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Notes

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Basic Geology
Basic Geology
The Earth - Overview
The Earth - Mechanisms
Rock Types
Deposition
Clastic rocks
Carbonate Rocks
Reservoir Rocks
Porosity
Permeability
JJ Consulting 1997
Notes
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The Earth
The earth is made up of a number of components. At the centre is the
solid core which is Nickel - Iron ; around this is a liquid core of the same
material. The next part is a liquid called the Mantle, composed of much
lighter materials. Finally there is a solid crust, a very thin sheath.
Notes
The crust is not one solid skin on the mantle. It is broken into a number of
irregular plates. The plates can be large, the Pacific Plate, or relatively
small, some of the Mediterranean plates. The centres of the plates are
stable environments while the edges are the earthquake/volcano regions of
the earth. These plates move around driven by the convection currents in
the mantle.
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The Earth 2
The crust is broken into a number of plates.
Notes
The mantle is plastic. It flows in convection currents from the very hot
core to the outer Mantle/crust. These currents cause the crust to move. The
currents are continuous and are responsible for all the features on the
earth's surface.
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Plate Tectonics 1
Convection currents flow from the very hot core
up to the crust.
It is these currents which produce the
movements seen on the surface.
Notes
Two types of features are caused by the movement of the plates. The first
set are compressional. Here two plates are pushed together. They can
create a zone of mountains or one plate can go under the other creating a
trench. Mountains are usually associated with trenching as well.
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Compressional Features
These features are caused by the mantle
currents pushing plates together
Notes
On the other side of the currents tensional effects are found. Here the plate
is stretched out thin creating faults and rifts and eventually a new plate.
Both compressional and tensional features play a large role in the
structures of reservoirs.
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Tensional Features
Tensional features are causes by the plates
moving apart, for example a rift.
Notes
This diagram shows two ocean plates colliding in a compressional event.
The trench is formed on one side while mountains (volcanoes) are created
on the other.
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Ocean plate - Ocean Plate
Mountains
When an ocean plate meets another, one is
forced down creating a trench.
Volcanoes form at the junction.
Trench
Notes
This is a typical trenching effect with the ocean plate being forced Down
under the continental plate. The latter is forced up into a mountain chain,
while there is a trench formed at the boundary.
An example of this type of feature is found on the western side of
Sumatra. The island has a range of volcanic mountains while offshore is a
deep trench.
The ocean plate is being driven by the creation of a mid-ocean ridge. A
good example of this types of feature is the Mid Atlantic Ridge which
stretches from Iceland to below Argentina.
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Ocean plate - Continental plate
Notes
Two continental plates colliding create a mountain between them.
Compressional forces driving this effect. The entire region surrounding
the mountains with be heavily affected by faulting and fracturing.
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Continental - Continental
The collision of two continental plates creates a
mountain range.
A good example is the Himalayas, created when
India collided with Asia.
Notes
This slide shows a number of the plates and other features of the Indian
Ocean. Several mid-ocean ridges are clearly visible delineating the edges
of the plates. The plates contain features such as basins and plateaus. the
latter are higher regions, some even forming island chains.
At the edges of the plates are features such as the Java trench, created
where the ocean plate moving east is going under the continental plate.
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Plates
Notes
The basins are close to continents and obtain the sediments from the
interior. A basin cannot be near the edge of a plate as any sediments
would be stirred making reservoir formation difficult.
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Basins
The basin is where hydrocarbon reservoirs are
found.
A shallow sea in a quiet region of a tectonic plate
is required.
The sediments can build up and form rocks
without being disturbed.
Notes
Current basins where reservoirs are forming are the Persian Gulf, the
North Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the Great Barrier Reef. All of these are
stable. The Mediterranean is not a basin although there are plenty of rivers
depositing sediment, it is unstable with numerous tectonic boundaries
running through it.
The geologist has to image the earth as it was millions of years ago to find
those ancient basins where reservoirs formed.
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Current Basins
Notes
The rocks forming the earths crust are broken down into three major
classes reflecting their origins.
Igneous coming from molten material of the mantle, sedimentary rocks
from sediments and metamorphic from the effects of heat and pressure of
both of the others.
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Rocks General
There are three major classes of rock:
Igneous:
(e.g. Granite).
Sedimentary:
(e.g. Sandstone).
Metamorphic:
(e.g. Marble).
Notes
Volcanic rocks are those seen immediately after a volcanic eruption. They
cool quickly resulting in an amorphous structure. They have no texture.
Plutonic rocks cool much slower as they come up from the Mantle and
stop much deeper inside the crust. They have a crystalline structure.
Continuing movements of the crust may bury the volcano and bring the
plutonic rock to a shallower depth or even surface.
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Igneous Rocks
Comprise 95% of the Earth's crust.
Originated from the solidification of molten
material from deep inside the Earth.
There are two types:
Volcanic - glassy in texture due to fast cooling.
Plutonic - slow-cooling, crystalline rocks.
cryst alline
Notes
A granite has no porosity or permeability of its own, however tectonic
forces may fracture the rock. Into these fractures hydrocarbons can flow to
create a reservoir.
The nature of volcanoes is to eject material which is mixed with the
already existing formations. This is what happened in some places where
the sandstone of the reservoir has volcanic debris mixed into it.
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Igneous Rocks and Reservoirs
Igneous rocks can be part of reservoirs.
Fractured granites form reservoirs in some parts
of the world.
Volcanic tuffs are mixed with sand in some
reservoirs.
Notes
The effect of heat and pressure is to transform the rock into a new form. In
doing this it destroys all porosity and any hydrocarbon. Metamorphic
rocks do not exist in reservoirs.
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Metamorphic Rocks
2) Metamorphic rocks
formed by the action of temperature
and/or pressure on sedimentary or igneous
rocks.
Examples are
Marble - formed from limestone
Hornfels - from shale or tuff
Gneiss - similar to granite but
formed by metamorphosis
Notes
Sedimentary rocks are formed from the material of other rocks which
could be igneous, metamorphic or older sedimentary rocks. The
classification splits those rocks which form from materials transported
from one place to another - clastic rocks, from rocks which are created
from materials in their place of formation ; no transportation - non clastic
rocks.
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Sedimentary Rocks
The third category is Sedimentary rocks. These
are the most important for the oil industry as it
contains most of the source rocks and cap rocks
and virtually all reservoirs.
Sedimentary rocks come from the debris of older
rocks and are split into two categories
Clastic and Non-clastic.
Clastic rocks -
formed from the materials of older rocks
by the actions of erosion
, transportation
and deposition.
Non-clastic rocks -
from chemical or biological origin and
then deposition.
Notes
The depositional environment often plays a vital part of the evaluation of
a well and a field. This often defines the major lithology and points to the
possibilities of minor minerals. For example the shallow fan of the delta in
the slide produces a conglomerate , the deep water is showing shales ( fine
sediments ). Clues to the deposition come from a lot of measurements in
and around the well. Core data is invaluable for the fossils, something that
cant be seen on logs. The analysis of Dipmeter curves was always one of
the first steps to choosing the depositional environment. Lately the
imaging tools have made the process much easier with high resolution
borehole images.
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Depositional Environments
The depositional environment can be
Shallow or deep water.
Marine (sea) and lake or continental.
This environment determines many of the
reservoir characteristics
Notes
The classical continental deposition of sand dunes produces an excellent
reservoir quality reservoir rock. To create a reservoir the dune has to be
buried with a source rock and cap rock providing the rest of the elements
of the reservoir.
The sediments carried down rivers will be deposited once the energy of
the river currents drops. Heavier particles will come out first, leaving the
fine sediments to go into deep water.
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Depositional Environments 2
Continental deposits are usually dunes.
A shallow marines environment has a lot of
turbulence hence varied grain sizes. It can also
have carbonate and evaporite formation.
A deep marine environment produces fine
sediments.
Notes
Sediments deposited in deep water will form poor quality reservoir rocks
as the fine grains lead to poor permeability.
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Depositional Environments 3
The depositional characteristics of the rocks lead
to some of their properties and that of the
reservoir itself.
The reservoir rock type clastic or non-clastic.
The type of porosity (especially in carbonates) is
determined by the environment plus subsequent
events.
The structure of a reservoir can also be
determined by deposition; a river, a delta, a reef
and so on.
This can also lead to permeability and
producibility. of these properties are often
changed by further events.
Notes
Sedimentary rocks are subject to changes over time. If water of a different
chemical composition flows through the rock, reactions can occur
changing the rock type or dissolving some of it.
Tectonic forces are always present. They crack the rock creating fractures.
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Diagenesis
The environment can also involve subsequent
alterations of the rock such as:
Chemical changes.
Diagenesis is the chemical alteration of a rock
after burial. An example is the replacement of
some of the calcium atoms in limestone by
magnesium to form dolomite.
Mechanical changes - fracturing in a tectonically-
active region.
Notes
The start and end of all rocks is the magma in the mantle . This is cooled
to create igneous rocks. these can be broken down into sediments. The
sediments are turned into sedimentary rocks. These can be buried deeper
with heat and pressure, turning into metamorphic rocks. If these are then
heated we return to the magma. Inside this major cycle are subcycles.
Igneous rocks can be heated to give metamorphic rocks. Any rocks can be
broken into sediments to give sedimentary rocks.
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Rock Cycle
Notes
Sands are a reservoir rock, while shales are a source rock and a cap rock. The shales are
very fine grained and although the can contain fluids this can only leak out in geological
time, very slowly.
Shales and silts also contain other minerals than Quartz. The sediments are buried to
create the sedimentary rock, initially filled with water.
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Clastic Rocks
Clastic rocks are sands, silts and shales. The
difference is in the size of the grains.
Notes
Deltas can have huge extents. There are also a large number of potential traps in this
environment, channels, bars and sheets of sands further out in the deeper water. hence the
delta is one of the most prolific hydrocarbon environments. They are also complex with
the structure ranging from shallow , shoreline to deep water.
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Depositional Environment - Delta
Sediments are transported to the basins by rivers.
A common depositional environment is the delta
where the river empties into the sea.
A good example of this is the Mississippi.
Notes
Ancient river beds below the current level can add up to a considerable
thickness.
The shape of a river/channel type deposition is often complicated, causing
problems for well placement.
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Rivers
Some types of deposition occur in rivers and
sand bars.
The river forms a channel where sands are
deposited in layers. Rivers carry sediment down
from the mountains which is then deposited in
the river bed and on the flood plains at either
side.
Changes in the environment can cause these
sands to be overlain with a shale, trapping the
reservoir rock.
Notes
Carbonates contain about half the worlds reserves in less than half of the reservoirs
mainly due to the super giant fields of the Middle East
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Carbonates
Carbonates form a large proportion of all
sedimentary rocks.
They consist of:
Limestone.
Dolomite.
Carbonates usually have an irregular structure.
They are formed from biological debris,
shells, skeletons etc.
Notes
Limestones and dolomites are usually reservoir rocks. A very dense, low porosity
limestone can, occasionally, be a cap rock
. Dolomitisation is a very important mechanism as it not only creates porosity but
permeability paths vital to some reservoirs.
Chalk reservoirs tend to have very high porosity and very low permeability.
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Carbonate types
Chalk is a special form of limestone and is formed
from the skeletons of small creatures (cocoliths).
Dolomite is formed by the replacement of some of
the calcium by a lesser volume of magnesium in
limestone by magnesium. Magnesium is smaller
than calcium, hence the matrix becomes smaller
and more porosity is created.
Limestone CaCO3
Dolomite CaMg(CO3)2
Evaporites such as Salt (NaCl) and Anhydrite
(CaSO4) can also form in these environments.
Notes
A reef is the simplest carbonate deposition, the skeletons of the reef animals.
In the shallow lagoons, Calcium Carbonate is deposited. Shells and so on are added to
the mixture. Changes in sea level allow the deposition of salt or anhydrite as a seal.
Carbonate deposition is very complex as the rocks themselves have particle sizes
ranging from whole shells to line mud. The basic deposition is in shallow seas from
biological and chemical action. CaCo3 is soluble hence can be transported around as a
solute and then reprecipitated elsewhere.
In addition to the carbonates these environments also produce evaporites such as salt (
NaCl ) and anhydrite ( Ca So4 ) . Other rocks include pyrite ( FeS2 ) and siderite ( FeCo3
) and chert, microcrystalline quartz, the carbonate reservoir is hence very complex.
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Depositional Environment
Carbonates
Carbonates are formed in shallow seas
containing features such as:
Reefs.
Lagoons.
Shore-bars.
Lagoon
Notes
There are many other ways to describe a rock from a geological
perspective. The minor constituents often determine how a rock behaves
as a reservoir, hence they are included in the description. For example
then shale content of a sandstone and the type of shale will be used.
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Rock Properties
Rocks are described by three properties:
Porosity - quantity of pore space
Permeability - ability of a formation to flow
Matrix - major constituent of the rock
Notes
The amount of porosity gives the volume of the reservoir containing
fluids. As it is a fraction it can be described as a number e.g. 0.25 or
commonly as a percentage, 25%. Porosity can range from zero to over
50%. In normal reservoirs the range of 20% - 39%.
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Definition of Porosity
Notes
The two packing models shown represent some of the possibilities .Cubic
packing , with a porosity in excess of 47% is the theoretical maximum
which is rarely reached.
These pictures are valid in a lot of cases as the sand sediments deposited
are often of uniform size and shape. The addition of smaller grains will
reduce the porosity.
Chalk often exhibits cubic packing.
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Porosity Sandstones
The porosity of a sandstone depends on the
packing arrangement of its grains.
The system can be examined using spheres.
In a Rhombohedral packing, the pore
space accounts for 26% of the total
volume.
With a Cubic packing arrangement,
the pore space fills 47% of the total
volume.
In practice, the theoretical value is
rarely reached because:
a) the grains are not perfectly round,
and
b) the grains are not of uniform size.
Notes
In a clastic rock the grain size ( same size grains ) does not affect the
porosity. Thus a sand, a silt and a shale can have the same porosity .The
differences come in permeability where the grain size has a direct effect,
large grains meaning higher permeability. This is the reason that a
universal porosity - permeability transform does not work; two rocks with
the same porosity but different grain sizes will not have the same
permeability. The saturation can occur even in the same sandstone
layer in a reservoir in a sequence where the grain size has changed during
deposition eg. a firing up sequence.
This implies that the silts and shales have porosity containing fluid. The
fluid is water as the pore size is so small that capillary forces prevent
hydrocarbon from entering.
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Porosity and Grain Size
A rock can be made up of small grains or large
grains but have the same porosity.
Porosity depends on grain packing, not the grain
size.
Notes
Sandstones can also contain fractures and vugs, however this is rarer than
in the carbonates. In the case of vugs the latter are soluble while sandstone
is not.
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Carbonate Porosity
Intergranular porosity is called "primary
porosity".
Porosity created after deposition is called
"secondary porosity".
The latter is in two forms:
Fractures
Vugs.
Notes
Fractures are classed as either being vertical or horizontal, although they can appear at
almost any angle. If they are vertical they can penetrate from an oil column down into the
water, and, as they have very high permeability, can cause production problems.
This set of porosities are not fabric selective, ie. they happen to the entire rock. Fractures
crack through any of the types of mineral or shell in the rock.
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Fractures
Fractures are caused when a rigid rock is
strained beyond its elastic limit - it cracks.
The forces causing it to break are in a constant
direction, hence all the fractures are also
aligned.
Fractures are an important source of
permeability in low porosity carbonate
reservoirs.
Notes
The full definition of vugs is more complicated. They are irregular holes
in the rock. They have been caused by dissolution of shell (etc) fragments
and also some of the matrix surrounding them. They can vary widely in
size from a few microns to metres. In this context they are regarded as
being a centimetres at most. In most cases the vugs are not connected to
each other in any producible manner and hence do not contribute to the
formations productivity.
Carbonate rocks will frequently contain both vugs and fractures.
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Vugs
Vugs are defined as non-connected pore space.
They do not contribute to the producible fluid
total.
Vugs are caused by the dissolution of soluble
material such as shell fragments after the rock
has been formed.
They usually have irregular shapes.
Notes
The major difference in the two properties porosity or permeability is that
the former is a static rock property while the latter is a dynamic rock and
fluid property.
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Permeability Definition
The rate of flow of a liquid through a formation
depends on:
The pressure drop.
The viscosity of the fluid.
The permeability.
The pressure drop is a reservoir property.
The viscosity is a fluid property.
The permeability is a measure of the ease at
which a fluid can flow through a formation.
Relationships exist between permeability and
porosity for given formations, although they are
not universal.
A rock must have porosity to have any
permeability.
The unit of measurement is the Darcy.
Reservoir permeability is usually quoted in
millidarcies, (md).
Notes
The original experiment was designed to monitor the flow of water
through the sand in the town of Dijon .
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Darcy Experiment
The flow of fluid of viscosity m through a
porous medium was first investigated in 1856 by
Henri Darcy.
He related the flow of water through a unit
volume of sand to the pressure gradient across
it.
In the experiment the flow rate can be changed
by altering the parameters.
Notes
The flow rate increases with increasing pressure drop; it decreases with
increasing length ; it increases with increasing surface area; it decreases
with increasing viscosity. Putting this altogether gives an equation with
the unknown as the permeability, K.
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Darcy Experiment 2
Notes
Permeability is a metric ( but not SI ) unit.
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Darcy Law
K = permeability, in Darcies.
L = length of the section of rock, in centimetres.
Q = flow rate in centimetres
3
/ sec.
P1, P2 = pressures in bars.
A = surface area, in cm2.
= viscosity in centipoise.
Notes
The flow rate through the large pore spaces is high hence the permeability
is high.
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Permeability and Rocks
In formations with large grains, the
permeability is high and the flow rate larger.
Notes
The flow rate through the small grained rocks is low hence the
permeability is low. The formation contrasts with the one in the previous
slide; with the same porosity the permeabilities can differ dramatically.
The ultimate contrast is between a very fine grained shale with zero
permeability and a coarse sandstone with a high permeability.
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Permeability and Rocks 2
In a rock with small grains the permeability is
less and the flow lower.
Grain size has no bearing on porosity, but has a
large effect on permeability.
Notes
Due to bedding the permeability can change vertically to a clastic
sequence . The vertical permeability kv is determined by the lowest
permeability layer. The horizontal permeability kh does not have this
problem. The anisotropy , Kv/Kh describes the difference between the
two. This ratio is always less than or equal to 1.
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Permeability and Rocks 3
The flow through this system will be best along
the horizontal direction through the large grained
parts of the rock. The small grained layer will
impede fluid flow in the vertical direction and
hence reduce the permeability. The porosity of all
the layers can be exactly the same.
low
Vertical
permeability
high horizontal perm
Notes
As noted a rock can have porosity but no permeability. If it has zero
porosity it will have zero permeability. In practical terms low porosity
reservoirs ( < 10% ) exist.
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Reservoir Rocks
Reservoir rocks need two properties to be
successful:
Pore spaces able to retain hydrocarbon.
Permeability which allows the fluid to move.
Notes
Sandstone reservoirs account for the majority of the worlds fields. There
will always be bedding variations leading to differences in the quality of
the reservoirs. The porosity and permeability are relatively simple to
evaluate from core samples.
Fractures may be important in low porosity reservoirs.
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Clastic Reservoirs
Sandstone usually has regular grains; and is
referred to as a grainstone.
Porosity
Determined mainly by the packing and
mixing of grains.
Permeability
Determined mainly by grain size and
packing, connectivity and shale content.
Fractures may be present.
Notes
Carbonates reservoirs are difficult as their properties change in both the
vertical and the horizontal directions, often in unpredictable ways.
Fractures are nearly always present and can be essential to production.
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Carbonate Reservoirs
Carbonates normally have a very irregular
structure.
Porosity:
Determined by the type of shells, etc. and
by depositional and post-depositional
events (fracturing, leaching, etc.).
Permeability:
Determined by deposition and post-
deposition events, fractures.
Fractures can be very important in carbonate
reservoirs.
Notes
The majority of cap rocks are shales as it is these rocks which are
normally present. Zero porosity carbonates not only form cap rocks but
barriers in the reservoir itself.
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Cap Rock
A reservoir needs a cap rock.
Impermeable cap rock keeps the fluids trapped in
the reservoir.
It must have zero permeability.
Some examples are:
Shales.
Evaporites such as salt or anhydrite.
Zero-porosity carbonates.
Notes
Source rocks are shale or siltstone. These sedimentary rocks form in the
deep ocean and have fine grains.
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Source Rocks
Hydrocarbon originates from minute organisms
in seas and lakes. When they die, they sink to
the bottom where they form organic-rich
"muds" in fine sediments.
These "muds" are in a reducing environment or
"kitchen", which strips oxygen from the
sediments leaving hydrogen and carbon.
The sediments are compacted to form organic-
rich rocks with very low permeability.
The hydrocarbon can migrate very slowly to
nearby porous rocks, displacing the original
formation water.
Plankton and other dead animals
fall to the bootm of the oceans
Organic rich mud
Notes
The temperature at which the source rock has been cooked is important
to the viability of the reservoir. It is closely related to the depth at which
the rock was buried. As all this happened a long time in the past the
geologist has to track the history of the source rock.
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Temperature Window
If the temperature is too low, the organic
material cannot transform into hydrocarbon.
If the temperature is too high, the organic
material and hydrocarbons are destroyed.
Temperature too low for
hydrocarbon formation
Oil Formed
Gas Formed
Temperature too high for
hydrocarbon formation
Notes
Secondary migration is simple to understand with the higher hydrocarbon
floating to rest on top of the original water. The primary part of the
process is much more complex. The exact mechanism is uncertain as the
experiment cannot be done in the laboratory ( high temperature and
pressure and a very long time ).
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Hydrocarbon Migration
Hydrocarbon migration takes place in two
stages:
Primary migration
- from the source rock to a porous
rock.
This is a complex process and not fully understood.
It is probably limited to a few hundred metres.
Secondary migration - along the porous rock to the trap.
This occurs by buoyancy, capillary pressure and hydrodynamics
through a continuous water-filled pore system.
It can take place over large distances.
Notes
Clastic rocks are classified initially by their grain size. There are many
more complex classifications for this type of rock but this is the simplest.
In this list Conglomerates and Sandstones are reservoir rocks, Siltstones
and Shales are source rocks and shales are also cap rocks.
Non- Clastics can be described by their chemical composition, there are,
once again many more complex descriptions. Here limestone and
Dolomite are reservoir rocks and Silt and Anhydrite are cap rocks.
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Rock Classification
Clastics
Rock type Particle diameter
Conglomerate Pebbles 2 - 64mm
Sandstone Sand .06 - 2mm
Siltstone Silt .003 - .06mm
Shale Clay <.003mm
Non-Clastics
Rock type Composition
Limestone CaCO3
Dolomite CaMg(CO3)2
Salt NaCl
Anhydrite CaSO4
Coal Carbon
Notes
The rocks compromising the reservoir undergo significant changes due to
tectonic movements. The most important is folding and faulting as it is
these alterations to the initial horizontal strata which create the structures
forming reservoir traps. The depositional environment contributes greatly
to the variety of trap. Shallow lagoons can have reefs as well as layers of
carbonates.
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Reservoir Structure
There are many other types of structure.
The criteria for a structure is that it must have:
Closure, i.e. the fluids are unable to
escape.
Be large enough to be economical.
The exact form of the reservoir depends on the
depositional environment and post depositional
events such as foldings and faulting.
1300m
1400m
Notes
In the major oil basins of the world it is often the case of series of
structures. Maps of the North Sea or Middle East clearly show the
reservoirs lined up as one structure has overflowed into the next.
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Trap definitions
Once the hydrocarbon reaches the spill plane it
goes to fill up the next structure.
Several fields can be created in a line.
Closure is measured down to the spill plane.
Notes
The key concepts are those of Net and Gross pay. Gross pay is always >
Net pay. This can also be described by the Net -to - Gross ratio which is
always less than or equal to one. The spill plane is the maximum level to
which this particular reservoir can filled before the next anticline starts to
be filled.
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Traps General
Gross Pay: the total
thickness of the reservoir
zone from the top of the
reservoir to the lowermost
hydrocarbons
Closure: total
reservoir size
down to the spill
point
Net Pay: the total thickness
of producible hydrocarbons Spill Point: connection to other
systems
Notes
Structural traps describe all the large features and includes domes,
anticlines and faults. These large scale reservoirs include most of the
Middle East giants.
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Structural Traps
The simplest form of trap is a dome.
This is created by upward movement or folding
of underlying sediments.
An anticline is another form of simple trap. This
is formed by the folding of layers of sedimentary
rock.
Notes
Faulting is an important mechanism in most reservoirs. It forms reservoirs
in its own right and also breaks other reservoirs down into specific blocks.
Well testing helps determine the fault parameters such as distance from a
well, angle and so on.
Faulting of older blocks creating grabens also makes depositional
environments for new reservoir formation. Overall a very important
mechanism in most reservoirs.
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Fault Traps
Faults occur when the rock shears due to
stresses. Reservoirs often form in these fault
zones.
A porous and permeable layer may trap fluids
due to its location alongside an impermeable
fault or its juxtaposition alongside an
impermeable bed.
Faults are found in conjunction with other
structures such as anticlines, domes and salt
domes.
Notes
Stratigraphic traps describe the traps associated with the depositional
environment. Reefs, channels and bars are from specific environments.
Unconformities exist due to tectonic movements when a formation ;an
anticline in the diagram is eroded ( it is above ground level ). It is then
buried and more sediments are added creating the seal and hence the
reservoir.
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Stratigraphic Traps
Notes
Salt in creating the domes also adds faults and fractures due to the express
pressures on the rocks. The traps around the dome are difficult to find as
anything below the Salt is invisible on the surface seismic. ( the contrast
between the salt and anything else is too large ).
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Salt Dome Trap
Salt Dome traps are caused when "plastic" salt
is forced upwards.
The salt dome pierces through layers and
compresses rocks above. This results in the
formation of various traps:
In domes created by formations pushed up by
the salt.
Along the flanks and below the overhang in
porous rock abutting on the impermeable salt
itself.
Notes
Most reservoir maps in the world use m.s.l. as the reference. Depths of
the layer increases away from the crest of the structure.
The reference is needed because the drilling rig can be on top of a
mountain or an offshore platform. In each case the measured depth of the
same layer is different as the drilling reference is different.
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Reservoir Mapping
Reservoir contours are usually measured to be
below Mean Sea Level (MSL).
They can represent either the reservoir formation
structure or fluid layers.
Notes
The vast majority of reservoirs fall into the middle era from about
300Myears to about 60Myears. This is because there has been enough
time for all the process to happen. If too much time has passed the
continuing tectonic movements will push the reservoir deep, destroying
the hydrocarbon or cracked it open or raised it to the surface allowing the
fluids to escape.
If not enough time has passed all the elements of the reservoir will not be
in place.
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Rock Ages
Notes
The mechanical strength of the sandstone formations can be predicted
using wireline logs.
Lost circulation material is used to stop mud losses during drilling, it can
be a number of materials, ground nut shells, cotton seeds, rubber bands,
mica. In all cases its major property is to block holes.
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Reservoir Rocks and Production
Sandstones Under high drawdown some
sandstones will collapse; the well
produces sand. This may cause
damage to equipment.
Carbonates Lost circulation material is
produced first and can clog valves
and so on.
Production may be through
fractures and only a few
perforations producing as jets.