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CVEN4102 Operations and Projects

Bracing
Instructor: Dr X Shen
Date: 22 October 2014
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OUTLINE
Bracing Systems
Struts
Rakers
Tiebacks
Soil Nailing
Design of Bracing Systems


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Bracing Systems
The purpose of the bracing system is to
provide support for and prevent movement
of the retaining elements which are in
direct contact with the soil
Commonly used bracing systems
Trench: struts or jacks
Wider excavation: rakers and tiebacks
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Bracing Systems
Example:
Timber
Shoring
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(Courtesy: Nunnally 2011)
(Strut)
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Bracing Systems
Wales
Continuous horizontal members usually
employed in bracing systems
contacting with the earth-retention system and
transfer the earth loads to the braces
Main purpose of the wales is to permit the
braces to be placed far enough apart


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Internal Bracing
Struts
Most appropriate for narrow excavations
When installing cross-lot struts, one end is
welded to the wale and the other end stressed
with plates and wedges
Pipe sections are used for high loads or long
braces
Cross-lot struts are not feasible for very wide
excavations
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Internal Bracing
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(Courtesy: SkyscraperPage)
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Internal Bracing
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(Courtesy: Pont Cornwall Bridge)
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Internal Bracing
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(Courtesy: Mabeyhire)
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Internal Bracing
Rakers
Raker bracing is used for very wide
excavations
The support for the rakers are installed at the
bottom of the excavation
Berm: The earth below the raker can be
excavated on a slope to support the sheeting
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Internal Bracing
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Raker Bracing
(Courtesy: Ratay 1996)
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Internal Bracing

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(Courtesy: Shorwall)
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Internal Bracing
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(Courtesy: RCJ Construction)
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Tieback Systems
Tiebacks or Anchors: The structural
system acts in tension and receives its
support in earth or rock
Tiebacks eliminate obstructions in the
excavation inherent in struts or rakers
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Tieback Systems
Tieback systems consist of:
The earth or rock providing ultimate support
A tension member or tendon transferring the
load from soil-retention system to the earth or
rock, e.g. high strength steel
A transfer agent transferring the load from the
tendon to the soil or rock
A stressing unit engaging the tendon and
permitting the tendon to be stressed
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Tieback Systems
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(Courtesy: Ratay 1996)
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Tieback Systems
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(Courtesy: Ground Support PLLC)
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(Courtesy: Geo Structures)
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Earth Anchors
Earth anchors are usually installed at a
angle of 10 to 20 degree down from
horizontal
Advantages: less vertical loads introduced
into the sheeting or soldier piles
The slight depressed angle aids in
placement of the anchor and grout
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Earth Anchors
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(Courtesy: Ratay 1996)
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Earth Anchors
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Rock Anchors
Rock anchors are used in situations where
excavations extend through soil into rock
The depressed angle for rock anchors is
about 45 degree
Great care must be exercised in protecting
the rock face under the vertical members
due to the large vertical loads
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Rock Anchors
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(Courtesy: Ratay 1996)
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Rock Anchors
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Drilling and Grouting Anchors
Key factors for selecting the equipment:
The type of soil to be drilled through
The depth to the supporting stratum
The level of groundwater



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Drilling and Grouting Anchors
Drilling equipment: truck or crane mounted
drills
Most common materials used to transfer
the loads from the tendon to the soil or
rock are concrete, grout and epoxy glue

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Drilling and Grouting Anchors
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(Courtesy: vwj.org)
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(Courtesy: Lifetime Developments)
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How to Choose A Bracing System
Key Factors:
Geotechnical conditions
Excavation geometry
Cost and time of installation
Possible consequence to structures or utilities
outside of the excavation due to deflections of
retaining structure

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Soil Nailing
Soil nailing is an earth retention technique
using grouted tension-resisting steel
elements (nails) that can be designed for
permanent or temporary support
The walls are generally constructed from
the top down
An array of soil nails are installed in a grid
that functions to create a stable mass of
soil
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Soil Nailing
Advantages:
Rapid and economical in the right soil
Least disruptive to excavations
Soil nailing requires an unusual amount of
hand work, craftsmanship and
geotechnical knowledge to construct
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Soil Nailing
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Soil Nailing
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(Courtesy: Geo Structures)
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Soil Nailing
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(Courtesy: Gunform)
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Soil Nailing
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(Courtesy: Earthwork)
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Earth Pressure
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(Courtesy: OSC Shoring Manual 2011)
- Horizontal stress

- Unit weight of soil

- Earth pressure coefficient

- Lateral earth load

- Depth of wall
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Lateral Earth Pressure for Braced Wall
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H - Exposed height of
anchored wall
D - Embedded depth
Trapezoidal Shaped Apparent Earth Pressure Distribution
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Cohesionless Soils
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Single Braced/Tieback Walls

- Maximum ordinate
T - Horizontal anchor
force
P - Total lateral load

=
1.3
2
3


=
1
2


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Design Procedures
1. Determine the earth pressure coefficients
2. Convert the active earth pressure above
the excavation line to a trapezoidal earth
pressure
3. Take moments about the tieback to
calculate embedment depth D
4. Set summation of forces equal to zero in
horizontal direction to calculate
tieback/brace force T
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Example
Draw the pressure
loading diagram with
each load indicated

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Anchor tie rod
9 m
D
3 m
Water Table
Sand
Sand

dry
= 16.8 kN/m
3
' = 32
sat = 18.9 kN/m
3
' = 32
water = 9.8 kN/m
3
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Water Table
2 m
1 m
Earth Pressure Coefficient

=
2
45

2

=
2
45 +

2

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Questions?