.
9. To study the role play by human resource management in the
implementation of TQ.
=. To investigate the impact of TQ on patients in University of Ilorin
Teaching hospital.
'. To ma0e suggestion on Human resources management patterns
with the view of improving employees performance.
1.4 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY
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The research wor0 focused on the impact of human resources
management on total quality management in the university of Ilorin teaching
hospital. "lthough :a0land )$..9, p.2,9* defines total quality management
as the way for the management to improve effectiveness, fle+ibility, and
competitive advantages for the organi#ation as a whole because it
complies with the internal and e+ternal customer requirements and the role of
human resources in Cigeria hospital. (ith the help of total quality
management in University of Ilorin teaching hospital it improves the quality
and efficiency of service rendered.
1. HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
The University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital is a fully fledged teaching
hospital that provides healthcare services to both people within the state and
its environs.
The hypothesis of the study includesH
H
!
" "rea of speciali#ation of employees has no effect on perception
towards the impact of human resource management on total
quality management.
H
!
" 6adre of employee has no effect on perception towards the
impact of human resource management on total quality
management.
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H
!
" Cumber of years in service has no effect on perception towards
the impact of human resource management on total quality
management.
H
!
" &e+ of employees has no effect on perception towards the impact
of human resource management on total quality management.
H
!
" Type of patient has no effect on their perception towards the
quality of service received.
H
!
" &e+ of patients has no effect on their perception towards the
quality of service received.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The case study showed how the human resource department had
played different roles as facilitator, internal contractor, and hidden
persuader at different stages of the implementation of total quality
management in the U.I.T.H. They assisted the top management in aligning
human resource polices and quality policies, creating and communicating
the total quality management concept, preparing the organi#ation as well
as the staff for the implementation of total quality management, generating
quality awareness among the employees across the levels, functions, and
departments, developing management support to quality action teams,
organi#ing quality wor0shops, formulating quality friendly policies, systems
and procedures, changing the conventional mind set of employees,
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organi#ing total quality management training programs, devising
different communication e+ercises, encouraging team building
activities, promoting employee involvement through suggestion
schemes, quality circles, and other participative types of forum.
This thesis has aimed to contribute to the understanding of the
human resource management and implementation aspects of total quality
management. ore specifically, the aims were those of analy#ing the data
collected and e+amining the perception of both employee and patients
towards total quality management and of generating 0nowledge on the
human resource management tas0 with regards to an implementation of total
quality management.
oreover, researchers have been using
1.# SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In healthcare institutions, the general offering in a particular industry is
averagely similar, even though they may engage in different approaches to
achieving a differentiation from the others, to be able to gain more mar0et
share and customers in the industry. "ccording to NrOnroos )2%%$*, Pthat
almost any health institution can provide an individual with healthcare
services, Ebut not every health institution manages to treat customers in a
way that they are pleased with.I &ervice providers therefore see0 to
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differentiate themselves from their rivals by offering customers higher quality
of services than their competitors, which ma0es the basis of their competition
to be defined by their services.
The nature of services as being intangible, heterogeneous, perishable,
produced, and consumed at same time ma0es it peculiar to deliver, and
challenging to organi#ations to achieve a differentiation from the others.
5ollowing therefore all the qualities of service, and with respect to the
health sector, a hospital cannot inspect its services and products to weed out
unsatisfactory ones before they are presented to the customer "shis L &en.
)2%%/*. Bmployees therefore become the voice and face of the organi#ation,
but it is not enough that they are trained to provide quality serviceH the whole
system )organi#ation* must be geared towards the attainment of providing
quality services at all times.
"ccording to @ooy )2%%9* with reference to the specific nature of
service delivery, Pempowerment becomes a very important issue to
organi#ations producing services.I In that, the customers and the employees
are engaged simultaneously in the production of the service. This
inseparability is what is considered by the organi#ation in choosing how best
to serve its customers. The inability of the management to control the service
encounter ma0es the employees responsible for the quality of service
delivered to the customers. In order for the management to trust that total
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quality management is attained, the management has to give the employees
the authority and necessary support to succeed, &upport systems must be in
place, good management policies, technology, and information must be
relevant and timely.
In matters concerning health services, patients not only need
reassurance on the quality of service received, but also that they are valued
for committing their sta0es with a particular health institution. 6ustomers of a
health institution rely on the services delivered to them by the hospital
whether they are on admission, receiving outpatient consultations,
purchasing drugs from the hospitals pharmacy or receiving medical social
services, they count on the employees responsible for handling issues
relating to them, to deliver high service quality in other to increase their
satisfaction. (hen service interaction are not properly controlled and
handled, or not even handled at all, the outcome is poor perception or service
quality and customer dissatisfaction, Hence the need for properly managed
total quality management frame.
1.$ LIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH
This research is limited to the activities of one hospitalH this is
consequent to the constraint on the duration of this research. This pro;ect
will cover the concept of effective use of Total quality management in the
University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital.
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The limitation of this study will includeH limited time available on the part
of the researcher to carry out an e+tensive investigation and high cost of
acquiring needed material. "nother constraint which serves as limiting
factors is the unwillingness of the staffs in the hospital to release the vital
information.
The research is further delimited to the e+tent and impact of human
resources management on the implementation of total quality management.
Hence the result of the research cannot be generali#ed to other hospitals.
DEFINATION OF TERMS
i. T!%&' ()&'*%+ M&,&-./.,%" T!%&' ()&'*%+ M&,&-./.,% 0!1 T(M2 is
a management concept coined by (. Bdwards 7eming. The basis of
TQ is to reduce the errors produced during the manufacturing or
service process, increase customer satisfaction, streamline supply
chain management, aim for moderni#ation of equipment and ensure
wor0ers have the highest level of training. 5rom (i0ipedia, the free
encyclopedia )"pril $., 2%$%*.
ii. Quality is one of the most commonly misunderstood words in
management. (hat is a high, quality pair of shoes or a high,quality
ban0 accountM It is meaningless to ma0e statements about the degree
of quality of a product or service without reference to its intended use
or purpose. 8allet shoes would obviously have different
17
requirements from those used in mountaineering, but both pairs
of shoes may have the same level of quality , they are equally
suitable for the purpose for which they were manufactured. Quality
can therefore be defined as the e+tent to which a product or service
meets the requirements of the customer. 8efore any discussion on
quality can ta0e place, it is therefore necessary to be clear about the
purpose of the product or service. In other wordsK what are the
customerFs requirementsM
iii. P&%*.,%3K " patient is any person who receives medical attention, care,
or treatment. The person is most often ill or in;ured and in need of
treatment by a physician or other health care professional, although
one who is visiting a physician for a routine chec0,up may also be
viewed as a patient. 5rom (i0ipedia, the free encyclopedia )"pril $.,
2%$%*.
iv. H!34*%&'" " hospital, in the modern sense of the word, is an institution
for healthcare providing patient treatment by speciali#ed staff and
equipment, and often, but not always providing for longer,term patient
stays. 5rom (i0ipedia, the free encyclopedia )"pril $., 2%$%*.
v. H)/&, R.3!)15. M&,&-./.,% H)/&, R.3!)15. M&,&-./.,% is
the organi#ational function that deals with issues related to people
such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organi#ation
18
development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation,
communication, administration, and training.
)www.humanresources.about.comQodQglossaryhQfQhrRmanagement.htm
*. Human resources management is commonly practiced as a part of
the overall organi#ational quality planning and implicitly, intended for
internal customer satisfaction, across organi#ational team wor0ing,
training and career development, and quality of wor0ing life.
vi. O)%4&%*.,%3K " patient who is not an inpatient )not hospitali#ed* but
instead is cared for elsewhere ,, as in a doctorFs office, clinic, or day
surgery center. The term outpatient dates bac0 at least to $?$'.
:utpatient care today is also called ambulatory care.
)www.medterms.comQscriptQmainQart.aspMarticle0ey-=?%%*
vii. I, 6 P&%*.,%3K "n inpatient on the other hand is EadmittedE to the
hospital and stays overnight or for an indeterminate time, usually
several days or wee0s )though some cases, li0e coma patients, have
been in hospitals for years*.)5rom (i0ipedia, the free encyclopedia*.
1.7 STUDY PLAN
This research wor0 is in five chapters, chapter one deals with the
bac0ground information of the study, statement of the problem, research
questions, ob;ectives of the study, research hypothesis significance of the
study scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and study plan.
19
6hapter Two consists of the literature review, theoretical framewor0 and
conceptual framewor0.
6hapter Three is deals with the research methodology, the study area,
population of the study, sample and sampling technique, instrumentation,
validity and reliability of the instrument, method of data collection,
6hapter 5our deals with data presentation and analysis, qualitative and
quantitative analysis.
6hapter 5ive has the summary, conclusions and recommendations.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 AN OVERVIEW OF TOTAL (UALITY MANAGEMENT
)7ean and 8owen, $..=* have analy#ed the total quality
management literature, claiming that the 0ey points of total quality
management are those of customer focus, continual improvements, and
teamwor0. Bach of these points will be implemented through a number of
practices, li0e gathering customer items of information and analy#ing
processes by applying specific quality techniques. )!affio, $..9* further
includes the involvement of employees as well as management
commitmentH as basic principles of total quality management while )Hart
and 8ogan, $..2* identify the distinction of total quality management as a
penetrating customer oriented approach to managing quantity for
competitive advantage.
The 8ritish Quality "ssociation )8Q"* has three alternative
definitions of total quality management. The first focuses on soft
qualitative attributes, containing elements such as customer oriented,
cultural as advantage, removal of performance barrier, teamwor0,
training and involvement of employees.
The second 8Q" definition comprises production aspects such as
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systematic measuring and control of the wor0, setting standards for
performance and the use of statistical procedures to achieve quantity.
This definition focuses, contrary to the first, on hard quantitative attributes.
" similar definition on total quality management is provided by )&teingard
and 5it#gibbons, $..9*. They define total quality management as a set of
techniques and procedures which should be used to reduce or eliminate
variations in production process. The third 8Q" definition is a mi+ture of the
two previous definitions which provide an ac0nowledgement of the
scientific as well as the humanistic approaches.
:a0land )$..9, p.2,9* defines total quality management as the way for
the management to improve effectiveness, fle+ibility, and competitive
advantages for the organi#ation as a whole because it complies with the
internal and e+ternal customer requirements. He sees the essence of the
total quality management concept as a triangle, each corner being a
0ey pointH the management commitment, statistical process control, and
teamwor0. In this triangle, the points are connected as a chain but they are
also interdependent of one another. &ome have argued that the chain
could be bro0en at any of these points by a person or a tool, and
therefore fail to meet customer requirements.
8ut according to ) :a0land, $..9*, the internal customer focus
throughout the chain builds an internal customer environment which will
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provide compensation if the chain should brea0.
The triangle has management commitment as the height, a position
upon which most total quality management theorists would agree.
Bven though the e+plicit definition of total quality management is not
obvious, there are some basic principles in total quality management
ma0ing for a ;oint approach. )Hill and (il0inson, $..'* have identified the
principles outlined belowK
Customer oriented: Quality means complying with customer
requirementsH customers are both internal and e+ternal, and quality
oriented management will need to meet customer requirements. 6ustomer
orientation does generate throughout the organi#ation a shared aim for all
activities while integrating quality in the design as well as in the
specifications. 6ustomer e+pectations for a design or specifications must
be transformed in order that the organi#ation may adapt these e+pectations
to activities required for production. This is accomplished by using a
customer perspective because no matter how many productions and vast
improvement the organi#ation ma0es, it will be to no avail unless
customers are willing to buy the product, based on the idea that a product
can do no more than it has been desi gned f or. 7esign and
speci f i cat i ons are equal l y i mport ant . "nd i f an organi#ation focuses
on one of these only, it will deteriorate. "n organi#ation may provide the
23
right design quality, a product which customers would want to buy , but
could lose out by not having the right specifications required. &imilarly, a
product providing the right specifications only may not meet customer
design requirements.
Process oriented: The tas0s or processes in an organi#ation are
connected in a series of quality chains wor0ing across the conventional
internal functional principles. Bvery process in a quality chain has a
customer, beginning with the internal customer in an organi#ation, and
continuing to be sub;ected to various stage processes until the product
actually reaches the e+ternal customer. In this manner, total quality
management attempts, by way of teamwor0 and cooperation, to involve
all organi#ation levels in delivering quality to internal customers, and
ultimately to e+ternal customers.
Continuous I mpr ovement s: To comply with customer
requirements involves continuous improvements of products and
processes. The most efficient method to create improvement is to let the
staff performing the particular wor0 identify and implement the particular
improvement in their daily wor0. Bven through continuous improvement
involves all staff, this should be viewed from the angle that it is the
management that has the responsibility for the development and the
change in the organi#ation. !"he role for the employees is to assist#.
24
"o eliminate errors in products or processes and also to give the worker
a chance to use the brains and make them contribute to continuous
improvements within their organization! $%illrank and 6anoe $./., p.2.*.
Improvement Tools: These tools are statistic process control
methods, to be used by all staff to simplify processes and process
reorgani#ing.
Measuring: onitoring the cost of quantity and customer satisfaction
denotes a recent effort in total quality managementH it is a supplement to
the more traditional way of measuring failure and variations. The cost of
quantity is a financial measure of the quality performanceH it may be
described as followsK
4reventing e+penses S chec0ing and testing incoming components,
inspecting products prior to their leaving the organi#ation, routine
inspection maintenanceH failure e+penses waste, scrap, double wor0H
Bstimating e+penses S inspection, inspection with vendors, estimate
activities.
Organization Approach: This includes implementation of groups,
commitment to quality, planning of cross functional wor0groups, changing
staff role towards a customer oriented role, teamwor0 and an e+tended
cooperation with suppliers about continuous quality improvements. The
management of the organi#ation needs quality planning as a
25
component in their strategic planning. Those responsible for the political
messages in the organi#ation should ma0e sure that the quality concept
becomes well 0nown by all staff.
2.2 HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN VARIOUS
ORGANISATIONS
The human resource management )H!* of an organi#ation is directly
or indirectly responsible for the quality of services the employees of an
organi#ation render to their customers. They recruit and develop the
employees in an organi#ation for the type and quality of services the
organi#ation is offering to the consumers.
)7evanna, 5ombrum and Tichy, $./=* illustrate, by way of 5igure $. The
various tas0s of human resource management.
5ig 2.$ )&ourceK 7evanna, 5ombrum and Tichy, $./=* Human !esource
anagement 6ycle &ource
Selection : $ 7evanna, 5ombrum and Tichy, $./=* claims, as illustrated by
26
5igure $ that the attempt to develop a quality culture starts with the
selection of employees with the appropriate characteristics.
Bffective recruitment is consequently important and specific
media for advertising and formulations should be selected with a view
to hiring staff. !ealistic and precise ;ob adds which would inspire
candidates to reflect on their abilities in relation to the particular ;ob while
selective methods in the organi#ation should test applicant abilities in
problem,solving and teamwor0 )8owen and @awler, $..2*.
Industrial !elations !eview and !eport )2%%$* claims that there is
ample evidence testifying how organi#ations identify the selection of staff
as a 0ey area in total quality management. :n this aspect, )&torey,
2%%%* mentions how some total quality organi#ations used tests in the
selection of foremen and hourly,paid wor0ers in order to measure their
abilities to thin0 independently, wor0 in teams and in a general spirit of
cooperation. "fter the selection and the integration of the new staff in the
organi#ation, the human resource cycle will move its focus on to the
organi#ations performance as manifested by control, rewards, and
development.
Performance" &ome theorists have claimed that performance
control plays a ma;or role in the development, communication, and
measuring of quality standards )7eblieu+, $..$*. However, e+perience has
27
shown that the result of the performance might be unable to reach the
targets and would thus frequently degenerate into an empty ritual )&nape,
$..=*. 5urther, many authors on total quality management, especially (.B.
7eming, assert that control of the performance does not fit the idea of total
quality management )Bvans and @indsay, $...*. (.B 7eming maintains
that variations in performance will mainly derive from the wor0 process, and
not from the individual employee.
Deming: ! &f an employee is told by the manager to cut the plates
e'actly (,)*+mm long, and the employee is euipped with nothing but a
rip saw, a table, as well as a tape measure, it would not be possible for
the employee to cut all the plates e'actly (,)*+mm long. &mprovements in
the work process would only be gained i f the management would i nvest
in an electrical saw, a cutting table, and more precise measuring
euipment. &t is, however, up to the particular staff member to report
whenever the saw blade might, for instance, be worn downI
*
Improvements should occur through changes of processes rather
than through control of the staffH according to 7eming this is the 0ey to
develop cooperation teams )Bvans and @indsay, $...*. 7eming argues
that it is difficult to gain any 0ind of cooperation if the management
focuses on blaming the individual employee as was the case in the
28
traditional control of performance. 7eming further argues that this would
generate a wor0 environment of fear in which the staff would rather avoid
any form of ris0 while merely concentrating on short,term potential
and individual performance S an attitude which would undermine
cooperation, creativity, and the committed pattern of behaviour needed
to create continuous improvement )Bvans and @indsay, $...*. :thers
have asserted that there is a need for a change leading away from the
traditional and individual control of performance towards a more
process,oriented and teamwor0,measuring type of performance to be
manifested in the total quality management wor0 )Nlover, $..9*.
(estern management has, however, generally demonstrated a disli0e
of the removal of control with regard to performance. Bven in organi#ations
which had implemented total quality management, such organi#ations
have frequently done so alongside their e+isting control system )8owen
and @awler, $..2*. &everal authors claim that something should be done
about the control sheets to ma0e these more effective, a proposal aiming
to remove the traditional hierarchical structure and to involve employees
further down the organi#ation in control of the performance. In total quality
management seeing the customer, e+ternal or internal, as the
highest instance in control of performance, it would seem logic to include
the customer. This could also support the collaboration between the
29
various teams, suppliers, and customers, and develop a more open
and positive organi#ation.
Development: Training and development are recogni#ed by most
theorists as being essential in an implementation of total quality
management. The literature of total quality management also focuses
intensively on management training in quality tools and techniques.
Reards: $8owen and @awler, $..2* claim that total quality management
removes the traditional career ladder because of the flat fle+ible
structure within the organi#ation. Total qual i t y management sets, on
the other hand, the cross functional e+perience as a reward. " 0ey element
in the cycle is that of rewards in order to retain and motivate the staff,
especially in wor0 areas facing ma;or competition. In the attempt to hold
on to employees, rewards such as cash may play an important role. In the
literature of total quality management, the sub;ect of rewards such as cash
is, however, controversial. There is, however, a general agreement that
result,based output systems may destroy staff commitment and motivation
towards quality improvements. 4articularly 7eming is against rewards such
as those of cash. "s mentioned above, he asserts that it is the very
recognition that quality wor0s that is the reward.
&ome total quality management theorists have argued that the road
towards developing a quality culture goes through public recognition in the
30
organi#ation and mention of the use of a reward system as a method to
generate successful performance or results. &uch a system could either
involve recognition or a reward such as cash in order to gain public
recognition among the other employees. :ther authors, however,
assume an attitude of doubting any such proposition but ac0nowledge
that rewards and recognition may be used as part of an implementation of
total quality management if the management be aware that rewards and
recognition will not be sufficient to build a quality culture.
"ccording to )7rummond and 6hell, $..2*, the staff might presume
that they would increase their wages owing to their increased liability, and
that they would also receive a part of the financial gain thus created. If this
is not reali#ed, the organi#ation might ris0 staff disillusion with total
quality management. )(al0er, 2%%2* claims that total quality management
will regularly fail after 9 to ' years after the implementation because the
staff will lose interest in the pri#es , the recognition, and because of their
e+pectations of a financial reward due to their contribution to the
quality improvements.
This is indeed a controversial area. Implementation of total quality
management will most li0ely require a search for new ways of dealing with
this area. )8owen and @awler, 2%%2* argues that the trend is moving
towards a group,oriented recognition aiming to support the team, as well as
31
a s0ill, based reward targeting an increase in individual s0ills. This is
more in line with total quality management and could be a means of
support for or a substitution of the more traditional rewards and
recognition.
2.3 THE HR DEPARTMENT IN TOTAL
(UALITY MANAGEMENT
"s for the importance of the human resource tas0s in the
implementation of total quality management, it is relevant to ascertain
which tas0s human resource employees would be assigned in this conte+t.
They are e+pected to be involved in the design and in the implementation
of the new human resource policies as a matter of necessity to support the
change. &uch policies seem li0e critical symbols of the change so the
human resources department contribution is one of the significant
areas of total quality management.
The human resource department hasH however, for a long time been
recogni#ed as an ambiguous function the contribution of which to
organi#ation aims could be difficult to estimate. Human resource
employees may also find it difficult to clearly define their particular e+pertise
for generally all managers are concerned about the management of the
staff. However, in recent years a stronger profile of the human resource
32
tas0s in the organi#ation has emerged but it does not necessarily lead to a
stronger profile of the human resource department, merely because
the staff and the management show a higher degree of attention and
liability to the tas0s of the human resource department. In fact, some
tas0s would be considered too important to leave for human resource
department attention in view of the limited attention devoted by human
resource staff to the real tas0s of the organi#ation, the lac0 of management
faith in the function, as well as its own lac0 of s0illsQcompetences and Q or
self,confidence.
The research conducted by )(il0inson and archington, $..=*
contributes to the understanding of the human resource tas0s in the design
and in the implementation of total quality management.
Their research of $' organi#ations described four roles adopted by
human resource staff in the design and in the implementation of total
quality management.
33
They distinguish between four roles having two dimensions, as
illustrated in figure 2.2.
&trategic @evel
@ow 4rofile 6hange "gent Hidden 4ersuader
High 4rofile Internal 6ontractor 5acilitator :perational level
5ig 2.2 )&ourceK (il0inson and archington, 2%%=*.
The !ole of the Human !esource 5unctionH 5irst, assuming that the
human resource department has participated at a strategic or at an
operational level. It is a question of the difference between a highly
administrative level and a very directly involved level. &econdly, they
distinguish between a high profile and a low profile of the human resource
department. The high profile is e+tremely visible to the other managers and
staff while the low profile will act in a rather more bac0,stage manner. The
first role is that of the ,acilitator. It was found in all the studies involving the
human resource department in the implementation of total quality
management, especially at the operational level. Involving training of the
middle management, elaboration of news letters and other communication
related tas0s. Bven through this role is seen as essential according to the
survey, it really entails no more than routine practice in a human resource
34
department.
The second role is that of the &nternal Contractor. This role
did involve the human resource department in setting aims and standards
for the human resource policies addressing internal customers. In their
research, the clearest e+ample was that of a software enterprise. They
had set aims for the human resource department services targeting internal
customers, evaluating these with internal customers. 5urther, )8owen and
@awler, $..2* have offered their version of how the &nternal Contractor
role could wor0 in respect of total quality management. "ccording to them,
the human resource department should strive to ma0e things right the
first time in order to avoid conversion of failure training programs or
rewards. There should be e+plicit focus on customer requirements with
customer,oriented programs instead of standard programs. This would
involve the customers, at the level of middle management or employees,
in the specification and design of the product. The implementation of total
quality management in the human resource department would also involve
empowerment of the department staff.
(hile the &nternal Contractor and "he facilitator wor0s at the
operational level rather than at the strategic level, the Internal Contractor
0eeps a high profile because of its role of stating and communicating
quantity standards to internal customers. The third role is that of the
35
Change -gent who maintains a high profile and wor0s at the strategic level.
In e+treme cases, the human resource department may play a ma;or role in
the design of the total quality management program, improving its
foundation with a view to developing a quantity culture and assist in the
control of the program. Total quality management is thus seen as
synonymous with an organi#ation change, and the human resource
department as a part of the organi#ation which will be best placed to
define and lead the process. (here it was widely recogni#ed in the
organi#ation that the human resource department did have an important
role in the development of total quality management and actually wor0ed as
a motivating power in the change.
The fourth role is that of the .idden /ersuader. Bntailing that the
human resource department will play a strategic role in the beginning of
the wor0 with total quality management, for instance as a critical
part i ci pant i n management discussion regardi ng the
i mpl ement at i on of t ot al qual i t y management.
:pposite the Change -gent we find the .idden /ersuader role, not
especially visible to middle managers and employees but acting rather as
a guide for the management. This view was held by !acal 5acts Cetwor0s
managers who opted for using the human resource department because
they considered the function as one run by a neutral department which
36
would create an overview of the changing processes and act as a non,
partisan part in valuing various interests within the organi#ation.
It is hardly surprising that there are a number of pitfalls in these
roles. The Change -gent, manifesting the visible and important role,
may ris0 the transfer of its entire role to another department if the total
quality management program fails. In contrast to this, we have the .idden
/ersuader whose only ris0 is one of getting but a small part, if any, of the
honour of success, a ris0 also valid for the ,acilitator. The &nternal
Contractor carries the obvious ris0 of not achieving the required aims, thus
losing the confidence of the other departments. However, a human
resource department is not limited to choosing ;ust one of the four roles
but could retain several roles. It is thus possible to act as "he
,acilitator during training and promotion of the communication
initiatives, while still participating in strategic design of the total quality
management, as the .idden /ersuader.
To which e+tent the human resource department would ta0e over on
one or several roles in an implementation of total quality management is
not merely a matter of a decision made by the human resource
department. uch will depend on three critical factors. The first factor is
that of the e+isting status and style of the departmentH a department which
so far has performed only basic staff wor0 will probably not have the
37
necessarily e+pertise and credibility required in order to assume a strategic
role in the implementation of total quality management. The second factor
is that the human resource department will regularly point to initiatives
different from those of the production department, and may thus ris0
being marginali#ed in the organi#ation.
The third factor is that of the history of quality management. &ince
the previous system,based method applied in quality management is
ac0nowledged to have failed, this may in fact offer the department an
opportunity to assume a more strategic role. The role of the human
resource department does, however, not necessarily have be permanent
because of the continuous processes in total quality management which
will provide for the human resource department an opportunity of being
involved in a large,scale or smaller e+tension over time. The human
resource department could, for instance, be highly involved in the design
and implementation phaseH subsequently, the department may step Pbac0,
stageI, and from this point encourage the organi#ation to demonstrate
liability towards quantity. "gain, the human resource department might be
periodically involved in process evaluation such as reflected in surveys,
analysis, and training.
2.4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Total quality management wor0s with an open management style with
38
a delegation of liability. The aim is to develop a quality culture in which
everyone wor0ing in the organi#ation will share a commitment t o
cont i nuous improvements in order t o sat i sf y customers. 8ut
according to )I4,$..9* research, despite increased attention to the
culture issues, still devotes very little attention to the practical day,to,day
process of changing the culture of the organi#ation. 5urther, the literature of
culture argues about the difficulties involved in changing the culture of an
organi#ation ):gbonna, $..9*. )&chein, 2%%=* for instance views culture
as something which, according to him, includes three levels as illustrated in
5igure 2.9
5ig 2.9)&ourceK 7evanna, 2%%=*. The atching odel &ource
39
T -rtifacts refer to the visible organi#ation structure and processes.
T 0spoused values refer to the strategies, ob;ectives, and philosophies.
T 1asic underlying assumptions refer to the unconscious, ta0en,for,
granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings.
)&chein, $..2* argues that the pattern of basic underlying assumptions
may act as a cognitive defense mechanism for individuals or groups,
thus ma0ing culture changes difficult, time consuming, and an+iety
provo0ing. 6ultures are deep seated, pervasive and comple+ and it may
prove an e+tremely difficult e+perience to bring these assumptions to the
surface.
)&chein $..2* identifies management as a subculture in every
organi#ation and argues that the management as an introduction to a
change of the organi#ation culture should discuss their own culture to a
degree which would ma0e it accessible to identify their subculture, and thus
a lean new method to reflect and change their culture, as an unfree#e phase
S cognitive restructure phase S refree#e phase of their shared culture
before they try to implement the change in the organi#ation culture.
)&chein, $..2* method for change is based upon Lurt @ewinUs change
theory.
T 2nfreezing
T Cognitive restructuring
40
T 3efreezing
:thers theorists claim that there are separate subcultures and
occupational cultures which are influenced by internal and e+ternal
factors. This would question the assumption that an organi#ation has one
shared culture, and if that culture is relatively simple, it could be changed
by the management.
Bven assuming that only one shared culture e+ists, it would still be a
problem for the management to implement total quality management
because the e+isting culture could resist the change, acting as a barrier to
the implementation. In a research of $' Bnglish companies, it was
analy#ed which method the management had applied to handle the culture
in their organi#ations. )(illiams $../, p.9?* has, with reference to the
research unfolded, five methods which were commonly applied by the
management.
$. 6hanging the composition of the members in the organi#ation through
selective recruitment and dismissal programs with the aim of getting
new colleagues with the correct attitude as well as the technical s0ills
and e+perience. This might call for the use of more sophisticated hire
techniques such as physical testing, rating center, and bio data.
2. oving colleagues to new functions in order to destroy old subcultures.
9. 4roviding colleague training and role models to achieve the culture
required. This would involve middle managers and managers who
41
should act as role models and show personal commitment to the new
aim.
=. Training colleagues in the new wor0ing method, changing their
attitudes towards their tas0s.
'. 6hanging the wor0 environment, H! policies, and the management
style in general.
(ith reference to the survey, it was also mentioned that attempts to
manage the culture would frequently be more successful when the
changes were caused by critical factors, such as a decline in mar0ets, new
competition or financial problems. This would help organi#ation staff
reali#e the necessity for the particular change.
)&chein*

seems to agree in respect of the arguments about structure,
systems and procedures as an important mechanism when dealing with
the culture changes but he regards them as secondary in relation toK
%eadership:! "his ability to perceive the limitations of one4s own culture and
to develop the culture adaptively is the essence and ultimate challenge of
leadership.!
0ducation: !"he culture of a group is a pattern of shared assumptions that
the group learned as it solved its problems of e'ternal adaptation and
internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid
and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to
42
perceive, think and fall in relation to those problems. !.3 policies and
practice! 0very group must know what its heroic and sinful behaviours
are, and must achieve consensus on what is a reward, and what is a
punishment.!
The literature agues therefore for a more comple+ and comprehensive
changing agenda towards an implementation of total quality
management, leadership, human resources, and the wor0
environment in general being important elements.
2. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The human resource management cycle focuses on the individual
employee by way of control, rewards, and development efforts in the
attempt to create a commitment towards continuous quality improvements.
"nother perspective is the focus on improving the system. The essence of
these two perspectives is the cause of variation in performance.
Table 2.$K Human !esource 4erspective and (. B. 7eming 4erspective
43
)&ourceK (.B. 7eming 2%%=*
The human resource management perspective assumes implicitly
that organi#ation performance efficiency may be controlled by focusing on
the performance of the individual employee.
In contrast to this stands the perspective ta0en, we divide
organi#ation performance into two categories. The first category in which
the variation is brought about by the individual employee S a process
which he characteri#es as one of special reasons. The second category
in which the variation is due to the organi#ation, a category characteri#ed
as one of normal reasons. 7eming argues that the special reasons category
includes but a small part in relation to the normal reasons of variation.
"ccording to 7eming, attempts to control an organi#ation as in the
human resource management perspective will come out as a definite
44
failure because this will ta0e the focus off the normal reasons of
variation, and also undermine the staff behaviour of practicing continuous
improvements.
These perspectives offer two different hypothesesK (hereas one
focuses on controlQmanagement of the individual employee, the other
focuses on improvements of the organi#ation.
7eming argues, as mentioned above, that the individual reward and
individual control will actually undermine the 0ind of staff behaviour which
was intended to contribute to continuous improvement. 7eming could have
a point in his argument against blaming the individual employee for the
variations in the organi#ation, and it is also ac0nowledged that measuring of
individual performance might result in staff demorali#ing.
However, in recent years there has been increasing interest in
combining these two hypotheses. )(aldman, 2%%=* has a theory about
performance focusing on staff factors )awareness, s0ills, attitude, and
individual motivation* and also on the system factors )wor0 environment
restrictions and requirements*. (aldman argues that these factors affect
one another, and together they will constitute a determinant for the
performance of the organi#ation. This is in agreement with the fact that the
human resource policies may support the development of the
necessary motivation, behaviour, and competences required for
45
implementation of total quality management. This further implies that the
wor0 environment and ;ob design will have an impact on the
commitment to continuous improvements by the particular staff member.
Customer
Perceived
Quality
System
Improvement
Human
Resource
Practices
Customer
Satisfaction
46
Fig 2.4(Source: Waldman 2004) once!"uali#ed $ar"
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 STUDY AREA 0UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN TEACHING HOSPITAL2
The University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital is a full fledged teaching
hospital that provides healthcare services to both people within the state and
its environs. The hospital belongs to the second generation of hospitals in the
countryH the hospital came into e+istence on 2
nd
of ay $./%. The hospital
commenced operations in >uly $./%. The ob;ectives of the hospital areK
$. To train medical and paramedical personnel.
2. To deliver health care services.
9. To serve as referral center for other hospitals.
=. To conduct research.
3.2 DESCRIPTION OF RESEARCH POPULATION
The study was carried out at the university of Ilorin teaching hospital.
The organi#ation is made up of medical, paramedical, administrative and
other au+iliary staff. This category of employees ma0es up the total
population of the organi#ation. The organi#ation has total staff strength of
about 5our Thousand employees. Bach category of employee plays an
important role in ensuring that quality service is provided at all times. 4atients
receiving both medical and other forms of consultations also ma0e up part of
47
the entire patient population si#e. Two ma;or types of patients are attended to
in the hospital, i.e. Inpatients and :utpatients. The hospital has a total bed
complement of ='<beds.
3.3 DESCRIPTION OF RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING
TECHNI(UE
" sample si#e of $%% respondents comprising both in and outpatients
was chosen from whom information to measure their perception about
services quality in the UITH as a result of impact of human resource
management on total quality management were captured. &imilarly, a sample
of '% staffers of the institution was also selected to elicit data on the views of
employees towards the implementation of total quality management through
human resource management. " biased sample of one hundred and fifty
patients, i.e. seventy five in and out patients was selected until the desired
sample si#e is reached depending on the condition and disposition of the
patients. (hile one hundred and fifty staffers were randomly selected from
the staff population. &imple random sampling involves selecting cases
)staffers* until the desired sample si#e is reached.
3.4 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
5or the purpose of this research, two research instruments were used
for data collection, face to face interviews and questionnaires.
48
3.4.1 I,%.18*.93
5or the qualitative side we conducted a face to face interview with the
Head of personnel and training department, employees and some patients
too, on different occasions which can be regarded as a structured interview
because we prepared our questions beforehand and wrote down their
responses as the interview was carried out.
The aim of the interview was to 0now from a managerial and employee
and customer perspective what their impression and perception about total
quality management is and how they are implementing it in the organi#ation.
3.4.2 ().3%*!,,&*1.
5or the quantitative side as part of the survey, "s part of the primary
data collection, we handed out questionnaire to about $'% patients in the
hospital. The aim of having the patients participate in the e+ercise was to get
an insight of their perspective about their satisfaction with the hospitals
services. This is in order for us to compare partly their reflections about
customer satisfaction and the practices of total quality management in the
hospital. (e also handed out questionnaires to the employees of the hospital,
in order to get their opinion about the issue of the impact of human resource
management in total quality management, and to what e+tent they feel it is
implemented in the hospital. (e handed them the questionnaires and
returned within the ne+t 2= hours to collect the responses. This was in order
49
for us to give them enough time to thin0 their answers through before
responding.
3. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT
Basterby,&mith )2%%2* defines reliability as the e+tent to which data
collection techniques or analysis procedures will yield consistent findings.
The primary ob;ective should be that if a later investigation followed e+actly
the same procedures as described by an earlier investigator and conducted
the same study all over againH this later investigator should be able to arrive
at the same results and conclusions. Thus the study is considered to be
highly reliable. However, due to the very nature of human beings $%%1
reliability cannot be considered for this study, as individual perceptions are
central in this study. In other words because we are different as individuals
and that our preferences and perceptions are different, future investigations
may not produce e+actly the same results as reported in this thesis.
Conetheless, I believe that the results of this study could be regarded as
highly reliable.
The research for this thesis could be considered as a field research as
it is carried out among people who happen to constitute the wor0 force and
customers whose responses I cannot influence in any significant manner.
5urthermore, to ensure both internal and e+ternal validity, the right and
relevant questions were as0ed in the survey, the most feasible data collection
50
method used, and the tools used to analy#e the data are also considered to
be accurate and produce valid resultsH the overall validity of this thesis is
considered to be high. However I would argue that the validity of this thesis is
relatively high.
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
" total of $%% questionnaires each were prepared and randomly
administered among patients. These questionnaires were distributed
randomly in order to ensure ma+imum representation of all levels of patients
to avoid any possible biases.
:ne of the procedures used for data collection in this research wor0
was through the use of questionnaires since it is an effective and systematic
way of as0ing questions under scientific control. Interviews were conducted
with both top management staff to elicit information about the efforts of the
hospital in achieving TQ through H!. In other words, almost all individual
characteristics as well as the respective subgroups were covered by the
sample. The interviews were performed to gain a deeper 0nowledge of the
results received by the questionnaire respondents. The interviews were
structured in order to ensure the ob;ectivity of the research, and open,ended
questions were used. Quantitative and qualitative aspects may also be
combined in the same study.
They can complement each other by bringing width and depth into the
51
research. " mi+ of qualitative and quantitative studies gave me the best ideal
to forge ahead with the research questions. The combined approaches will be
the most meaningful way to probe into the sub;ect and assess the role of
human resources management on total quality management in the hospital.
The ma;or part of this thesis uses both quantitative and qualitative
method, as the aim is focus on gathering information or opinions about the
many factors in a systematic manner.
3.# STUDY VARIABLES AND MEASURMENTS
The variables used for this study to measure the impact of human
resource management on total quality management include the "rea of
speciali#ation of employees, 6adre of employee Cumber of years in service,
&e+ of employees, @evel of education, Type of patient )inpatient or
outpatient*, Bfficiency of H! strategies used and &e+ of patients. "lso the
milestones and accomplishments made since the implementation of TQ in
the hospital.
3.$ DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS
8oth inferential and descriptive statistics were used to analy#e the data
for this research wor0. 7escriptive statistics typically summari#e data to ma0e
it easier to interpret, and present in a more manageable form. The
interpretation of the results from the survey )questionnaires* will be visuali#ed
52
by mainly pie charts and frequency tables in order to get a clear picture of the
responses.
The other statistical procedure used in this research wor0 is regression
analysis. !egression analysis in statistics includes any techniques for
modeling and analy#ing several variables, when the focus is on the
relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent
variables. ore specifically, regression analysis helps understand how the
typical value of the independent variable changes when any one of the
independent variable is varied, while the other independent variables are held
fi+ed.
The model is given asH
G - aVb+
(here y - dependent variable
D - independent variable
a -intercept
b - gradient
The qualitative findings will be analy#ed using an inductively,based analytical
procedure.
This method was chosen as it brings vast benefits when analy#ing large
amounts of qualitative data.
53
CHAPTER 4
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
In this chapter, the empirical data collected from the organisation shows the
results obtained through conducting interviews and handing out
questionnaires.
4.2 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
SATISFACTION LEVEL RESPONSE : OF RESPONSE
AB!G &"TI&5IB7 2< <'
>U&T :L $9 92.'
7I&&"TI&5IB7 $ 2.'
TOTAL 4; 1;;
4.2.1 DESCRPTIVE ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYEES RESPONSES TABLE 4.1"
THE TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF EMPLOYEES ON HOW
SATISFIED THEY ARE WORKING IN THE U.I.T.H
54
FIG 4.1" HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WORKING IN U.I.T.H<
TABLE 4.2" THE TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF EMPLOYEES
ON HOW LONG THEY HAVE WORKED IN THE U.I.T.H
YEARS IN SERVICE RESPONSE : OF RESPONSE
$,' $2 9%
<,$% $/ ='
$$,$' / 2%
$< "8:AB 2 '
TOTAL 4; 1;;:
FIG 4.2 HOW LONG HAVE YOU WORKED IN U.I.T.H<
55
TABLE 4.3" THE TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF EMPLOYEES
WHO HAVE BENEFITED FROM TRAININGS SINCE THEY JOINED U.I.T.H
FIG 4.3" HAVE YOU BENEFITED FROM ANY TRAINING SINCE YOU
JOINED U.I.T.H<
TABLE 4.4" THE TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF EMPLOYEES
ON THE EFFECT OF THE TRAINING
ANSWER RESPONSES : OF RESPONSE
YES 99 /2.'
NO ? $?.'
TOTAL 4; 1;;
56
FIG 4.4" DID YOUR TRAINING IMPROVE YOUR E=PERTISE<
TABLE 4." THE TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF EMPLOYEES
ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE HRM STRATEGIES
HRM
STRATEGIES
VERY
EFFECTIVE
EFFECTIVE NOT
EFFECTIVE
TOTAL
ON JOB
TRAINING
2$ $? 2 4;
SEMINARS
AND
WORKSHOPS
$/ 2$ $ 4;
JOB
ROTATION
2% $/ 2 4;
REWARDS
AND
RECOGNITION
$. $. 2 4;
TOTAL #$ # # 16;
ANSWER RESPONSES : OF RESPONSE
YES 9= /'
NO = $%
CAN>T SAY 2 '
TOTAL 4; 1;;
57
FIG 4." EFFECTIVENESS OF HRM STRATEGIES USED IN U.I.T.H<
4.2.2 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF PATIENTS RESPONSES
ANALYSIS OF (UESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTERED ON PATIENT
D*3%1*?)%.@ ().3%*!, N! !A R.34!,@.,% P.15.,%&-. 0:2
!eturned .< .<
Unreturned = =
T!%&' 1;; 1;;
TABLE4.6" THE TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF PATIENTS ON
THE SATISFACTION OF SERVICES RECEIVED.
SATISFACTION RESPONSES : OF RESPONSES
E=TREMELY SATISFIED 2/ 2..$?
VERY SATISFIED 9< 9?.'%
NEUTRAL 22 22..2
58
VERY DISSATISFIED 2 2.%/
E=TREMELY DISSATISFIED / /.99
TOTAL 76 1;;
FIG 4.6" HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WITH THE SERVICES OF THE
U.I.T.H<
TABLE 4.#" TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF PATIENTS ON
WHETHER THEY WOULD PREFER TO SEEK MEDICAL CARE
ELSEWHERE.
ANSWER RESPONSES : OF RESPONSES
YES =% =$.<?
NO 9/ 9..'/
MAYBE $/ $/.?'
TOTAL 76 1;;
59
FIG 4.#" WOULD YOU PREFER TO SEEK MEDICAL CARE ELSEWHERE<
4.3 (UALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF HRM STRATEGIES IN ACHIEVING
T(M CARRIEDOUT IN THE UITH
The roles of the personnel and training division at different
stages of the implementation of total quality management in the
University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital
=.2.$ PB&3. I. E,8*3*!,*,-K The personnel and training division played a
central role in creating and communicating the total quality management
vision of the company to the effect that the University of Ilorin Teaching
Hospital attaches great importance to the quality concept as an integral
part of the entire organi#ation and considers quality assurance a decisive
parameter for continued growth of the institution.
60
=.2.2 PB&3. II. P1.4&1*,-". The preparatory stage is crucial as it paves
the way for future total quality management activities and sets the speed.
7uring this stage, the personnel and training division acted in close
alliance with the total quality management group. The ma;or activities
underta0en by the personnel and training division during that stage are
listed belowK
T "ssisting the top e+ecutives in drafting the quality policies, plans,
systems, and procedures
T 6ommunication to employees, customers, suppliers, and others
T 7ecision to proceed and obtain the commitment from the top
management to provide resources to implement total quality
management
=.2.9 PB&3. III. I/4'./.,%*,-" The role played by the personnel and
training division in the implementation phase was as followsK
T 6reating quality awareness across the organi#ation
T 7eveloping management support
T :rgani#ing quality wor0shops
T 5ocusing on quality in policies, systems, procedures, etc
T 6hange in mind set
6reating quality awarenessK Implementation of any action program
needs sufficient wa0efulness among the people ahead of time about the
61
plan and its advantages. Quality as a concept as well as an action plan has
to be e+tensively communicated among the employees at all levels of the
organi#ation. The University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital personnel and
training division has assumed the responsibility for creating quality
awareness among employees by organi#ing training programs and carrying
out various communication e+ercises by way of briefing groups in
consultation and collaboration with line e+ecutives. 8esides, they have
prepared literature on quality in the form of pamphlets, posters, slogans,
wallboards, etc.
7eveloping management supportK &uccessful implementation of total
quality management widely depends on acceptance by the total quality
management group as a philosophy of management. To achieve this, the
personnel and training division provided training for top management as
well as 0ey e+ecutives in the organi#ation. "ccording to the head of
personnel and training they have succeeded in dispersing the message
that total quality management is a philosophy as well as a program to
the top management.
:rgani#ing quality wor0shopsK The personnel and training division
has organi#ed a considerable number of wor0shops for total quality
management facilitators and 0ey e+ecutives to appreciate total quality
management and diffuse the message of total quality at all levels.
62
5ormation of quality action teamsK (ith a view to steering the
implementation of total quality management, a number of quality action
teams have been constituted in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital to
streamline systems and procedures. These teams have ta0en up various
pro;ects and developed solutions for implementation. &o far, / quality
action teams have been formed in the University of Ilorin Teaching
Hospital for various pro;ects. The personnel and training division also
assisted in the formulation of new quality friendly policies, systems, and
procedures, as well as updating and rationali#ation of the e+isting ones in
order to create the right 0ind of ambience for effective implementation of
total quality management.
6hange in mind setK Cot all efforts for promotion and implementation
of total quality management may yield the desired result unless and
until quality becomes the attitudinal propensity of employees. To this
end, the personnel and training division put emphasis on a change in the
mind set of employees. "fter the implementation of total quality
management, emphasis was applied on total quality in the processes in
order to render the end results qualitative. Initially, quality awareness,
e+periences of successful implementation of total quality management in
other organi#ations, formation of quality action teams, and performance
feed,bac0 for ta0ing corrective measures have all led to an
63
imperceptible though steady change in the attitudinal dimension of
the employees. Today, according to the head of personnel and training
division, each University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital employee is committed to
total quality management not as a program but as a means for his own
survival. He also points out that total quality management has been lin0ed
to the endurance of the organi#ation, and enunciation of such need has
made total quality management a functional system in the organi#ation.
Thus, the attitudinal aspects of transformation coupled with total quality
management being a functional system have accelerated its successful
implementation.
=.2.= PB&3. IV. S)3%&*,*,- %B. /!/.,%)/" (hen a company launches a
new program, employees must be taught how to acclimati#e behaviour
patterns to benefit from the program. In this conte+t, training is of
paramount importance since it will facilitate learning of the required s0ills
and 0nowledge to ma0e the program successful as well as to sustain
the momentum. In addition, effective communication is equally
responsible for the success of the program. "lthough time consuming and
costly, communication may potentially reduce employee fear associated
with new role patterns, ma0e them feel more comfortable with brea0ing
previous routines, and develop performance consistent with total quality
management effort.
64
In the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, through proper training
and communication, all staff are persuaded to empathi#e total quality
management, and the implementation process has gained momentum
through employee involvement and team building activities.
TrainingK Total quality management initiatives have stated the
need for training employees )&ingh, 2%%%*. Training plays an important
role in generating awareness )4alo and 4adhi, 2%%9*,
7eveloping a supportive culture, building quality s0ills , encouraging
team building )&mith, 2%%9*, and commitment to quality policy and strategy
)4alo and 4adhi, 2%%9*.
In the U.I.T.H, a well,thought out training program has been designed to
provide training for e+ecutives and non,e+ecutives on total quality
management. The fact is acclaimed that the training activities conducted
in this organi#ation are appro+imately identical to procedures generally
found in the management literature on the theory of training. 5or
instance, many writers have developed models of the training process but
basically these may be summari#ed so as to include four phases, i.e.
those of the "ssessment phase, 4lanningQ7esign phase, Implementation
phase, and Bvaluation phase ):a0land, 2%%$*.
"ssessment. The training needs of each employee are identified and
assessed regularly, and training will then be arranged to provide and
65
enhance s0ills and compensate for lac0 of 0nowledge. Identification
and assessment of training needs of employees in the University of Ilorin
Teaching Hospital are conducted as outlined belowK
T "nnual 6onfidential !eports in the case of non,e+ecutive employees
T "ppraisal !eports in the case of e+ecutive employees
T 4eriodic survey by the personnel and training division
T 5eed,8ac0 by !eporting :fficers and !eviewing :fficers
The personnel and training division conducts periodic surveys in the
University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital department,wise, grade,wise or
position,wise with a view to identifying training needs for the staff in
question. In performing this, they will circulate questionnaires among the
staff for self,assessment of training needs, among reporting officers and
reviewing officers for identification of training needs of employees
wor0ing under them, as well as among all those concerned with
assessing training requirements for effective discharge of functions. &uch
assessment of training needs will then be compiled, codified, and pursued.
4lanning. This stage identifies where and when the training will ta0e place,
and will involve issues such asK
T (ho needs to be trainedM
T (hich competencies are requiredM
T How long will training ta0e
66
T (hat are the e+pected benefits of trainingM
T (hoQhow many will underta0e the training
T (hich resources will be needed, e.g. money, accommodation, etc.
Typically, the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital will plan its training
program annually according to the needs of the employees and of the
business. It will circulate a list of available courses well in advance of the
training dates. The strategic training plan will be supported by an annual
budgeting and planning system.
Implementation. This implicates the actual deliverance of the
training. 8oth the training and development center and the personnel
and training division will organi#e the training programs regularly.
Bvaluation. This part is commonly ac0nowledged as one of the most
critical steps in the training process. In this part, the overall effectiveness
of training is evaluated, providing feedbac0 for the trainers, senior
managers, the trainees themselves, as well as future improvements of the
program. Bvaluation will assume multiple forms, such as those of
observation, questionnaires, interviews, etc. in the U.I.T.H.
6ommunicationK Bffective communication is a critical component in
achieving business success, be it communication of the organi#ation
goals, vision, strategy and business policies, or the communication of
facts, information and data. !egular two,way communication particularly
67
face,to,face with employees is identified as an important factor in
establishing trust and a feeling of being valuedQappreciated.
In the U.I.T.H, two,way communication is regarded as a core
management competency as well as a 0ey human resource responsibility. "
number of schemes have been introduced in the organi#ation to improve
interpersonal communication. These schemes includeK
T (or0place communication schemes, communicating the personnel
e+ecutiveQshift in charge directly with wor0shop wor0ers.
T 4articipative forum of unions
T Internal department sessions
"ccording to the head personnel and training division, all these
communication e+ercises have enabled a continuous dialogue between
the individual employee and the management. " typical list of personnel
and training division responsibilities for effective communications i n t he
Uni ver si t y of I l or i n Teachi ng Hospi t al t o achi eve total quality
includes issues such asK
T meeting people on a regular basis
T enhancing t rust and de,emphasi#ing power di f f erences
bet ween t hemsel ves and t hei r subordinates
T ma0ing sure that people be briefed on 0ey issues in language free of
technical ;argon
68
T communicating candidly and as fully as possible on all issues affecting
their people
T Bncouraging people to suggest novel ideas
T persuading team members to discuss company issues and provide
upward feedbac0
Team buildingK It is evident from the research that pioneering
organi#ations place great emphasis on the worth of people wor0ing ;ointly
in teams. This is hardly surprising as a great deal of theory and research
indicates that people will be motivated and wor0 better when part of a
team. Teams will also achieve more through integrated efforts and
problem,solving. The team,oriented wor0 environment is an essential
factor for the success of total quality management.
The, the personnel and training division has organi#ed many synergetic
teams to effectively handle matters relating to total quality management.
Team building is facilitated in various areas of functioning by the wor0 of
tailor,made wor0shops, technology, and teamwor0, enhancing
management effectiveness, etc. In the multi,union setting of the company,
team building will target the managing of the plural diversity of unions and
the facilitating of evaluation of ;oint perceptions of unions on vital issues
affecting the organi#ation.
Bmployee InvolvementK ost people still assume that total quality is
69
the responsibility of quality specialists. However, this belief is flawed and
detrimental to reali#ation of total quality.
In the U.I.T.H, employee participation is promoted at all levels to cultivate
commitment and involvement of employees through small group activities
li0e those of suggestion schemes, quality circles, and other participative
fore. In the area of quality circles, the following initiatives have been ta0en
up during the years of 2%%=,2%%< during which preparatory wor0 was
conducted for implementation of total quality management.
T 6onducted $2 wor0shops on quality circle techniques for members
and leaders
T :rgani#ed $2% e+posure programs on circle concepts in various
departments
T "nnual Quality 6ircle !ecognition function was held to facilitate
the wor0 of circle members for implementing the pro;ects
T 7epartment,wise circle functions were held during the year to
recogni#e and motivate the employees by distributing the mementos
to eligible circle members
In the matter of suggestion schemes, much effort was put into the wor0
performed by the personnel and training division to generate an increased
number of suggestions originating from employees, such as borne out by
the increasing number of suggestions received over the period from $..<,
70
$..? until 2%%=,2%%'.
MILESTONES FOR THE TOTAL (UALITY MANAGEMENT PROCESS
Bstablishment of self,functioning production groups which later
resulted in a high degree of responsibility and involvement in the
TQ,process on the part of all employees.
!eduction in mortality rate in the hospital when compared to previous
years before the TQ process started.
2%%2K The senior management of U.I.T.H decides to implement TQ.
The decision is based on whole,hearted commitment at all levels of
management and involvement of all employees.
2%%9K Bstablishment of self,functioning production groups which later
resulted in a high degree of responsibility and involvement in the
TQ,process on the part of all employees.
2%%'K U.I.T.H reaches the finals for the &ervice Quality "ward.
2%%/K ost &ervicom compliant teaching hospital in the country
2%%.K (inner of !5I7 "("!7 of B+cellence
71
4.4 (UANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
4.4.1 (UANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF RESPONSES FROM EMPLOYEES
TABLE 4.$" THE TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF EMPLOYEES
BY SPECIALTY.
H
!
" "rea of speciali#ation has no effect on perception towards the
impact of human resource management on total quality management
H
1
" "rea of speciali#ation has effect on perception towards the impact
of human resource management on total quality management.
C!.AA*5*.,%3
odel
Un&tandardi#ed
6oefficients
&tandardi#ed
6oefficients
W &td. Brror 8eta t &ig.
$. )6onstant*

>ob &pecialty
,%.99
%.2%?
%.$%<
%.%<? %.==<
,9%?
9.%?%
%.?<%
%.%%=
72
a. 7ependent Aariable K 8Q )H!.TQ*
&ourcesK 6omputed from the field wor0 )2%$$*
D.5*3*!, R)'.K !e;ect the null hypothesis if 4. value 3 X,value - %.%', do not
re;ect H
o
if otherwise.
D.5*3*!," &ince 4. value - %.%%= is less than X,value - %.%', we therefore
re;ect H
o
in favour of alternative hypothesis H
i
.
C!,5')3*!," Hence, we conclude that "rea of speciali#ation has effect on
employees perception towards the impact of human resources management
on total quality management.
TABLE 4.7" THE TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF EMPLOYEES
BY CADRE
H
!
" 6adre of employee has no effect on perception towards the impact
of human resource management on total quality management
H
1
" 6adre of employee has effect on perception towards the impact of
human resource management on total quality management
C!.AA*5*.,%3
odel
Un&tandardi#ed
6oefficients
&tandardi#ed
6oefficients
W &td. Brror 8eta t &ig.
$. )6onstant*

6adre
,%.%2$
%.2=<
%.$$/
%.$%% %.9?%
,$?.
2.='?
%./'.
%.%$.
73
a. 7ependent Aariable K 8Q )H!.TQ*
&ourcesK 6omputed from the field wor0 )2%$$*
D.5*3*!, R)'.K !e;ect the null hypothesis if 4. value 3 X,value - %.%', do not
re;ect H
o
if otherwise.
D.5*3*!,K &ince 4. value - %.%$. is less than X,value - %.%', we therefore do
not re;ect H
o
.
C!,5')3*!," Hence, we conclude that 6adre has effect on employees
perception towards the impact of human resources management on total
quality management.
TABLE 4.1;" THE TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF EMPLOYEES
BY YEARS SPENT IN SERVICE
H
!
" Cumber of years in service has no effect on perception towards the
impact of human resource management on total quality management
H
1
" Cumber of years in service has effect on perception towards the
impact of human resource management on total quality management
C!.AA*5*.,%3
odel
Un&tandardi#ed
6oefficients
&tandardi#ed
6oefficients
W &td. Brror 8eta t &ig.
$. )6onstant*

Co of Grs in
&ervice
%.922
,%.$$.
%.$9%
%.%.. ,%.$.$
2.=??
,$.2%%
%.$/
%.29/
74
a. 7ependent Aariable K 8Q )H!.TQ*
&ourcesK 6omputed from the field wor0 )2%$$*
D.5*3*!, R)'.K !e;ect the null hypothesis if 4. value 3 X,value - %.%', do not
re;ect H
o
if otherwise.
D.5*3*!," &ince 4. value - %.29/ is greater than X,value - %.%', we therefore
re;ect H
o
in favour of the alternative H
i
.
C!,5')3*!,K Thus, we conclude that Cumber of years in service has effect
on employees perception towards the impact of human resources
management on total quality management.
TABLE 4.11" THE TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF EMPLOYEES
BY SE=.
H
!
" &e+ has no effect on perception towards the impact of human
resource management on total quality management
H
1
" &e+ has effect on perception towards the impact of human resource
management on total quality management
C!.AA*5*.,%3
odel
Un&tandardi#ed
6oefficients
&tandardi#ed
6oefficients
W &td.
Brror
8eta t &ig.
$. )6onstant*

&e+
.$'%
%.$%%
%.$$<
%.$<' %.%./
$.2//
%.<%?
%.2%'
%.'=?
75
a. 7ependent Aariable K 8Q )H!.TQ*
&ourcesK 6omputed from the field wor0 )2%$$*
D.5*3*!, R)'.K !e;ect the null hypothesis if 4. value 3 X,value - %.%', do not
re;ect H
o
if otherwise.
7ecisionK &ince 4. value - %.'=? is greater than X,value - %.%', we therefore
do not re;ect H
o
.
6onclusionK Hence, we conclude that &e+ of employee )Ceither male nor
female* has no effect on perception towards the impact of human resources
management on total quality management.
76
4.4.2 (UANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF RESPONSES FROM PATIENTS
TABLE 4.12" THE TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF
PATIENTS BY TYPE OF PATIENT.
H
!
" Type of patient has no effect on their perception towards the quality
of service received.
H
1
" Type of patient has effect on their perception towards the quality of
service received
C!.AA*5*.,%3
odel
Un&tandardi#ed
6oefficients
&tandardi#ed
6oefficients
W &td.
Brror
8eta t &ig.
$. )6onstant*

Type of
4atient
%.<.<
%.$'<
%.$=/
%.2%2 %.$$$
=.<.$
%.??=
%.%%
%.==9
a. 7ependent Aariable K &! )&ervice !eceived*
&ourcesK 6omputed from the field wor0 )2%$$*
D.5*3*!, R)'.K !e;ect the null hypothesis if 4. value 3 X,value - %.%', do not
re;ect H
o
if otherwise.
D.5*3*!,K &ince 4. value - %.==9 is greater than X,value - %.%', we therefore
do not re;ect H
o
.
77
C!,5')3*!,K Hence, we conclude that type of patient has no effect on their
perception towards the quality of service received.
TABLE 4.13" THE TABLE SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF
PATIENTS BY SE=.
H
!
" &e+ has no effect on their perception towards the quality of service
received.
H
1
" &e+ has effect on their perception towards the quality of service
received
C!.AA*5*.,%3
odel
Un&tandardi#ed
6oefficients
&tandardi#ed
6oefficients
W &td.
Brror
8eta t &ig.
$. )6onstant*

Nender
$.2%%
,%.==$
%.$</
%.2$/ ,%.2/9
?.$=<
,2.%22
%.%%%
%.%=.
a. 7ependent Aariable K &! )&ervice !eceived*
&ourcesK 6omputed from the field wor0 )2%$$*
D.5*3*!, R)'.K !e;ect the null hypothesis if 4. value 3 X,value - %.%', do not
re;ect H
o
if otherwise.
D.5*3*!," &ince 4. value - ,%.%=. is less than X,value - %.%', we therefore
re;ect H
o
in favor of the alternate hypothesis.
C!,5')3*!,K Hence, we conclude that &e+ of patients has effect on their
perception towards the quality of service received.
CHAPTER FIVE
78
SUAR!" C#$C%USI#$ A$& REC#E$&ATI#$S
.1 SUMMARY
The study sought to find out the impact of human resources management on
total quality management in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. The
analysis of this research wor0 unfolds the perception of employees and
patients towards the impact of Human !esources anagement on Total
Quality anagement in the hospital. Table =./, reveals area of speciali#ation
has effect on employees perception towards the impact of human resources
management on total quality management. I.e. different groups of employees
feel differently about the impact that Human !esources anagement has had
on the implementation of Total Quality management.
Table =./, reveals that area of speciali#ation has effect on employees
towards the impact of human resources management on total quality
management
Table =.., reveals that cadre of employee has effect on employees
perception towards the impact of human resources management on total
quality management.
Table =.$% reveals number of years in service has no effect on employees
perception towards the impact of human resources management on total
quality management.
79
Table =.$$ also reveals that se+ of respondent has no effect on employees
perception towards the impact of human resources management on total
quality management.
Table =.$2 reveals that type of patient has no effect on their perception
towards the quality of service received.
Table =.$9 shows that se+ of patient has no effect on their perception towards
the quality of service received.
It is also of note that the various roles the personnel and training
department have played in implementing and sustaining TQ has yielded
positive results towards improving the quality of healthcare patients receive in
the hospital. &ome of these milestones include
Bstablishment of self,functioning production groups which later
resulted in a high degree of responsibility and involvement in the
TQ,process on the part of all employees.
!eduction in mortality rate in the hospital when compared to previous
years before the TQ process started.
2%%2K The senior management of U.I.T.H decides to implement TQ.
The decision is based on whole,hearted commitment at all levels of
management and involvement of all employees.
2%%9K Bstablishment of self,functioning production groups which later
80
resulted in a high degree of responsibility and involvement in the
TQ,process on the part of all employees.
2%%'K U.I.T.H reaches the finals for the &ervice Quality "ward.
2%%/K ost &ervicom compliant teaching hospital in the country
2%%.K (inner of !5I7 "("!7 of B+cellence.
.1 CONCLUSION
The analysis implies that building a quality culture would require a
matching human resource strategy, which would involve the human
resource management, the organi#ations way of wor0ing as well as the
human resource policies and practices. In conte+t to this, was it
furthermore argued that the literature of total quality management often
have a hidden implicit agenda, which call upon a top, down method for
the implementation of total quality management. This could underestimate
the difficulties, there are in gaining a commitment to continuous
improvements in the quality of service rendered. The empirical analysis in
the organisation reveals the different roles of the human resource
management and shows that the implementation of total quality
management has could pose a lot of human resource challenges to
human resource employees such as, motivating 0nowledge wor0ers,
obtaining employees satisfaction, overcoming communication barriers,
81
solving problems associated with vastness of the organi#ation.
This study has shown that there is a relationship between successful
implementation of total quality management and human resource
management. It has also shown the human resource implications of total
quality management.
It has reflected the fact that the human resource tas0s include basic
elements in the implementation of total quality management, based on the
underlying assumption that employees and managers will be forced to
practice continuous improvements.
The various roles which a human resource management could assume in
the implementation of total quality management were presented. In this
connection, various elements were brought up each of which would have a
bearing on the role of the human resource management in the
implementation.
:verall it would seem that total quality management and human resource
management have quite a lot in common and would be able to
contribute successfully to the accomplishment of the organi#ation
aims.
.2 RECOMMENDATIONS
The case study showed how the human resource department had played
different roles as facilitator, internal contractor, and hidden persuader at
82
different stages of the implementation of total quality management in the
U.I.T.H. They assisted the top management in aligning human resource
polices and quality policies, creating and communicating the total quality
management concept, preparing the organi#ation as well as the staff for
the implementation of total quality management, generating quality
awareness among the employees across the levels, functions, and
departments, developing management support to quality action teams,
organi#ing quality wor0shops, formulating quality friendly policies, systems
and procedures, changing the conventional mind set of employees,
organi#ing total quality management training programs, devising
different communication e+ercises, encouraging team building
activities, promoting employee involvement through suggestion
schemes, quality circles, and other participative types of forum.
Hence the following are my recommendations to the management of the
hospital in order to sustain the momentum of maintaining Total Quality
anagement.
$. In order to facilitate the total quality management progress in the
organi#ation, the personnel and training division has to ma0e a
configuration with other departments. " number of quality action
teams have been constituted in the organi#ation with managerial
personnel from various departments.
83
2. The personnel and training division has to deal with challenges to
human resource employees, such as those of motivating 0nowledge
wor0ers, getting employee satisfaction, overcoming communication
barriers, as well as solving problems associated with the vastness of
the organi#ation.
9. The perspective between the employees and the unions should also
not be ignored in the practical part of maintaining and sustaining Total
Quality anagement in the organi#ation.
84
REFERENCES
"nselm &trauss, >uliet 6orbin, )$../*. 8asics of Qualitative !esearchK
techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. 2nd
Bdition.
8art Aan @ooy, 4aul Nemmel, !oland Aan 7ierdonc0, )2%%9*. &ervices
managementH an Integrated "pproach. Nreat 8ritainK 4earson
Bducation @imited. 2nd Bdition
8o;e,7.". )$..9* >ournal of organi#ational change management nr.<, $..9
8owen, 7.and 7ean, > )2%%=*. Improving research and practice through
Theory the "cademy of anagement !eview $., no. 9K p. 9.2,=$/,
6hristian NrOnroos, )2%%$* &ervice anagement and ar0etingK a 6ustomer
!elationship anagement "pproach. BnglandK >ohn (iley and &ons
limited. 2nd edition
Bvans > ! and @indsay ( )2%%<*. The management and control of Quality
&outh western 6ollege 4ublishing.
Nlover, > )$..9* "chieving the :rgani#ational 6hange Cecessary for
&uccessful TQ >ournal of Quality and !eliability anagement
@illaran0 4 and 6anoe )2%%=* C 6ontinuous improvement >ournal of the
University of ichigan
:a0land, >.&.)2%%/* Total :rgani#ational B+cellence 8utterworth,
Heinemann, :+ford,
:a0land, >.&. )2%%/* The route to improving performance 8utterworth,
Heinemann,
:a0land, >.&. and :a0land, &. )2%%$*6urrent people management activities
in world, class organi#ationsTotal Quality anagement, Aol. $2 Co.<,
:gbonna, B )$..9*. anaging organi#ational cultureK fantasy or reality
Human !esource anagement >ournal no.9,
85
4alo, &., 4adhi, C. )2%%9* easuring effectiveness of TQ training
International >ournal of Training and 7evelopment, Aol. ? Co.9,
4iore . > and &abel 6. )2%%=*. The second industrial divide Cew Gor0
8oo0s !affio, T. )$..9* Total quality manager 8usiness manager $', p. /<,
.<,.
&nape, B. )2%%=*anaging managersK &trategies and techniques for human
resource management. 8lac0well :+ford,
&torey, >. )2%%2* 7evelopments in the management of human resources
8lac0well :+ford,
(aldman 7. )2%%=*The contributions of TQ to a theory of wor0
performance "cademy of anagement !eview nr.$.,
(al0er, >.(. )2%%2*Human resources strategy cNraw,Hill International,
(il0inson, ". )2%%=*anaging human resources for quality Total Quality
anagement nr.',
(il0inson, " and archington . )2%%2*Total Quality anagement and
Bmployee Involvement. Human !esource anagement >ournal nr,
(il0inson, " and archington )2%%=.*. Instant 4udding for the 4ersonnel
5unction. Human !esource anagement >ournal nr',
86
APPENDI= I
(UESTIONNAIRE
7epartment of 8usiness "dministration,
5aculty of 8usiness and &ocial &ciences,
4..8 $'$',
Ilorin, Lwara &tate.
7ear !espondent,
This questionnaire is designed for a study on PTHE IMPACT OF HUMAN
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ON TOTAL (ULAITY MANGEMENT IN THE
UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN TEACHING HOSPITALC In partial fulfillment of the
award of 8.&c in 8usiness "dminstration.
This questionnaire is therefore, a research tool for obtaining necessary
information for the study. Gou are 0indly requested to respond fran0ly to the
questions below. &uch responses will be solely for academic purpose and will
be STRICTLY TREATED AS CONFIDENTIAL.
Than0 you for your co,operation.
Gours
The Researcher
A?)?&D1. M)1*%&@B& AD*,%&+!
87
F!1 %B. ./4'!+.. !A %B. B!34*%&' P'.&3. %*5D &441!41*&%.'+
$. &e+
ale 5emale
2. 6adre
High iddle @ow
9. >ob specialty.
edical 4aramedical Con medical others
=. How satisfied are you wor0ing in U.I.T.HM
Aery satisfied >ust :0 7issatisfied
'. How long have you been with U.I.T.HM
$yr to 'yrs <yrs to $%yrs $$yrs to $'yrs $<yrs above
<. Have you benefited from any training since you ;oined the hospitalM
Ges Co
?. 7id the training improve on your e+pertise towards delivering better quality
service than before the trainingM
Ges Co cant say
/. 7o you thin0 U.I.T.H is the best hospital to wor0 in here in IlorinM
Ges Co aybe
.. How effective have the following Human !esources anagement
&trategies been in your organi#ationM
S%1&%.-*.3 V.1+ EAA.5%*8. EAA.5%*8. N!% EAA.5%*8.
:n >ob Training
&eminars and (or0shops
>ob !otation
88
!ewards and !ecognitions
$%. "re you performing optimally in your present positionM
Ges Co cant say
Than0s for your timeY
F!1 %B. 4&%*.,%3. P'.&3. %*5D &441!41*&%.'+
$. 4atient Type
Inpatient :utpatient
2. Nender
ale 5emale
9. Bducational "ttainment
Illiterate 4rimary &econdary 5irst 7egree 4ost
Nraduate 7egree
=. How satisfied are you with your service from the hospitalM
B+tremely satisfied Aery &atisfied Ceutral Aery 7issatisfied
B+tremely 7issatisfied

'. (ould you prefer to see0 medical care somewhere elseM
Ges Co aybe
=. :verall, how would you rate the hospitalM
B+cellent Nood "verage 4oor Terrible Cot &ure
'. 7o you thin0 That U.I.T.H is a customer,oriented hospitalM
Ges Co aybe
<. (ould you recommend U.I.T.H to a friendM
Ges Co Cot sure
?. "re the services you receive, e+actly as the hospital promised, before you
started with themM
89
Ges and better Ges Co (orse
Than0s for your timeY
()&'*%&%*8. S%)@+" F!1 H.&@ P.13!,,.' &,@ T1&*,*,- D*8*3*!,
$. (hat were the main reasons for implementing TQ at your hospitalM
2. How did you investigate whether or not to include TQ at your hospitalM
9. (hat e+pectations did you have before you commenced this pro;ectM
=. How well did it meet these e+pectations from your point of viewM
'. (hat do you thin0 are the main advantages of using H! as a tool for
TQM
<. (ould you recommend other hospitals to start implementing TQ through
H!M
?. (hat does the future hold for your hospitals TQ pro;ectM
/. (ould you say the implementation of TQ has made the services of the
hospital betterM
.. (ould you say it has strengthened your hospitals brandM
$%. (hat strategies were in implementing TQ in your organi#ation and how
were they carried outM
90
91