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ENERGY EFFICIENCY

IN
HERITAGE BUILDING


COURSE: BACHELORS OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONS)
SUBJECT: BUILDING SERVICES 1
LECTURER: MR. KAM KENN JHUN
NAME: CROMWELL AUGUSTINE JUBILI (0306595)
WILSON LO WEI KONG (0317382)
CHEW JUN MING (0310173)
LEE KAI YANG (0314835)

DATE : 28
TH
JUNE 2014

CONTENT PAGES


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
2.0 ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN HERITAGE BUILDING 2
2.1 APPLICATION OF ENERGY SAVING FEATURES 3
2.2 FURTHER IMPROVEMENT 4-16
3.0 CASE STUDY 17-20
3.1 COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO BUILDINGS 21
4.0 PROS AND CONS 22
5.0 PROBLEM AND SOLUTION 23
6.0 CONCLUSION 24
7.0 REFERENCES 25
7.1 JOURNAL
7.2 BOOKS
7.3 WEBSITE
7.4 INDEX








List of figures
Figure 2.1 Ventilation between the modern house and traditional house
Figure 2.2 Insulation above roof rafters
Figure 2.3 Lath and plaster retained
Figure 2.4 Ventilation
Figure 2.5 Insulation in between roof rafters
Figure 2.6 Insulation below roof rafters
Figure 2.7 Wall insulation
Figure 2.8 Installation of insulation
Figure 2.9 Material applied to masonry without framing
Figure 2.10 Insulation inside frame
Figure 2.11 Windows
Figure 2.12 Timber door frame
Figure 3.1 Wind turbine and watermill
Figure 3.2 Wind turbine and watermill
Figure 3.3 Fireplace
Figure 3.4 Chimney








1.0 INTRODUCTION
People relish old buildings for the sense of history they evoke, the skill they represent and for
the solidity of their construction. However, there's generally a perception that old buildings are
cold. it's true that they'll generally be drafty, and also the degree of tolerance shown by their
users is testimony to the worth people place on architectural character and a way of place, that
compensate to quite an massive extent for any shortcomings in comfort. traditionally, heating
solutions enclosed a roaring hearth or an ever-burning stove emitting enjoyable warmth. Of
course, our forebears were somewhat hardier than ourselves, having totally different
expectations in terms of warmth and luxury. additional vesture and cloth covering, hot-water
bottles and even totally different dietary habits played their part keep people warm in their daily
lives throughout the colder months. From the mid-twentieth century forrader, the provision of low
cost fossil fuels enabled an increasing variety of households to avail of heating, supply heat to
any or all rooms; an idea nearly extraordinary in earlier times.

Today, however, there's an increasing awareness of the importance of energy and fuel
conservation. In tandem with higher expectations in relevancy the overall warmth of the indoor
surroundings, this awareness has lead to new standards and kinds of building construction
meant to confirm that the energy consumed by a building throughout its helpful life is minimised.
These new standards in fashionable buildings have influenced the expectations of users of older
buildings. once addressing a historic building, there are different matters that the users and
building professionals World Health Organization look after old buildings ought to address,
matters that are to try and do with the architectural character of a building, repair and
maintenance problems, older sorts of construction and also the specific characteristics of
ancient building materials.









2.0 ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN HERITAGE BUILDING
Energy efficiency (efficient energy use), is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to
provide products and services. Increasing energy efficiency often cost money up-front, but in
many cases this capital outlay will be paid back in the form of reduced energy costs within a
short time period. This makes efficiency improvements an attractive starting point for reducing
carbon emissions. It can also reduce the financial cost and carbon dioxide emissions. According
to the International Energy Agency, improved energy efficiency in buildings, industrial processes
and transportation could reduce the world's energy needs in 2050 by one third, and help control
global emissions of greenhouse gases.


Purpose of traditional building material
By equipping the entire characteristic of traditional material and construction, it provides plenty
of natural ventilation for the household. This can be shown in the diagram below that it provides
maximum stack effect for the heritage building or domestic construction. Thick solid wall
construction acts as an excellent thermal buffer, controlled he temperature either gaining or
losing the heat. All traditional buildings have the ability that can absorb a great deal of moisture
by using solid permeable materials without damage it, and expel it slowly back into the
environment as conditions become dryer.


Figure 2.0 Ventilation between the modern house and traditional house
2.1 APPLICATION OF ENERGY SAVING FEATURES
Buildings were built in a way that resulted in less energy use for heating and cooling by
maximizing the natural source of heating, lighting and external ventilation.

Energy Saving Features of Heritage Buildings
Characteristic How Energy is saved
Interior light/ventilation courts, rooftop
ventilators, clerestories, or skylights

-Provide energy efficient fresh air and light
Thick solid walls such as heavy masonry
walls, or stone walls (traditional fabric and
techniques)

-Minimize heat loss
-Natural breathing

Wide roof overhangs, exterior balconies or
porches
-Minimize heat gain
Interior or exterior shutters, interior Venetian
blinds, curtains and drapes, or exterior
awnings

-Minimize the heat gain or loss from windows
Operable windows for ventilation

-Provide proper ventilation to enhance natural
light and air
-Reduce heat gain or loss since less than 20%
of the wall surface is frequently composed of
windows












2.2 RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE IMPROVEMENT
The energy efficiency in heritage building can be increased by either adopting a more efficient
technology or by application of commonly accepted methods. It can be done by installing or
modifying the following elements:

INTRODUCTION
A) INSULATING AT RAFTER LEVEL
- INSULATION USED ABOVE THE RAFTERS.
Insulation added above rafters will typically be a rigid insulating board. The most appropriate
material for older buildings that is currently readily available is a wood - fiber board, which has
the following performance characteristics:
Sufficient thermal qualities to reduce heat loss
Sufficient thermal qualities to reduce the dangers of cold bridging above the rafters
Sufficient thermal mass to reduce the dangers of over-heating
Can be laid to be tight fitting to reduce disruptions and unwanted air infiltration. Wood-fiber
panels are available with interlocking joints to help with this.
Vapor permeable; to reach a breathing construction
Water-resistant wood-fiber boards are also available which can run as a secondary barrier to
rain penetration and a temporary rain shield during installation.

- INSULATION USED BETWEEN THE RAFTERS
There are various characters of fabrics suited for insulation between the rafters. The most
appropriate fabrics are natural fiber based insulation such as sheeps wool and hemp fiber
insulation. These bear the following performance features:
They are hygroscopic, i.e. they can absorb, but also put out excess moisture.
They retain their thermal qualities when damp.
They are non-hazardous fibers.
The role of flexible insulation batts and rolls between the rafters improves the power to attain a
close-fitting insulation. In contrast, rigid insulation boards can be difficult to make out and scribe
tightly between rafters, which in many instances are extremely irregular. Cellulose insulation
(fibers derived from newsprint) is an alternative material, but its operation can be compromised
if it gets into contact with moisture. Loose fill cellulose insulation is unsuitable for use between
pitches rafters because of its propensity to settle. Such resolution would leave a crack near the
ridge where a cold bridge can break.

- INSULATION USED BENEATH THE RAFTERS
The most appropriate materials for use beneath the rafters are wood-fiber boards with a
breathable lime plaster.

Recommendation
Insulation used above rafters
Insulation boards can be added on top of the rafters beneath the battens and roof coverings.
This is often referred to as sarking insulation.

















Figure 2.2 Insulation above roof rafters
ACCESS FROM ABOVE
Roof finish
Batten
Vapour permeable membrane
Insulating tongue and groove sarking
board over rafters
Advantages:
Tight fitting insulation over the rafters reduces air infiltration, improving the performance of the
insulation.
Insulation placed over the rafters can be fitted in an unbroken layer, avoiding the risk of thermal
bridging where other objects cross the insulation layer.
Insulation above the rafters leaves the structure of the roof on the warm, dry side of the
insulation. This reduces the risk of condensation on the timbers, and the timber decay that
could follow.
The provision of sarking board with a relatively high density effectively increases the mass of
the lightweight construction of the roof. This reduces overheating of the internal environment
from solar gain.
The mass of the sarking board will also absorb thermal gains from appliances and occupants
internally, improving internal environmental conditions. Nevertheless, ventilation control is
critical if unwanted summer gains are to be reduced during the day and removed at night.
Lath and plaster ceilings and stud walls can be retained.



Figure 2.2 Lath and plaster retained Figure 2.3 Ventilation












Insulation used between the rafters
Alternatively insulation can be added between the rafters.

Advantages:
Does not require the height of the roof to be visibly increased.
Lower cost.
Lath and plaster ceilings and stud walls can be retained if the insulation is added from above.

















Disadvantages:
Worthwhile improvements in thermal performance will only be achieved if the rafters are deep
enough to accommodate a thick layer of insulation.
If there is no sarking insulation the top face of the rafters will be exposed and provide a
potential thermal bridge.
A high level of workmanship is required to ensure that gaps between the rafters and the
insulation are kept to a minimum. Such gaps can result in air infiltration. Soft pliable
insulation materials such as quilt and batts are better in this respect than rigid sheets.
The installation of impermeable insulation between rafters could result in water vapor
permeating into rafters and in extreme cases this could rot timbers.




ACCESS FROM ABOVE
Roof finish
Batten
Vapour permeable
membrane
Counter batten to provide
ventilated air space
Insulation between
rafters
Lath and plaster
retained
VENTILATION
Rafter
Below the rafters
This can be an excellent solution where an internal roof-space allows access, although care will
be required to ensure suitable ventilation above the insulation to prevent rot in the rafters.

Where historic sloping ceilings exist, but have been previously replaced, or are so damaged that
they warrant replacement, adding insulation below them to form an insulating ceiling, can be
considered. An insulating ceiling could also be added beneath an existing ceiling providing it is
acceptable to cover that ceiling.

Insulations below the rafters and ceilings
(Lath and plaster ceiling retained)

















Advantages:
Does not require the height of the roof to be visibly increased.
Could potentially be installed without stripping the roof coverings. This would depend on the
type and condition of the roof ng felt, if it is an impervious felt, stripping of the coverings would
be required.
Allows near continuous installation of insulation with well sealed gaps



Roof finish
battens
(retained)
Felt (if present)
Lath and plaster ceiling
retained
Wood fibreboard insulation
New lime plaster
ACCESS FROM BELOW Rafter
B) Walls
Introduction
Most traditional buildings are made of permeable materials and do not incorporate the barriers
to external moisture such as cavities, rain-screens, damp-proof courses, vapour barriers and
membranes which are standard in modern construction. As a result, the permeable fabric in
historic structures tends to absorb more moisture, which is then released by internal and
external evaporation. When traditional buildings are working as they were designed to, the
evaporation will keep dampness in the building fabric below the levels at which decay can start
to develop. This is often referred to as a breathing building.

The thermal performance of timber frame walls for instance, is often made considerably worse
by the presence of cracks and gaps between the timber frame and infill panels and within the
fabric of the infill panels and/or cladding itself. These cracks can often pass right through the
walls, allowing large amounts of uncontrolled air infiltration (draughts) and consequent
additional heat loss. They are a result of shrinkage of the materials used in construction or
subsequent repairs or from structural or differential thermal movements.

Improvement
Insulating Behind Lath and Plaster
Blown materials are used to improve the performance of lath and plaster wall finishes in a
similar way to the techniques used in cavity wall insulation. This allows retention of existing
linings and minimizes disruption to historic material as well as reducing disruption to the
occupants.
Using this method there is however, a significant reduction in the ventilation of the cavity
between the lath and plaster and the masonry wall, and it is therefore vital that a vapour
permeable, ideally an open-cell, material is used to allow modest movement of air and water
vapor whilst preventing draughts behind the laths. Appropriate materials could include blown
cellulose, polystyrene bead, perlite and a water based foam.










Holeseverymetre
Blowninmaterial
Existing lath and plaster
Redecorate with vapors
Open lining
Material blown-in via 25mm holes



Prior to installing the insulation, gaps in the base of the wall should be closed off to prevent
material falling into voids below. This is achieved by removal of the skirting boards, and packing
the lower part of the wall with a fibrous material such as wood wool or rough hemp fiber. Holes
in the plaster are then made every meter to permit access for the blower nozzle. The insulation
material is then blown in from successively higher levels until the ceiling is reached.


Figure 2.8 Installation of insulation

Material Applied Directly to Masonry without Framing
Where a wall was originally plastered on the hard there is an opportunity to insulate directly
onto the existing plaster surface, minimizing the impact on the room proportions and facings.
The calcium silicate board is available in a range of thicknesses to suit site conditions and the
thermal improvement sought. Existing wallpaper and paint should be stripped from the masonry
( ) and a vapor permeable adhesive applied to the wall before the insulated panels are fitted in
place. ( )


Figure 2.9 Material applied to masonry without framing














Insulation Applied Within Framing
Where original lath and plaster wall linings have been removed or are badly damaged, there
may be space to fix new timber strapping or framing to hold a thicker board-based insulation
material such as hemp, wood fiber or aero gel boards. The use of timber framing to hold
insulation is a fairly well established technique in construction and there is a wide choice of
appropriate vapor permeable insulation materials, available in rigid boards or more flexible
batts.
The depth of the framing is dictated by the thickness of the insulation products and this should
be considered in relation to room features and available space. The material is placed within the
framing and closed in behind plasterboard or clay board (), showing a hemp fiber bat behind a
clay board.
Some proprietary systems, such as the aero gel board, use a metal frame ( ). Alternatively
vertical timber studs are fixed to the wall and damp-spray cellulose is applied directly between
the framing (). Once dry the cellulose is then planed flush to the strapping and covered with
clay board or plasterboard.



Figure 2.10 Insulation inside frame







C) WINDOWS
Introduction
Traditional glazing is commonly considered draughty or inefficient and therefore considered
responsible for significant heat loss, yet much of the experienced draught can in fact be
convection downdraughts from air contact with the cooler glass.

Brush seal carrier based or
suitable for tying
into existing frames,
including bottom sashes







Figure 2.11 Windows

Improvement
Draught Proofing
A timber sash and case window in good condition will have very modest air leakage, equivalent to air
infiltration through a trickle vent and as such should not need draught proofing. However where there is
excess air ingress through wear and tear, draught proofing of sashes can reduce air leakage by up to
80%, although not reducing the U-value of the window itself.
Draught proofing will result in some loss of existing fabric in the preparation of the routing channel to hold
it in place (Fig. 21), or the replacement of the parting beads. It is also possible to incorporate the draught
proofing into the baton rods, which are commonly replaced several times in the life of a sash and case
window.
Ventilation may need to be reassessed following draught proofing to avoid increased internal humidity
and a potential build up of condensation on cooler areas such as glass. In cases where draught proofing
is part of a wider refurbishment requiring a building warrant, the installation of trickle vents may be
necessary, and listed building consent may apply. If secondary glazing is being fitted it may be advisable
not to carry out draught proofing measures to the mid rail of the window in order to allow adequate
ventilation.
Secondary Glazing
Secondary glazing is essentially a second window installed internally next to the original window
in order to reduce air leakage and radiant heat losses. They are available in a variety of styles
and can be effective in improving U-values without the loss of existing fabric and with minimal
effect on the external appearance. Most secondary glazing is made from standard profiles in
aluminum, though they can be made in timber by a joiner (Fig. 22).Frames for secondary
glazing can be positioned at any point along the window reveal, however it will be most discreet
closest to the window. Where shutters are present, secondary glazing needs to be mounted
within the staff beads of the window to allow the shutters to operate (Fig. 23). Some secondary
glazing can be fixed as non-opening, although consideration will need to be given to ventilation
requirements.


D) DOORS
Introduction
Heat loss from doors can be reduced by either draught proofing around the door or insulating
the fabric of the door itself. These techniques are normally use do n external doors as there is
usually little need to insulate internal doors unless there are significant heat differentials between
rooms. Draught proofing around the edge of the door, the letter box and covering key holes can
help to considerably reduce heat loss.
Improvement
Whilst timber door frames perform well thermally, improvements can be made to the panels of
doors which are often made of thinner wood. Insulation can be fitted in a single layer or multiple
thinner layers, to the inside of the door panels, maintaining the external character of the door
(Fig.30).

The insulation material used should allow vapor permeability and be thin enough not to
significantly alter the appearance or configuration of the door. The material should be fitted
using an adhesive rather than nails or screws, before applying a thin layer of plywood and
fixing new beads or molding prior to painting (Fig.31).

Existing panel upgraded panel
Figure 2.12 Timber door frame



Use of commonly accepted method to reduce energy used
Action Effect
Heat house constantly at a lower
temperature.
Allows the dense material of the house time
to absorb heat and release it slowly.
Heat main rooms with greater intensity.
Unoccupied rooms don't need as much
heating as occupied rooms.
Allows main rooms to be kept at a
comfortable temperature while other rooms
can be heated less.
On adjustments to large historic buildings
take simple measures to improve efficiency
of heating systems. Lag hot water cylinders
and pipe work. Consider Combi boilers and
local water heaters to reduce pipe run
Lengths.
Improves efficiency of heating system and
reduces operating costs.
Consider use of energy audits /
assessments.
Assess performance of existing heating,
lighting and take appropriate measures to
improve efficiency.
Use of natural skylight A natural skylight can be used to attain the
same level of illumination compared to
traditional light bulbs.
Create an opening at the top of the building A opening at the top of the building can
allow the natural warm air to be withdrawn
and fresh air/cold air are then replaced the
warm air with the opening at the lower floor
of building


Use of efficient technology to reduce energy used
Action Effect
Familiarize yourself with your heating
system. Install more sensitive heating
controls such as thermostatic radiator
control valves. Ensure that radiators are
turned off in rooms that are not being used
and close doors.
Allows appropriate temperatures to be
maintained throughout the house. Prevents
over-heating. Tailors heating to the way
occupants use the building.
Use existing fireplaces and install a wood
burner if a good source of fuel is available.
Make sure flue is properly lined and be wary
of fire risk in thatched properties.
Chimney breasts are designed to store heat
and release it slowly. Rest of the flue
system distributes heat to upper floors in
similar manner.
Chimneys also help internal evaporation.
Install an energy-efficient condensing
boiler.
Improves efficiency of heating system and
reduces running costs.
Replacement of traditional incandescent
bulb by a compact fluorescent bulb
A compact fluorescent bulb is more
efficient than a traditional incandescent
bulb as it uses much less electrical
energy to produce the same amount of
light.

Maintenance
Maintenance of heritage buildings is quite different from new buildings because the fabric of a
heritage building has cultural significance which must be retained maximally and the authenticity
of a heritage building depends essentially on the integrity of its fabric. The maintenance of
heritage buildings involves repairing the building fabric very close to the original using traditional
techniques and traditional matching materials and being sensitive to the original structure.
Therefore, the maintenance of a heritage building is done without unnecessarily disturbing or
destroying the historic fabric; damaging the character of the building and altering the features
which give the building historic, architectural and cultural significance.








3.0 CASE STUDY
FOSTERS MILL AT SWAFFHAM PRIOR, CAMBRIDGESHIRE

The mill was built by local millwrights, Fysons of Soham in 1857. It sticks out on the site of an
earlier post mill and it is believed that mills have stood on this site since Domesday. The mill
tower is built of a brick skin with internal clutch lining. The interior finish is lime mortar, with the
brick skin being coated in black bitumen tar to help waterproof the building.
The scale and kind of wind turbines will change the aesthetics and character of a place and may
also impact on neighboring properties and streetscape vistas. Whether tied to buildings or
alongside a building, turbines require an elevated and open situation and are thus highly visible.
The contemporary aesthetic of turbine technology is in many instances unsympathetic to the
character of heritage places. Where an historic feature (such as a hilltop monument, or a
plantation belonging to a designed landscape) is the most visually dominant features in the
surrounding landscape, constructing turbines adjacent to the site may be unfitting.

Detailed pictures of sections of the mill can be viewed using the clickable image-map below

The generation of renewable energy from water and wind is not a new phenomenon. The force
of water was harnessed through the use of waterwheels over two millennia ago.

The watermill is built either right next to or over the water, with a water wheel or turbine of some
form suspended in the water. As the water goes through the water cycle, it pushes it in a rotary
motion, moving gears inside the water mill which can be utilized to perform several tasks. While
the main exercise of both water and wind was to drive the millstones for grinding corn, water
power - being more adaptable than that of wind - was harnessed to serve a range of industries,
in particular textile production and metalworking.

Only a tiny proportion of the wind and water mills that were at work in the old 19th century
survive today. This watermill has also been adjusted to generate electricity, thus the potential for
mill power remains.

While mills are even being adapted and changed to domestic use, and in many cases being lost
as working, productive machines, the potency of others is being cleared. This mill has long
constituted one of the focal points of a residential area and it can nevertheless provide a
significant center for local involvement.

















GREAT YARMOUTH ROW HOUSES IN THE ENGLISH COUNTY OF NORFOLK

Figure 3.3 Fireplace

Figure 3.4 chimney
This provides advice on how unused or intermittently used chimneys can be built more energy
efficient by preventing draughts. Open chimneys and flues can be authors of useful ventilation,
but they can often let too much warm air out and cold air in. The resultant draughts can create
uncomfortable conditions. Counseling is also included on the use of open fires and wood
burning ranges.

The combustion of firewood grown in local well managed forests is an excellent sustainable
source of heat with only incidental carbon dioxide emissions from planting, felling, trimming,
drying and shipping. In rural areas this presents a respectable direction to cut the overall carbon
dioxide emissions from a building.

Chimneys in older buildings can get a spacious scope of faults. Chimneys are often striking and
substantial sections of historic edifices. Fireplaces are often striking and significant components
of the interior. Many chimneys were made in single skin brickwork and are very sensitive to
change.

Caution should be taken and specialist advice sought, before adapting or altering a chimney.
Fireplaces and chimneys are often still in use, some for open fires, some for room heating
stoves, and some for central heating and hot water boilers. Whether used or unused, fireplaces
and chimneys can have an important part in amending the energy efficiency of a construction.

Some early chimneys were built of timber framing with wattle and daub infill and are
experienced as smoke hoods. If they are ground in-situ or even in use they are important and
rare survivals of historic material and should be preserved. The earliest brick chimneys were
made over traditional open fireplaces. Wood consumption was high, as most of the heat went
up the chimney with the smoke, while stale air was drawn in from the outside through the leaky
building fabric.

As comfort standards improved and buildings became more compartment aliased, smaller
fireplaces were required in more regions of the edifice. This movement was helped by the rising
availability of coal in the 17th and 18th centuries, particularly in urban arenas. Coal burns more
efficiently than wood, providing more high temperature from a smaller flame. Coal fires benefit
from being in a grate that lets more oxygen to make the glowing coal.

As fireplaces became smaller and more efficient, so did chimneys. In the 18th and 19th
centuries they became more and more complex, often combining several flues, each attending
a separate fire. Most brick flues are lined to prevent gases escaping through joints and crevices.
The traditional method of lining chimney flues was to apply a mix of lime putty and fresh cow
dung, known as parge as the chimney was built.

During the 1960s the most commonly used flue liner was clay pipes, though with further
tightening of the regulations concrete and metal flue liners took over. The most traditional kind
of heating is the open fire burning either wood or coal. An open fire will typically be 15 per cent
efficient with the remainder going up the chimney.

A chimney draws air from the room, especially when the fire is lit, which is put back by stale air
being sucked into the building from external. However, healthy this may be, as a origin of heat it
is the least efficient or sustainable; and, in the case of coal, the highest in carbon emissions. A
high-efficiency wood burner might, where appropriate, be installed in a traditional fireplace.

Where this can be achieved without harm to historic fabric 80 percent efficiency is possible. The
chimney flue should be effectively sealed with a registration plate through which the burner flue
pipe passes. Combustion air should be supplied by a dedicated pipe from outside to avoid cold
draughts. Such stoves may heat a single way; others, with a back boiler, may supply hot water
and/or a central heating scheme.

Chimney lining is a vital consideration due to the danger of flaming. Heating fuels may be sorted
in different ways: solid, fluid and gas; fossil fuels and renewable; and low and high C. For those
attributes along the gas grid with an old gas boiler, the simplest option is replaced with a fresh,
efficient condensing boiler.








3.1 COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO HERITAGE BUILDINGS












Location Fosters Mill at Swaffham Prior,
Cambridgeshire
Great Yarmouth Row Houses
in the Englishcounty of
Norfolk

Period Early 19th century

Early 17th century
Application Windmills and water-powered

Used chimneys
Energy
efficiency
Windmills and water-powered
adapted to generate electricity

-Open fires and wood or coal
burning stoves
-Useful ventilation

Other functions Domestic employment, working,
productive machines, small-scale
commercial products

-Environmental friendly

Process -Built either right next to or over the
water
-It pushes it in a circular movement,
moving gears inside the water mill
which can be applied to do various
jobs.

The heat went up the
chimney with the smoke,
while cold air was sucked in
from the outside through the
lea
leaky building fabric

Benefits Less billing cost Passive Stack effect

4.0 PROS AND CONS

Pros of energy efficiency in heritage building
A) Energy saving- Natural ventilation does not require energy to operate fans or a furnace,
which means fuel conservation and cost savings.
B) Low cost- The natural ventilation in the heritage building produce stack effect in heritage
building which allows cold air to flow into the lower portion of the building and hot air escapes
from the chimney to the atmosphere. This is because the natural buoyancy of warm, moist air to
lift the moist up and pass through the chimney where it escapes into the atmosphere so that the
entire building will remain cold and thus the mechanical ventilation system which consumed a
lot of money is not necessary.
C) Environmental friendly- Generally a heritage building will adopt a natural ventilation system
instead of mechanical ventilation system which will increase the emission of cholofuolocarbon
(CFC) that tends to cause a great impact on the ozone layer



Cons of energy efficiency in heritage building
A) Low ventilation rate- The natural ventilation takes time to produce stack effect as the cycle of
cold air to replace warm air is too slow compared to mechanical ventilation system.
B) More challenging to control- Rapid changes in wind speed, wind direction, and outside
temperature require that sidewall and ridge openings be constantly changed to ensure adequate
fresh air exchange rates and proper fresh air distribution within the building.
C) Building location: Because natural ventilation depends largely on prevailing wind currents, a
location where wind would be deflected or blocked is unacceptable for a natural system,
although it might be ideal from the standpoint of feed and animal handling.






5.0 PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

Problems
A) Although, there has been increased efforts to trim energy use from existing building stock;
the heritage sector still needs to accelerate its efforts to better energy efficiency and reduction in
greenhouse gas discharges.

B) Before long, much concentration has been on improving the energy efficiency of heritage
buildings in the domestic sector, while the non-domestic sector has only received slight care.

Solution
A) If the energy is supplied from fossil fuel such as petrol in a car or electricity from a coal-fired
plant, then improved efficiency will reduce emissions. Only if the energy is provided by a low-
carbon source such as electricity from nuclear or renewable, then improving efficiency may
have a small impact on emissions. For instance, changing from a 90% efficient gas boiler to a
'100% efficient' electric heater will increase energy utilization and emissions if the electricity
comes from regular fossil fuel power plants, which themselves are extremely inefficient, losing a
lot of the energy in their fuel as waste heat.
B) Most of the people nowadays focus more on reducing the energy efficiency of modern
building, but there were very few ones that cared to reduce the energy efficiency of the heritage
buildings. We should organize a campaign to raise the awareness for the people to also think of
the heritage building. This is because those traditional buildings occupy quite a percentage in
releasing the carbon dioxide emission. Other than that, non-domestic sector also suffers the
same problem that more people have been improving on the energy efficiency in the domestic
sector while non-domestic sector had been ignored.
C) In the time to come, there may be more on different ways to dilute the energy use of the
heritage buildings. For instance, solar energy will be more popular in the upcoming years, so
there will be no need to interchange the divisions or the elements in the building to increase
energy efficiency, which may ruin the building unique characteristics.
D) In particular, studies focusing on the reuse and adaptation of heritage buildings for public use
to achieve more efficient use of energy are urgently required. It identifies the ability of heritage
buildings to do a part in a global reduction of energy use and CO2 emission whilst maintaining
its unique characteristics.

E) Holistic approach through identification of various options and innovative techniques for their
sustainable reuse were suggested.



6.0 CONCLUSION

In conclusion, old buildings can be upgraded as time pass by. Every building neither old or new
have their own type of energy efficient installed or designed with but for the new building, its
more effective and last longer compare to the old building. But with time passing and some of
the technology cannot be used anymore because of some reason. This problem can be solve
with upgrading or adding newer technology.
In conclusion, different types of building have its own unique characteristics and therefore they
use different type of methods to increase the energy efficiency of that building. For example
some uses the ventilation method to create passive stack ventilation while some others installs
insulation into the building to reach the same goal which will be to increase the energy efficiency
of that building. Increase energy efficiency in heritage building is important because heritage
building occupies quite an amount in the building industry and it will results in increasing of the
carbon gas emission and indirectly harm the environment.
















7.0 REFERENCES
REFERENCE
BOOKS

1. English-heritage.org.uk,. (2014). Energy Efficiency and Historic Buildings: Open fires,
chimneys and flues | English Heritage. Retrieved 27 June 2014, from http://www.english-
heritage.org.uk/publications/eehb-open-fires-chimneys-flues

2. English-heritage.org.uk,. (2014). Great Yarmouth Row Houses and Greyfriars' Cloisters |
English Heritage. Retrieved 27 June 2014, from http://www.english-
heritage.org.uk/daysout/properties/great-yarmouth-row-houses-amp-greyfriars-cloisters/


3. Andrew, P., Craig, & Sims,. (2006). Windows in Historic Buildings. The Magazine Of The
Heritage Canada Foundation, 9(3) :40-48. Retrieved from
https://www.gov.mb.ca/chc/hrb/pdf/hpi_energy_efficiency.pdf

4. Kirkham, G., & Dudley, P. (2011). Managing the historic environment on west Cornwall's
rough ground (1st ed.). Truro: Historic Environment, Cornwall Council. Retrieved 27
June 2014, from http://www.cornwall.gov.uk/media/5979310/Energy-Guide-Latest-
25022014comp.pdf

5. Hester, R., & Harrison, R. (2003). Sustainability and environmental impact of renewable
energy sources (1st ed.). Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.Retrieved 27 June
2014, from http://oro.open.ac.uk/4649/1/Elliott_RSChandover_3.pdf










WEBSITE

1. Heritage.vic.gov.au,. (2014). Heritage Victoria: What house is that?. Retrieved 27 June
2014, from http://heritage.vic.gov.au/Heritage-places-objects/What-house-is-
that/sustainability.html

2. DAVID, F. (2012). KENTUCKY POULTRY ENERGY EFFICIENCY
PROJECT. POULTRY PRODUCTION MANUAL CHAPTER 7 - Ventilation principles.
Retrieved 27 June 2014, from
http://www2.ca.uky.edu/poultryprofitability/Production_manual/Chapter7_Ventilation_prin
ciples/Chapter7_natural_ventilation_systems.html


3. Nps.gov,. (2011). Preservation Brief 3: Improving Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings.
Retrieved 27 June 2014, from http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/briefs/3-improve-
energy-efficiency.htm


4. Climatechangeandyourhome.org.uk,. (2011). English Heritage | Climate change & your
home - Energy efficiency & traditional buildings. Retrieved 27 June 2014, from
http://www.climatechangeandyourhome.org.uk/live/energy_efficiency_and_traditional_bu
ildings.aspx

5. wiseGEEK,. (2014). What is a Watermill?. Retrieved 27 June 2014, from
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-watermill.htm










7.1 Journal:
1) S. Balderstone, Built Heritage: A Major Contributor to Environmental, Social and
Economic Sustainability, Sustainability
Discussion Paper, 1 August 2005, p.2, www.heritage.vic.gov.au/pages/pdfs/sustainable.pdf.
2) S. Tucker, Embodied and Lifetime Energies in the Built Environment, extract from the
CSIRO online brochure at
http://www.dbce.csiro.au/ind-serv/brochures/embodied/embodied.htm, 7 March 2000,
p.1.

3) Guide to Building Services for Historic Buildings: Sustainable services for traditional
buildings, The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, London, 2002, p.1.

4) Member Survey: Energy Efficient Design in the Commercial Building Sector, report
prepared by the Australian Institute of Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heating, May
2003, p.6.

5) D.D. Rypkema, Economics, Sustainabilty, and Historic Preservation in Forum Journal,
Winter 2006, vol.20, no.2, National Trust Forum, National Trust for Historic Preservation,
Washington D.C., U.S.A., and excerpted in Preservation Seattle: Historic Seattles online
monthly preservation magazine, Public Policy, April 2006, p.5 at
http://historicseattle.org/preservationseattle/publicpolicy/defaultSEPT06.htm.

6) C. Reardon & S. Woodcock, Introduction in Technical Manual: Design for Lifestyle and
the Future, 3rd edn., Commonwealth of Australia, 2005 at
www.greenhouse.gov.au/yourhome/technical.