You are on page 1of 53

CEREBRUM

SULCI & GYRI


FUNCTIONAL AREAS
Cerebrum
Cerebrum is a highly
convoluted bilobed
structure.
Situated in the
cranial fossae

CEREBRUM
Median longitudinal
fissure
3 poles frontal,
occipital, temporal
3 borders
superomedial,
inferomedial, inferolateral
3 surfaces
superolateral, medial,
inferior

Superolateral
surface
Inferior surface
Medial surface
SUPEROLATERAL SURFACE
Five lobes on the basis of
1.Central sulcus (Rolando)
2.Lateral sulcus posterior
ramus & line extending
backwards
4.Parieto-occipitalis sulcus
5.Pre-occipital notch
6.Line joining 4 & 5


LOBES OF THE CEREBRUM
SULCI & GYRI ON SUPEROLATERAL
SURFACE
Angular & Supramarginal gyrus

Lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure)

Central sulcus (of Rolando)



Insula
Lies within lateral sulcus
Overlying cortical areas are called 'Operculum'
MEDIAL SURFACE
INFERIOR
SURFACE
INFERIOR SURFACE
Functional areas of the Brain
Cerebral cortex demarcated
into large number of areas
which differ from each other
in their functions
Divided by Brodmann into 47
areas
FUNCTIONAL AREAS
Brodmanns classification

Types of cortical areas:-
Motor areas- corticospinal & corticonuclear tracts.
Sensory areas:- receive afferent fibers from
thalamic nuclei.
Association areas:-associative, cognitive &
integrative functions.
MOTOR AREA
Primary motor area-4 of
Brodmann.
precentral gyrus, anterior
part of the paracentral lobule.
Controls voluntary motor
activities of the opposite half
of the body.
Lesion of primary motor
area in one hemisphere
produce paralysis of the
extremities of the opposite
half of the body.



HOMUNCULUS

Human body is
represented in an
upside down manner in
the precentral gyrus.
Inverted homunculus.
Sensory areas
Primary sensory area
Secondary sensory area
Sensory association area



PRIMARY SENSORY AREA
3, 1 & 2
Postcentral gyrus, extend to
posterior part of the paracentral
lobule on the medial surface.
Concerned with perception of
sensations from opposite half of
the body.
Receives projections from
thalamus.
Lesion- loss of sensation from
opposite half of the body.


Speech centres
Motor speech areas/
Brocas area 44 & 45
Sensory speech area/ area
22,39,40 (wernickes area
22)
Sensory speech area
receives input from
hearing, vision, touch &
proprioception & then
projected to brocas area
through arcuate fasciculus.
BROCAS AREA
Pars triangularis-45 & pars
opercularis- 44 of inferior
frontal gyrus of the frontal
lobe of the left hemisphere.
Production of expressive
speech / Vocalization.
Formation of words with
connections to adjacent
primary motor area.
Lesions- Motor aphasia.
Agrammatical & nonfluent
speech.
Expressive aphasia.
SENSORY SPEECH AREA
Area 39 of Angular gyrus, stores
visual images & recognises objects by
sight.
lesion- word blindness. Words are
seen but not comprehended.
ALEXIA, AGRAPHIA
Area 40 of supramarginal gyrus of
the inferior parietal lobule,
recognises familiar objects with help
of touch & proprioception
Lesion produces astereognosis
conduction aphasia- arcuate
fasciculus is inv repetition of spoken
language is difficult
WERNICKES AREA
Area 22 of superior temporal
gyrus Comprehends spoken
language, recognises familiar
sounds & words
Lesion produces word
deafness/ sensory aphasia,
unable to interpret spoken
words.
Lesions inv both motor &
sensory areas result in loss of
production of speech as well as
loss of understanding of the
spoken & written speech.
Global aphasia.



Speech areas
TEMPORAL LOBE
.
AUDITORY AREA 41 & 42
Primary auditory area 41, in
superior surface of the
superior temporal gyrus


lesions-word deafness.

visual area
Primary visual area-17 in
walls & floor of calcarine
sulcus. Perception of
isolated visual impressions
like color, size, form,
motion & illumination.
Loss of vision

Visual & its association areas
Area 18/ parastriate area,
Area 19/ peristriate area.
Together called as
occipital eye field.
Receives afferent from
primary area.
Relates visual
information to past
experiences & responsible
for recognition of objects.






Brain is sensitive to hypoxia & hypoglycemia.

10 secs of cessation of blood flow consciousness
is lost

More than 4 mins IRREVERSIBLE brain
damage starts.

Brain 2% of total body weight receives about
15% of cardiac output and utilizes 25% of total
oxygen consumption of body

Per minute, 750 ml of blood circulates through
brain of an average weight.
Arteries of Brain
Vertebral system

Carotid System

1.Internal carotid artery
Branch of common carotid artery given in neck.

Enters cranial cavity through carotid canal.

Internal carotid artery- branches (terminal)
Anterior cerebral artery and
Middle cerebral artery.

Internal carotid artery
2.VERTEBRAL ARTERY
Branch of subclavian artery.

Passes through foramina transversaria of upper 6
cervical vertebrae & enters cranial cavity through
foramen magnum.

2 vertebral arteries unite at lower border of pons
to form basilar artery.

At upper border of Pons, basilar artery bifurcates
into 2 posterior cerebral arteries.
BASILAR ARTERY

CIRCLE OF WILLIS
/Circulus arteriosus
Circle of Willis - Formation
Anteriorly Anterior
communicating artery.

Anterolaterally 2
Anterior cerebral arteries.

Posterolaterally- 2
Posterior communicating
arteries.

Posteriorly posterior
cerebral artery
Location
In Interpeduncular fossa

Around optic chiasma
Branches
1.Central branches numerous, slender & arise in
groups. Immediately they pierce brain to supply
internal parts
Do not anastomose & are called end arteries.
Supplies diencephalon, corpus striatum & internal
capsule.

2.Cortical branches Ramify over cortex to
anastomose on piamater.
Numerous branches enter cortex at right angles &
these do not anastomose.

3. Choridal Branches supplies the ventricles
CORTICAL BRANCHES- LATERAL SURFACE
ANT.CER.A

POST.CER.A

MID.CER.A
LATERAL SURFACE
CORTICAL BRANCHES- MEDIAL SURFACE
MEDIAL SURFACE
ANT.CER.A

POST.CER.A

MID.CER.A
CORTICAL BRANCHES- INFERIOR SURFACE
Cerebral circulation functional significance
Internal carotid artery &
posterior cerebral artery in
posterior communicating
artery.
Two vertebral arteries in
basilar artery
Two anterior cerebral
arteries in anterior
communicating artery.
Normally there is little or no mixing of blood streams
between

Right half of brain is supplied by right
vertebral & right Internal carotid artery

Left half of brain is supplied by left vertebral
and left internal carotid artery

However, if internal carotid artery or vertebral
artery or their branches get occluded, blood
passes forward or backward across various
alternative routes for Collateral Circulation.