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Practical Manual No.

5


ANNONA
(Annona cherimola, A. muricata, A. reticulata, A. senegalensis
and A. squamosa)








Field Manual for
Extension Workers and Farmers




















2006

Copies of this handbook including a monograph on this species can be obtained by writing to the
address below:

Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops
School of Civil Engineering and the
Environment or
University of Southampton
Highfield, Southampton
SO17 1BJ
United Kingdom

International Centre for Underutilised Crops
International Water Management Institute
(IWMI)
127, Sunil Mawatha
Pelawatte
Battaramulla
Sri Lanka












ISBN: 0854328165

Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops (ICUC), 2006

Printed at RPM Print and Design, Chichester, England, UK

Citation: SCUC (2006), Annona: Annona cherimola, A. muricata, A. reticulata, A. senegalensis and
A. squamosa, Field Manual for Extension Workers and Farmers, Unitversity of Southampton,
Southampton, UK .

This manual was originally prepared by Dr A.C. de Q.Pinto and has been restructured to conform to
an agreed format, by D. Jackson. Drawings by L. Jackson.


THE FRUITS FOR THE FUTURE PROJECT











This publication is an output from a research project funded by the United Kingdom
Department for International Development (DFID) for the benefit of developing countries.
The views expressed are not necessarily those of DFID [R7187 Forestry Research Programme].
A series of underutilised fruits are being researched and this is Practical Manual No. 5 dealing
specifically with Annona species.

CONTENTS

PART I

PREFACE......................................................................................................................................................... I
1. INTRODUCTION - THE ANNONAS ............................................................................................................1

2. WHY GROW ANNONA TREES?..................................................................................................................1
2.1 NUTRITIONAL VALUE ................................................................................................................................1
2.2 SOCIO-ECONOMIC VALUE......................................................................................................................... 2
2.3 MEDICINAL USE ...................................................................................................................................... 2
2.4 INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS ............................................................................................................................ 2

3. WHERE TO GROW ANNONA TREES ........................................................................................................ 3

4. WHAT TO GROW?.................................................................................................................................... 4

5. HOW TO GROW ANNONA...................................................................................................................... 4
5.1 SELECTION OF SCIONS AND ROOTSTOCKS .................................................................................................... 4
5.2 PROPAGATION........................................................................................................................................ 5
5.2.1 Seed Propagation........................................................................................................................... 5
5.2.2 Vegetative Propagation................................................................................................................. 5
5.2.3 Budding Method........................................................................................................................... 6
5.2.4 Grafting Method........................................................................................................................... 6
5.2.5 Other methods.............................................................................................................................. 7
5.3 NURSERY ESTABLISHMENT......................................................................................................................... 7
5.3.1 Type and Size of Nursery ............................................................................................................... 7
5.3.2 Pots and Seedling Media ............................................................................................................... 8
5.4 FIELD ESTABLISHMENT .............................................................................................................................. 8
5.4.1 Site Preparation ............................................................................................................................. 8
5.4.2 Time of Planting............................................................................................................................ 8
5.4.3 Direct Seeding into the Field.......................................................................................................... 8
5.4.4 Windbreaks................................................................................................................................... 9
5.4.5 Transplanting and Spacing............................................................................................................. 9
5.5 FIELD MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................... 9
5.5.1 Weeding........................................................................................................................................ 9
5.5.2 Irrigation......................................................................................................................................10
5.5.3 Fertilization.................................................................................................................................. 11
5.5.4 Pruning and Training.................................................................................................................... 11
5.5.5 Intercropping and Cover-cropping................................................................................................12
5.5.6 Pollination and Fruit Set ...............................................................................................................12
5.5.7 Pests and Diseases.........................................................................................................................13

6. HOW TO HARVEST ANNONA TREES ......................................................................................................14
6.1 TIME TO FIRST HARVESTING .....................................................................................................................14
6.2 RIPENESS AND YIELD................................................................................................................................14
6.3 HARVESTING TECHNIQUES .......................................................................................................................15

7. POST-HARVEST HANDLING AND PROCESSING.......................................................................................15
7.1 POST-HARVEST HANDLING .......................................................................................................................15
7.2 PROCESSING ..........................................................................................................................................16

8. MARKETING.............................................................................................................................................17
8.1 MARKETING POTENTIAL...........................................................................................................................17
8.1.1 Constraints to international markets..............................................................................................17
8.1.2 Expected returns ..........................................................................................................................17


BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................................18
APPENDIX I MULTIPLE USES OF ANNONA............................................................................................... 20
APPENDIX IIA MAJOR PESTS OF ANNONA AND THEIR CONTROL .........................................................21
APPENDIX IIB MINOR PESTS OF ANNONA AND THEIR CONTROL ........................................................ 22
APPENDIX IIIA MAJOR DISEASES OF ANNONA AND THEIR CONTROL .................................................. 23
APPENDIX IIIB MINOR DISEASES OF ANNONA AND THEIR CONTROL .................................................. 24
APPENDIX IV - SUGGESTED FERTILISER RATES IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES ................................................ 24
APPENDIX V - HEALTH AND SAFETY WHEN USING CHEMICALS ............................................................... 25
GLOSSARY................................................................................................................................................... 26



PART II

Technical Note 1a Why Grow Annona Trees
Technical Note 1b Where to Grow Annona Trees
Technical Note 2a What to Grow
Technical Note 2b How to Grow Annona - Parts of Annona used for Propagation
Technical Note 3 How to Grow Annona - Propagation by Seed
Technical Note 4 How to Grow Annona - Vegetative Propagation
Technical Note 5a How to Grow Annona - Field Establishment
Technical Note 5b Field Management
Technical Note 6a Harvesting
Technical Note 6b Post-harvest Handling and Storage
Technical Note 7a Processing
Technical Note 7b Marketing and Economics
i

PREFACE

Fruits for the Future is a programme implemented by the International Centre for Underutilised
Crops (ICUC). It is funded by the Forestry Research Programme (FRP) of the UK Department for
International Development. ICUC initially implemented this programme in collaboration with the
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The goal of projects covered
by the programme is to improve the livelihoods of the rural poor, particularly those with limited
resources, by providing information on high yielding germplasm, high quality planting materials and
appropriate technology for environmentally friendly, sustainable natural resources management.
Project outputs aim to assist in increasing income from smallholder lands and thus contributing to
livelihoods.

Until specific projects were organized a major constraint was a lack of accessible practical
information for those who advise fruit tree growers, not only on production but also with reference
to products and local and regional marketing. This manual summarises important aspects of
improved technology and also identifies products and opportunities to improve their marketing. Of
course products and their marketing vary both locally and regionally. India, Sri Lanka and Thailand
have developed products and marketing strategies for both the local and the international markets;
other countries do not possess this framework.

A number of people have been involved in the preparation of the manuscript. We would like to
take this opportunity to thank them. Dr Alberto C. de Q. Pinto and colleagues prepared the original
document. Dr Sue Azam-Ali and Dr Charles R. Clement helped in the editing, along with Angela
Hughes of ICUC. David Jackson took responsibility to restructure the manual into an agreed user-
friendly format, with illustrations by Ms Lucy Jackson. Any opinions expressed in this manual are
those of the people involved in the preparation of the manuscript and not the sponsoring
organizations.

The techniques illustrated and explained in this manual may not be appropriate for all farmers since
the goals and resources of each farmer are different. However, any concept underlying a technique
is valid, but the specific techniques, products and market strategies may vary from farmer to farmer
and from country to country. We would like to ask those who use this manual to do so creatively as
the information to be used practically in the field can result in identifying further research
opportunities.

Comments and suggestions on the manual are always useful and we look forward to hearing from
you.

Lastly, we thank DFID-FRP or funding this project, which is part of the programme producing
similar outputs on 9 other underutilized fruits.

Editors
2005

1

1. INTRODUCTION - THE ANNONAS

This manual provides practical information on the propagation, management, processing and
utilization of 5 species of annona fruits: cherimoya (Annona cherimola), soursop (A. muricata), sugar apple (A.
squamosa), custard apple (A. reticulata) and wild soursop (A. senegalensis). Although annonas are widely
cultivated, this manual gives special emphasis to the Latin American region, where much of the genetic
diversity exists and where domestication of the first four species listed above took place. The manual is
designed to help smallholders shift towards higher-income-generating products and to help those already
producing more commercially to become more efficient.

Annonas are economically important in many countries of Africa and Asia as well as in South, North
and Central America. The name annona derives from the Latin annual harvest.
In general, the annonas are shrubs or small trees, with height from 5.0 to 7.5 m; they are erect or
somewhat spreading and possess grey-brown bark, often rough and corrugated. With few exceptions,
annonas are deciduous, even the tropical species, and especially when cultivated in areas with dry or
cool seasons and without irrigation.
Annonas are not difficult to cultivate and require comparatively little care. Depending on the species,
the commercial life of a healthy annona tree can span 15 years, with yields varying from 8 to 25 t/ha.
Cherimoya is the only species that is well adapted to subtropical conditions or tropical highland areas.
The other four species are mainly adapted to the tropical lowlands, although they are often grown in
subtropical areas.
The species with the strongest consumer demand and hence economic production are cherimoya,
soursop and sugar apple. The fruits from these three species are delicate and are marketed mainly in
local, regional or national trade, and only rarely internationally. Their fruit pulps are sold fresh or
frozen, and are usually used as desserts or made into sherbets and ice cream. Although custard apple
and wild soursop are less important economically, their fresh fruits are sold in the markets of
developing countries.



2. WHY GROW ANNONA TREES?

See Technical Note 1a in Part II.

Like many other tropical fruit trees and shrubs, such as mango, coconut and tamarind, the annonas are multi-
use plants with acceptable nutritional value as food products. They also serve as sources of medicinal and
industrial products (Appendix I). They directly contribute to food security, and provide supplementary
household income for small- and medium-scale farmers, as described below.

2.1 Nutritional Value

Annona fruits provide good carbohydrate nutrition, acting as excellent sources of energy. For
example, a man weighing 65 kg accustomed to strong physical activity needs 4000 kcal/day in the
diet. Since the caloric value of cherimoya is 90 kcal/100 g of pulp, consuming one 0.5 kg fruit each
day provides 11% of the daily requirement.
Annona fruits are relatively poor sources of proteins and vitamins.
They are important sources of minerals, such as calcium, phosphorus and potassium. These are
important in biological functions, such as helping to protect bones and teeth, providing strong muscles
and improving general health.
Cherimoya fruit is considered to have a higher food value than fig, mango and grape.


2
2.2 Socio-economic Value

Annona trees are generally cultivated in two economic contexts:
Custard apple and wild soursop tend to be grown by subsistence farmers under smallholder
conditions. Whilst providing nutritional value, they give only a low income to the growers.
Cherimoya, soursop and sugar apple tend to be grown on commercial farms as highly remunerative
crops for both small and medium scale farmers.
In some cases annonas will be cultivated for specific purposes as well as for income generation, for
example, sugar apple may be currently grown on wastelands in India for food and health purposes.

2.3 Medicinal Use

Annonas are widely used in traditional medicine in Africa and recently some have been used for production of
modern medicines, for example in the USA and India. However, self medication is not recommended.
Professional advice from clinics or hospitals should be sought.

Annona plant parts used in folk medicine contain chemical compounds such as tannins, alkaloids and
flavonoids found in the roots, leaves, bark, fruits and seeds.
Acetogenins, for instance, are present in the seeds, roots, bark, stems and fruits of most annona trees,
and appear to have great potential in anti-cancer treatments.
Cherimoya roots have aporphine alkaloids, which have a relaxant effect.
According to traditional folk medicine, the powder of two seeds mixed with water or milk reduces
vomiting and tension in the body.
Boiled water infusions of leaves help to control convulsions and digestive problems, and also to treat
diabetes.
The acid pulp of soursop is used to treat foot parasites and liver diseases.
Roots of sugar apple can be used to treat acute dysentery and depression while leaves have been used
in cases of anal prolapse, sores and swelling.
Tea made from roots is highly purgative.
Tea from leaves is mildly laxative.
Wild soursop roots, leaves and bark are used to treat cancer, convulsions, venereal disease, diarrhoea
and dysentery, fever, filariosis and male impotence.

NOTE: ANNONA-BASED HERBAL REMEDIES SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR SELF-MEDICATION. THESE
COMPOUNDS HAVE TOXIC PROPERTIES.

2.4 Industrial Products

Cherimoya, soursop, sugar apple and custard apple fruits are widely consumed as processed products, such as
ice creams, sherbets, milk shakes, yoghurts, cookies and pastries, syrups and juices.

Soursop is the most versatile annona fruit for industrial purposes because it does not oxidize easily and
there is a large recovery of pulp from the fruit.
Cherimoya can be successfully preserved frozen in a domestic freezer for 120 days.
Sugar apple pulp can also be processed and frozen, although its industrial processing is less important
than that of cherimoya and soursop.

Annona is also used in the production of essential oils (esters of aliphatic acids) present in the seeds and the
fruit pulp. These are used to improve the flavour of processed fruit products.

Seeds of soursop can yield about 22% fatty oil for use in flavouring, but this is only about 7% in
cherimoya.
It is important to note that all extracts from pulp or seeds must be made with high quality control
because of the presence of alkaloids and polyphenols, which can be very toxic when concentrated.



3

3. WHERE TO GROW ANNONA TREES

See Technical Note 1b in Part II.

Climate, especially temperature, is an important factor influencing annona orchard location.

Table 1 Climatic requirement for annonas

Altitude (m) Temperature (C)

Rainfall (mm)
Cherimoya Tropical highlands
From 9002000
Summer Dry season
1822
Winter

518
c. 1270 with long
dry season
Sugar apple Tropical lowlands
Up to 800
2130 5001000
Soursop Tropical lowlands
Up to 300
1530 5001000

Cultivate soursop, custard apple and sugar apple in lowland tropical climates with a temperature
between 21 and 30
o
C.
Sugar apple does well when there is a mild winter and it can survive drought, but requires mild
summers with evenly distributed moisture for growth and setting of fruits.
Rainfall and high humidity during peak flowering season greatly enhances the fruit production of
annonas.

The type of soil selected for growing annonas should be carefully considered.

Table 2 Suitable habitats for annonas

Soil Characteristics pH
Cherimoya Best on medium soil.
May require supplementary calcium and
phosphorus.
6.57.6
Sugar apple Best on deep soils with good aeration. No
water logging.
6.0
Soursop Best on deep well-drained, semi-dry soil. 6.06.5

Custard apple can be cultivated in soils of pH 58 and is tolerant of a range of soil types except for very
alkaline soils; consequently, it is recommended as a rootstock for cherimoya and soursop.

The selection of the orchard location is also influenced by the availability of local infrastructure and markets.

Annona fruits are extremely perishable and cannot withstand transport on poor roads to distant
markets unless appropriate packaging is available, such as straw in strong paper bags, woven baskets
or cartons, although this extra cost may reduce income.
Growers should therefore select a locality near a well made road and as close as possible to a large
consumer market.



4

4. WHAT TO GROW?

See Technical Note 2a in Part II.

Before deciding which annona fruit to plant, look at the commercial varieties (cultivars) available in the
region because they usually command the best prices at market.

There are wide differences among the annona species and cultivars with respect to foliage and fruit
yield, as well as size, shape, colour, quality and number of seeds in the fruit.
Because of this there exist several cultivars of each annona species.

The most important commercial cultivars for cherimoya, soursop and sugar apple are:

Table 3 Important commercial cultivars of annonas

Species Commercial Variety
Cherimoya
A. cherimola
Whaley, Pinks Mammoth and Mosman (Australia), Concha Lisa,
Bronceada (Chile), Fino de Jete (Spain), White, Bays, Golden
Russet, Libby and Lisa (USA), Funchal and Mateus I (Portugal),
Burtons Wonder and Reretai (New Zealand), Kabri and Malalai
(Israel).
Soursop
A. muricata
Morada, Lisa, Blanca (Colombia), Giant of Alagoas, Selection of
Ibimirim, Cerradina (Brazil).
Sugar apple
A. squamosa
Red Sugar Apple (USA), Noi (Thailand), Molate and Lobo
(Philippines), IPA Selections (Brazil), Cuban Seedless (Cuba), Barbados
and British Guinea (local selections widely propagated), Balanagar,
Red Sitaphal (India).



5. HOW TO GROW ANNONA

Seed propagation of annonas results in great variability in the orchard and is not recommended. Materials
need to be propagated vegetatively to produce more uniform-yielding trees by grafting of the desired variety
(scions) onto appropriate rootstocks.

5.1 Selection of Scions and Rootstocks

See Technical Note 2b in Part II.

Select rootstock trees that combine the following characteristics:
Vigorous and prolific trees with good compatibility for the scion, to produce trees with regular bearing
and resistance to cold and dry conditions, pests, and diseases.

Mother trees for scion material should have:
Well-shaped canopy to facilitate harvesting and minimise pruning.
Abundant flowers, which are attractive to insect pollinators.
Harvesting period may be out of the main season to avoid market gluts.
Fruit with symmetrical form, high natural fruit set, and hard skin to improve pest and disease resistance,
as well as to prolong post-harvest life.
Excellent fruit quality regarding flavour, with fine, fibre-free and firm pulp texture, seedless or low
number of seeds in the pulp.


5
5.2 Propagation

There are two ways to propagate annona trees: by seed (sexual) and by vegetative (asexual) propagation.
Seedlings can be used either as rootstock or as plant material for production. Vegetative propagation involves
grafting or budding rootstocks with the desired cultivar to produce trees of uniform genetic characteristics.

Seedling trees live longer (about 15 years) than grafted trees (maximum 10 years).


5.2.1 Seed Propagation

Annona seeds rapidly lose their viability, so plant them as soon as possible after removal from the ripe
fruits.
Germination capacity depends on duration of seed storage, pre-sowing treatment and species, and
varies from 6094%.
Time for germination varies from 3045 days.
Soaking annona seeds in gibberellic acid solution is recommended, but not essential, to improve
germination, at concentrations from 500 to 10,000 ppm for 12 to 72 hours, depending on the
species. The higher the concentration, the lower the soaking time. Cover seeds in solution with a
paper towel to keep them totally immersed.
Cherimoya seeds can be soaked for 4872 hours in distilled water, or for a shorter time if heated to
92C and gradually cooled.
Scarification techniques (cutting or scratching the seed coat) only slightly influences seed germination,
and can lead to fungal attack and loss of germination capacity.

Sow seeds either in seedbeds or pots.

Prepare raised seedbeds 1.2 m by 4 m, above soil level to ensure good drainage.
Spacing: 13 cm between seeds and 10 cm between rows.
For pots, sow 2 seeds per pot about 12 cm deep, then cover with a fine soil layer. Compact gently
and water to saturation.
Water once a day during the dry season and every 23 days during the wet season if necessary, to
keep the seed-bed moist but not saturated.
Remove weeds as they appear.
Monitor pests and diseases daily, and control when numbers are low and use a minimum of pesticide.
Ensure there is free movement of air to reduce damping off disease.
Foliar fertilizer containing 5 g of urea and 15 g triple superphosphate per litre of water should start on
90-day-old seedlings. Repeat spraying monthly, before and after grafting, until planting out in the
field.
Keep seedlings in a nursery until their stems reach approximately 1 cm in diameter, when they can be
grafted.

5.2.2 Vegetative Propagation

See Technical Note 4a in Part II.

Vegetative propagation has many advantages over seed propagation; these are:

The offspring will be genetically identical to the selected mother plant.
Convenience and ease of propagation, selection and maintenance of clones.
Shortening the time to start bearing fruit.


6
Budding and grafting are the two most commonly recommended methods of vegetative propagation.

Both methods take a high quality or desirable scion and attach it to a compatible seedling rootstock.
Carry out budding and grafting in the spring, or the periods in equatorial climates corresponding with
the start of sap flow. The exception is sugar apple, for which budding is recommended prior to leaf
abscission, during the dry season.
Use a sharp knife and polythene tape (1.5 cm wide, 25 cm long).

5.2.3 Budding Method

See Technical Note 4b in Part II.
Budding methods can be 80% successful. Sugar apple is best propagated by budding.

Take a scion (bud) from a superior annona tree with high yield and fruit quality.
Use shield or T budding to insert the bud into the stem of a 1015-month-old compatible rootstock
with a diameter equal to the piece of bark that was removed.
Tie the bud firmly with the polythene tape to keep it in position.
Remove the polythene tape after 1 month, allowing the bud to grow into a new shoot.
Tie the new shoot to the rootstock stem to keep it in an upright position. The rootstock should be cut
when the leaves of new shoots are totally expanded.
The newly budded tree can be planted 6 months after the budding operation or when 4 6 leaves
have been produced.

5.2.4 Grafting Method

See Technical Note 4b in Part II.
Many annona trees have shown a higher percentage take when propagated by grafting rather than by other
methods. Splice grafting is one of the most important grafting methods for annonas and has given a success
rate of up to 90%. The method for splice grafting is as follows:

Graft annona scions onto preferred rootstocks 15 months after transplanting from the seedbed, when
the rootstocks are 3040 cm tall and the stem diameter is 0.81.0 cm.
The seedling rootstock should have a diameter similar to that of the scion taken from a superior
cultivar (1 cm).
Cut the seedling rootstock horizontally, approximately 20 cm above the level of the soil, with the
sharp knife.
Make a transversal cut (34 cm) in the rootstock stem.
The mature shoot scion (graft-wood) from the selected cultivar should be 1720 cm long and 1 cm in
diameter.
The base of the scion should at a similar angle to the rootstock, so that the scion and rootstock can be
joined together.
Bind the scion/rootstock union firmly with grafting tape and cover with a plastic bag to maintain
humidity.
Tie off the grafting tape and thin plastic bag 45 cm below the grafting point.
A new grafted plant will be ready for transplanting approximately 6 months later.

NOTE: TO INCREASE PERCENTAGE TAKE, REMOVE LEAVES FROM THE GRAFT-WOOD ONE WEEK
BEFORE GRAFTING



7
5.2.5 Other methods

Stem cuttings

Annona trees can also be propagated vegetatively by using stem cuttings.
Orchards developed in this way can be very uniform, but rooting success is not always high: in custard
apple it can be as low as 2%. Soursop cuttings do not produce a taproot and the resulting plants are
susceptible to falling in high winds.
To improve rooting, lengthen stems for 15 days in a mist propagator or by treating with naphthalene
acetic acid (NAA) at 5000 ppm.

Root suckers

Wild soursop, which has few known varieties, can be propagated by separating root suckers of
desirable trees.

5.3 Nursery Establishment

See Technical Note 3b in Part II.

After selecting trees for rootstocks and scions, establish the nursery so that an adequate environment can be
created for young trees to grow, so that they establish well in the orchard.

5.3.1 Type and Size of Nursery

The type and size of nursery depends on the number of trees required for the orchard, and also the objectives
and financial resources available to the grower. When the cost of grafted trees is low and the farmer is
uncertain about grafting techniques, it is better to purchase the plant material instead of building nurseries and
producing their own stock.

If grafted trees are not readily available, subsistence farmers in smallholder conditions requiring only a few
trees, can use a cheap temporary nursery. This can be under a shady tree.
Use posts of durable wood as support for shade.
Use young leaves of coconut palms or grass for shade to protect the seedlings.

Training in grafting techniques should preferably be made available by the horticultural extension office.

For growers aiming to produce grafted plants for sale, an improved and longer-term nursery should be
established.

This nursery should have an appropriate shade netting roof allowing 70% sunlight penetration. Grass
or palm fronds may also be used, but will need replacing from time to time.
Both types of nurseries should be situated close to a water source and must be protected by a fence
against animals such as goats, chickens and cattle, which can easily destroy or damage plants and
structures.

Example calculation for the establishment of custard apple rootstock trees to be grafted with soursop scions:

A 5 ha soursop orchard with spacing of 7 x 7 m (204 trees/ha), needs 1020 grafted trees.
Sow 55% more seeds than calculated, to produce the number of grafted plants needed.
Good seeds for rootstock establishment have a germination success of about 70%.
Bud or graft take is about 80% successful, and field losses after transplanting are about 5%.
Therefore, the number of seeds sown should be 1581 (1020 plus 561 seeds).
When rounding off, always round up.
For sowing 1600 seeds (sown directly into 20 cm diameter plastic nursery bags), a nursery should
have a covered area of 110 m
2
.


8
5.3.2 Pots and Seedling Media

See Technical Note 3a in Part II.

Black plastic bags (approximately 22 cm diameter, 25 cm length) with holes near the bottom are the
most suitable pots used for direct sowing and growth of annona seedlings. They are also relatively
cheap.
Different types and sizes of pots can be made from locally available materials, such as clay, tin cans
(punctured) or woven baskets.

When mixing seedling medium, be aware of the following:

Seedling medium should be composed of fine river sand, or a mixture of two parts of fine sand and
one part of top soil.
To avoid nematodes and fungal attack on young seedling roots, use a cheap and efficient technique
called solarization, for soil sterilization.
This requires a seedling bed with a low wall 30 cm in height, made of wood or brick and cement,
about 2 m wide and 10 m long, depending on the amount of seedling medium needed.
Put seedling medium in this structure and cover with transparent plastic for a minimum of 3 days of
full sun.
The action of sunlight increases the soil temperature to above 50C which kills most infectious soil
micro-organisms.


5.4 Field Establishment

5.4.1 Site Preparation

See Technical Note 5a in Part II.

Clear the land of shrubs and weeds.
For small scale plantings
Mark out tree positions with stakes.
Dig holes as detailed in 5.4.5
For larger scale plantings
If practicable take a sample of soil for analysis 46 months before planting. Take note of nutrient
deficiencies in existing plants by looking at leaf colour particularly, and seek advice from soil lab or
extension department to rectify any deficiencies by application of fertilisers when planting
Put in either contour or subsurface drains if they are needed.
Plough to a soil depth of 30 cm and harrow twice, 1 to 2 months before the wet season, to eliminate
weeds.
On slopes greater than 3%, prepare the ground with contour ploughing to avoid soil erosion. Plant in
a triangular system, starting in the upper contour.
Flat land with slopes lower than 3% do not require contour ploughing and a rectangular or square
system of planting can be used.

5.4.2 Time of Planting

Plant at the beginning of the wet season, to minimize watering after planting, especially if there are
seasonal dry periods and no irrigation facilities.
If irrigation is provided, the time of planting is unimportant, although low relative air humidity can
cause leaves to become dry.

5.4.3 Direct Seeding into the Field

Direct seeding can save time and money by avoiding nursery management of the rootstock, but losses
are very high and it is not recommended.

9
Grafting seedlings in the field is not often very successful.

5.4.4 Windbreaks

Annonas have shallow rooting systems, leaving them susceptible to wind damage.
In exposed areas, establish windbreaks prior to transplanting into the field.
Casuarina and Glyricidia can be used as windbreaks. Other species may prove useful locally.


5.4.5 Transplanting and Spacing

In general, annona plants should be produced in a nursery and are ready for transplanting into the field or for
use as rootstocks when they are about 10 months old.

The ideal time for transplanting is when plants are 3045 cm high or when 4 to 6 leaves have
matured.
A graft or bud union should be about 16 cm above ground level when transplanted.
For planting in adverse areas such as wastelands, plants may be up to 1 years old.
Before transplanting, prune the leaves in half to reduce transpiration.
Ensure the roots are not coiled up in the planting bag. Straighten out if necessary.
Cut the tip of the main root to induce production of more lateral roots.
Dig a pit about 4560 cm deep and fill with a mixture of soil and 1015 kg farmyard manure; wider
pits might be needed on poorer soils.
Ensure that the soil surface of the nursery bag in which the grafted plant developed is level with the
ground surface.
Construct a small basin around the tree and water the young plants as soon as possible after
transplanting
Tie plants to wooden stakes to avoid wind damage.
Mulch to reduce soil drying around the newly transplanted materials.

Spacing depends upon the Annona species:

Cherimoya 8 m x 6 m to 6 m x 4 m
Soursop 8 m x 8 m to 4 m x 4 m
Sugar apple 5 m x 5 m to 3 m x 3 m
Custard apple 8 m x 8 m to 6 m x 6 m
Wild soursop 5 m x 5 m
Grafted and budded plants generally need the closer spacing, and seedling plants the wider spacing, as
given above.
The distance for planting on poorer soil can be 4 m apart, e.g. rain-fed wastelands.

5.5 Field Management

See Technical Note 5b in Part II.

Careful orchard management is necessary to ensure high fruit yields of good quality. These operations are
described below.

5.5.1 Weeding

In small annona orchards, eliminate weeds by using tools such as hoes or mattocks.
Mulch during the first years after planting; to reduce weed infestation, reduce evaporation losses from
soil, and avoid crust formation of the soil.
Dried grass or husks of rice can be used for mulching.
In an irrigated orchard mulch may be used only during the first year after transplanting.
Herbicide spraying with paraquat or glyphosate can be considered when reduction of the cost of hand
labour for orchard maintenance is involved.

10
Do not spray under windy conditions as spray drift can harm the trees.

NOTE: WHEN MULCHING WITH DRIED PLANT MATERIALS TO PROTECT SOIL EROSION, BE VIGILANT
AGAINST FIRE DURING THE DRY SEASON.

5.5.2 Irrigation

Young trees require water in the nursery and during establishment in the field. The need for water depends on
the species, soil type and local climate. Adult annona trees may grow and produce poorly without irrigation.


When planting in the field at the beginning of the rainy season, ensure the trees are watered if dry spells
occur so that the soil does not dry out, but be careful not to saturate soil.
The first dry season is the most critical period when the young tree can die for lack of water before the
roots become well established. Apply 7 10 l water to the basin every 10 15 days. If the leaves hang
down and appear wilted, increase the amount of water at each irrigation, or reduce the number of days
between each irrigation.
During the second wet season no irrigation is likely to be needed unless a dry period occurs.
In the second and third dry seasons apply 12 15 l water to the basins every 12 15 days depending on
the temperature, winds and soil type. Watch the trees carefully for signs of water stress and apply
water as needed.

The best time to apply water is in the early morning or late afternoon. Try to avoid midday as this can stress
the tree.

For small scale plantings:

Construct a basin around the tree and fill with water every 7-10 days during the dry season.
Or, two unglazed 5 litre earthenware pots sunk into the ground near the tree filled with water may
be used.

For larger scale plantings:

The aim is to ensure the trees do not become stressed through lack of water during the flowering and fruiting
period.

During the dry season irrigation should be withheld for 8-10 weeks to ensure dormancy and flower bud
initiation.

If plenty of water is available from a borehole, well or stream, furrow or basin irrigation can be considered.
This is one of the cheapest methods, but uses more water.

If water is in short supply, drag line or micro-sprinkler irrigation can be used although it costs more to install.

Two micro-sprinklers per tree are preferred, with 180 of water distribution.
The micro-sprinklers should not moisten the tree trunk, to avoid fungal or bacterial diseases.
An adult bearing annona tree requires approximately 150 litres of water every two days (2 micro-
sprinklers of 25 litres/h each, for 3 hours) during the dry season.

Drip irrigation methods are also suitable.

Sugar apple is often a rain-fed crop. The fruits benefit from rainfall received during the fruiting season but one
or two irrigations can be beneficial and bring on early bearing.

Wild soursop grows in areas of relative humidity (RH) as low as 66% at noon, but requires 6001200 mm
annual rainfall.

Neither sugar apple nor wild soursop can tolerate waterlogging.

11

5.5.3 Fertilization

Fertilizer rates vary among annona species and with tree age. Soil analysis is highly recommended as a guide
to correct fertilizer applications. See Appendix IV for examples.

For small-scale plantings:

Regular applications of inorganic fertilizers may be too costly for small scale producers.
In the absence of fertilizers, apply compost or farm yard manure at 1012 kg per tree at the beginning
of the rainy season.
If yellowing of leaves becomes evident during the wet season, apply 250 g nitrogen as a top dressing.
Smallholders may also use N:P:K at 250:125:125 g per tree per year or locally available materials such
as bonemeal and castorcake.

For larger scale plantings:

In the absence of soil analysis, the following guidelines are given, but these may vary form location to
location. Consult the local research station or extension department to obtain a recommendation.
Farmyard manure (510 kg), lime (200300 g) and phosphorus (800 g of triple superphosphate) are
commonly used in the planting holes of annona trees. Note: lime may be omitted for sugar apple and
wild soursop.
Ninety days after planting, apply 100 g of ammonium sulphate and 60 g of potassium chloride as a
top dressing to all annona trees.
Adult trees (bearing plants) should be fertilized with 3 kg of ammonium sulphate, 660 g of triple
superphosphate and 500 g of potassium chloride, applied in three equal portions during the year,
preferably at the beginning of, in the middle of, and late in the rainy season. The fertilizer should be
lightly incorporated into the soils around the tree.
Wild soursop is known to respond to occasional application of magnesium fertilizer.

Fertilization by foliar spraying is potentially important to supplement short-term nutrient requirements for
annona trees, especially for micronutrients.

Apply boron at 2.0 g/m
2
and broadcast over the ground area under the canopy. Boron and calcium
sprays during flowering and early fruit set are beneficial in reducing internal fruit browning.
Spraying of 0.1% zinc sulphate, at monthly intervals, will correct zinc deficiency, identified by
yellowing of leaves between the veins.

5.5.4 Pruning and Training

Pruning and training influence growth by regulating the balance between vegetative and fruiting phases. There
are two types:

Pruning for vegetative growth and shape.
Pruning for fruit production. (This system involves chemical leaf removal and is not recommended for
smallholder annona production.)

Pruning for vegetative growth and shape

Pruning for vegetative growth and shape has several objectives:

Development of good tree architecture to support future yield.
Good aeration and light penetration of canopy.
Ease of application of cultural practices, e.g. hand pollination, pesticide spraying and harvesting.
Removal of lower limbs touching the ground and branches rubbing against each other.

This type of pruning should start in the first year and continue until the fourth year after planting out, but this
depends on the annona species.

12

Training cherimoya trees should begin in the nursery.
Sugar apple and soursop trees do not require much training.
Sugar apple budded plants are very lightly pruned about every 2 years, but in arid regions do not
require any pruning.

How to prune

First year, in the spring, cut the single trunk to 80 cm above the ground, to stimulate production of
primary branches.
Second year, in the spring, cut the primary branches to a length of 40 cm, to stimulate production of
secondary branches.
Third and fourth years, prune the secondary and tertiary branches, at 30 cm and 20 cm lengths
respectively.
The new branches should be spaced 1525 cm above each other in different directions to develop a
good scaffold by the fourth year after planting.
At this age, the plant is about 2 m in height, after which it can be left to grow naturally.


5.5.5 Intercropping and Cover-cropping

Growers can intercrop annonas with annual or vegetable crops to get additional income, to compensate for
labour and other costs in the orchard during the first 23 years before first harvest.

Intercropped legumes can be planted for the first 56 years.
Plant perennial leguminous or grass cover-crops to avoid soil erosion and to improve soil physical
structure.

NOTE: INTERCROPPING WITH CLIMBING ANNUAL SPECIES, SUCH AS CLIMBING BEANS, MAY BE
HARMFUL IF THE CREEPING LEGUME COVERS THE ANNONA TREE AND REDUCES AVAILABLE LIGHT.
INTERCROPS AND COVER-CROPS ALSO REQUIRE MANAGEMENT.

5.5.6 Pollination and Fruit Set

Natural pollination of annona species is relatively ineffective, especially outside their natural range where
insects rarely visit their flowers. Exceptions to this are some Nitidulid beetles.

Three Nitidulid beetles per flower increase fruit set to nearly 25%. These insects breed rapidly in
rotting fruit and their numbers can be increased by using a rotting-fruit attractant.
Fertilization failure of all or several ovules results in small or asymmetrical fruits, which affects
marketing.
Hand pollination is necessary to ensure commercial production of annonas in most places. It
guarantees significantly higher yields and better fruit quality than insect pollination.
Pollination carried out in the morning is better than in the afternoon, and cross-pollination is to be
preferred to self-pollination.
Fruit set of most annonas is very low in warm temperatures.

The hand-pollination technique has the following steps:

Collect mature donor flowers (source of pollen) in the afternoon from the terminal portion of the
branch and place them in a small paper bag.
Keep this paper bag in a cool and dry environment.
In the morning of the next day, remove the petals and put all the stamens into a cylindrical plastic
container (a film canister, for instance) to facilitate carrying.
Select flowers that have already started opening, and remove their petals.
Apply the pollen onto the pistils using a brush, with back and forth strokes.


13
The stigmas are only receptive for a short time and not when the pollen is shed. Collection of pollen is thus
essential the day before the stigmas become receptive.

Some trees shed pollen in the morning and others in the afternoon; watch for this to aid collection.

NOTE: COLLECT FLOWERS FOR HAND POLLINATION FROM THE TERMINAL PORTION OF BRANCHES,
SINCE THEY GENERALLY PRESENT LOW FRUIT SET ANYWAY.



Fruit thinning is necessary to regulate crop load and to maintain fruit size.

The thinning operation involves removal of misshapen fruit and the reduction of fruit clusters to
improve fruit quality and size.

5.5.7 Pests and Diseases

See Technical Note 5b in Part II.

Annona trees are subjected to attack by a large number of insect pests and diseases. Only major and minor
pests and diseases of economic importance and their possible methods of control are described here and in
Appendices 2 and 3. More detail is presented in the companion monograph.

Monitor the pest and disease status of the orchard continually to prevent an epidemic attack from
developing.
Biological control methods are preferred and should be practised within an integrated pest
management strategy.
Serious pest or disease attacks should be reported to a local Extension Officer for recommendations
about control methods, pesticide application rates, and their level of toxicity.
Do not spray fruit within 21 days of harvest to avoid toxic deposits on the fruit skin.
Spraying should be avoided if possible, especially during fruit bearing, or if the crop is near dwellings,
and if there are strong prevailing winds.
Empty pesticide containers should be discarded only according to government regulations.

Most important annona pests

The trunk borer (a Coleoptera beetle).
The fruit borer (a Lepidoptera moth).
The seed borer or wasp.
Fruit-flies are important pests attacking most annonas, except for soursop.

Other pests

Mealy bugs, various species of scales or cochineals, and spider mites cause damage on plants and
fruits.
Aphids, fruit-spotting bugs and other hemipterous bugs (stink bugs), leaf hoppers, leaf miner larvae,
root grubs and ants can damage annona trees or fruits, making them unmarketable.
Sucking insect pests may be important economically, when they attack young growing fruits.

Control

The removal of affected branches (for trunk borer) or attacked fruit (for moth and wasp attacks) is the
first recommended method of control.
Use a plastic bottle as a fruit-fly trap to monitor the infestation level of fruit-flies in the orchard.
o Make four or five small windows (4 x 5 cm) around the middle part of the bottle to allow
insect entrance.

14
o Place 100 ml of an attractant poison mixture inside the bottle. A stock of this mixture can be
prepared with water (10 litres), sugar cane syrup (0.7 kg) and the insecticide fenthion (10
ml).
o Use 4 bottles for a one-hectare orchard or 2 bottles per hectare for orchards between 2 and
5 hectares in area.
o When one fruit-fly is found inside one or more bottles start fruit-fly control in the orchard.
o Control by applying the attractrant poison mixture in 1 m
2
of canopy of trees, in a ring form
around those trees where fruit-flies were found in the bottles.
o Wet a paintbrush with the mixture, then spray the mixture onto the canopy with a flicking
motion of the brush.


Diseases Several diseases attack either seedlings in the nursery or adult annona trees and their fruits in the
field and post-harvest.

See Appendix 3A for the major diseases common names, causal agents and their controls.

Major annona diseases

Damping-off, black root rot, bacterial wilt, anthracnose, black canker, diplodia rot, purple blotch,
brown rot and fruit rots.
Ensure good ventilation and free draining soil medium in the nursery to reduce damping-off and other
seedling diseases.
For fruiting trees, remove infected fruits and spray with copper oxychloride 0.2% or benomyl at
0.1%.

Minor diseases

Burning string, zoned spot, blight, black scab, fumagina, rubelose, cercosporiose, armillaria root rot
and nematodes.
Normally these diseases do not justify the cost of spraying. If possible remove infected plant parts and
burn to reduce the spread of disease.


6. HOW TO HARVEST ANNONA TREES

6.1 Time to First Harvesting

See Technical Note 6a in Part II.

Annona species usually start flowering between 36 years after planting out, depending on the type of
propagation, cultural practices such as pruning or hand pollination, and climate.

Flowering occurs gradually over many months, so harvest time is spread over a period of months
also.

6.2 Ripeness and Yield

Annona fruits reach complete ripeness individually, so harvesting should be carried out selectively.

The time to harvest is called the harvest point, determined by fruit skin colour, which changes
during the transition from physiological maturity to full eating ripeness.
Cherimoya and sugar apple change from greyish green to yellowish-green, but their pulp should be
firm.
Soursop skin changes from dark green to slightly yellowish-green.
Sugar apple fruits reach the harvest point for local markets when the segments (carpels) are spread
far apart, exposing a yellow creamy skin in the inner part between carpels.

15
Wild soursop is ripe when the white specks on the skin become orange-yellow.

Skin colour index

A skin colour index to guide harvest depends on the market place.

For local market, harvest annona fruits with 20 to 40% yellowish skin, which will ripen between 4 to
6 days later. For sugar apple, there is a very short time (maximum 3 days) from harvest point to
consumption point.
For export markets 10% to 20% yellow is satisfactory.
Fruits harvested with more than 75% yellowish skin ripen within 3 days.
Those harvested with less than 5% do not ripen completely.
The most suitable time of day to harvest is after overnight dew has evaporated, when fruits are dry
and fungal rot contamination is less likely.

The yield of an annona tree varies depending on region, species or cultivar, cultural practices and climatic
conditions.

Cherimoya cv. Fino de Jete, at 7 years old, yields an average of 43 kg of fruit per tree.
Soursop, beginning to bear when 3 years old, yields 24 fruits per tree, and when 7 years old reaches
its maximum yield of 100 kg per tree.
Sugar apple, 6 years old, can yield 5060 fruits per tree. In semi-arid tropical climates an irrigated
sugar apple tree can produce two harvests: a main harvest during the rainy season, with a higher yield
(60 fruits per tree), with a second harvest with a lower yield occurring during the dry season (< 30
fruits per tree).
Custard apple can produce up to 150 fruits per tree.

6.3 Harvesting Techniques

Annona fruits should be hand-harvested by cutting the stalk with pruning scissors, leaving 0.5 to 1 cm of it to
avoid loss in weight and post-harvest fungal diseases.

Depending on tree size some species, such as sugar apple or soursop, are harvested by climbing the
tree, using a ladder or a picking pole with a hook and a basket at its end.
Soursop harvest is more difficult and time-consuming than other annonas because trees are usually
taller and fruits are larger.
Soursop left on the tree will eventually fall off naturally and, on the ground, will become rotten and
unmarketable.
These fruits should be picked up and destroyed as they encourage pests and diseases to reproduce and
spread throughout the orchard.
To keep the orchard in good condition all annona fruits should be harvested.


7. POST-HARVEST HANDLING AND PROCESSING

7.1 Post-harvest Handling

See Technical Note 6b in Part II.

After clipping fruit from the tree:

Put the fruit into cushioned boxes or baskets to avoid mechanical damage or bruising.
Keep the boxes in the shade and protect against rain, wind and dust.
Since annona are considered climacteric fruits, storage temperature should be well controlled after
harvesting. Tropical annona fruits, such as soursop and sugar apple, require higher storage
temperature than subtropical cherimoya fruits.

16
Inspect the fruits daily to evaluate their state of ripeness.
Custard apple and wild soursop have very short shelf-lives, and treatments to extend them are too
costly. It is possible to pick slightly under-ripe fruit, but even then keeping time is probably only
about 4 days.

After harvesting, annonas may be stored on racks if ambient temperatures are suitable or cooling facilities are
available.

Cherimoya should be stored at about 1112C and will remain in good condition for 21 days.
Sugar apple should be stored at 1516C and relative humidity of 85%. At this temperature, 7 days of
storage is possible with minimum change in fruit quality.
Soursop is stored at 20C in the shade.

Post-harvest control of fungi to increase storage life:

Immerse in fungicide (thiabendazole 8g/l) and keep in polythene packaging with ethylene absorber.
Ethylene absorber is made from one 6 cm
3
clay brick, wet with 8 ml of aqueous solution of potassium
permanganate.
After storage, fruits are ready for pulp extraction or can be sold for fresh consumption.

7.2 Processing

See Technical Note 7a in Part II.

Most annonas, except soursop, are sold as fresh fruits, although they can be processed as juice, frozen pulp,
jelly and ice cream.

Cherimoya and sugar apple are mainly consumed as dessert fruits.
However, mixing pulp with milk results in a delicious drink or ice cream when frozen.
Annona pulp is sweet, with moderate acidity, and its texture and flavour are excellent.
Soursop is more suitable for processing because its pulp does not oxidize as easily as sugar apple and
cherimoya.

Soursop concentrate is processed by following these steps:

Fruit should be selected, rinsed, and hand peeled, and the seeds removed.
Heat pulp to 80C for 1 minute then cool and determine soluble solids content (a measure of the
sugars), using a refractometer or hydrometer.
Add 10 g of sodium benzoate per 10 kg of pulp, blend for 10 minutes, then sieve.
Add sugar and eliminate the air inside the pulp by compression, then concentrate it at 100
o
C for a few
minutes.
Place pulp into a storage container, cover, then cool, label and store it.
Soursop should be hand-peeled and cored, as fruits have fragile skin, irregular shape and soft pulp, all
of which limit machine processing.
Soursop pulp processed below 93
o
C and frozen into polythene bags offers a high quality product with
no loss of taste or smell.
After processing, the pulp, sweetened or not, can be transformed into numerous other products.
Puree can be used to prepare ice cream, drinks, sherbets and gelatin. To obtain nectar for juices,
marmalade and jams, mix in 10 litres of water, 1.7 kg of pulp, 1 kg of sugar, 2 g of sodium benzoate
and 2 g of sodium metabisulphite.
This mixture should be heated at 100
o
C for 15 minutes.

Oxidation is a very common problem with processed annona pulp.

To avoid oxidation, the pulp can be heated at 70
o
C for 20 minutes, and 0.5% of ascorbic acid can
then be added.
This preparation can be stored in polythene bags for one month at 5
o
C in a refrigerator.
Frozen pulp should be kept at -18C.

17
8. MARKETING

8.1 Marketing Potential

See Technical Note 7b in Part II.

Marketing involves the processes from the time the fruit is picked to when it reaches its final destination. This
may be the consumer for fresh fruit, or through the different stages of processing to an end user.

Marketing is often the weakest link in the production to consumption chain and one in which annona
producers must participate in order to sell their products.
Annona fruits are mainly traded within the country of production in local or urban markets, or sent to
factories for processing.
Cherimoya has well-established international marketing channels, with Spain and Chile as the main
producers and exporters.

8.1.1 Constraints to international markets

Annona production suffers from insufficient financial support for research, transport, roads, extension
services or farmers organisations.
There are high levels of post-harvest losses due to short shelf life.
Processed pulp may be of low quality and fail to meet international standards.
There is a lack of international market information.

8.1.2 Expected returns

Crop Yield Price Income
Cherimoya Fino de Jete
Brazil
(7 yr old)
33kg/tree
(417 trees/ha)
Price US$ 1.8/kg US$ 24,800
Sugar apple
(6 yr old)
60 fruits/tree
2000 fruits/ha
US$ 10,000/ha
Soursop
(7 yr old)
100kg/tree US$ 48,165
(see Pinto et al. 2005)

Year Establishment/Maintenance (US$) Average yield
(tonnes fruit/ha)
Gross income
(US$)
Net income
(US$)
1
st
2,486 - 0 0
2
nd
716 2 1,360 644
3
rd
675 4 2,720 2,045
4
th
923 5 3,400 2,477
5th 996 7 4,760 3,764
6
th
1,184 9 6,120 4,936
7
th
1,212 10 6,800 5,588
(see Pinto et al. 2005) Based on 204 plants/ha, and estimated gross and net incomes.

A great advantage of soursop is that value can easily be added to its production, since it can readily
be sold as a fresh or a processed fruit.
It is very important that small annona farmers consider implementing their own processing to add
value to their raw product in order to increase income.

18
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S. Nagy, Shaw P. E. and Wardowski W. F. Florida Science Source, Inc., Lake Alfred, Fla. : pp. 149-158.
Lizana L. A. and Reginato G. (1990) Cherimoya In: Fruits of Tropical and Subtropical Origin: Composition, Properties
and Uses. Edited by S. Nagy, Shaw P. E. and Wardowski W. F. Florida Science Source, Lake Alfred, Florida, USA :
pp. 131-148.
Moreno Andrade R., Luna Cazres L. and Gonzlez Esquinca A. R. (1999) Estudios Sobre la Germinacin de Annona
lutescens. [Spanish] In: Memorias del II Congreso Internacional de Anonceas. Universad de Ciencias y Artes del
Estado de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutirrez, Chiapas, Mxico : 82 pp.
Moror R. C., Freire E. S. and Sacramento C. K. (1997) Processamento da Graviola para Obteno de Polpa.
[Portuguese] In: Anonceas: Poduoo e Mercado (Pinha, Graviola, Atemia e Cherimlia). Edited by A. R. So
Jos Boas I. V., Morais O. M. and Rebouas T. N. H. Universidade Estadula do Sudoeste da Bahia, Vitria da
Conquista, Brasil : pp. 263-274.
Nakasone H. Y. and Paull R. E. (1998) Annonas. In: Tropical Fruits. Edited by H. Y. Nakasone and Paull R. E. CAB
International, London,UK. : pp. 45-75.
Pareek O. P. (1985) Fruit Crops. In: Efficient Management of Dryland Crops. Research Institute for Dryland
Agriculature, Hyderbad, India. : pp. 293-408.
Pinto A. C. de Q., Cordeiro, M. C. R., de Andrade, S. R. M., Ferreira, F. R., de C. Filgueiras, H. A., Alves, R. E. and
Kinpara, D. I. (2005) Annona species, Internaitonal Centre for Underutlised Crops, University of Southampton,
Southampton, UK.
Pinto A. C. de Q. and Ramos V. H. V. (1997 a) Melhoramento Gentico da Graviola. [Portuguese] In: Proceedings of
the I Brazilian Symposium on Annonaceous. Edited by A. R. So Jos, Souza I. V. B., Morais O. M. and Rebouas
T. N. H. UESB, Vitria da Conquista, Brazil : pp.55-60.
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Pinto A. C. de Q. and Silva E. M. (1994) Graviola para Exportao: Aspectos Tcnico da Produo [Portuguese]
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[Portuguese] Ministerio da Agricultura y Ganadeira, Siquirres. : 22 pp.
Popenoe W. (1974 a) The Anonaceous Fruits; The Cherimoya. In: Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, Facsmile
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the 1920 ed. Hafner Press, a Division of Macmillan Publishing Co, Inc., New York, Collier-Macmillan Publishers,
London, Chapter 5 : 182-186.
Purohit A. (1995) Annonaceous Fruits. In: Handbook of Fruit Science and Technology: Production, Composition,
Storage and Processing. Edited by D. K. Salunkle and Kadam S. S. M. Dekker, New York, USA : pp. 377-385.
Rao V. G., Desai M. K. and Kulkarni N. B. (1962) A New Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Annona senegalensis from India.
Plant Disease Reporter, 46 : 874-876.
Rungsimanop C., Suksri A. and Srinukul S. (1987) Some Irrigation Methods which Influence the Growth of Custard
Apple and Papaya when Intercropped in Northeast Thailand. Phytochemistry, 30 (10) : 3335-3338.
Sadhu M. K. and Ghosh S. K. (1976) Effects of Different Levels of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Growth,
Flowering, Fruiting and Tissue Composition of Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L.). Indian Agricultural, 20 (4)
: 297-301.
Sanewski G. M. (1991) Custard apple - Cultivation and Crop Protection. Information Sries QI90031. Queensland
Department of Primary Industry, Brisbane, Australia
Santos C. R. (1997) Irrigao em Anonceas. [Portuguese] In: Proceedings of the I Brazilian Symposium on
Annonaceous. Edited by A. R. So Jos, Souza I. V. B., Morais O. M. and Rebouas T. N. H. UESB, Vitria da
Conquista, Bahia, Brazil : pp. 105-117.
Tijero R. F. (1992) El Cultivo del Chirimoyo en el Peru. [Spanish] Ediciones Fundeagro, Lima, Peru. .108 pp.
Yang C. S. (1998) Application of Plant Growth Regulators on Annona culture. In: The Application of Plant Growth
Regulators on Horticultural Crops, Symposium Proceedings. Edited by H. S. Lin, Chang L. R. and Lin J. H.
Changhua, Taiwan : pp. 305-320 (Special Publication, 12).



20
APPENDIX I MULTIPLE USES OF ANNONA

TREE PART TYPE OF USE
Fruit and pulp Fruit is sold in the market for fresh consumption of pulp.
Pulp can be processed as frozen pulp, juice, jelly, sherbet, and ice cream.
Pulp is often mixed with wine, milk (to make milk shakes) and yoghurt,
processed into sherbet, baked into cookies and pastries, and made into
fermented liquors.
Unsweetened pulp can be processed to prepare nectars, soft drinks, ice
creams and similar food.
Essential oils are present in soursop pulp, such as esters of aliphatic acids, which
have potential to improve the flavour of processed fruit products.
Seed Some flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins are effective as
antispasmodics and relaxants, and as cathartic remedies, and are also used in the
prevention of haemolysis of red blood cells.
Resin is used for pupil dilation.
Extract of smashed seeds releases alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins or saponins
with good insecticidal activity (control of fruit flies).
Acetogenins in seeds have shown good results in cancer treatments.
Leaf Leaf extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins or saponins with good
insecticidal activity (control of mosquitoes).
Leaves have alkaloids, such as murisolin, couxine, couclamine, stepharine and
reticulin with antibacterial effect.
Alkaloids and flavonoids in leaves have been used in trypanosomiasis
treatment and also as antiulcerous and gastric treatment.
Acetogenins of leaf extract have been tested as a treatment for cancer
tumours.
Used to stuff pillows.
Flowers Some alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins of flowers have been
indicated for use in eye inflammatory healing process.
Twigs, shoots and bark Extracts of some chemical compounds and alkaloids, such as murisolin,
couxine, couclamine, stepharine and reticulin, have been used for treatment of
skin diseases and for control of intestinal worms (vermifuge).
Bark is used to produce a yellow-brown dye.
Bark is used to make rope.
Root Extract of alkaloids from root has shown purgative effect and has been used
for treatment of male impotence, gastric processes and filariosis, as well as
venereal disease.
Acetogenins of root extract have been tested with acceptable treatment for
cancer tumour.



21
APPENDIX IIA MAJOR PESTS OF ANNONA AND THEIR CONTROL

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME NATURE OF ATTACK BIO-CONTROL CHEMICAL CONTROL
Trunk borer Cratosomus b. bombina
Helipus catragraphus
Eurypages pennatus
Larvae bore into tree trunk and
branches causing sap exudation and
tree death.
Removal of affected parts;
use of tolerant varieties.
Painting trunk and branches with
solution of 12 litres of water, 4 kg
of quicklime, 100 g of sulfur, 1 kg
of copper sulphate, 100 g of
sodium chloride, 220 ml of
diazinon, 600 ml of surfactant.
Fruit borer (moth) Cerconota annonella
Heterographis bengalella
Larvae bore into fruit destroying its
pulp completely.
Removal of attacked fruit
from the ground; use of
braconid insects (Apanteles
spp.) to parasite larvae;
bagging the fruits.
Spray with fenthion 0.1% or
thriclorphon 0.2% straight to
young fruit, every 15 days until 15
days before harvest.
Seed borer (wasp) Talponia batesi
Bephratelloides maculicollis
Bephratelloides cubensis
Bores into fruit destroying the seeds
completely.
Removal of attacked fruit
from the ground; bagging
the fruits.
Spray with decametrin 0.05% or
thriclorphon 0.2% straight to
young fruit, every 15 days until 15
days before harvest.
Fruit flies Anastrepha obliqua
Ceratitis capitata
Dacus dorsalis
Batcrocera tryoni
Larvae bore into fruit destroying its
pulp completely.
Removal of attacked fruit
from the ground; bagging
the fruits.
The same control used for fruit
borer moth (above).
Mealy bugs Planococcus spp.,
Dysmicoccus spp.
Ferrisia virgata
Sucks the sap of leaflets, mature and
tender shoots, and leaf petiole,
causing leaf and leaf stalk chlorosis,
causing dropping of young fruits.
Spoils fruits by remaining in sunken
areas.
Removal of attacked twigs. Spray solution of dimethoate at
0.05% plus mineral oil 0.5%.
Scales Saissetia coffeae
Ceroplastes spp.
Pinnaspis spp.
Sucks the sap of tender shoots. Removal of attacked parts in
initial stages.
Same control used for mealy bugs
(above).
Spider mites Oligonychus annonae
Brevipalpus spp.
Sucks and scratch adult leaves at
dorsal part.
No known bio-control. Spray with propargite 0.15%.


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APPENDIX IIB MINOR PESTS OF ANNONA AND THEIR CONTROL

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME NATURE OF ATTACK BIO-CONTROL CHEMICAL CONTROL
Hoppers Empoasca fabae Membracis
foliata
Aethalion spp.
Sucks leaves and shoots
transmitting some virosis.
No known bio-control. Spray with malathion 0.2%.
Moths Thecla ortignus Larvae destroy leaves, flowers and
shoots.
Remove larvae by hand and kill
them.
Spray with malathion 0.2%.
Aphids Aphis gossipii
Toxoptera aurantii
Sucks sap of leaflets, young fruits
and flowers causing the dropping.
Leaflets become distorted.
Larvae of some Coccinelidae
insects eat adult aphids.
Spray with malathion 0.2%
when strong attacks occur.
Hemipterous Leptoglossus zonatus
Antiteuchus tripterus

Sucks young fruit causing spots in
its skin and further dropping.
No known bio-control. Spray on young fruits with
decametrin 0.10%.
Beetles Crimissa spp. Destroy flower petals mainly from
internal verticil.
Remove insects by hand in initial
attack and kill them.
Spray with malathion 0.2%
straight on flowers.
Fruit-spotting bug Amblyphelta nitida Sucks young fruit causing spots in
its skin like canker.
No known bio-control. Spray on young fruits with
malathion 0.2%.
Leaf larvae Gonodonta nutrix
Cocytius antaeus
Pseudodirphia spp.
Destroy leaves and shoots. Collection and destruction of
larvae by hand.
Spray with trichlorphon 0.2%
or malathion 0.2% when attack
occurs.
Leaf miners Leucoptera spp. Phyllocnistis
spp.
Mines leaflets and leaves causing
the yellowing of them.
No known bio-control. Spray with dimethoate 0.15%
when attacks occur.
Wild bee (Irapu) Trigona spinipes Destroy leaflets and young
flowers.
Search and destroy the wild bee
nests.
No effective control by
chemical spraying.
Root grubs Anomala spp. Destroy tree roots. No known bio-control. Application of aldicarb solution
0.2% around tree.
Ants Atta spp
Acromyrmex spp.
Destroy leaves completely. Conical protector or chemical wet
cotton around the trunk.
Organophosphate chemical to
control ants in the field.




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APPENDIX IIIA MAJOR DISEASES OF ANNONA AND THEIR CONTROL

COMMON NAME CAUSAL AGENT BIO-CONTROL CHEMICAL CONTROL
Damping-off Rhizoctonia solana, Phytophthora spp. Treat potting media with solarization
(see section 5.2 Nursery Establishment).
Watering of pots or seedbed with PCNB
solution of 0.2%.
Black root rot Cylindrocladium clavatum Sclerotium
rolfsii
Avoid excessive watering in seedbed;
treat potting media with solarization.
Same treatment used for Damping-off
(above).
Bacterial wilt Pseudomonas solanacearum No known bio-control. Spray with anti-bacterial chemical.
Anthracnose Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Removal and burning of affected
branches and fruits.
Spray with copper oxychloride 0.2%
intercalating with benomyl 0.1%, every 21
days until 21 days before harvest.
Spray with Benolate 0.050 at 20-day
intervals.
Black canker Phomopsis spp.* Cut and burn dried branches of internal
part of canopy.
Spray or paint trunk and branches with
solution of benomyl 0.2% or copper
oxychloride 0.5%.
Diplodia rot Botryodiplodia theobromae Removal and burning of affected
branches and fruits.
Spray with copper oxychloride 0.2% or
paint the affected part with methyl
tiophanate 1.2% plus surfactant.
Purple blotch Phytophthora palmivora Removal and burning of affected fruits. Same treatment used for anthracnose
(above).
Brown rot and fruit rots Rhizopus stolonifer
Glioclacium roseum
Same control for Phytophthora
as indicated above.
No efficient treatment with chemicals is
known.
* Phomopsis anonacearum often causes fruit rot of sugar apple in storage.




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APPENDIX IIIB MINOR DISEASES OF ANNONA AND THEIR CONTROL

COMMON NAME CAUSAL AGENT BIO-CONTROL

CHEMICAL CONTROL
Burning of string Pellicularia koleroga No known bio-control. Spray with copper oxychloride 0.15%, every fifteen
days.
Zoned spot Sclerotium coffeicolum

No known bio-control. When needed, spray with copper oxychloride 0.15%.
Black scab Fusarium spp. Avoid excessive wet condition to young
seedling.
Same control used for Damping off (Rhizoctonia
solani, Appendix 3).
Black soot (Fumagina) Stigmella spp. Control of ants and aphids will help the
control of fumagina.
Spray of mineral oil 0.5% then spray with copper
oxychloride 0.2%.
Rust fungus Phakopsora cherimolae No known bio-control. Same control used for disease Burning of string
(above).
Rubelose Corticum salmonicolor Removal of affected tree parts.
Cercosporiose Cercospora annonae pH correction helps control.
Blight Phoma spp. No known bio-control.
Since these diseases have secondary importance, spray
with copper oxychloride 0.15% when really needed.
Armillaria root rot Armillaria leuteobubalina Avoid excessive wet condition to young
seedling.
Same control used for Damping off (Rhizoctonia
solani, Appendix 3).
Nematodes Helicotylenchus spp.
Meloidogyne spp.
Rotation of planting and use of
attractive plants like Crotalaria.
Aldicarb 10 g per tree.

APPENDIX IV - SUGGESTED FERTILISER RATES IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
Source: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/
Cherimoya Soursop Sugar apple
In Colombia this rate of fertiliser is used.

At 6 months
Apply N-P-K (10-8-6)
lb (227 g) per tree.

6 months later:
Apply N-P-K (10-8-6) 1 lb (454 g)

Yr 2: N-P-K (6-10-8) 1 kg
Yr 3: N-P-K (6-10-8) 1.5 kg
Yr 4: N-P-K (6-10-8) 2 kg
Yr 5 onwards N-P-K (6-10-8) 5 kg
In Hawaii this rate is used.


Yr1: Quarterly applications of N-P-K (10-10-10) 227 g per tree.

Yr 2: N-P-K (10-10-10) 0.5 kg
Yr 3: N-P-K (10-10-10) 1.5 kg
Yr 4 onwards: N-P-K (10-10-10) 1.5 kg

In Egypt on sandy soils this rate is used.

60-80 kg manure per tree per year.

N-P-K (3-10-10) 1.5 kg per year from year 4 onwards.

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APPENDIX V - HEALTH AND SAFETY WHEN USING CHEMICALS

The following chemicals are examples of those that can be used for control of pests and diseases on
annonas and the relevant health and safety advice for each. For a complete list of chemical controls and
precautions for use, please check with your local extension or agricultural office.

ALDICARB

Active ingredients: carbamate (class)

Handling and storage: Highly toxic through oral, skin contact and inhalation. Users should wear full
protective clothing to avoid contact. Should be stored indoors in an isolated, well-ventilated, clean, dry,
cool area. Store away from alkaline substances, water sources, food or animal feed.

Environmental impact: Highly toxic to birds and other organisms. Aldicarb is persistent and may remain in
soil and plant material over the entire growing cycle. Highly soluble in water and mobile in the soil.

BENLATE

Active ingredients: Benomyl

Handling and storage: Users should wear protective clothing and avoid contact with the skin and eyes. The
chemical may irritate the eyes, nose, throat and skin. Should be stored in an airtight container and kept
away from water or fire.

Environmental impact: Toxic to fish.

DIMETHOATE

Active ingredients: Dimethoate (organophosphate)

Handling and storage: Protective clothing should be worn and washing facilities available.

Environmental impact: Moderately toxic to humans and animals through ingestion, inhalation and through
contact with the skin. It is also very toxic to birds, fish, bees and livestock. It is biodegradable and
undergoes rapid degradation in the environment. It is highly soluble in water and is not toxic to plants.


26
GLOSSARY

Abscission The process by which plant parts, such as leaves, are shed.
Air-layering A vegetative method of propagation in which a twig or shoot attached to the
parent plant is wrapped in moist sphagnum moss and polyethylene plastic so
that it will form roots, and can later be removed and planted.
Anthesis Period during which a flower opens or the act of flower opening.
Apomictic seed Seed produced by an unfertilized female cell or from somatic cells often in a
way that mimics sexual reproduction.
Budding A vegetative method of propagation in which a bud from a parent plant is
inserted in the stem of another plant (rootstock) to form a new plant.
Climacteric fruits Fruits that show increased respiratory activity and release of ethylene during
the ripening period, especially when stored in unsuitable temperatures.
Cover-cropping A system in which some crops (e.g. beans) are used to cover the ground and
protect the main crop against erosion or to enrich the soil via nitrogen
fixation.
Cutting A vegetative method of propagation by which a portion of stem, root, or
leaf is cut from the parent or stock plant and induced to form roots and
shoots by chemical, mechanical, and/or environmental manipulation.
Deciduous tree A tree that sheds or loses foliages at the end of the growing season.
Defoliation The way in which someone causes the leaves of a tree to fall off by the use of
chemical spray or dust.
Dichogamy Male and female reproductive organs become receptive at different times
within the same flower, to ensure cross- pollination.
Etiolate To blanch or whiten a plant part or a plant by excluding sunlight.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an individual.
Grafting A vegetative method of propagation in which a plant part, usually a shoot
(graft-wood), is joined to another (rootstock) so that they grow together into
a single plant.
Harrowing A farm operation done with use of an instrument called a harrow, which
serves to break up and level soil or land.
Harvesting The action of gathering a crop (picking fruits during their season).
Hormonal treatment Treatment given to a plant part (seed, stem, shoot) to enhance growth and
development, such as a higher percentage of germination or root on cuttings.
Inter-cropping Growing two or more crops together in the same field.
Mulching A ground cover system in which dry plant parts (e.g. grass) are used around
the newly transplanted tree to protect soil and land against erosion and to
retain soil humidity.
Neurotoxic Toxic to nerves or nervous system.
Nursery A place to protect and grow plants for sale, transplanting or experimentation.
Micro-propagation A type of propagation through which small pieces of plant (explants) are
propagated vegetatively in artificial culture medium in lab conditions.
Pollen The male gametophyte, originating from a microspore, which fertilises the
ovule to form the egg or zygote, and finally the seed.
Ploughing The process of breaking up and turning over the soil or land surface, or
cutting furrows in preparation for sowing.
Propagules Part of the mother plant (graft, bud, stem or shoot), which will be used for
vegetative propagation.
Pruning The process of cutting off or removing dead or living branches of a plant in
order to improve shape or growth.
Rootstock A seedling used as the root system and lower portion of a woody plant to
which the graft or bud of a more desirable plant is attached.

27
Sap The watery fluid that circulates through a plant, carrying food and other
substances to the tissues.
Scarification The process of cutting or eliminating the seed coat to enhance germination.
Scion A bud containing part from the upper portion of a plant, which is grafted
onto another plant used as rootstock.
Seedbed Place where seed is sown.
Seedling medium The medium (substrate) used for sowing seeds.
Seed propagation A process through which a new plant is produced by sowing a seed.
Fruit thinning The process of eliminating deformed or small fruits to enhance growth and
size of the other fruits in the panicles or branches.
Top dressing fertilization Application of fertiliser to the surface of the soil around a tree.
Transplanting The act of transferring a plant, usually a young plant, to another place, or the
uprooting and replanting of a growing tree.
Vegetative propagation A process of producing a new plant by vegetative means, involving the
rooting, grafting, and budding of pieces of plant.
Windbreak A system in which a row of trees is used to break the force of the wind and
avoid problems to the main crop, such as the falling of fruit.









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1a
Why Grow Annona Trees?
2. Socio-economic value
Leaves: Used to stuff pillows.
Fruit: Fresh fruit sold in markets. Pulp mixed with wine,
milk or yoghurt. Soursop: Flavouring for ice cream. Es-
sential oils help flavouring processed fruit products.
Bark: Fibres used for rope. Bark for yellow-brown dye.
Leaf
1. Nutritional value
Fruit: Fruit pulp eaten as desert. Pulp processed into
frozen juice, sherbet, ice cream.

Annona fruit
3. Medicinal value
Leaves: Contain substances with mosquito insecticide
properties. Used to treat sleeping sickness. Used to
control lice in hen coops.
Fruit: Fruit pulp contains vitamin C. Good for teeth,
bones, skin and muscle.
Flower: Has been used to treat eye inflammation.
Seed: Crushed seeds have insecticidal properties
against fruit flies and lice. Paste of seed powder used
to treat head lice. Used in cancer treatment.
Bark: Extracts used to treat skin diseases and control
intestinal worms.
Root: Extracts used to treat cancerous tumours.
Annona flower
Annona seed
Annona roots
These technical notes relate mainly to:

Cherimoya Annona cherimola
Sugar apple Annona squamosa
Soursop Annona reticulata
Annona twig
2006 Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops, UK



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Where To Grow Annona Trees?
1. Climate requirements
Rainfall
Cherimoya: Best Average: 10001500 mm per year.
Sugar apple and soursop: can survive from 300
500mm per year.
Cannot survive below 300 mm.
Annonas require a long dry season to assist fruit
initiation.
Temperature
Cherimoya: best average in summer 1725C.
In winter 518C frost will kill it.
Sugar apple and soursop: 2030C.
Cannot survive low temperature.
2. Altitude
Cherimoya: 900 to 2500 m.
Sugar apple and Soursop: sea level to 1000 m.
3. Soils
Will grow on a wide range of soils from sandy to
heavy loams, pH 6.0 7.6 .
Must be good drainage. Cannot tolerate
waterlogging.
Annonas grow in most parts of the tropics, Central and South America, the Caribbean,
Africa, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and many countries of South East Asia.
30
20
0
C
o

Temperature
mm
1500
1000
500
300
100
Rainfall
Cherimoya
range
Sugar apple
& soursop
range
Cannot
survive
Sugar apple
& soursop
range
10
Cherimoya
range
Cannot
survive
2006 Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops, UK
What To Grow?

Because of this there exist several cultivars of each annona
species. The most important commercial cultivars are the
following:

Cherimoya:
Whaley, Pinks Mammoth and
Mosman (Australia),
Concha Lisa, Bronceada (Chile),
Fino de Jete (Spain),
White, Bays, Golden Russet, Libby and
Lisa (USA),
Funchal and Mateus I (Portugal),
Burtons Wonder and Reretai (New
Zealand),
Kabri and Malalai (Israel).

Soursop:
Morada, Lisa, Blanca (Colombia),
Giant of Alagoas, Selection of Ibimirim,
Cerradina (Brazil).

Sugar apple:
Red Sugar Apple (USA),
Noi (Thailand),
Molate and Lobo (Philippines),
IPA Selections (Brazil);
Cuban Seedless (Cuba),
Barbados and British Guinea (local selections
widely propagated),
Balanagar, Red Sitaphal (India).










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2a
Before deciding what kind of Annona fruit should be planted, a grower should know
what commercial varieties (cultivars) are available in the region, because they usually
command the best prices at market.
Cherimoya
Sugar apple
Soursop

1. Characteristics
Differences among the Annona species and cultivars determine the vegetative character-
istics e.g. foliage and fruit yield, size, shape, colour, quality and number of seeds in the
fruit.
2006 Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops, UK






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How To Grow Annona?
- Parts of Annona Used for Propagation -
2006 Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops, UK
1. Seeds
It is not recommended to grow seedling annona trees due to high variability.
Use seeds to grow rootstocks prior to grafting.
Collect seeds when fruit is mature from strongly growing trees with desired charac-
teristics.

2. Mature trees
Used for collecting scions (bud or grafting sticks).
Good characteristics:
Big crown
Good harvest of fruit with
good shape, hard skin, high
quality flesh.
Abundant flowers
High natural fruit
No pests or disease
Strong trunk
Root system adapted to local conditions



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3a
3. Seeding medium
2 parts fine river sand to 1 part topsoil.

2. Seed treatment
Sow seeds within one week after removal from fruit for better
germination.
Before sowing, Soak cherimoya seeds in water for 4872
hours,
or
Heat seeds in water at 92C for 1015 minutes.
Improve germination by up to 30% for sugar apple and sour-
sop seeds by soaking in 1000 ppm gibberellic acid solution for
24 hours.
Heat seeds
How To Grow The Annona Tree?
- Propagation by Seed -
Clay pot
Plastic bag
4. Sowing seed
Sow 12 seeds in plastic bags, clay pots or tins.
1. Stages in seed propagation for rootstocks
Soak seeds
Trees from seed usually produce inferior fruit.
2006 Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops, UK
Open fruit to
extract seeds
Wash seeds
Air dry seeds
Sow seeds within one
week of collecting




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3b
2. New seedling
Grow seedlings in nursery until stems are 1 cm thick.
It may take 1520 months to reach this stage.
They are now ready for grafting.

How To Grow The Annona Tree?
- Propagation by Seed -
A young seedling
Water seeds daily during dry
season and every 23 days in
wet season.

Remove weeds weekly.

Apply foliar fertiliser:
5 g urea + 15 g triple super
phosphate in 1 litre water.
Repeat monthly from 90 days
after germination.

Spacing: 3 cm between plants,
10 cm between rows.

Transplant when seedlings
are 1015 cm tall.
Spacing: 20 cm between
plants, 40 cm between rows.
1. Seedbed
2006 Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops, UK
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4a
How To Grow The Annona Tree
- Vegetative Propagation -
1. Advantages of vegetative propagation
Ensures the characteristics of the new tree are the same as mother tree.
Trees come into fruit-bearing sooner.
Cherimoya and soursop: budding and grafting is best carried out when sap begins to
flow after a dry period.
Sugar apple: Best time for budding is just before leaf drop during dry season.

Can be up to 80% success rate.
4. Scion collection and prepara-
tion

Cut bud stick (scion) from mature fruit
bearing mother tree when leaves about to
drop.
Buds should be large.
3. Rootstock collection and
preparation

Collect seed and sow as in
Seed propagation.
Seedling is ready for budding or grafting
when 15 to 20 months old or when stem is
just thicker than a pencil.
Vegetative propagation: The process of joining high quality plant material (the
scion) to a rooted seedling (rootstock) adapted to a specific soil and climate.

2. Equipment required
Secateurs to cut bud sticks
Clean sharp knife
Plastic tape
Clean, sharp knife
Secateurs
Plastic tape
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4b
2. Splice-grafting method
(Up to 90% success rate)

A) Annona rootstock.

B) Preparing rootstock.

C) Joining scion to rootstock.

D) Binding scion to rootstock with plastic bag protection.

E) New grafted plant.

1. Inverted T-budding method
(75 80% success rate)


A) and B) rootstock cut and pre-
pared.

C) and D) removing bud from se-
lected cultivar.






E) and F) insertion of the bud into
the rootstock stem.

G) wrapping of the bud.
.
2006 Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops, UK
3. Time of planting
At beginning of rains. If irrigation is available, it is possible to plant anytime.
Transplant from nursery when plants are 3046 cm high or when 46 leaves
have matured. (Cherimoya may be planted at 1 m tall.)

1. Land preparation
If land is more than 3% slope, construct contour ridges or eyebrow terraces.
If land is flat and liable to water logging construct drainage ditches.
Remove shrubs and weeds before ploughing.
How To Grow The Annona Tree
- Field Establishment -



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5a
2. Plant spacing
Spacing varies greatly in commercial orchards.
Seedling trees have wider spacing.
Budded and grafted trees have closer spacing.
Cherimoya 6 x 4 m to 8 x 6 m
Soursop 4 x 4 m to 8 x 8 m
Sugar apple 3 x 3 m to 5 x 5 m
On poor rainfed wastelands can plant 4 m apart.
60 cm
60cm
A
B
Contour terrace
Eyebrow terrace
made from stones
Planting on flat land
Use regular spacing
Drainage ditch
Planting on flat land
Use regular spacing
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5b
1. Pollination
Hand pollinate to improve fruit set.
How To Grow The Annona Tree
- Field Management -
5. Irrigation
12 l water per day during establishment
and dry season.
4. Weeding
Keep area under tree free of weeds.
Mulch with grass or rice husks (be-
ware of fire).
7. Intercropping
Pearl millet, beans or vegetables.
Perennial legumes or grass cover crops can reduce erosion of soil and improve
its physical structure.
8. Windbreaks
Windbreaks such as Casuarina help protect shallow-rooted annonas.
2. Annona pests
Remove affected branches or fruit
6. Fertiliser
Apply in planting hole:
Farmyard manure 510 kg
Lime 200300 g
Phosphorus 800 g

Fruit bearing trees (rate per tree):
3 kg ammonium sulphate
660 g triple super phosphate
500 g potassium chloride

Apply in 3 equal amounts at begin-
ning, middle and end of rains.
3. Pruning
Trunk borer
Fruit borer
Seed borer
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6a
Harvesting
1. Time to first harvest

Annonas usually begin to bear fruit at between 36 years old depending on propagation
method, cultural practices and climate.
4. Picking fruit

Use ladder to reach high up fruit
(Be careful to lean against strong
branches).
or
Use a picking pole.
Clip stalk 1 cm from fruit to reduce
spoilage.

3. Skin colour index

Use the skin colour index for different markets.

Local market: Pick when 20 40% yellowish skin. Will ripen 46 days later.

Export market: Pick when 10-20% yellowish skin.

Note:
If picked at 75% yellowish will ripen in 3 days.
2. Harvest point

Determined by skin colour

Cherimoya from greyish green to yellowish green
Sugar apple from greyish green to yellowish green
Soursop from dark green to yellowish green
2006 Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops, UK

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6b
Post-harvest Handling And
Storage
Place box under shade for better keeping.
Store on racks in a shed.
Cherimoya: 1112
o
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Sugar apple: 1516
o
C
Soursop: 1620
o
C
Place fruit into a basket or box with padding inside.
Control fungus infections.
Immerse in fungicide (thiobendazole 8 g/l).
Dry fruit.
Place in polythene packaging with ethylene absorber (clay brick wetted with
potassium permanganate solution).
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7a
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Processing













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7a
Add 10g sodium benzoate
per 10kg pulp
Processing
- Preparation of Soursop Pulp-
Put in storage
container and
Label
Sterilisation of jars
Preparation of pulp
Put jars in a pan
with water
Wash jars
Remove jars
Boil jars for 10
minutes
Most annonas are sold as fresh fruits, but they can be processed as juice, frozen
pulp, jelly and ice cream.
Soursop is good for processing because its pulp does not oxidise easily.
Add sugar
Remove seeds
Heat pulp for 1
minute at 80
o
C
Concentrate at
60
o
C
Hand peel
Sieve
Eliminate air by
compression
Blend for 10
minutes
Rinse fruit



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7b
Marketing and Economics
1. Local market
Annona fruits are usually sold fresh at local markets.
or
Transported to urban markets for sale as fresh fruits or processed into other
products.
2. International market
Due to the perishable nature of annona fruits, most is sold in local and national
markets.
There is a growing demand for fresh cherimoya fruits in USA, Japan and Argen-
tina.
Most international trade is through processed fruit products such as juice, flavour-
ing for ice cream and sherberts.
3. Income potential

Mean costs to establish and maintain 1 hectare soursop with 204 plants/ha.





Year Establishment/
Maintenance
(US$)
Average yield
(tonnes fruit/
ha)
Gross income
(US$)
Annual Net
income
(US$)
1
st
2,486 - 0 -2,486
2
nd
716 2 1,360 644
3
rd
675 4 2,720 2,045
4
th
923 5 3,400 2,477
5th 996 7 4,760 3,764
6
th
1,184 9 6,120 4,936
7
th
1,212 10 6,800 5,588
2006 Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops, UK