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Appendix F
Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing

The following is prepared in accordance with the AWS D1.1 Code 2010 edition in order to
conduct phased array examinations to detect fabrication and field welding flaws in welded steel
pipe.

A phased array ultrasonic testing procedure shall be written and qualified in accordance with the
requirements herein. Essential variables detailed in Attachment A and shall be addressed in the
phased array ultrasonic testing procedure.

1.0 Purpose

The purpose is to outline the requirements for phased array examinations of carbon steel
pipe welds.

2.0 Scope

Carbon steel complete penetration (CJ P) joint welds with or without backing bar shall be
examined in accordance with these requirements to include thicknesses of 0.25 inches to
2.0 inches.

3.0 References

3.1 AWS D1.1, 2010 Edition
3.2 ASNT SNT-TC-1A
3.3 CP-189 2011 Edition
3.4 CP-105 2011 Edition
3.5 ASTM E 2700-09

4.0 Personnel Training and Qualification Requirements

4.1 All PAUT personnel shall be trained and certified in accordance with ASNT
SNT-TC-1A, 2011 Edition.

4.2 Personnel conducting PAUT examinations and evaluating results obtained shall
be certified to Phased Array Ultrasonic Level II or Level III, in accordance with
reference 3.3 as a minimum.

4.3 All PAUT Level II and III personnel shall have attended a minimum of 80 hours
of documented Phased Array Training in accordance with ASNT CP-105, 2011
Edition.

4.4 Certified Ultrasonic UT Level I and UT Level II personnel that have been trained
in the use of the equipment and have demonstrated the ability to properly acquire
examination data to a saved setup file shall be allowed to conduct examinations
while under the direct supervision of a certified PAUT Level II or Level III, but
shall not be allowed to interpret the results obtained. This individual is
considered a Scanner Technician or an assistant to the certified PAUT Level II.
Calibration, setup and data acquisition shall only be conducted by a certified
PAUT Level II.
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4.5 Phased Array Level II and III personnel shall pass a specific written examination
of 30 questions minimum of the Phased Array procedure to be implemented.

4.6 In addition, under the guidelines of Attachment B, Performance Demonstration
Qualification (PDQ) Examinations shall be successfully completed in order to
implement the Phased Array Examination in accordance with the requirements
herein.

5.0 Phased Array Definitions

5.1 Active Aperture: The number of elements in a Phased Array Transducer used for
the examination.

5.2 Angle Corrected Gain, ACG: This is compensation for the variation in signal
amplitudes during S-scan calibration at swept angles. The compensation is
typically performed electronically at multiple depths. A set of gain values is
applied to each summed A-scan presentation during angular electronic scanning
in order to get the same amplitude level for echoes reflected by a specific target,
whatever the refracted angle or depth. Note that there are technical limits to
ACG, that is, beyond a certain angular range, compensation is not always
possible.

5.3 Automated Scanner: An encoded, mechanical, motorized device for scanning
along welds to collect data. If the scanning device is manually driven but
encoded, it is called a semi-automated scanner.

5.4 E-scan, also called a linear scan: In this scan multiple elements groups are
excited using the same focal laws so as to form a single beam angle and this same
beam angle is indexed along the phased array probes active aperture.

5.5 Encoder: A device that records probe position for computer analysis.

5.6 Focal Law: A phased array operational file defining search unit elements and
time delays for transmitted and received signals.

5.7 Line scan: The phased array scan technique in which an E, S or combination
scan is performed with the beams directed perpendicular to the weld, at a fixed
distance from the welds in a manner demonstrated to provide full weld coverage.

5.8 PAUT: Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing.

5.9 Pitch: The center to center distance between two successive phased array
transducer elements.

5.10 S-scan, also called a sectorial scan: In this scan a single group of elements is
excited using multiple focal laws to form a series of different beam angles
emanating from the same group of elements.

5.11 S-view: The phased array instrument view that displays accumulated A-scan
information in a sector or volume of material. The sector display is used for both
E-scan and S-scan data.

5.12 Scan Plan: A document specifying key process elements such as equipment
detail, focal law settings and probe positions as necessary to complete an
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examination also depicting weld coverage.

5.13 Depth Calibration: A specific action used to compensate and adjust instrument
time delay over all focal laws (angles of refraction) for a specific wedge
geometry for depth calibration.

5.14 Virtual Probe Aperture, VPA: The grouping of elements in a given set of
elements to be fired in a Linear Scan.

6.0 Phased Array Equipment

6.1 The ultrasonic phased array system shall include:
A phased array test instrument as detailed herein.
Phased array probe or probes as detailed herein as defined in the Scan Plan
Encoding System Scanner, Wheel, or String
6.2 Automated or semi-automated scanners, as specified in the Scan Plan, shall be
performed using a pulse-echo technique using an Olympus OmniScan or equal
PAUT instrument. This PAUT System shall be qualified in accordance with the
PDQ Procedure Qualification (PQ) program and meet the following performance
requirements.
6.2.1 As a minimum, the Phased Array unit shall have a gain control
adjustable in increments of 1 or 2 dB steps and over a range of at least
60 dB.
6.2.2 The instrument shall be suitable for use with transducers which generate
frequencies over a minimum range of 2 to 6 MHz. Other Phased Array
probe frequencies maybe used if approved by the PAUT Level III.
6.2.3 The instrument shall be capable of producing sectorial, S-Scans or
Electronic, E-scans or a combination of both S and E-Scans as defined
by the Scan Plan.
6.2.4 The instrument shall be equipped with a minimum of 16 pulsers and
channels (16:16 minimum). A minimum of 16:64 is required if E-scans
are to be used.
6.3 n addition to the phased array system, peripherals such as keyboard, mouse and
data storage devices may be used in calibration, set-up and reporting. Subsequent
to data collection completion, data-analysis personnel may use a personal
computer with optional data analysis tools and display software for analyzing
data.
6.4 Straight-Beam, Longitudinal Wave Search Units

6.4.1 The straight beam search unit may be of a conventional or phased array
type.

6.4.2 Conventional transducers shall be square or round, have an active area
of at least 1/2 square inches and no more than 1 square inch, and operate
at frequencies between 2 and 2.5 MHz.

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Phased
6.7 The Phased Array Wedge

.7.1 The wedge shall produce refracted shear waves in the material being
6.7.2 ominal shear wave refracted wedge angles between 45 and 70 shall be
6.8 Encoder

For angle beam Phased Array Examinations, encoding in accordance
6.9 Couplant
6.9.1 Unless otherwise stipulated in the Scan Plan, any commercial couplant,
6.10 Calibration Blocks
6.10.1 Calibration for Phased Array Examinations shall be in accordance with
6.4.3 Phased Array Straight beam probes shall have an active aperture no less
than 0.375 inches, and shall operate at frequencies between 2 and 6
MHz.

6.5 Angle-Beam, Shear Wave Search Units

6.5.1 Angle-beam search units shall consist of a phased array probe and an
angle wedge to produce the desired refracted angles. The phased array
angle beam wedge shall produce refracted shear waves between 45 and
70 degrees. Other angles may be used to increase weld volume coverage
if qualified in accordance with this requirements herein.

6.6 Array Probe

6.6.1 The Phased Array probe shall be a linear array type consisting of 16
or more elements (64 or more if E-scans are to be used) and produce
frequencies between 2 and 6 MHz. The total aperture size, active and
passive, may be any size down to 3/8 inch provided the element size and
pitch are suitable to prevent grating lobes or other unsuitable noise.

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tested within +/- 2 degrees of the minimum and maximum angle used or
+/- 2 degrees of the first and last VPA for E-scans.

N
used to ensure coverage of the weld and heat affected zone, HAZ. When
a refracting wedge is used, the phased array generated angles shall be
within the useful range of the wedge. The refracted angles shall be
detailed in the appropriate Scan Plan for the configuration in accordance
with the requirements of paragraph 9.0 herein.

6.8.1
with the requirements herein shall be linear digital encoder capable of
line scanning and may be semi-automatic or automatic type.
water, or oil may be used as couplant when performing calibrations and
examinations. Couplant used for examination of production welds shall
be the same couplant used during calibration.

the requirements of paragraph 9 herein. The calibration reflector shall be
a 1.5mm (0.060) side drilled hole or equivalent. A suitable amount of
calibration reflectors shall be placed in any design of calibration block,
weld mock-up or actual production part at the option of the user to cover
the entire sound path range to be inspected. An example of a basic
calibration block is shown in Figure 2 except that multiple reflectors will
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6.10.2 Block Material: When blocks are used, they shall be made of essentially

.10.3 Weld Mock-Up and Production Parts: Alternate possible uses of the

6.10.4 Corner reflectors shall not be used for calibration purposes.
6.10.5 Alternate Blocks: An International Institute of Welding (IIW) block,

FIGURE 1
CALIBRATION STANDARD
likely be necessary to allow proper calibration of phased array
configurations.
the same material type and heat treat as the material being examined.
The block thickness shall be essentially the same as the material being
examined.
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reflector are shown in Figure 3. When weld mock-ups and sections of
production weldments are used, the reflector shall be in locations where
it is difficult to direct sound beams, thereby ensuring detection of
discontinuities in all areas of interest.


Phased Array Calibration Standard (PACS ) or other blocks of similar
material may be used to aide in calibration where necessary.



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FIGURE2
ALTERNATECALIBRATIONSTANDARDS

7.0 Phased Array Instrument Linearity

7.1 Linearity verifications shall be conducted every 30 days and recorded.

Horizontal Linearity
Display Height Linearity
Amplitude Control Linearity

8.0 Phased Array Element Operability

8.1 An element operability check shall be performed before initial calibration and
use, and weekly on each phased array probe to determine if dead or inactive, or
defective elements are present. No more than 10 percent of the elements shall be
dead and in a given aperture, and no more than two adjacent elements shall be
dead within a given aperture.

8.2 In addition, each phased array element shall be evaluated for relative amplitude
within the aperture and shall be verified to be within 6 dB of the average
amplitude of the other elements. If the amplitude is outside the 6 dB requirement,
then the probe element shall be declared dead.

9.0 Scan Plan Development

9.1 A Scan Plan examination strategy shall be developed for all weld joint
configurations. This Scan Plan requires consideration of each weld or group of
welds of the same essential geometry, thickness and configuration through
preparation of a Scan Plan. The Scan Plan details specific attributes necessary to
achieve examination coverage including those variables subject to material and
geometric variation that are not addressed in a general procedure. (Figures 5 and
6 contain typical Scan Plans with Index Offsets, these Scan Plans are for
information only and not intended for use.)
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9.2 The Scan Plan shall demonstrate by plotting or computer simulation the
appropriate refracted angles to be used during the examination for the weld prep
angles and areas of concern. The Scan Plan shall demonstrate coverage of the
required examination volume.

9.3 Caution should be taken when using computer modeling programs and drafted
sketches to demonstrate coverage. The true measure of performance as
envisioned must be verified through the calibration, that is, beam index point and
beam angle verifications.

9.4 Whenever a Scan Plan is developed, parameters shall be defined and validated by
the Scan Plan developer (PAUT Level II or III) by performing the initial
calibration to optimize those parameters. A new calibration is required if the
Scan Plan developer determines or suspects that an essential variable has
changed.

9.5 The Scan Plan shall be documented to show the examination volume examined
and shall be a part of the final examination report. Scan Plan contents shall
consider all applicable essential and non-essential variables as detailed in
Attachment B.

9.6 A detailed Scan Plan shall be established for each weld type, joint design and
thickness.

9.7 Phased Array Scan Configuration

9.7.1 S-Scans shall be used as the primary scan to optimize coverage to fully
examine the weld and HAZ in accordance with the approved Scan Plan.

9.7.2 An unfocused (naturally focused) sound beam shall be configured for
scanning. Focusing may be used to better define and dimension the
length and through wall height of a given flaw, but shall not be used
during evaluation for acceptance.

9.7.3 E-Scans may be used to supplement the S-Scans for single sided access
welds and different weld joint configurations to ensure complete
coverage of the weld and HAZ, or to provide specific joint geometry
coverage of the weld bevel, for example T joint welds.

9.7.4 When multiple E-Scans are used to provide coverage, a 10 percent
overlap shall be specified in the Scan Plan. When S and E-Scans are used
in combination, similar overlaps shall be used.

9.7.5 Multiple groups may be used to establish combinations of phased array
configurations.

9.7.6 When S-Scans are used, two different S-Scan index positions from both
sides of the weld shall be specified in the Scan Plan to provide the
required angle beam coverage of the weld and heat affected zone.

9.8 The parameters for phased array examination are addressed as either essential or
non-essential variables and are listed in Attachment A. All essential variables
shall be demonstrated during the PDQ PQ qualification.

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9.9 When procedure qualification is required, any changes to a variable listed as


essential in shall require requalification.

9.10 The Scan Plan shall demonstrate full ultrasonic coverage in two crossing
directions to cover the full weld volume, including weld bevel coverage within
plus or minus 10 degrees of perpendicular (90 degrees to the weld fusion face),
and HAZ coverage. Butt joints shall be tested from each side of the weld axis.

9.11 Some weld joint geometries, such as tee or corner joints, may not allow phased
array examinations from both sides of the weld. A combination of S-Scans and
E-Scans may demonstrate full coverage of the weld from only one side.

9.12 In addition, for corner or tee joint welds, the weld may be examined with a
straight beam or low angle longitudinal waves from the face opposite the weld to
aide in obtaining coverage requirements.

9.13 Welds that cannot be examined from at least one side using the angle beam
technique shall be noted in the examination report.

9.14 Overlap between adjacent active apertures, that is aperture incremental change,
shall be a minimum of 50 percent of the aperture height.

9.15 Welds shall be examined for transverse flaws which may be performed by a non-
encoded manual phased array or conventional ultrasonic technique. Welds
without reinforcement shall be scanned directly over the weld area. Welds with
reinforcement shall be scanned by positioning the search unit within 15 degrees
parallel to the weld joint using a conventional or a Phased Array Probe.

9.16 Scan Plan parameters shall be stored on the phased array system storage and shall
be backed up on alternate media. These basic parameters are the starting point for
all calibrations that follow.

9.17 Each Scan Plan shall detail the PA Instrument and PA Probe make and model,
including the angles of refraction and the index positions.

9.18 A minimum of two index positions from both sides of the weld shall be used to
ensure weld volume coverage.

9.18.1 Skew Angles of 90-1, 90-2 and 270-1 and 270-2

9.18.2 See examples below in Figures 5 and 6

9.19 If the weld-root opening changes by more than 3/16 inch, a new scan plan shall
be developed to ensure PA coverage of the weld and HAZ.

9.20 If the material thickness deviates from the Scan Plan Design thickness by more
than 0.060 inches in thickness, then a new Scan Plan shall be developed to ensure
weld volume coverage in according to the requirements herein.







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10.0 Phased Array Calibration and Set-up



10.1 Ultrasonic equipment used shall be calibrated for testing just before examination
of the completed weld. Verification of calibrations shall be performed after each
inspector change, at two hour testing intervals or when the electrical circuitry is
disturbed, including the following:

1. Transducer change
2. Battery change
3. Electrical power change
4. Coaxial cable change
5. Power failure

All calibrations shall be performed with the reject or suppression control turned
off.

10.2 Straight Beam Calibration. Straight beam calibration shall be performed with the
search unit, meeting the requirements of paragraph 6.4. For Phased Array
straight beam examinations a wedge delay calibration is recommended but not
required unless evaluations of indications are being performed.

10.2.1 Adjust the distance range controls to show the equivalent of two plate
thicknesses for the weld to be examined. The gain or sensitivity shall be
adjusted in an area of the plate free from any indications so that the first
back reflection is at 50 percent of full screen height, FSH.

10.3 Angle Beam Calibration Phased Array angle beam Probes shall meet the
requirements of paragraph 6.4 and 6.5.

10.4 True Depth calibration shall be performed before sensitivity calibration for each
angle or VPA used during the inspection. This calibration may be performed on
a radius from a standard IIW, Type 1 or 2 block or side drilled hole.

10.5 Sensitivity Calibration shall be performed on a side drilled hole at a depth
coinciding with the first point of the TCG calibration.

10.6 Beam index points shall be identified for instruments which cannot plot the
location of indications to the front of the phased array probe. A minimum of
three points evenly spaced throughout the utilized angles or VPAs shall be
identified along the active aperture.

10.7 Refracted Angle. The minimum and maximum angle, each VPA for E-Scans,
utilized during the inspection shall be verified to be within +/- 2 degrees of the
actual angle configured.

10.8 Final Range Setting. As a minimum, the PAUT Screen range shall be adjusted to
view the entire sound-path range or material depth to be tested at all angles used.
As a general rule of thumb, range may be configured as three times the material
thickness at the minimum angle to be used during the examination. The range
settings shall be controlled by the Scan Plan developed for the specific PAUT
examinations and index offset.







10.9 A Time Corrected Gain (TCG) Line shall be established throughout all
inspection angles or VPAs on a calibration block as detailed in Paragraph 6.8. A
minimum of three calibration points shall be used to cover the entire range to be
tested. All points should be electronically adjusted to +/- 5 percent of a set
screen height at 50 percent of FSH. The dB gain at which the TCG Line is
established is identified as the Standard Sensitivity Level, SSL, unless transfer
correction, as detailed below, is required.

10.10 Using the basic calibration block establish a reference amplitude signal. This
signal shall be established at 50 percent full screen height, FSH. This is the
Standard Sensitivity Level, SSL. See Table 1 for the additional reference and
acceptance/rejection criteria.

10.11 Using an OmniScan MX-2 or equal), establish two additional TCG lines as
follows:

A 6 dB line (DRL) shall be established at 25 % FSH
A +5 dB line (ARL) shall be established at 98 % FSH
See Figure 3 below


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ARL+5dB98%FSH
SSL50%FSH
DRL 6dB 25%FSH
Figure 3

11.0 Phased Array Examination and Data Acquisition

11.1 All inspection surfaces that the PA Probe is applied to shall be free of dirt,
grease, oil, loose scale, paint or weld spatter and shall have a surface contour that
permits adequate coupling. A couplant, for example water, shall be used
between the transducer and the inspection surface on all scans.

11.2 The entire base metal that the ultrasound will pass shall be examined for laminar
reflectors using a straight beam transducer that meets the requirements of
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paragraph 6.4. During this examination a thickness measurement shall be


conducted to document the actual thickness of the pipe to be examined. This
thickness shall be documented in the Phased Array instrument to ensure correct
Part thickness.

11.3 Any base metal areas that exhibit a total loss of back reflection or an indication
equal to or greater than the back reflection that would interfere with the
subsequent angle beam inspection shall have its location determined relative to
Face A and noted on the inspection report. An alternative inspection scanning
procedure shall be used as follows:

11.4 For discontinuities larger than the aperture of the PA Probe, a full loss of the
back reflection may occur. The discontinuity edges may be located by moving
the transducer until a 6 dB loss is noted from the back reflection and using the
transducer centerline as the discontinuity edge. For discontinuities smaller than
the transducer, the discontinuity edge is found by moving the transducer toward
the discontinuity until an indication in noted on the screen. The leading edge of
the PA probe Wedge is used as the discontinuity edge.

11.5 If part of a weld is inaccessible due to laminar content, the location and depth of
the lamination(s) shall be noted in the final test report.

11.6 Shear Wave Inspection. An angle beam transducer unit that meets the
requirements of paragraphs 6.4 and 6.5 shall be used to inspect welds.
Equipment shall be calibrated in accordance with paragraph 10.

11.7 Automated computer data acquisition and recording of essential ultrasonic data in
the manner of linear scans, or line scans shall be performed down the length of
each weld. Scanning shall be performed in accordance with the documented and
approved Scan Plan as detailed in paragraph 9.

11.8 Scanning shall be performed at a minimum of 6 dBs above the SSL as
established in paragraph 10. When a TCG is utilized, scanning may be
performed at reference dB level, provided soft gain or color pallet alterations are
made during analysis to aid in evaluation.

11.9 For line scanning using an encoder, limitations on scan speed are dictated by the
equipment. The indicated speed of acquisition developed for the given setup shall
not be exceeded. Exceeding this speed will cause data dropout. If data dropout is
noted, it shall not exceed 1 percent of the recorded data and no two consecutive
lines of data shall be missed.

11.10 The PAUT operator shall ensure that ultrasonic examination data is recorded in
unprocessed form. A full and complete data recording set with no exclusionary
gating, filtering other than receiver band-pass, or thresholding for responses from
the calibration shall be included in the data record.

11.11 As a minimum, the gate(s) shall be set to cover at least of B0 (ID) to at least
T1 (OD) plus thickness to ensure the full weld volume is covered by the gate.

11.12 The OmniScan readings should be set to display; List 1 A%, DA, PA, SA and
List 2 - U(m-r), S (m-r) S (r), S (m). If an equal PAUT system is used and
qualified, similar measurement readings shall be used.

11.13 Scans parallel to weld shall be conducted manually to detect transverse flaws
with a conventional UT set up or Manual Phased Array Probe. These scans shall
be at 15 degrees off parallel to the weld when weld reinforcement is still in place.

12.0 Data Analysis

12.1 The Phased Array System shall have software in which to display as a minimum
an A, B, C, and S Scan images. See Figure 4 below.

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Figure 4

12.2 A post analysis data evaluation software package may be used to analyze the
Phased Array data, for example Tomoview, OmniPC, or equal.

13.0 Acceptance Criteria
13.1 All weld discontinuities shall be evaluated, using the refracted angle or VPA
yielding the highest response, based on the indication level and length in
accordance with the requirements herein the acceptance-rejection criteria of
Table 1.
13.2 Any ultrasonic indication determined to be a Crack, Lack of Fusion (LOF), or
Lack of Penetration (LOP) shall be rejected regardless of amplitude or length.

TABLE1
ACCEPTANCEREJECTIONCRITERIA

Discontinuity Severity Class % of FSH


Class A any indication in this category shall be rejected
(regardless of length).
>than 89% FSH
(ARL)
Class B - any indication in this category having a length
greater than inch shall be rejected.
=or >than 50% FSH
(SSL)
Class C -any indication in this category having a length
greater than 2 in.
=or >than 25% FSH
Equal to DRL to SSL
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Class D (minor discontinuities) - any indication in this


category shall be accepted regardless of length or location in
the weld.
Less than 25% FSH
(DRL)
10.3 All recorded data shall be assessed to ensure full execution of the required scans
of the Scan Plan over 100% of the required examination length.
10.4 Post-acquisition data analysis will result in numerous evaluative actions and
manipulations intended to characterize flaw responses from benign geometries
and metallurgical responses. Following is a general description of a process to
serve as a basis for evaluation. This process, by its nature, will require
modification to ensure complete and systematic disposition of the examination
record.
10.5 he entire exam volume shall be analyzed, using gates and available cursors, to
locate and identify the source, location and nature for all indications. Alternately,
the examiner may choose manual plotting to augment on-board analysis, for
example non-parallel or inconsistent geometries.
T
10.9 Transverse discontinuities detected by manual ultrasonic inspections
10.10 Flaw Length Measurements
0.10.1 Flaw indications may be measured for length by defining the
10.10.2 Saturated flaw signals may require rescanning at lower gain
is scanning gain at plus 6dB.

10.6 Ultrasonic signal or images resulting from weld root and weld crown geometries
shall be investigated, and the basis for this classification shall be noted in the
report form.

10.7 Any indication warranting evaluation shall be recorded so as to support the
resultant disposition. The extent of recording should be sufficient for reviewers
and subsequent examiners to repeat the result and should standalone as written
record.

10.8 Rejectable indications shall be reported and include peak amplitude (A%), depth
(DA) below the surface, Probe Offset (PA) Sound Path (SA), and the indications
relative position for length S (m-r), Start S (r), Stop S (m) to provide location
and depth information for repair. Cursor placement, measurement features and
annotations and comments must clearly support disposition.
(conventional or Phased Array) need not be recorded unless rejectable flaws are
identified.

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continuous flaw response signals using the B and C scan views.
Both views are needed to ensure the entire related length is
considered. An indication shall be considered continuous even if
data drops intermittently below evaluation level.

levels if the disposition of the indication cannot be assessed
using the required elevated gain settings. When using Phased
Array, scanning may be conducted at two different gain settings
using a grouping feature which allows for two scans to be
conducted at the same time using two different gain settings.
One gain setting is Primary Reference Level (PRL) and the other
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10.10.3 measurement may be determined
by 6 dB drop methods.

11.0 Data Recording and Documentation
d Scan Plans shall become an archival record for
a period of 10 years after the completion of the Project. The PA inspection

11.2 Array Data shall be saved and archived as a Merge set of
data for analysis.
11.3 aluation of the phased array data shall not change or affect the
original phased array raw A-scan data.
11.4 rated by the examiner at the time of
evaluation. Examination reports may be output from the on-board reporting

12.0 Data M

gement system consistent with Project requirements.

ent of
calibration and set-up files, phased array data files, and digitally generated data
ay data shall be saved as the original raw A-scan form.
need only
contain sufficient information to identify the weld, the operator including

12.5 ities that do not meet the acceptance criteria of
paragraph 13, and require repair by excavation, shall be indicated on the weld by

12.6 ed, all report
forms pertaining to the weld, including any that show unacceptable quality before

12.7
UT shall be delivered to the Engineer upon completion of the work. Obligation

12.8 an Plan that was developed shall become a part of
the final examination report as it contains much of the information required to be
As an alternative, flaw length

11.1 All digital Phased Array data an
company shall maintain all digital records, including PA Data, Scan Plans, Data
reports and records.
Any merged Phased

Any review and ev

An examination report shall be gene
feature of the phased array unit provided all necessary information is included.
Reports may also be produced in the written manual UT convention form.
anagement System
12.1 Establish a data mana
12.2 A systematic file naming system shall be used to control data managem
report forms.

12.3 All phased arr

12.4 Acceptable Welds. The report form for welds that are acceptable
signature, and the acceptability of the weld. Completed inspection reports shall
be forwarded to the Engineer.
Unacceptable Welds. Discontinu
marking directly over the discontinuity for its entire length. The depth and
indication level shall be marked on the nearby adjacent base metal.
Prior Inspection Reports. Before a weld subject to UT is accept
repair, shall be submitted to the Engineer.
Disposition of Reports. A full set of completed report forms of welds subject to
to retain UT reports shall cease upon delivery of this full set to the Engineer or
two full years after filing of the Notice of Completion, provided the Engineer is
given advance written notice.
Scan Plan Reporting The Sc
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documented.


AttachmentA

S
ProceduresVariablesforPAUTExaminations

ummaryTableof
E
s
s
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t
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a
l

N
o
n

E
s
s
e
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i
a
l

Elementpitchandgapdimension X
Focus(identifyplane,depth,orsoundpathasapplicable) X
Virtualapertureuse,thatis,numberofelementsandelementwidth X
Elementnumbersusedforfocallaws X
AngularrangeofSScan X
Documentationonpermittedwedgeangularrangefrommanufacturer X
Documentedcalibration,TCG,andAngleGainCompensation X
Scanpatterntoensurecoverage X
Weldconfigurationstobeexamined,includingthicknessdimensionsandbase
materialproductform(pipe,plate)
X
Thesurfacesfromwhichtheexaminationshallbeperformed X
Technique(s)(straightbeam,anglebeam,contact,and/orimmersion) X
Angle(s)andmode(s)ofwavepropagationinthematerial X
Searchunittype(s),frequency(ies),andelementsize(s)/shape(s) X
Specialphasedarrayprobescurved/shapedwedges,shoes,orsaddles,when
used.
X
PhasedArrayUnits(s) X
Calibrationcalibrationblock(s)andtechnique(s) X
Directionsandextentofscanning X
Scanning(manualvs.automatic) X
Methodfordiscriminatinggeometricfromflawindications X
Methodforsizingindications X
Computerenhanceddataacquisition,whenused X
Scanoverlap(decreaseonly) X
Personnelperformancerequirements,whenrequired X
Personnelqualificationrequirements X
Surfacecondition(Examinationsurface,calibrationblock) X
Couplant:brandnameortype X
Automaticalarmand/orrecordingequipment,whenapplicable X
Records,includingminimumcalibrationdatatoberecorded(forexample
instrumentsettings)
X
Methodfordeterminingdelaylawsifotherthanonboardequipment
algorithmsincludedinthesoftwarerevisionspecified
X
Revisionofsoftwareusedinqualification X
Scanningdevicemakeandmodel X
Decreaseinsamplingrateduringscanningforlinearscans X
Flawdiscriminating/characterizingmethod locationandtype X
Type,sizeandrangeasapplicable,ofinterferingsignalsourcese.g.;roots
andweldcrownconditions,tapers,counterbores

X
16


AttachmentB


PerformanceDemonst (PDQ)Examinations

Personnel am. The
ualification exam shall include the ability of the Phased Array UT (PAUT) personnel to
will be supplied by the Engineer and administered as follows:
accordance
with AWS D1.1 Section 6, paragraph 6.36 and 6.37
ct acceptable and rejectable flaws in
accordance with a Procedure Qualification (PQ) Test Protocol.
gth of flaws in
ccordance with a PQ Test Protocol.
2.0 NT, shall
demonstrate their proficiency in the calibration and setup, data acquisition, and data
y a PAUT Level III
designated by the Engineer, and in accordance with a Test Protocol.
ximate weld
ngth of 24 inches per test plate
bar weld joint configuration
lished.
on flaws
onducive to the welding process to be used during the field examinations.
tion
.6.2 Minimum of 80 % flaw characterization
y



rationProgram
shall demonstrate proficiency by satisfactory performance in a qualification ex
q
correctly calibrate the PAUT equipment and complete the report associated with the examination
as well as evaluate the specimen and discover discontinuities. The test specimens shall be
representative of the details of typical welded joints and conditions, which will be encountered in
the pipe construction.

The PDQ Test Samples

1.0 The Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination Procedure shall be qualified in

1.1 The PA procedure shall be qualified to dete

1.2 The PA procedure shall be qualified to dimension the len
a

Each certified PAUT Level II or Level III, qualified in accordance with AS
analysis conduct of an Examiner Qualification Examination, (EQ).

2.1 The Examiner Qualification (EQ) shall be administered b

2.2 A minimum of 4 Test Plates shall be administered with an appro
le

2.3 The test samples shall be a backing

2.4 Each Test Set shall have flawed and unflawed grading units estab

2.5 The Test Set flaws shall be representative of the typical welding fabricati
c

2.6 Grading shall be as follows:

2.6.1 Minimum 80% detec
2
2.6.3 Minimum of 80% accurac
2.6.4 No more than 20 % overcalls




17

Examples of Scan Plans


Figure5

ScanPlanatSkew901and2701


Figure6

ScanPlanatSkew902and2702