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3Shrinkage and Creep
Values of shrinkage and creep, specified herein and
in Articles and, shall be used to
determine the effects of shrinkage and creep on the loss
of prestressing force in bridges other than segmentally
constructed ones. These values in conunction !ith the
moment of inertia, as specified in Article 5.".3.#.$, may
be used to determine the effects of shrinkage and creep
on deflections.
%reep and shrinkage of concrete are variable
properties that depend on a number of factors, some of
!hich may not be kno!n at the time of design.
&ithout specific physical tests or prior e'perience
!ith the materials, the use of the empirical methods
referenced in these (pecifications cannot be e'pected to
yield results !ith errors less than 5) percent.
* $)+) by the American Association of (tate ,igh!ay and Transportation -fficials.
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These provisions shall be applicable for specified
concrete strengths up to +5.) ksi. /n the absence of more
accurate data, the shrinkage coefficients may be
assumed to be ).)))$ after $0 days and ).)))5 after one
year of drying.
&hen mi'1specific data are not available, estimates
of shrinkage and creep may be made using the
provisions of2
Articles 5.4.$.3.$ and 5.4.$.3.3,
The %3415/6 model code, or
A%/ $)9.
5or segmentally constructed bridges, a more precise
estimate shall be made, including the effect of2
(pecific materials,
(tructural dimensions,
(ite conditions, and
%onstruction methods, and
%oncrete age at various stages of erection.
The methods of determining creep and shrinkage, as
specified herein and in Article 5.4.$.3.3, are based on
,uo et al. 7$))+8, Al1-maishi 7$))+8, Tadros 7$))38,
and %ollins and 9itchell 7+99+8. These methods are
based on the recommendation of A%/ %ommittee $)9 as
modified by additional recently published data. -ther
applicable references include .usch et al. 7+9038, 4a:ant
and &ittman 7+90$8, and ;hali and 5avre 7+90#8.
The creep coefficient is applied to the compressive
strain caused by permanent loads in order to obtain the
strain due to creep.
%reep is influenced by the same factors as
shrinkage, and also by2
9agnitude and duration of the stress,
9aturity of the concrete at the time of loading, and
Temperature of concrete.
%reep shortening of concrete under permanent loads
is generally in the range of ).5 to 4.) times the initial
elastic shortening, depending primarily on concrete
maturity at the time of loading.
The time development of shrinkage, given by
3<. 5.4.$.3.$15, is proposed to be used for both precast
concrete and cast1in1place concrete components of a
bridge member, and for both accelerated curing and
moist curing conditions. This simplification is based on
a parametric study documented in Tadros 7$))38, on
prestress losses in high strength concrete. /t !as found
that various time development prediction methods have
virtually no impact on the final creep and shrinkage
coefficients, prestress losses, or member deflections.
5.9.3Stress Limitations for Prestressing Tendons
The tendon stress due to prestress or at the service
limit state shall not e'ceed the values2
(pecified in Table 5.9.31+, or
.ecommended by the manufacturer of the tendons
or anchorages.
The tendon stress at the strength and e'treme event
limit states shall not e'ceed the tensile strength limit
specified in Table 5.4.4.+1+.
5or post1tensioning, the short1term allo!able of
).9)fpy may be allo!ed for short periods of time prior to
seating to offset seating and friction losses, provided
that the other values in Table 5.9.31+ are not e'ceeded.
(tructural components shall be proportioned to
satisfy the re<uirements at all appropriate service,
fatigue, strength, and e'treme event limit states.
6restressed and partially prestressed concrete
structural components shall be investigated for stresses
and deformations for each stage that may be critical
during construction, stressing, handling, transportation,
and erection as !ell as during the service life of the
structure of !hich they are part.
(tress concentrations due to prestressing or other
loads and to restraints or imposed deformations shall be
5.5.2Ser$i%e Limit State
Actions to be considered at the service limit state
shall be cracking, deformations, and concrete stresses, as
specified in Articles 5.".3.4, 5.".3.#, and 5.9.4,
The cracking stress shall be taken as the modulus of
rupture specified in Article 5.4.$.#.
5.5.4Strength Limit State
The strength limit state issues to be considered shall
be those of strength and stability.
5actored resistance shall be the product of nominal
resistance as determined in accordance !ith the
applicable provisions of Articles 5.#, 5.", 5.0, 5.9, 5.+),
5.+3, and 5.+4, unless another limit state is specifically
identified, and the resistance factor is as specified in
Article 5.5.4.$.
Additional resistance factors are specified in
Article +$.5.5 for buried pipes and bo' structures made
of concrete. 'a%tors Construction
.esistance factor shall be taken as2
5or tension1controlled reinforced concrete
sections as defined in Article 5.".$.+ ................. ).9)
5or tension1controlled prestressed concrete
sections as defined in Article 5.".$.+ ................. +.))
5or shear and torsion2
normal !eight concrete ........................ ).9)
light!eight concrete ............................. ).")
5or compression1controlled sections !ith
spirals or ties, as defined in Article 5.".$.+,
e'cept as specified in Articles 5.+).++.3
and 5.+).++.4.+b for (eismic =ones $, 3,
and 4 at the e'treme event limit state ... )."5
5or bearing on concrete ...................................... ).")
5or compression in strut1and1tie models ............ ).")
/n applying the resistance factors for tensioncontrolled
and compression1controlled sections, the
a'ial tensions and compressions to be considered are
those caused by e'ternal forces. 3ffects of prestressing
forces are not included.
/n editions of and interims to the >.5?
(pecifications prior to $))5, the provisions specified the
magnitude of the resistance factor for cases of a'ial load
or fle'ure, or both, it terms of the type of loading. 5or
these cases, the 1factor is no! determined by the strain
conditions at a cross1section, at nominal strength. The
background and basis for these provisions are given in
9ast 7+99$8 and A%/ 3+01)$.
A lo!er 1factor is used for compression1controlled
sections than is used for tension1controlled sections
because compression1controlled sections have less
ductility, are more sensitive to variations in concrete
strength, and generally occur in members that support
larger loaded areas than members !ith tensioncontrolled
5or sections subected to a'ial load !ith fle'ure,
factored resistances are determined by multiplying both
Pn and Mn by the appropriate single value of .
%ompression1controlled and tension1controlled sections
are defined in Article 5.".$.+ as those that have net
tensile strain in the e'treme tension steel at nominal
strength less than or e<ual to the compression1controlled
strain limit, and e<ual to or greater than ).))5,
respectively. 5or sections !ith net tensile strain t in the
e'treme tension steel at nominal strength bet!een the
above limits, the value of may be determined by linear
interpolation, as sho!n in 5igure %5.5.4.$.+1+. The
concept of net tensile strain t is discussed in
Article %5.".$.+. %lassifying sections as tensioncontrolled,
transition or compression1controlled, and
linearly varying the resistance factor in the transition
:one bet!een reasonable values for the t!o e'tremes,
provides a rational approach for determining and
limiting the capacity of over1reinforced sections.
* $)+) by the American Association of (tate ,igh!ay and Transportation -fficials.
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