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PROJECT REPORT
1
A STUDY ON RATIO ANALYSISWITH REFERENCE TOGENTING LANCO POWER
INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED.
2
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Mr. J . RAMAKRISHNA YADAV of INTEGRALINSTITUTE
OF ADVANCED MANAGEMENT has successfully completed the projectwork titled
RATIOANALYSIS
in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of POST GRADUATION
DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT prescribed by theINTEGRAL INSTITUTE
OF ADVANCED MANAGEMENT..T h i s p r o j e c t i s t h e r e c o r d o f a u t h e n t i c
wo r k c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g t h e academic year (2006 2008).

3

DECLARATION
I Mr. J. RAMAKRISHNA YADAV hereby declare that this project isthe record of
authentic work carried out by me during the academic year 2006 2008 and
has not been submitted to any other University or Institute towards theaward of
any degree.
Signature of the student
(J. Ramakrishna yadav )4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am very much obliged and indebted to
Mr. LIM KIM BAK,
General Manager of Genting Lanco Power (India) Private Limited for his approval and
valuable suggestions to take up the project.I also extend my gratitude to
Mr. B. V. Jayaram
, Manager Finance, Commercial and Administration for his approval and
valuablesuggestions to take up the project in Genting Lanco Power (India) PrivateLimited.I
express my deep sense of gratitude to
Mr.Ravi Seshagiri Rao
Accounts Officer Finance, Commercial and Administration for his valuablesuggestions, consistent
help and personal interest during my project work.I a m a l s o t h a n k f u l t o
Mr . B . V i ma l k u ma r
, AccountantTrainee for his support and suggestions during the project.I am very pleased to express my
deep sense of gratitude to
Mr.R. RAMACHANDRA NAI K As s o c i a t e p r o f e s s o r
f or hi s cons i s t ent encouragement. I shall forever cherish my association with her for
exuberantencouragement, perennial approachability, absolute freedom of thought andaction I have
enjoyed during the course of the project.
5
Chapter 1
I
NTRODUCTION
6
I

ntroduction

Financial Management
is the specific area of finance dealingwith the financial decision corporations make, and
the tools and analysisus ed t o make t he deci s i ons . The di s ci pl i ne as a whol e
ma y be di vi ded between long-term and short-term decisions and techniques. Both share
thesame goal of enhancing firm value by ensuring that return on capital exceedscost of capital, without taking
excessive financial risks.
Capital investment decisions
comprise the long-term choicesabout which projects receive investment, whether to finance that
investmentwith equity or debt, and when or whether to pay dividends to shareholders.S h o r t -
t e r m c o r p o r a t e f i n a n c e d e c i s i o n s a r e c a l l e d
wor ki ng capi t al management
and deal with balance of current assets and current liabilities bymanaging cash, inventories, and short-term
borrowings and lending (e.g., thecredit terms extended to customers).Cor por at e f i nance i s cl os el y
r el at ed t o manager i al f i nance, whi ch i s s l i ght l y br oader i n s cope,
des cr i bi ng t he f i nanci al t echni ques available to all forms of business enterprise, corporate or not.
7
Role of Financial Managers
:The r ol e of a f i nanci al manager can be di s cus s ed under t he following
heads:1 . N a t u r e o f w o r k 2. Wor ki ng
condi t i ons 3 . E m p l o y m e n t 4.Training, Other qualifications and
Advancement5 . J o b o u t l o o k 6 . E a r n i n g s 7. Rel at ed occupat i ons Let us
discuss each of these in a detailed manner.1.
Nature of work
Almost every firm, government agency and organization hasone or more financial
managers who oversee the preparation of financial r epor t s , di r ect i nves t ment
act i vi t i es , and i mpl ement cas h management strategies. As computers are
increasingly used to record and organize data,many financial managers are spending more time
developing strategies andimplementing the long-term goals of their organization.
8
The duties of financial managers vary with their specific titles,which include controller, treasurer
or finance officer, credit manager, cashmanager, and risk and insurance manager.
Controllers

direct the preparationof financial reports that summarize and forecast the organizations
financial position, such as income statements, balance sheets, and analyses of futureearnings or
expenses. Regulatory authorities also in charge of preparingspecial reports require
controllers. Often, controllers oversee the accounting,audit, and budget departments.
Treasurers
and
finance officers
direct theorganizations financial goals, objectives, and budgets. They oversee
thei n v e s t m e n t o f f u n d s a n d m a n a g e a s s o c i a t e d r i s k s ,
s u p e r v i s e c a s h management activities, execute capital-raising strategies to support a
firmsexpansion, and deal with mergers and acquisitions.
Credit managers
overseethe firms issuance of credit. They establish credit-rating criteria, determinecredit ceilings,
and monitor the collections of past-due accounts. Managerss peci al i zi ng i n i nt er nat i onal
f i nance devel op f i nanci al and account i ng systems for the banking transactions of
multinational organizations.
Cash managers
monitor and control the flow of cash receiptsand disbursements to meet the business and
investment needs of the firm. For example, cash flow projections are needed to determine
whether loansmust be obtained to meet cash requirements or whether surplus cash should be
invested in interest-bearing instruments.
Risk and

insurance managers
o v e r s e e p r o g r a ms t o mi n i mi z e r i s k s a n d l o s s e s t h a t mi g h t a r i s e
f r o mfinancial transactions and business operations undertaken by the institution.They also
manage the organizations insurance budget.Financial institutions, such as commercial banks, savings
andl oan as s oci at i ons , cr edi t uni ons , and mor t gage and f i nance compani es ,
9
employ additional financial managers who oversee various functions, suchas lending, trusts,
mortgages, and investments, or programs, including sales,operations, or electronic financial services.
These managers may be requiredt o s ol i ci t bus i nes s , aut hor i ze l oans , and di r ect t he
i nves t ment of f unds , always adhering to State laws and regulations.Br a n c h ma n a g e r s o f
f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a d mi n i s t e r a n d manage all of the functions of a
branch office, which may include hiring personnel, approving loans and lines of credit,
establishing a rapport withthe community to attract business, and assisting customers
with account problems. Financial managers who work for financial institutions must
keepabreast of the rapidly growing array of financial services and products.In addition to the general duties
described above, all financialmanager s per f or m t as ks uni que t o t hei r or gani z at i on
or i ndus t r y. For example, government financial managers must be experts on the
governmentappr opr i at i ons and budget i ng pr oces s es , wher eas heal t hcar e
f i nanci al manager s mus t be knowl edgeabl e about i s s ues s ur r oundi ng
heal t hcar e financing. Moreover, financial managers must be aware of special tax lawsand
regulations that affect their industry.Fi nanci al manager s pl ay an i ncr eas i ngl y i mpor t ant
r ol e i nmergers and consolidations and in global expansion and related financing.These areas
require extensive, specialized knowledge on the part of thefinancial manager to reduce
risks and maximize profit. Financial managersincreasingly are hired on a temporary basis
to advise senior managers onthese and other matters. In fact, some small firms contract out all
accountingand financial functions to companies that provide these services.
10
The role of the financial manager, particularly in business, is cha ngi ng i n
r es pons e t o t echnol ogi cal advances t hat have s i gni f i cant l y reduced the amount
of time it takes to produce financial reports. Financialma n a g e r s n o w p e r f o r m mo r e
d a t a a n a l y s i s a n d u s e i t t o o f f e r s e n i o r managers ideas on how to
maximize profits. They often work on teams, acting as business advisors to top
management. Financial managers need tokeep abr eas t of t he l at es t comput er
t echnol ogy i n or der t o i ncr eas e t he efficiency of their firms financial operations.
2. Working conditions
Financial managers work in comfortable offices, often close tot op manager s and t o
depar t ment s t hat devel op t he f i nanci al dat a t hes e ma n a g e r s n e e d . Th e y
t y p i c a l l y h a v e d i r e c t a c c e s s t o s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t computer systems and
information services. Financial managers commonlywork long hours, often up to 50 or 60 per
week. They generally are requiredto attend meetings of financial and economic associations and
may travel tovisit subsidiary firms or to meet customers.
3. Employment
While the vast majority is employed in private industry, nearly1 in 10 works for the different branches
of government. In addition, althoughthey can be found in every industry, approximately 1 out of 4 are
employed by insurance and finance establishments, such as banks, savings institutions,finance companies, credit
unions, and securities dealers.
11
4.
Training, Other qualifications and Advancement
A bachel or s degr ee i n f i nance, account i ng, economi cs , or business
administration is the minimum academic preparation for financialmanagers. However, many
employers now seek graduates with a mastersdegree, preferably in business
administration, economics, finance, or risk management . Thes e academi c
pr ogr ams devel op anal yt i cal s ki l l s and provide knowledge of the latest financial analysis
methods and technology.Experience may be more important than formal education for some
financial manager positionsnotably, branch managers in banks.Banks typically
fill branch manager positions by promoting experiencedloan officers and other
professionals who excel at their jobs. Other financialmanagers may enter the profession
through formal management training programs offered by the company.Continuing education is
vital for financial managers, who mustcope with the growing complexity of global trade, changes in State
laws andregulations, and the proliferation of new and complex financial instruments.Firms often
provide opportunities for workers to broaden their knowledgeand skills by encouraging
employees to take graduate courses at collegesand universities or attend
conferences related to their specialty. Financial management, banking, and credit union
associations, often in cooperationwith colleges and universities, sponsor numerous national and
local training programs. Persons enrolled prepare extensively at home and then
attendsessions on subjects such as accounting management, budget management,corporate cash
management, financial analysis, international banking, andinformation systems. Many firms pay
all or part of the costs for employees
12
who s ucces s f ul l y compl et e cour s es . Al t hough exper i ence, abi l i t y,
andleadership are emphasized for promotion, this type of special study mayaccelerate
advancement.In some cases, financial managers also may broaden their skillsand exhibit their
competency by attaining professional certification. Therea r e ma n y d i f f e r e n t
a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t o f f e r p r o f e s s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n programs. For
example, the Association for Investment Management andResearch confers the Chartered
Financial Analyst designation on investment p r o f e s s i o n a l s w h o h a v e a b a c h e l o r s
d e g r e e , p a s s t h r e e s e q u e n t i a l examinations, and meet work experience
requirements. The Association for Financial Professionals (AFP) confers the Certified Cash Manager
credentialto those who pass a computer-based exam and have a minimum of 2 years of relevant
experience. The Institute of Management Accountants offers aCertified in Financial
Management designation to members with a BA anda t l e a s t 2 y e a r s o f wo r k
e x p e r i e n c e wh o p a s s t h e i n s t i t u t e s f o u r - p a r t examination and fulfill
continuing education requirements. Also, financialmanager s who s peci al i z e i n
account i ng ma y ear n t he Cer t i f i ed Publ i c A c c o u n t a n t ( C P A ) o r
C e r t i f i e d M a n a g e m e n t A c c o u n t a n t ( C M A ) designations.Candidates
for financial management positions need a broadrange of skills. Interpersonal skills are
important because these jobs involvemanaging people and working as part of a team to solve problems.
Financialmanagers must have excellent communication skills to explain
complexfinancial data. Because financial managers work extensively with variousdepartments in
their firm, a broad overview of the business is essential.
13
Financial managers should be creative thinkers and problem-s o l v e r s ,
a p p l y i n g t h e i r a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s t o b u s i n e s s . T h e y m u s t
b e comfortable with the latest computer technology. As financial
operationsincreasingly are affected by the global economy, financial managers musthave
knowledge of international finance. Proficiency in a foreign languagealso may be important.Because
financial management is critical for efficient businessoperations, well -trained, experienced
financial managers who display as t r o n g g r a s p o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f
v a r i o u s d e p a r t m e n t s w i t h i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e p r i me
c a n d i d a t e s f o r p r o mo t i o n t o t o p ma n a g e me n t positions. Some financial
managers transfer to closely related positions inother industries. Those with extensive experience
and access to sufficientcapital may start their own consulting firms.
5 . J o b o u t l o o k
Some companies may hire financial managers on a temporary b a s i s , t o s e e t h e
o r g a n i z a t i o n t h r o u g h a s h o r t - t e r m c r i s i s o r t o o f f e r s ugges t i ons f or
boos t i ng pr of i t s . Ot her compani es may cont r act out al l accounting and financial
operations. Even in these cases, however, financialmanagers may be needed to oversee the
contracts.Computer technology has reduced the time and staff required to produce financial reports. As
a result, forecasting earnings, profits, andcosts, and generating ideas and creative ways to
increase profitability will become a major role of corporate financial managers over the next
decade.
14
Financial managers who are familiar with computer software that can assistthem in this role will be
needed.
6 . E a r n i n g s
The As s oci at i on f or Fi nanci al Pr of es s i onal s 16t h annual c o mp e n s a t i o n
s u r v e y s h o we d t h a t f i n a n c i a l o f f i c e r s a v e r a g e t o t a l compensation in
2006, including bonuses and deferred compensation, was$ 2 6 1 , 8 0 0 . S e l e c t e d
f i n a n c i a l m a n a g e r p o s i t i o n s h a d a v e r a g e t o t a l compensation as
follows:US$Vice president of finance
367,000T r e a
s u r e
r 3 0 1
, 2 0 0 A s
s i s t a n t v i c e
p r e s i d e n t -
f i n a n c e 2 8 2 , 6 0 0 C o n
t r o l l e r / c o m
p t r o l l e r 2 6 8
, 6 0 0 D i
r e c t
o r 2 2
7 , 2 0
0 A s s i s t
a n t
t r e a s u r e r
2 2 3 , 8 0 0 A s s i
s t a n t
c o n t r o l l e r / c o m p t r o l
l e r 2 3 1 , 0 0 0 M
a n a g
e r 1 6
7 , 0 0
0 C a s h
m a n a g
e r 1 2 9
, 4 0 0 Large organizations often pay
more than small ones, and salarylevels also can depend on the type of industry and location.
Many financial
15
m a n a g e r s i n b o t h p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y r e c e i v e
a d d i t i o n a l compensation in the form of bonuses, which also vary substantially by sizeof
firm. Deferred compensation in the form of stock options is becomingmore common,
especially for senior level executives.
7 . Re l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s
Financial managers combine formal education with experiencein one or more areas of finance,
such as asset management, lending, creditoperations, securities investment, or insurance risk and loss
control. Workersin other occupations requiring similar training and skills include accountantsand auditors;
budget analysts; financial analysts and personal financial advisors; insurance
underwriters; loan counselors and officers; securities,commodities, and financial services sales
agents; and real estate brokers andsales agents.
For more Notes, Presentations, Project Reports
visita2zmba.blogspot.comhrmba.blogspot.commbafin.blogspot.com
16
NEED FOR THE STUDY
1 . T h e s t u d y h a s g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d p r o v i d e s
b e n e f i t s t o various parties whom directly or indirectly interact with the company.2 . I t i s
b e n e f i c i a l t o m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e c o m p a n y b y
p r o v i d i n g cr ys t al cl ear pi ct ur e r egar di ng i mpor t ant as pect s l i ke
l i qui di t y, leverage, activity and profitability.3 . T h e s t u d y i s a l s o b e n e f i c i a l t o
e mp l o y e e s a n d o f f e r s mo t i v a t i o n by showing how actively they are contributing for
companys growth.4 . T h e i n v e s t o r s wh o a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n i n v e s t i n g i n t h e
c o mp a n y s s har es wi l l al s o get benef i t ed by goi ng t hr ough t he s t udy and
cane a s i l y t a k e a d e c i s i o n wh e t h e r t o i n v e s t o r n o t t o i n v e s t i n
t h e companys shares.
17
OBJECTIVES
The maj or obj ect i ves of t he r es ent s t udy ar e t o know about financial strengths and
weakness of LANCO through
FINANCIAL RATIOANALYSIS
.
The main objectives of resent study aimed as
:To evaluate the performance of the company by using ratios asa yardstick to measure the
efficiency of the company. To understand theliquidity, profitability and efficiency
positions of the company during thes t u d y p e r i o d . T o e v a l u a t e a n d a n a l y z e
v a r i o u s f a c t s o f t h e f i n a n c i a l per f or mance of t he company. To make
compar i s ons bet ween t he r at i os during different periods.
OBJECTIVES
1 . T o s t u d y t h e p r e s e n t
f i n a n c i a l s y s t e m a t
G e n t i n g Lanco.2 . T o d e t e r m i n e
t h e P r o f i t a b i l i t y , L i q u i d i t y
R a t i o s . 3 . T o a n a l y z e t h e
c a p i t a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e
c o m p a n y with the help of Leverage ratio.
18
4 . T o o f f e r a p p r o p r i a t e
s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e
b e t t e r performance of the organization
METHODOLOGY
The information is collected through secondary sources duringt he pr oj ect . That
i nf or mat i on was ut i l i zed f or cal cul at i ng per f or mance evaluation and based on that,
interpretations were made.
Sources of secondary data:
1 . Mo s t o f t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e ma d e o n t h e f i n a n c i a l s t a t e me n t s
o f the company provided statements.2 . R e f e r r i n g s t a n d a r d t e x t s a n d r e f e r r e d
b o o k s c o l l e c t e d s o m e o f the information regarding theoretical aspects.3 . Me t h o d -
t o a s s e s s t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f h e c o m p a n y m e t h o d o f observation of
the work in finance department in followed.
19
LIMITATIONS
1 . T h e s t u d y p r o v i d e s a n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e f i n a n c i a l ,
p e r s o n n e l , marketing and other aspects of LANCO. Every study will be boundwith certain
limitations.2 . T h e b e l o w me n t i o n e d a r e t h e c o n s t r a i n t s u n d e r wh i c h t h e
s t u d y is carried out.3 . On e o f t h e f a c t o r s o f t h e s t u d y wa s l a c k o f
a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a mp l e information. Most of the information has been kept confidential andas such as
not assed as art of policy of company.T i m e i s a n i m p o r t a n t l i m i t a t i o n . T h e
w h o l e s t u d y w a s conducted in a period of 60 days, which is not sufficient to carry out
proper interpretation and analysis.
20
Chapter 2
T
HE
E
LECTRICITY
R
EGULATORY
C
OMMISSION
A
NALYSIS
(S
UBSTANTIVE
I
SSUES
R
AISED

BY

THE
P
UBLIC
)
21
An d h r a P r a d e s h E l e c t r i c i t y Re g u l a t o r y Co mmi s s i o n wa s constituted on
31.03.1999 under the A.P. Electricity Reform Act, 1998. Since its inception, the APERC
has taken several initiatives to improve thefunctionality of the Power Sector in the state
of AP to make it viable andmore importantly to protect the interests of the consumers. The
commissionissued Licenses to the APTRANSCO, the four Distribution Companies andthe nine
Rural Electric Cooperatives in the state. Six Tariff Orders have been issued. Several
path breaking documents have been formulated andreleased relating to the performance of the
Licensees and protection of theinterests of the consumers viz., Customers right to information,
Licensee'scomplaint handling procedure, the grid code, Guidelines for
Investment proposals, Load Forecasting and Power Procurement procedure, Merit Order Dispatch and Long
Term tariff Principles (LTTP) etc.Consequent to the enactment of the Electricity Act 2003,
theCommission formulated and notified a number of Regulations on importantaspects of Supply of
Electricity to the consumers.Commi s s i on has f aci l i t at ed compet i t i on i n Power s ect or
bynotifying regulations on Terms and Conditions of Open Access (u/s 42) andis in the process of
notifying regulations for Trading in Electricity (u/s 52).Commission is also contemplating to
introduce AvailabilityBased Tariff (ABT) at the state level from 2006-07 onwards as required
inthe National Electricity Policy notified by Government of India.
22
The Commission is also set to introduce Multiyear tariff regimefrom 2006-07 onwards so as to ensure
Regulatory Certainty and to improvethe financial and operational efficiency of the Distribution
Licensees.The Webs i t e i s par t of t he endeavor s of t he Commi s s i on t o usher in
and function in an environment of transparency in its operations.Suggestions for improvement of the
website are welcome.
Regulation No. 1 of 2007TRANSMISSION LICENSEE STANDARDS OF
PERFORMANCE
In exercise of the powers conferred by sections 181 read withsection 57 (1), 57 (2) and 86 (1) (i) of the
Electricity Act, 2003 (36 of 2003),the Andhra Pradesh Electricity Regulatory Commission makes the
followingRegulation, namely:
1. SHORT TITLE AND COMMENCEMENT
1 . 1 T h i s Re g u l a t i o n ma y b e c a l l e d t h e An d h r a P r a d e s h
E l e c t r i c i t y Re g u l a t o r y Co mmi s s i o n ( T r a n s mi s s i o n S t a n d a r d s o f
P e r f o r ma n c e ) Regulation, 2007.1.2 This Regulation shall be applicable to the State
Transmission Utility/ Transmission Licensee in the State of Andhra Pradesh.1.3 This Regulation extends to
the whole of the State of Andhra Pradesh.1.4 This Regulation shall come into force on the date of its publication in
theofficial Gazette of Andhra Pradesh.
23
2. DEFINITIONS2.1 In
this Regulation, unless the context otherwise requires:(a) Act means the Electricity Act, 2003
(Central Act No. 36 of 2003);( b) APTRANSCO means Tr ans mi s s i on
Cor por at i on of Andhr a Pradesh Limited registered under the Companies Act, 1956;(c) CEA means
the Central Electricity Authority;( d) Commi s s i on means Andhr a Pr ades h El ect r i ci t y
Regul at or yCommission;(e) Consumer in the context of this Regulation means any
personwho is provided with the transmission services by the transmission licenseeand includes any
person whose premises are for the time being connected for t he pur pos e of pr ovi di ng
t r ans mi s s i on s er vi ces f r om t he l i cens ee, and p e r s o n s wh o h a v e a p p l i e d
f o r a v a i l i n g t r a n s mi s s i o n s e r v i c e s f r o m a transmission licensee.( f )
EHV/ EHT means Ext r a Hi gh Vol t age/ Ext r a Hi gh Tens i on (voltage level above
33,000 volts);(g) Grid Code means the set of principles and guidelines prepared inaccordance with the terms of
Section 86 (1) (h) of the Electricity Act 2003;( h) I EGC means t he I ndi an El ect r i ci t y
Gr i d Code appr oved byCentral Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) and shall
include any
24
Grid Code specified by Central Commission under clause (h) of sub-section(1) of section 79 of the
Act;( i ) PGCI L means Power Gr i d Cor por at i on of I ndi a Li mi t ed, a Central
Transmission Utility notified under sub-section (1) of section 38 of the Act;(j) Rules means the
Indian Electricity Rules, 1956 and/or any other rules made under Act;(k) State means the State of
Andhra Pradesh(l) State Transmission System means the system of EHV
electricl i n e s a n d e l e c t r i c a l e q u i p me n t o p e r a t e d a n d / o r ma i n t a i n e d
b y S t a t e Transmission Utility and/or any Transmission Licensee for the purpose of t h e
t r a n s mi s s i o n o f e l e c t r i c i t y a mo n g g e n e r a t i n g s t a t i o n s ,
e x t e r n a l interconnections, distribution systems and any other user connected to
itwith in the state of Andhra Pradesh;(m) User means a person, including Generating Stations within
theState, Transmission Licensees or Distribution Licensees within the State andopen access customer who use the
State Transmission System and who mustcomply with the provisions of the Grid Code;
2.2 Words
and expr es s i ons us ed but not def i ned her ei n s hal l have t he meaning assigned
to them in Electricity Act 2003, Indian Electricity GridCode, Andhra Pradesh Electricity
Grid Code and Indian Electricity Rules,1956.
25
3. OBJECTIVE
T h i s Re g u l a t i o n l a y s d o wn t h e p e r f o r ma n c e s t a n d a r d s t o maintain
certain critical grid parameters within the permissible limits. Theses t a n d a r d s s h a l l
s e r v e a s g u i d e l i n e s f o r S t a t e T r a n s m i s s i o n
U t i l i t y ( STU) / Tr ans mi s s i on Li cens ee t o oper at e t he I nt r a - St at e
Tr ans mi s s i onSystem for providing an efficient, reliable, coordinated and
economicalsystem of electricity supply and transmission. The main objectives of
these performance standards are:(a). To ensure that the grid performance meets minimum
standardse s s e n t i a l f o r t h e U s e r s s y s t e m d e m a n d a n d p r o p e r
f u n c t i o n i n g o f equipment;(b). To enable the Users to design their systems and equipment to suitthe
electrical environment that they operate in; and( c) . To enhance t he qual i t y s t andar ds of t he
St at e Tr ans mi s s i onSystem in order to move towards standards stipulated in or established under the
authority of National and State Acts and Rules in the short term andgradually towards the
international standards in the long term.
4. STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE4.1
The Tr ans mi s s i on per f or mance s t andar ds ar e cl as s i f i ed under t he following two
categories:
26
(a) Mandatory Standards - Those performance standards, the failure tomaintain which attracts the provisions of
sub-section (2) of the section 57.(b) Desirable Standards - Those performance standards,
which aredesirable for providing quality, continuity and reliability of services by
theLicensees, and though also specified by the Commission do not, unless pr ovi ded
ot her wi s e by t he Commi s s i on f r om t i me t o t i me, at t r act t he provisions of sub-
section (2) of the section 57.
4.2
The following standards are the mandatory standards:(a) Voltage Variation(b) Safety StandardsT h e s e a r e
s t a t u t o r y s t a n d a r d s t o b e c o mp l i e d wi t h b y t h e Licensee as per
Electricity Rules 1956 wherever not inconsistent with theAct. The new Rules under
section 53 of Act are yet to be issued by the CEAin consultation with the State Government. The
standards specified in thisRegulation shall therefore be revised after new Rules under
the Act comeinto effect.
4.3
Desirable standards too have been specified herein under section 86 (1)(i) of the Act, with the
main objective of providing quality, continuity andreliability of services to the consumers. The
Commission shall fix the time- bound schedule for implementation/compliance of/with each
parameter of these standards. The following standards are specified herein as desirable
of achievement:
27
(a) Feeder Availability(b) Sub-station Availability(c) Voltage Unbalance(d) Neutral Voltage Displacement
(NVD)(e) Voltage Variation Index (VVI)(f) System Adequacy(g) System Security
5. PHASING OF IMPLEMENTATION5.1
The per f or mance s t andar ds except i ng t he Mandat or y St andar ds , specified
herein shall be implemented in a phased manner in three stages asfollows:(a) Preliminary Stage
(Level-1): The time period of two (2) yearsimmediately after these standards come
into force shall be considered asPreliminary Stage. During this preliminary stage, Standards marked as
Level1 shall be achieved, unless specified otherwise.(b) Transition Stage (Level-2): Time period
spreading up to three (3)years after the Preliminary Stage shall be considered as
Transition Stage. During this period, the licensee is expected to upgrade its systems. Standardsma r k e d
a s Le v e l 2 s h a l l b e a c h i e v e d d u r i n g T r a n s i t i o n S t a g e , u n l e s s specified
otherwise.
28
(c) Final Stage (Level -3): Two years after expiry of the TransitionStage when
substantial improvements should have been carried out and thesystem considered to be in
satisfactory condition with necessary capabilityimprovement. Standards marked as Level 3
shall be achieved during thisFinal Stage.
5.2
In all cases, where standards are specified by appropriate authorities, for exampl e El ect r i ci t y Rul es
1956, s uch s t andar ds s hal l be r equi r ed t o be complied with as specified by that
authority, may be from the preliminarystage itself.
Standards to be complied with:5.3
T h e C o m m i s s i o n s p e c i f i e s t h e f o l l o w i n g
s t a n d a r d s f o r STU/Transmission Licensees:
(a) Voltage Variation:
(i) Voltage Variation is defined as the deviation of the root -mean-square (RMS) value
of the voltage from its nominal RMS value, expressedin terms of percentage. Voltage Variation may be
either of short duration notexceeding one minute or of long duration for a time greater than one minute.( i i ) For
t he pur pos e of t hes e s t andar ds , t he s us t ai ned var i at i on i n steady state voltage
exceeding one minute duration shall be considered. Thespecified permissible limits of sustained
voltage variation shall not apply inthe cases where the circumstances are reasonably beyond the control of
StateTransmission Utility /Transmission Licensee e.g. major break-downs, gridfailures, accidents,
system distress conditions, etc.
29
(iii) State Transmission Utility /Transmission Licensee shall make all possible efforts to ensure that the grid
voltages remain within the followingvoltage levels at all points of its Transmission System:
Nominal Voltage(kV)Maximum Value(kV)Minimum Value(kV)
4 0 0
4 2 0
3 6 0
2 2 0
2 4 5
2 0 0
1 3 2
1 4 5
1 2 0
3
3
3
5
3
0 1
1 * 1
1 . 6
7 1 0
* 11kV voltages to be maintained by the transmission licensee only in thosecases where 11kV
supply is extended from the EHT substation.

(b) Safety Standards:
(i) State Transmission Utility /Transmission Licensee shall observet h e g e n e r a l
s a f e t y r e q u i r e me n t s a s l a i d d o wn i n I E Ru l e s , 1 9 5 6 , f o r construction,
installation, protection, operation and maintenance of electricsupply lines and apparatus.(ii) Relevant
rules under IE Rules, 1956 pertaining to safety standardsand practices shall be followed.(iii) State
Transmission Utility / Transmission Licensee shall developits own Operation and Maintenance
Manual (including Safety Regulations)
30
t aki ng i nt o cons i der at i on t he s af et y r equi r ement s f or t he
cons t r uct i on, operation and maintenance of electrical plants and electric lines as may
bespecified by the Central Electricity Authority under Clause (c) of section 73read with Section 53
of the Act.
(c) Feeder Availability:
( i ) The f eeder avai l abi l i t y gi ves t he per cent age of t i me dur i ng which the
feeder remained available for transmission. Feeder Availabilityshall be calculated based on following
formula
% Availability of = (No of feeders X 8760 - Annual outages in feeder-hours) X 100Feeder
Total availability in feeder-hours
Here, total availability in hours is equal to the number. of hoursin a year i.e. 8760 (non-leap year)(ii)
The Transmission Licensee shall achieve 99% feeder availabilityfrom the preliminary stage itself.
(d) Sub-station Availability:
(i) The sub-station availability expressed in percentage is the measureof the extent the power
transmission capacity remained available from a sub-s t at i on. Sub- s t at i on avai l abi l i t y s hal l
be cal cul at ed bas ed on f ol l owi ng formula:
% Availability of SS = (Installed capacity in MVA X 8760 - Outage in MVA X
Hours)Installed capacity in MVA X 8760

31
( i i ) T h e T r a n s mi s s i o n Li c e n s e e s h a l l a c h i e v e 9 7 %
S u b s t a t i o n availability from the preliminary stage itself.
(e) Voltage Unbalance:
( i ) T h e p h a s e v o l t a g e s o f a 3 - p h a s e s u p p l y s h o u l d b e e q u a l
i n magnitude and phase angle. The loads on each phase should be
balanced.Deviations will result in decreased efficiency, negative torque,
vibrationsand overheating. Severe unbalance could lead to malf unctioning of
someequipment. The unbalance is computed as follows:
% Voltage Unbalance = Max Deviation from Mean of {VRY, VYB, VBR} X 100Mean of
{VRY, VYB, VBR}
Where, V
RY
is Voltage between R & Y phases, V
YB
is Voltage between Y & B phases and V
BR
is voltage between B & R phases.( i i ) Subj ect t o Di s t r i but i on Li cens ee( s ) obs er vi ng
t he Gr i d Code Connection Conditions in this regard, the voltage unbalance shall not exceedthe values given
below:
I m p l e m e n t a t i o n
S t a g e V o l t a g e
L e v e l L i m i t o f voltageunbalance
P r e l i m i n a r y S t a g e -
L e v e l 1 2 2 0 k V a n d
A b o v e 2 %T r a n s i
t i o n S t a g e
- L e v e l
2 1 3 2 k V 3 %T r a n s i t i o n S t a g e
- L e v e l 2 3 3 k V a n d 1 1 k V b u s e s in EHV Substation3%
32

Pr ovi ded t hat t he above l i mi t f or Vol t age unbal ance at t he interconnection point
with Distribution System are subject to DistributionLicensee maintaining current unbalance
between phases within limit of 3%applied for all feeders of one voltage class emanating
from a sub-stationincluding railway traction etc. measured at 3 sub-stations in a
row. TheVo l t a g e u n b a l a n c e s h a l l b e me a s u r e d a t s u b - s t a t i o n s
p r o v i d e d wi t h measuring instruments having accuracy class within 1% limit.
( f ) N e u t r a l V o l t a g e D i s p l a c e m e n t ( N V D ) :
(i) Unbalance in loads on three phases cause shifting of neutral fromearth potential. Neutral
displacement is applicable for transformers withStar Point solidly grounded.
Under solidly grounded conditions, the p o t e n t i a l o f n e u t r a l s h o u l d b e
e q u a l t o e a r t h i . e . z e r o . Bu t i n a c t u a l condi t i ons , t he ear t hi ng of t he
s t ar poi nt i s i mper f ect and s o t he s t ar t o ground offers small resistance. This
results in flow of negative sequencecurrents (because IR + IY + IB is not equal to zero,
where, I
R
is the currentin the R-Phase, I
Y
is the current in the Y-Phase and I
B
is the current in the B-Phase) through neutral to ground. The neutral therefore shifts
from earth potential. This performance standard shall be achieved for star point of allEHT
transformers having 33kV or 11kV on the low voltage side.( i i ) Un b a l a n c e v o l t a g e s a n d
d i s p l a c e me n t o f n e u t r a l r e s u l t i n decreased efficiency, negative torque,
leakage currents, vibrations andover heat i ng. Sever e unbal ance and neut r al
di s pl acement coul d l ead t o malfunctioning of some equipment.
33
( i i i ) The St at e Tr ans mi s s i on Ut i l i t y / Tr ans mi s s i on Li cens ee s hal l ensure that the
neutral point voltage of the transformers with respect to earthwill not have potential greater than 2% of the no load
phase to phase voltageof the transformer.( i v) Thi s s t anda r d s hal l be i mpl ement ed i n t he
Pr el i mi nar y St age (Level 1) itself.
(g) Voltage Variation Index (VVI):
Voltage Variation Index representing the degree of voltagevariation from nominal value
(in %) over a specified period of time shall becomput ed s epar at el y by t he St at e
Tr ans mi s s i on Ut i l i t y / Tr ans mi s s i on Licensee for higher than nominal system
voltage and lower than nominal system voltage as per the following formula:
NVVI = Square Root of {

(V
i
V
s
)
2
/ N} X (100 / Vs) %I = 1
Where,Vi = RMS value of measured voltage (in kV) at i
th
hour in the period for which VVI is computedVs = RMS val ue of t he nomi nal s ys t em
vol t age i . e. 400kV, 220kV and 132kV etc. as may be applicable at the interconnection point N =
Number of hourly measurements over the specified period of timeThe data from defective metering or any
abnormal data shall bediscarded from calculations. The VVI shall be computed on monthly basis:
34
Preliminary Stage Level 1 <= 10 To be achieved for more than90% of busesTransition Stage
Level 2 <= 6 To be achieved for more than 90% of busesFinal Stage Level 3 <= 4 To be
achieved for more than 90% of buses
( h ) S y s t e m A d e q u a c y :
System adequacy is the ability of the electric system to receivethe generated power or supply the
aggregate electrical demand and energyrequirements of its consumers at all times, taking into account
scheduled andreasonably expected unscheduled outage of system elements. Adequacy of the power
system is usually measured in terms of Loss of Load Probability(LOLP). LOLP is the probability
of transmission system capacity not beingabl e t o meet s ys t em l oad. LOLP can al s o
be expr es s ed as Los s of Load Expectation (LOLE) in hours per year. This measure does
not consider theamount or duration of the generation capacity shortfall. State
TransmissionUt i l i t y / Tr ans mi s s i on Li cens ee ar e expect ed t o achi eve LOLE
hour s i n percentage as under:
35

I m p l e m e n t a t i o n S t a g e N o s . o f h o u r s i n y e a r
w h e n system demandLoss Of LoadExpectation(LOLE) in% of
hours(C=BX100/8760)can be fully metsubject togenerationavailability(A)cannot fully
meteven withgenerationavailability(B = 8760 - A)
P r e l i m i n a r y S t a g e Level
17 4 4 6 1
3 1 4 1 5
% T r a n s i t i o n S t a g e Level
27 8 8 4
8 7 6 1
0 % F i n a l
S t a g e
L e v e l
3 8 6 7 2 . 4 8 7 . 6
0 1 %
( i ) S y s t e m S e c u r i t y :
Security is the ability of the electric system to withstand suddendisturbance such as electric short
circuit or unanticipated loss of systeme l e me n t , d e t a i l e d i n Cl a u s e 6 o f
Ma n u a l o n T r a n s mi s s i o n P l a n n i n g Criteria issued by CEA. The State
Transmission System shall be designedfor a security level of n-1 i.e. to withstand a single
contingency with littlenegative effect. This means the most severe fault or tripping of a
criticalgenerator, transformer or line should not result in instability of the system,overloading
lines and/or transformers for more than 15 minutes, voltagedrop of more than 10%
when the system import is increased by 20%. StateTransmission Utility /Transmission
Licensee shall maintain the system
36
security level of "n-1" (single contingency) plus spinning reserve margin for Steady State Operation.
I m p l e m e n t a t i o n S t a g e S y s t e m S e c u r i t y L e v e l
o f n - 1 (Single Contingency) plus spinningreserve margin of:
P r e l i m i n a r y S t a g e
L e v e l 1 N o
m a n d a t o r y requirementT r a n s i t i o n
S t a g e L e v e l 2 0 . 5 % o f
s y s t e m p e a k l o a d F i n a l
S t a g e L e v e l 3 1 %
o f s y s t e m p e a k
l o a d
6. REPORTING REQUIREMENT AND COMPLIANCE6.1
State Transmission Utility /Transmission Licensee shall furnish to theCommission an half yearly
report in the format prescribed at ANNEXURE-A, by October 31
st
and April 30
th
of each year on actual performance vis--vis the performance standards laid down in these standards as
modified fromtime to time. The report shall contain all parameters irrespective of whether such
parameters are applicable during the current reporting period. The StateTransmission Utility
/Transmission Licensee shall maintain the base datalike Log Sheet, Complaint Registers
and Interruption Register and relevantload flow studies in respect of system security etc.
at sub-station level for compilation of monthly report at circle level. The consolidated report
shall be based on circle-wise compilation for whole State Transmission Utility
37
/Transmission Licensee. The circle-wise compilation and base data at sub-station level shall be
subject to its scrutiny as considered necessary by theCommission.
6.2
The State Transmission Utility /Transmission Licensee shall display ontheir website the
actual performance against the required standards on amonthly basis.
6.3
For the purpose of this Regulation, the half -year periods would be asfollows:(a) 1
st
Half year: 1
st
April to 30
th
September (b) 2
nd
Half year: 1
st
October to March 31
st
.
6.4
The Commission may, from time to time, modify the contents of theregulation/formats or
add new regulation/formats for additional information.
6.5
I n addi t i on t o t he har d copi es , t he i nf or mat i on s hal l neces s ar i l y be submitted
in such electronic form or through compact disks or e-mail as theCommission may direct.
6.6 Effect
of default in compliance with the Standards(a) Consequent to failure of State Transmission Utility
/TransmissionLi cens ee t o meet per f or mance s t andar ds s peci f i ed her ei n, t he
af f ect edUtility/Consumers shall be entitled to seek relief/compensation from
StateTransmission Utility /Transmission Licensee, as may be determined by theCommission:
38
Provided that the STU/Transmission Licensee shall be given anopportunity of being heard before
such compensation is determined by theCommission:Provided further that the compensation so
determined shall be payable within 90 days of its determination by the Commission:Provided also that
the payment of compensation by the StateTransmission Utility /Transmission Licensee
shall be without prejudice toa n y p e n a l t y , wh i c h ma y b e i mp o s e d o r
p r o s e c u t i o n i n i t i a t e d b y t h e Commission as provided in the Act.( b) The Commi s s i on
at i t s own di s cr et i on ma y r equi r e t he St at e Transmission Utility /Transmission
Licensee to furnish a report on actual per f or mance l evel s mai nt ai ned agai ns t
t he s t andar ds s peci f i ed by t he Commission with its Petitions for Annual Revenue
Requirement (ARR) andTariff Determination, which shall be subject to public hearing
for tariff setting by the Commission.
7. MISCELLANEOUSAnnual Review of Performance Standards7.1
T h e Co mmi s s i o n i n c o n s u l t a t i o n wi t h S t a t e T r a n s mi s s i o n
Ut i l i t y / T r a n s mi s s i o n Li c e n s e e s h a l l r e v i e w t h e p e r f o r ma n c e
s t a n d a r d s f o r Tr ans mi s s i on Sys t em as s peci f i ed above once i n ever y 5
year s or mor e frequently as may be required.
39
Use of the Information7.2
The Commission shall have the right to use the information submitted byState Transmission Utility
/Transmission Licensee as it deems fit including publishing it or placing it on the Commission's
website and/ or directing theState Transmission Utility /Transmission Licensee to display the informationin
the licensees website.
Power to Amend7.3
The Commission may, at any time add, vary, alter, modify or amend any provisions of this
Regulations.
Savings7.4
Nothing in this Regulation shall be deemed to limit or otherwise affectt he i nher ent power
of t he Commi s s i on t o make s uch or der s as may be necessary to meet the ends of
justice or to prevent abuses of the process of the Commission.
7.5
Nothing in this Regulation shall bar the Commission from adopting inconformity with the
provisions of the Act, a procedure, which is at variancewith any of the provisions of this
Regulation, if the Commission, in view of the special circumstances of a matter or class of
matters and for reasons to be recorded in writing, deems it necessary or expedient for dealing with sucha
matter or class of matters.
7.6
Nothing stated in this Regulation shall, expressly or implicitly, bar theCommission from
dealing with any matter or exercising any power under
40
the Act for which no Regulation has been framed, and the Commission maydeal with such matters,
powers and functions in a manner it thinks fit.
Exemption7.7
The Commission may relax adherence to specific performance standardduring Force Majeure
conditions such as war, mutiny, civil commotion, riot,flood, cyclone, storm, lightening, earthquake, grid
failure, and strike/curfew,l ockout , f i r e af f ect i ng t he St at e Tr ans mi s s i on Ut i l i t y s /
Tr ans mi s s i onLicensee's installations and operation activities.
7.8
The Commi s s i on under s peci f i c ci r cums t ances ma y al s o r el ax
any provisions of Regulation in general or in specific cases for the period(s) specified
in its order(s).
41
Chapter 3
P
OWER
I
NDUSTRY
42
INDUSTRY PROFILE
ELECTRICITY is one of the vital requirements in the over alldevel opment of t he
economy and i s t her ef or e, appr opr i at el y cal l ed t he
Wheel of Development
. In fact, the power sector has played a dominantrole in the socio-economic development
of the county. As a convenient ver s at i l e and r el at i vel y cheap f or m of ener gy i t
pl ays a cr uci al r ol e i n agriculture, transport, industry and domestic sector. Hence
power has all along remained in the priority list of Indian planners and plan outlays
havereflected this aspect. The outlays for power sector have been around 19% of the total outlays
for the public sector in various plan periods.There has been a spectacular increase in the installed
generatingcapaci t y of el ect r i ci t y i n t he count r y. St ar t i ng wi t h a capaci t y of
about 1360MW at the time of independence,Despite tremendous increase in the availability of power
sincei ndependence t her e i s acut e power s hor t age gap bet ween demand
andsupply. The per capita consumption of power in the country is very low ascompared to the
position in the developed countries. Power is a key input for economic growth has as direct relationship
with the national productivity asalso the overall economy of the country.There has been diversification
of the sources of generation interms of hydel, thermal and nuclear sources. The share of hydel in
the totalgener at i ng capaci t y had dr as t i cal l y come down and t hat of t her mal
hadshown noticeable increase. Another significant change is the increasingshare of
Central sectors in recent years.
43
The share of the thermal element in the installed generatingcapacity, which is also
predominantly coal-based, shows a steady increase.Thus, the relatively cheaper and a more desirable
change in terms of a higher share of hydel source, which is renewable, have not materialized.
POWER SCENARIO
The power sector is at cross roads today. There is a chronic power s hor t age i n
t he count r y mai nl y at t r i but abl e t o demand of power continuously outstripping the
supply.
HYDEL POWER
In the present global energy context, there are certain aspects,which have acquired a new
significance. The development of hydropower has to be given a major thrust in the current
decade. We still have largeuntapped hydro power potential, but its development has slowed
down onaccount of lack of financial resources, interstate rivalry, inefficiency
of certain state electricity boards, variations in the course of the monsoons etc.a concerted
effort is imperative to overcome the hurdles and enlarge theshare of the hydro power
generation in the country. This will help not onlyi n t appi ng a r enewabl e r es our ce of
ener gy, but wi l l pr ovi de es s ent i al l yneeded peaking support to thermal power
generation with the pattern of demand for electricity. Since the planners initial enthusiasm
about the largehydel projects has waned somewhat, India will do well to take recourse to
44

the Chinese pattern of micro and mini hydel projects wherever the terrain issuitable.Th e
Na t i o n a l Hy d r o e l e c t r i c P o we r Co r p o r a t i o n h a s b e e n assigned a dominant
role in accelerating the development of the large hydel potential in India, particularly in the Himalayan
region.A t op l evel of f i ci al commi t t ee has r ecommended a Rs . 300 Crore
renovation and modernization (R &M) programmed that will seek tocover 93 hydel power
plants in India and result in additional capacity of 527.81 MW.The growth of the power
sector was marked by adequate shareof hydro capacity up to the end of Third five-year Plan (1961-66).
However,t h e r e a f t e r t h e r e h a s b e e n a c o n t i n u e d d e c l i n e a n d t h e
p r o p o r t i o n o f hydr opower has dr opped f r om 45. 86% i n 1966 t o about
28% by Mar ch1992. Many of the problems in the power supply and power system
in thecountry can be attributed inter alia to the declining hydro share in the power system and
consequent growth of thermal development in the sub-optimalmanner.Go v e r n me n t o f
I n d i a h a s r e c e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e d a g r o u p t o identify new hydel projects on which
advance action can be taken. In order to give a boost to the development of hydro power
more and more hydroelectric projects are being planned or being implemented in
the centralsector. In order to achieve this four Corporations have already been set upunder
Central or in joint sectors.
45

They are1.National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC).2.Northeastern
Electric Power Corporation (NEEPCO).3.Tathpa Jhohri Power Corporation (NJPC).
MINI HYDEL PLANTS:
There are a number of states in the Country where mini hydel projects can be set up at
comparatively lower investments to supplement other sources of energy. According to reliable
estimates the total potential of mini-hydel plants all over the country is around 5000MW.
This includes2, 000MW i n hi l l y ar eas a t hi gh heads and l ow di s char ge
poi nt s and300MW at low heads and low Discharge points. Particular drops
andirrigation systems.Many of the States have surveyed potential mini-hydel schemesand identified several sites
for instance, Punjab has identified 130 falls. Witha combined capacity of 100 MW. Andhra
Pradesh has identified projectsthat could yield a total of 50MW while Karnataka has
estimated that some175 mini- hydel projects in the state could yield 200 MW. Jammu&Kashmir have
identified 54 mini-hydel project sites while TamilNadu has carried outfeasibility studies on 72 sites
with a total potential of 150MW.The Wor l d Bank has es t i mat es , t he cos t of
gener at i on f r ommini-hydel turbines to be only 60 paise per kWh at 60 per cent
plant loadfactor.
46


MINI-HYDEL SCHEMES HAVE SEVERAL ADVANTAGES.
1.They do not require larger capital investment and their gestation period isonly 12 to 18
months.2.They are ideal for decentralized energy generating sources.3.These projectors cause
very little environmental disturbances, and also donot have to depend on any of the already depleting
sources of energy.4.A large number of sites for mini -hydel projects are easily accessible,
asthey are located on existing canals and irrigation systems.
THERMAL POWER:
Thermal units have emerged as the largest source of power inIndia. But unfortunately, the
progress of power generation in this sector hasnot been marked by any new breakthrough. At present
stress continues to belaid on thermal power station because of shorter constructi on time.
Using better project management techniques is shortening the construction periodfor these plants. It
has been possible to improve overall efficiency of thermal plant by using gas turbines in conjunction with
conventional steam turbines.T h e u n i o n g o v e r n m e n t h a s , i n o r d e r t o s t e p
u p c e n t r a l gener at i on i n t he count r y, es t abl i s hed s uper t her mal power
St at i on i ndifferent regions. The National Thermal power Corporation (NTPC)
wasestablished in 1975 with the object of planning, promoting and organizingintegrated
development of thermal power in the country.
47


HIGHLIGHTS:
1.Two part system for thermal tariffs and single tariff for hydel projects.2.Exchange
fluctuations to be compensated3. Oper at i ng and Mai nt enance expens es at 2. 5
per cent r es pect i vel y f or thermal and hydel units in the base year.4.Optimal capacity
utilization norm for thermal units: 6000kwh/kw/year: 90 per cent dependable hydrology for
stations exceeding 15ME capacity.5.Tariff to be computed for a period of five years.6.Rate
of return on equity will be 16 per cent.
THE STATE ELECTRICITY BOARDS:
The St at e el ect r i ci t y boar ds ( SEBs ) ar e aut onomous bodi es cr eat ed under
t he El ect r i ci t y ( s uppl y) act , 1948 and have t he s t at ut or y responsibility of
generating and supplying power in the most economicalmanner to the consumers. The
underlying idea behind the central enactmentwas to confer autonomy on the SEBs so as to enable them to
function strictlyon Commercial principles.
48


R O L E O F N A T I O N A L T H E R M A L P O W E R
C O R P O R A T I O N (NTPC)
In just 17 years National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)has grown to be the largest
producer of electric power in the Country. Witho v e r 1 3 , 0 0 0 MW c o m m i s s i o n e d
c a p a c i t y a n d a p p r o v e d c a p a c i t y o f 16,835MW at an estimate of Rs. 23,218
Crore. This installed capacity of thecompany accounts for about 26% of the thermal
capacity and 18% of thetotal capacity of the country. The company has also played the lead
role inthe augmentation of transmission network by setting up of around 17,000circuit kilometers
of high voltage transmission network across the country.Thes e t r ans mi s s i on s ys t ems
now s t and t r ans f er r ed t o t he newl y f or med Power grid Corporation of India. NTPC
has been playing a significant rolein meeting the Countrys power demand.
49


GEO POWER SYSTEM
Geo Power Sys t em i s a nat ur al ai r - condi t i oni ng s ys t em f or residential and
commercial premises, using geothermal energy available beneath the ground surface at a depth
of 5 meters. It is intelligently designedto ventilate the interiors to all corners and to effectively enhance the
internalconditions by removal of formaldehyde which is harmful to ones health. Thi s
s ys t em pr ovi des nat ur al envi r onment - l i ke condi t i ons t o ones el f , increases house
life and protects the environment.
Geo Thermal Energy
Geo Thermal energy can be explained in simple terms as thethermal energy available at
a depth of 5 meters below the ground where thet emper at ur e r emai ns s t abl e al l r ound
t he year bet ween 15 - 18 degr ees Centigrade i.e. 59-65 degrees Fahrenheit. This
thermal energy does notchange wi t h r es pect t o t he out s i de t emper at ur e
cons i der abl y. The onl ychange visible is very small which also has a time lag with respect to
outsidet emper at ur e. The t emper at ur es beneat h t he gr ound ar e r at her cool
( 15degrees C) when in summer and warm enough (18 degrees C) during winter.This provides the feed for the
natural air conditioning system.
Geo Power System Operation
GEO Power Sys t em i s a t hr ee i n one s ys t em combi ni ng t he effectiveness of

t h r e e f a c t o r s n a m e l y , G e o t h e r m a l E n e r g y + A i r Circulation +
Ventilation. This system is one of a kind system which ensureshigh quality of life with high performance at a
relatively low cost
50

During Summer
Cool Air Inside/Hot Air Outside
Ventilation
Ground Air is pumped into the house after being cooled bythe GEO PIPE. The hot air is
being ventilated out of the house through

theattic ventilation
Circulation
Ground Air is pumped into the house after being cooled bythe GEO PIPE
During Winter
Maximum Use of Warm and Generated Heat Keep awayfrom Cold Air
.Ventilation
Ground air is pumped into the house after being heated up bythe GEO Pipe. Current Air
Mass is discharged from the attic ventilation.
Circulation
By Us i ng t he Geo Ther mal Heat , t he heat gener at ed i n t he house and the
available hot mass, the house is kept away from the cold. Thespecial system namely Solar
Bless introduces the heat from the sun to thecobble stone layer for recycling it to the interiors.
51
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