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Knowing God Ayatullah Ibrahim Amini

Translator: Sayyid Athar Husain S. H. Rizvi


Publisher: Ansariyan Publiations
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Abstract
3an is innately urious about 4auses5 and it is this same 6uality that has im7elled him to see8
the origin or the 7rimary ause o+ e0istene. As +ar as God is onerned9 everyone see8s Him
in a di++erent way. However9 to 7rove His e0istene9 the Glorious ,uran has taught us to use
sim7le but strong reasonings. Among suh reasonings9 the ,uran has 7ut more stress on the
4reasoning o+ order5. The 7roo+9 whih is attainable through study and ontem7lation in the
serets and wonders o+ reation and the tremendous harmony9 onord and onsisteny
embedded in it.
This wor89 through the 4reasoning o+ order5 deals with theology :8nowing god; and oneness9
the attributes o+ God9 the di++erent ty7es o+ oneness and also <ustie.
This boo8 is 7art o+ ideologial olletion o+ =>ouths and Truths? with to7is suh as:
Knowing God9 Resurretion9 Pro7hethood and the Pro7het o+ Islam9 Introdution to Islam9
Rights and duties o+ @omen9 Imamate and the Imams9 >outh and S7ouse Seletion. All these
volumes are written by Ayatullah Ibrahim Amini9 who has sueeded to author this olletion
based on years o+ delving into religious te0ts and soures9 onstant ontat with the young
generation and 7ondering over ideologial and eduational issues.
Preface
The youth o+ today loo8s at the world and then at himsel+ through natural uriosity and
in6uisitiveness and gradually 6uestions li8e: 4!rom have I omeA59 4@here am I at 7resentA5
and 4@here am I headedA5 ro7 u7 in his mindB 6ueries that in +at bear the sign o+ ontinuous
enthusiasm and 7er7etual lamor o+ his inner onsiene.
"very 8ind o+ re7ly to these 6ueries sha7es the belie+s +or him and also beomes the basis o+
all individual and soial roles. I+ his re+letive 6ueries are re7lied with materialisti logi9 his
behavior will ta8e di++erent material sha7es or he would develo7 invalid belie+s9 but i+ it is on
the basis o+ divine logi9 all beings +or him C +rom all 7eo7le and the world C will be having
an aim and meaning and the logi will be strethed to 7er+etion o+ man.
That is why one should be wath+ul so that the natural and inevitable 6ueries o+ youth about
e0istene and its aims and a+ter that his duties in this world are answered 7ro7erly so that he is
not deviated and that his natural and mental needs are +ul+illed in the right manner.
,uran and traditions have through logial and sensible re7lies have made the views o+ man
inlined to ta8e the sha7e o+ logial belie+s9 3uslim intelletuals have also with the hel7 o+
these teahings 7ut +orth these +irm and attrative argumentations and in this manner in the
system o+ Islami belie+s9 basi 6uestions o+ man9 have been given +irm and logial re7liesB
but this great sholasti and 7hiloso7hial heritage9 in writings and s7eehes o+ 7eo7le who
re+let9 is sometimes +ull o+ tehnial and om7le0 terms in suh a way that it is very di++iult
to be understood by laymen and es7eially the youth o+ today.
His "minene9 Ayatullah Amini9
%
who has sine many years9 due to his insight o+ religious
te0ts and soures and his ontinuous ontats with the youth and onern about their religious
%
Dstad Ayatullah Ibrahim Amini was born in %($' Solar year in -a<a+abad. Having
+inished his 7rimary studies in -a<a+abad9 he <oined the Religious Eearning Fenter o+
Is+ahan. A+ter om7leting his urriulum o+ religious studies in Is+ahan9 he <oined the
most +amous Religious Eearning Fenter o+ ,om9 where he learned <uris7rudene and its
7rini7les9 under the tutorshi7 o+ most eminent religious sholars o+ that 7eriod: Ei8e
Ayatullah 1uru<ardi9 Ayatullah Khomeini9 Ayatullah Gul7aygani and 3uha66i6 Gamaad.
and training 7roblems has written a number o+ boo8sB inluding the si0&volume >outh and
belie+s9 whih is written in a luid and organized logial mannerB om7rising o+ the +ollowing:
Knowing God9 Resurretion9 Pro7hethood and the Pro7het o+ Islam9 Knowing Islam9 Guties
and Rights o+ @omen9 Imamate and the Holy Imams :a.s.;. @ithout any doubt9 the youth o+
today an easily derive the re7lies to all his 6uestions +rom these boo8s.
Introduction
The li+e o+ man an be divided into +our 7eriods: hildhood9 youth9 middle age and old age.
!rom these9 youth is the most sensitive and valuable 7eriod9 sine the hild does not reah
7hysial and s7iritual stage where heHshe an be entrusted with res7onsibilitiesB and that is
why the res7onsibility o+ his ontrol and u7bringing is entrusted to the 7arents. The old age is
also the age o+ wea8ness9 hel7lessness and need+ulness. He should either de7end on his
savings +rom the 7eriod o+ his youth or in order to assure them he should de7end on his
hildren or assistane +rom haritable organizations.
Although man in his middle age9 has the strength to wor8 and ma8e e++ort and to +ul+ill the
daily needs o+ his li+e and has +oresight about the needs o+ his old age9 but suess in this
matter de7ends on orret use o+ his youth. There+ore the most sensitive and valuable 7eriod
o+ the li+e o+ man is his youth. Physial maturity9 bodily strength and mental a7aities o+ the
youth reah to suh a level that he an with +oresight ma8e e++ort to ae7t his 7resent and
He studied Philoso7hy under the tutorshi7 o+ Allamah Tabatabai. In addition to the
duties o+ teahing <uris7rudene9 its 7rini7les and 7hiloso7hy9 he began to write and
researh +rom %('# and most o+ his boo8s have been 7ublished a number o+ times. Some
o+ them are as +ollows:
Gad&Gustar &e&Iahan :@orld Administer o+ Iustie; about the li+e o+ Imam al&3ahdi
:a.s.;B 1ano&e&-amuna&e&lslam :The Ideal @oman o+ Islam;9 about the li+e o+ !atimeh
az&Jahra :s.a.; the daughter o+ the Holy Pro7het :s.a.w.s.;B Hame 1ayad 1e Ganand
:"verybody should 8now;B A small boo8let ontaining the details o+ Roots and 1ranhes
o+ the Religion +or younger 7eo7leB
Aayeen&e&Hamsar Gari :the Fode o+ 3arital Relationshi7;B Aayeen&e&Tarbiyat dar
Tarbiyate&Kuda8 :The Fode o+ Fhild&training;B 1arrasi 3asail&e&Kulli Imamat :*verall
review o+ a++airs related to Givinely A77ointed Kiegereny;B @ahy Gar Adyaan
Aasmaani :Revelation in Heavenly Religions;B Khud Sazi dar A8hla6ue :3oral Sel+&
building;B Inte8hab&e&Hamsar :Seletion o+ S7ouse;B Islam wa Talim wa Tarbiyat
:"duation and Training in Islam;B
Aashnai ba 3asail&e&Kulli Islam :A6uaintane with over all Islami A++airs;B Groos
min al&Sa6a+ateh al&Islamiyah :A om7lete ourse o+ Roots and 1ranhes o+ Religion o+
Intermediate level;B Islam wa Tammudan&e&Gharb :Islam and @estern Fivilization;:
Translation +rom Arabi into Persian o+ 3oududi5s 1oo8: -ahn wa al&Hazarate al&
GharbiyehB Imamaan Ra 1ehtar Shanaseem :Eet us 8now more about the Imams;B
Artiles on various ideologial9 7olitial9 soial9 ethial and eduational to7is +or
7resentation at seminars and on+erenes. 3ost o+ the above boo8s have been translated
into one or more +oreign languages.
+uture res7onsibilities and 7re7are himsel+ +or the +uture li+e and his role o+ a res7onsible
member o+ soiety. The s7eial 6ualities o+ the youth an be said to be as +ollows:
Physial +itness9 bodily strength9 onstitution9 movement9 intelligene and strong memory9
rela0ation and rest9 great ourage9 high ho7es9 a7ability o+ reation and initiative9
truth+ulness and well&wishing9 inner 7urity and leanness. Although all youth are not same in
having these values9 on the ontrary there is di++erene among them9 but all o+ them have
these blessings mostly during their youth. The meri+ul God has blessed youth with all this so
that with great ourage9 +oresight and struggle and e++ort he may obtain suess and +ortune
+or himsel+B but i+ he is shortoming in this im7ortant thing and wastes his valuable li+e in
arelessness and valuelessness9 he would regret it later9 when regret would not be o+ any use.
Amirul 3omineen :a.s.; said:
There are two things whose value is not 8nown to man9 e0e7t a+ter he loses themB youth and
health.
#
The 3essenger o+ Allah :S; said:
*n Iudgment Gay9 man would not ta8e any ste7 till he is not as8ed: How did you s7end your
li+e and how did you use u7 your youthA
(
The 3essenger o+ Allah :S; said to Abu Gharr:
Kalue +ive things be+ore +ive others: youth be+ore old age9 health be+ore si8ness9 wealth
be+ore 7overty9 rela0ation be+ore being ou7ied and li+e be+ore death.
'
>ouths should 8now the value o+ youth and they should gain as muh as they an +rom it. And
i+ not they would +all into serious and irredeemable dangersB at that time regret would be o+ no
use. >ouths in this 7artiular time have three main res7onsibilities9 whih we shall mention in
brie+ below:
!irst duty: Per+et are about 7hysial +itness and health o+ the body and 7hysial and s7iritual
+aulties. Health is among the greatest divine bounties and valuable treasure trove o+ li+e. Eoss
o+ health is the greatest lossB it destroys om+ort and 7leasure o+ man and it 7revents him +rom
struggle and vigor in ahieving great aims.
Imam Ia5+ar Sadi6 :a.s.; said:
There are +ive things +rom whih i+ one loses even one9 his whole li+e would beome
de+etive9 he would lose his sense and would always be an0iousB the +irst o+ them is 7hysial
health.
L
The 3essenger o+ Allah :S; said:
#
Ghurarul Hi8am9 Pg. '%'.
(
Tari8h >a6ubi9 Kol. #9 Pg. )$.
'
1iharul Anwar9 Kol. /%9 Pg. %2(.
L
1iharul Anwar9 Kol. /%9 Pg. %2%.
There are two bounties9 whose value is not 8nown to man: seurity and wel+are9
.
Amirul 3omineen :a.s.; said:
Poverty is a alamity and the worst 7overty is 7hysial illness9 and the worst 7hysial illness
is the disease o+ onsiene.
2
The youth are s7eially advised: That they should try to observe hygiene and in nutrition they
should be more onerned with +ul+illment o+ the needs o+ the bodyB they must re+rain +rom
eating to satiation. They must also 8ee7 away +rom naroti substanes. They should slee7
only as muh as is needed. They must never give u7 e0erises and wal8ing. They must also
avoid lust and sensual deviations as it leads to damage o+ your body9 nerves and your soul.
Seond duty: Getermination and 7lanning +or the +uture. "very man should ado7t an
ou7ation so that through it he may be able to +ul+ill the needs o+ his li+e and that he may live
a res7etable and suess+ul li+e and that he may also serve others. He should 7re7are the
auses and 7re+aes o+ his +uture ou7ation in his youth. The youth an selet one o+ these
two 7aths to enter the soiety: "ither they an hoose an inde7endent ou7ation9 whih are o+
numerous 8inds.
Although some o+ them are more or less need 7ratie and s8ills9 but they do not re6uire
university eduation9 whih re6uires s7ending the best days o+ the li+e or inurring high
e07enses. The seond o7tion is to get admission in the university and study +or degrees in the
hosen +ield.
A+ter that one should hoose a 7ro+ession9 whether it be management9 s8ill based or sienti+iB
although in ase he has hosen an a77ro7riate line o+ wor8. How nie it would be i+ in the
beginning o+ their lives all youths hoose one o+ the above 7aths a+ter 8ee7ing in view their
7hysial a7abilities9 intelligene and memory9 +amily 7ossibilities and their own +uture a+ter
onsidering the o7tions and through ounseling and +oresight.
Third duty: Researh and study in religious belie+s. The youth who during his hildhood has
lived in a religious atmos7here at home would naturally be well versed in religious belie+s and
habitual in 7er+orming religious rituals. *r i+ he has learnt those things in the religious shool
+or hildren9 a+ter maturity he will reall his 7ast training9 whih would ma8e him inlined to
religion. -ow in his youth9 he will either loo8 at them with a +resh 7ers7etive or avoid them
om7letely.
At that time he would be +aed with 6uestions li8e the +ollowing: @here have I ome +rom
and who has reated meA @hat was the aim o+ my reationA Go I have some duties towards
my reator9 or I am +ree to do what I li8eA And i+ some duties are im7osed on me9 what are
thoseA !rom whom should I learn about my dutiesA
@hat are its onditions and 6ualitiesA @here am I headed and what would my destiny be a+ter
deathA @ould I be answerable +or the way I lived in the worldA I+ there e0ist suess and
mis+ortune and reward and 7unishment in the world a+ter death9 what is the 7ath to gain
suess and avoid mis+ortuneA Suh 6uestions and tens li8e it ome u7on the lear and
illuminated mind o+ the youth and em7hatially demand re7lies.
.
1iharul Anwar9 Kol. /%9 Pg. %2$.
2
1iharul Anwar9 Kol. /%9 Pg. %2L.
Providing orret and satis+atory re7lies o+ these 6uestions to the youth is very im7ortant and
instrumental in sha7ing his +uture9 beause it is through these very re7lies that the 7rogram o+
li+e o+ the youth and a+ter it an be organized and be +ollowed with ertainty and he an tread
the 7ath o+ suess in li+e and herea+ter and also ontinue to have 7eae o+ mind. 1ut i+ he
+ails to obtain the orret re7lies to these 6uestions9 he would +all into very grave and
irredeemable dangers and he would regret in the last moments o+ his li+e or a+ter deathB when
regret would be o+ no use at all.
There+ore9 it is most im7ortant +or the youth to researh and study about religious belie+s and
to get orret and satis+atory re7liesB es7eially in this age when religious belie+s and even
their laws are ridiuled at by the enemies o+ Islam through modern ommuniation tehni6ues
and 7ro+usion o+ doubts and ob<etions +rom every side.
>outh need serious guidane and reliable soures +or this researh and study and the most
im7ortant o+ them are boo8s. Sine a long time9 +ortunate 3uslim intelletuals have written
numerous good and detailed boo8s on di++erent to7is o+ Knowing God9 general and s7eial
7ro7hethood9 resurretion9 laws o+ 7hiloso7hy9 laws o+ Imamate9 but most o+ them are di++iult
+or youth9 sine most o+ them are in Arabi and others are laes with 7hiloso7hial and
sholasti terms9 and are so lengthy that the youth annot muster enough time to 7eruse them.
Some o+ them ontain suh dubious matters that they tend to ma8e them +all into more
doubts. To solve this 7roblem9 I have written a series o+ boo8s o+ medium level on religious
belie+s in aordane with the understanding o+ youth and time available to them. 1oo8s on
various to7is are 7re7ared in this series: The volumes are Knowing God9 Resurretion in
,uran9 Pro7hethood and the Pro7het o+ Islam :general and s7eial 7ro7hethood;9
Dnderstanding Islam9 Dnderstanding the duties and rights o+ women and Imamate and the
Imams.
In om7iling the above titles9 the +ollowing 7oints were 8e7t in view:
Sim7le language9 brevity and lear reasoning C we have re+rained +rom using di++iult
7hiloso7hial and sholasti arguments. @e have also re+rained +rom disussing wea8 and
baseless 7oints. Goubt+ul and debatable matters are avoided. @e have de7ended mostly on
verses o+ ,uran and traditions and tried not to mention unim7ortant matters.
@e ho7e these boo8s would be really bene+iial and e++etive in strengthening religious
belie+s o+ our dear youth.
Ibrahim Amini
%$H2H%(/'
Materialistic and Religious World View; Effects and Consequences
@ho am IA @here have I ome +romA Have I ome on my own and would I go away
automatiallyA *r it is someone else who has brought me and he would also ta8e me awayA
@hat is my +uture and where am I headedA...@ould death be the end o+ my li+eA *r there is
li+e a+ter death as wellA...Has this great universe ome into being automatially and by
aident or it is having a reatorA And so on.
Suh ty7es o+ 6uestions arise +or every sensible man9 es7eially during the 7eriod o+ youth
and he tries to obtain their orret re7lies and satis+y his uriosity.
1elievers and disbelievers have re7lies to the above 6uestion that we 7resent here:
World in the view of elievers
The believer onsiders the world to be a ontinuous9 arranged and om7atible olletion9
whih has not ome into being on its ownB on the ontrary it is reated by the wise and
7ower+ul reator and it is Him that manages it.
The world with a series o+ 7reise laws and stable system has its soure in the wisdom and
intention o+ the Almighty Allah9 who ontrols and guards it. And i+ the +avors and blessings o+
the Almighty Allah had not been there it would not have survived +or even a single moment. A
believer has +aith that the world is an organized and aimed system whih has ome into
e0istene through the wise ommand o+ the Almighty Allah and everything is good in itsel+
and this 7reise and harmonious system is moving to a higher aim.
In view o+ a believer man9 e0isting things o+ the world are need+ul o+ a reator +or their
reation and survival. I+ the grae o+ the Almighty Allah had not been there9 they would not
have ome into e0istene and i+ His +avor had not been there they would not have endured.
Gue to this9 the believer onsiders every e0isting thing to be a sign o+ the grae and mery o+
the Eord o+ the worlds.
End of ife
A believer does not regard death as annihilation and end o+ li+eB on the ontrary he onsiders
death to be a trans+er to the everlasting abode o+ the herea+ter and the beginning o+ a new
everlasting li+e. The man o+ +aith believes that li+e in this world is not without aimB on the
ontrary it is the 7eriod o+ oming and nurturing o+ the soul and a time +or obtaining
7rovisions +or the herea+ter.
The believer is o+ the view that the righteous and the wi8ed are not same and both would
de+initely see the +ruits o+ their deeds: the Almighty Allah would reward the good deeds o+
righteous and they would ou7y the everlasting abode with 7erennial ha77iness in the
herea+ter. *n the other hand9 the wi8ed would also reeive the 7unishment o+ their vile deeds
and have a very di++iult li+e in that world.
The believer onsiders suess o+ his +uture as the +ruits o+ his deeds9 harater9 words and
good morals and is always trying to 7re7are the means o+ his suess in the herea+ter and
ma8es e++orts to 8ee7 away +rom evil and wi8edness.
Creator of the !niverse
The believer man has +aith in the being o+ the Almighty Allah and onsiders Him as the
reator9 owner and ontroller o+ all the worlds and reatures. In belie+ o+ the +aith+ul9 the
greatest being9 who is 8nown as 4Allah5 has reated this world and it is Him that administers it
and that He is wise9 7ower+ul9 meri+ul and eternal. Aording to the man o+ belie+9 Allah is
the soure o+ all goodness and 7er+etions.
And that He is absolutely Sel+&su++iient while the universe and His reatures are always in
need o+ Him. It is Him that 7rotets the universe and reatures and maintains them. It is Him
that sa+eguards the earth and the s8ies and even i+ He uts o++ His mery +rom them +or a
moment9 all o+ them would be annihilated. He is with everything and everyone and is 7resent
everywhere and nothing and no one is e6ual or li8e Him.
Pro"hets
In the view o+ the believer9 7ro7hets are human beings who are absolutely 7ure and 7er+et in
every as7et and who are hosen to guide man8ind to the 7ath o+ 7er+etion. It is so beause
the @ise Eord has not abandoned human beings in a ondition o+ 7er7le0ity and ignorane.
*n the ontrary9 He sent His in+allible 7ro7hets to them and entrusted them with the 7rogram
+or individual9 soial9 7olitial9 material9 s7iritual and worldly9 other&worldly li+e so that they
may guide the human beings and onvey to them the li+e&giving and 7raiseworthy 7rogram.
@here have I ome +rom9 where am I at 7resent9 and where am I goingA
The all&8nowing and all&7ower+ul Eord by His grae and 8indness has reated me in the most
beauti+ul reation :@here have I ome +romA;.
I am in a 7assing and a hanging world9 whih the wise Eord has reated and manages it too. I
live in this world so that with the guidane o+ divine 7ro7hets and their suessors I may
nurture mysel+ and my human morals and 7er+etions and that I should be 7re7ared +or the
suess o+ an everlasting li+e and unlimited bounties o+ the herea+ter :@here am I at 7resentA;.
I am heading on the 7ath to the world o+ 7ermanene and 7er7etuity in the herea+ter and there
I would be reom7ensed +or my deeds. Geath is not the end o+ li+e9 on the ontrary it is
trans+er +rom the li+e o+ the world and the beginning o+ another new li+e :@here am I goingA;.
World in the view of non#believers
@ho am IA @hat duties are im7osed on meA @hat is my origin and who has brought me into
e0isteneA @here am I at 7resent and what was the aim o+ my arrivalA @here am I going and
what would ha77en at the end o+ my li+eA
As we stated earlier9 suh 6uestions on+ront every 7erson and every sensible 7erson through
mental e++ort and his uriosity wants to obtain the orret re7lies and to satis+y his onsiene.
Indeed9 these 6uestions also on+ront the non&believers. 1ut they do not ontem7late u7on
them in the 7ro7er wayB they do not em7loy their reason and thin8ing in the right way
regarding these basi matters.
Attahment to worldly matters and sel+ish desires ast a veil on their insight and reasonB too
muh o+ 7leasure see8ing 8ee7s them ou7ied and ma8es them oblivious o+ the truth. They
avoid ontem7lating on this im7ortant matter and even when they have the o77ortunity and
hear the all o+ their onsiene9 they hange their mind and even deeive themselves and
assure themselves through on<etures. The disbeliever does not have any re7ly with
ertaintyB on the ontrary he only de7ends on his 7ersonal views as +ollows:
Who am I$
I am an animal who named as 4man5 and I am li8e other beasts. I eat and drin8 and roam about
here and there to +ul+ill my innate desires and needs. I am +ree +rom every restrition to satis+y
my desiresB and as o77osed to higher beings9 I don5t have any res7onsibility and duty.
Where have I come from$
In re7ly to this 6uestion9 the disbeliever says on the basis o+ his de+etive notion9 that: I am a
material being. -o one has reated me. I have not been reated by a onsious reator. I have
ome into being through oinidene. It is not that a wise and a 7ower+ul reator has reated
me and my reation is aimless and without any 7ur7ose.
Where am I$
In a world9 whih is 7urely material9 aimless and unaware and be+ore e0isting things9 animals
and human beings who themselves are reated unaware and sine I am mysel+ aimless and
on+used9 no awareness and aim is needed either in my reation or in the reation o+ the
world.
Where am I going$
To illness9 old age9 7ain9 wea8ness and +inally to annihilation and nothingness.
Ei+e in the view o+ the disbeliever is as +ollows:
It began with nothing9 it grows with unawareness and goes higher and higher till it leaves
behind hildhood9 during the youth his struture is at its 7ea8 and the youth lives in the
highest +ort o+ li+e. However9 it is a 7ity that this +orm and strength is soon a thing o+ 7ast and
a+ter a short time9 man +alls into deadene9 7ain and then +alls to the lowest level. Giseases
and di++iulties surround him9 the 7ower o+ youth gradually goes on dereasing and 7hysial
+aulties reah their end. "yes9 ears and limbs beome wea8 and day by day beome useless.
The 7eriod o+ the +ul+illment o+ base desires omes to an end and the 7eriod o+ wea8ness and
old age begins. Fhildren and +riends beome un8ind and disloyal and leave him alone in his
7roblemsMand +inally he moves towards nothingness and is buried under dustM
The end o+ li+e in the view o+ the disbeliever is useless9 terrible and 7ain+ul li8e this. And what
a dar8 end it isN The disbeliever believes that his end is deadene into a horrible nothingness.
That is why during his li+etime9 he avoids the thought o+ death and when he is on+ronted by
6uestions9 es7eially regarding li+e herea+ter and death9 he <ust gives +alse assurane to
himsel+.
He tries to 7ai+y his mind and onsiene through vain 7astimes and sensualityB even though
they may om+ort his nerves only +or a short while. However an this sto7 the in6uisitive
onsiene o+ man and his urious intellet +rom as8ing those 6uestionsA
Imagination o+ uselessness and annihilation and nothingness +or the disbeliever is very bitter
and 7ain+ul. These thoughts are li8e 7oisonous sna8es in his inner being9 who ontinue to
sting him and serete 7oison and he ontinues to live in that 7ain and hastisement. How nie
it had been i+ he had used the +aulty o+ reason and had obtained the right and satis+atory
re7lies.
%ruits &f 'elief In (his ife
!aith in the great reator o+ the world9 who is good9 8indB and +aith in resurretion and
everlasting li+e in the world o+ herea+ter9 a+ter death and +aith in 7ro7hethood and truth o+
divine 7ro7hets im7arts +reshness9 beauty9 7urity9 illumination and a s7eial sort o+
ontentment. @e would mention some o+ the +ruits o+ +aith in the +ollowing 7aragra7hs:
)* +o"e
A believer9 on the basis o+ +aith and the true 7romises that the Almighty Allah has made to
him9 his heart is always brimming with ho7e and antii7ation and is always ho7e+ul o+ His
mery9 bene+iene and 8indness. A believer onsiders Almighty Allah as the most 7ower+ul9
the most wise and the most 8ind and there+ore during di++iulties and hardshi7s he see8s
re+uge +rom Him and as8s Him to +ul+ill his needs and is always in e07etation o+ the unseen
hel7 o+ the Eord.
A believer ma8es e++orts to solve his 7roblems but at the same time he is ertain that the
Almighty Allah is the hel7er o+ believers. A believer does not onsider himsel+ to be alone and
hel7less in the worldB on the ontrary9 he is always +ull o+ ho7e and is ertain about reeiving
divine hel7. Ges7air and ho7elessness9 whih are the worst ty7es o+ irumstanes in the
world9 have no 7lae in the heart o+ the believer.
@hy should he be ho7eless when he has +aith in a wise and a 7ower+ul Eord9 who is the
owner o+ the e0isting worldA @hy should he des7air when he believes in a God9 to whom he
is onnetedB who is the soure o+ all 7owers9 7er+etions and e0elleneA He onsiders suh a
God as the su77orter o+ men who try to tread the 7ath o+ truth9 well&being and <ustie and He
has +aith in their +inal suess and is always in e07etation o+ it. Sine the believer has +aith in
the grae and unending mery o+ Allah9 he does not allow himsel+ to +all into des7air and
ho7elessness. And the beauti+ul e++ulgene o+ ho7e is always alive in him.
1ut what is the ondition o+ the disbelieverA He has no +aith in God9 whose re+uge he might
see8 in hardshi7s and di++iultiesB a+ter that he annot resort to the a77arent auses and +ators
and +ae o+ di++iulties and hardshi7s o+ his li+e and he sees himsel+ hel7less and without any
re+uge. He beomes worried and +alls into the valley o+ ho7elessness and des7air. He
onsiders all to be strangers and onsiders himsel+ to be des7iable9 hel7less and de+eated and
des7air and ho7elessness ta8e hold o+ his soul li8e the inurable disease o+ le7rosy.
,* &"timism About (he End &f ife
Sine the believer has +aith in resurretion and the world o+ the herea+ter9 he does not +ear
death and is o7timisti about the +inal end o+ his li+e. A believer has +aith that he would not be
annihilated with deathB on the ontrary9 he would be trans+erred +rom this world to the
beauti+ul and everlasting world o+ the herea+ter.
A believer onsiders this world as the harvest +ield o+ the herea+ter and ta8es this world to be a
7lae o+ e++orts and struggle and abode o+ develo7ing human 7er+etions9 so that he may
beome eligible +or suess in herea+ter. !or a believer9 this world is a 7lae +or 7er+orming
good deeds under the shade o+ belie+ in God9 and a medium o+ s7iritual maturity and
7er+etion. He onsiders himsel+ to be res7onsible and is ontent that even his smallest deed
would not remain without reom7ense. And that he would reeive om7lete rewards +or all his
deeds in the herea+ter. -or is a believer a+raid o+ death9 on the ontrary he onsiders death in
the 7ath o+ Allah9 Iihad +or Allah9 and martyrdom as the greatest blessing and he ae7ts it
willingly and eagerly9 so that he may be able to live +orever in the neighborhood o+ divine
mery and near the righteous servants o+ the Almighty Allah.
A believer does not onsider this li+e to be aimless and he does not +eel any aimlessnessB on
the ontrary9 he onsiders it to be a 7eriod o+ his 7er+etion and sel+&building and to gain
eligibility +or suess in herea+ter. There+ore it is this o7timism9 whih im7els him to ma8e
e++orts to 7er+et his sel+ to obtain rewards o+ his good deeds and 7er+ets his sel+ in serving
others.
A believer does not onsider righteousness9 truth+ulness9 trustworthiness9 doing good to
others9 <ustie9 sari+ie9 loyalty and other good 6ualities to be useless. *n the ontrary he is
ertain that none o+ them would be wasted or remain without reom7enseB and that he would
see their results in the herea+ter.
1ut what is the ondition o+ the disbelieverA Is he o7timisti about the end o+ his li+eA Sine
the disbeliever has no +aith in resurretion9 he e07ets that his li+e will end in annihilation and
nothingness. He onsiders li+e to be useless and aimless. In the view o+ disbelievers9 his li+e
began +rom nothingB he grows and goes higher and higher9 leaving hildhood behind. And
during youth9 his 7hysial struture and +aulties are is at their 7ea8 and the youth lives in the
highest 7oint o+ li+e.
However9 it is a 7ity that this +orm and strength is soon gone and a+ter sometime he +alls into
deadene9 7ain and to the lowest level. Giseases9 di++iulties and old age ome to him one
a+ter another and he +alls down +rom the 7ea8 into deline and a+ter bearing 7ains9 hardshi7s
and old age9 +inally staggers to nothingness and +alls into deadene. His useless body is then
buried under the dust. @hat a horrible end it isN @hat a useless li+e it wasN Is there anything
more terrible than nothingness and annihilationA
Guring old age9 the disbeliever sees that the deeds o+ all his li+e are +ruitless and useless and
no matter how muh he tries and laments9 he would have to 7ass away9 die and beome
annihilated. Is it 7ossible +or him to be o7timisti in suh irumstanesA How an suh a
7erson 7er+orm good deedsA !or whatA And +or what 7ur7oseA @hen he has no +aith in
reward and 7unishment o+ the herea+terA In what ho7e would he do a good turnA How an
loyalty9 sari+ie and martyrdom be <usti+ied +or suh 7ersonsA
That is why he is always +ear+ul and worried about death and he annot have good e07etation
+rom it. 1eause in every moment he is an0ious o+ death C whih in his view is annihilation C
and whih is more 7ain+ul than hundreds o+ stri8es with an iron rod.
-* Recognition of .ut/
3an is always on+ronted by di++erent 7roblems :individual9 soial9 moral9 7olitial andM;
that he is om7elled to selet a stane and deide on a 7ro7er reation to them. I+ he has +aith
in religion and orret belie+9 he derives his duty +rom that shoolB he is lear about his duties
and had no doubt and hesitation about them at all. I+ he does not have +aith in any shool o+
thought9 he would be on+used about 7er+orming his duties and he would always be 7ulled
here and there.
The believer: He is having servitude :sinere worshi7; and s7eial submissionB he has ta8en
his 7ath9 aim and stane +rom God and His 7ro7hets and is +ollowing a s7eial 7rogram. And
in every new irumstane9 he derives his duty +rom the religion o+ God :divine 7rogram; and
+ul+ills his duty with o7timism9 satis+ation and interestB and sine he has 7er+et +aith in his
hosen 7ath and aim9 he ma8es sari+ies in order to +ul+ill his duties and with inlination and
eagerness hastens to welome martyrdom.
A believer onsiders himsel+ and the whole world to be owned by the Almighty Allah and has
+aith that sine Allah9 the 3ighty and Sublime has bestowed suess and 7er+etion to man9
He has sent to him the 7rogram o+ suess :religion; through the 7ro7hets and has given him
the hoie to at u7on it. A believer has +aith that his obediene o+ laws o+ religion will
onvey him to de+inite suess. He onsiders himsel+ to be having +reedom o+ hoie and
res7onsibility o+ his +uture and with 7er+et ertainty and without any doubt or 7er7le0ity and
+rom the as7et o+ insight o+ his duties that he has ta8en +rom his religion and shool and on
whih he ats.
However9 what is the ondition o+ the disbelieverA Sine he did not ae7t truth and had no
+aith in any religion9 he is always on+used and in doubtB he does not 8now whih 7ath to
hoose and in whih diretion he should move. He is a 7risoner o+ sel+ish desires and
sensualityB sometimes he is 7ulled in one diretion and sometimes in the other. @hihever
way he hooses and whihever wor8 he begins9 he has no ertainty whether it is in his interest
or harm+ul to him.
He is not able to hoose and +ollow a lear aim whih would guarantee his genuine suess
sine he did not ae7t Allah and the religion o+ Allah. *ther shools deeived him and sine
he did not ae7t the right guidane o+ the 7ro7hets and divine saints9 he was tra77ed by
im7osters9 heaters and liars.
0* 1atisfaction
The believer has the ognition o+ his God and has 7er+et +aith in his 8nowledge9 7ower9
mery and grae. He onsiders the Almighty to be master and owner o+ all e0isting things and
8nows that His 7ower and will is in +ore everywhere. He onsiders Allah to be 7resent
everywhere and that He is aware o+ everything. A believer has +aith that God intends well&
being o+ man and that He is bene+ient and meri+ul and never de7rives them o+ His blessings.
That is why he has 7eae o+ mind and has no worry and an0iety. The remembrane o+ God is
with him and he is always inlined to Him. The believer has entrusted the boat o+ his
e0istene to the Almighty Allah and he has +aith that He would ta8e him through all
whirl7ools9 horri+ying waves and storms and +inally give him deliverane. And he is sure to
reah the ban8s o+ suess in the end.
The believer is ognizant o+ the aim o+ his li+e and is on+ident o+ his destination that i+ he
wal8s on that 7ath he would de+initely reah his aim and everlasting suess. There+ore he has
7eae o+ mind and a dee7 on+idene in it. @hy should he not be on+ident9 when he is having
the Almighty Allah as his su77ortB the God who is the soure o+ all goodnessA @hy should he
have any worry9 when he is sure that he is having the unseen hel7 o+ the Eord and that he is
not hel7less and aloneA
1ut what is the ondition o+ the disbelieverA In his view9 this world and its 7henomena are
li8e a sea raging with storms9 in whih waves o+ hardshi7s o+ alamites atta8 +rom every
diretion. -either he has a shi7 whih might save him and nor is there any aware and aring
savior +or him. The 7henomena o+ the world in his view are unrelated9 aimless and ha7hazard.
The disbeliever +inds himsel+ to be wea8 and hel7less in this stormy sea and he is surrounded
by waves +rom all sides. He is an e0hausted swimmer who does not see any +avorable and
strong saviorB he sha8es due to the surging o+ waves and onsiders every all to be a all o+
the enemy and there is nothing with whih he an assure himsel+.
In suh a way that he sees himsel+ e07osed to death and destrution. How an he rest in 7eae
when the de7ths o+ his heart are +ull o+ grie+9 sorrows9 de+eats9 enmities9 malie9 +ear o+
diseases9 7overty9 indi++erene9 un8indness9 +ear o+ old age and deathMA How an the
disbeliever have 7eaeA @hen he has not managed to 7roure +or himsel+ a 7ower+ul and
+avorable re+uge +or himsel+ in the world on whih he ould have relied and through whih he
ould have om+orted his an0ious heart.
Sine the disbeliever does not have a true and strong belie+9 he also does not have a right and
determined aim in his li+e so that he may ma8e ontinuous e++orts in that 7ath. 1eause he
onsiders himsel+ and worldly 7henomena to be aimless9 how an he hoose a valuable
established aimA How an he om+ort himsel+ when he believes that the +inal end would be
aom7anied with destrution and annihilationA Sine the disbeliever has no +aith in the world
o+ the herea+ter9 he sees his +uture to be dar8B he trembles at the thought o+ death and always
lives in an0iety.
2* Patience and .etermination
3an9 throughout his li+e is surrounded by di++iulties9 hardshi7s9 sorrows9 7ains9 de7rivations9
+ailures9 illnesses9 wea8ness andMis on+ronted by the 6uestion that how their ourrene
a++ets his li+e in retributive manner. Some o+ these 7henomena are 7reventable and some are
not9 some aidents that our are suh that they are redeemable and some are not and in all
these stages and in bearing all these things9 the believer and disbeliever would not be same.
The believer9 who is su77orted by strength o+ +aith and gains +rom guidane o+ 7ro7hets9
would be better than others in 7reventing these aidents and in dereasing their number. In
the same way9 the believer with regard to events that ome to 7ass and are urable through the
hel7 o+ the unlimited divine 7ower and su77ort o+ unseen hel7s9 and with 7atiene and
+orbearane is best to +ind the solution o+ those 7roblems and to ma8e e++orts in this regardB
+rom this as7et he is better than others to over7ower the di++iulties and hardshi7s o+ li+e.
Sine the believer has a lear aim and religious 7ers7etive9 he ma8es e++orts to +ul+ill his
duties in all irumstanes and he an be more determined than others in +ae o+ hardshi7s
and to solve those 7roblems. In this 7ath he is not +ear+ul o+ any 7ower and is +irm li8e a
mountain.
@hat is the stane o+ a believer with regard to events whih are normally unavoidableA
Ha77enings li8e old age9 inurable diseases9 oinidenes9 un+oreseen events9 sudden deaths
o+ relatives are ommonB the religious +aith o+ man ma8es him stead+ast in these alamities.
The believer is so 7atient and +orbearing in these irumstanes that it seems they are 7leasant
ha77enings.
The believer 8nows that worldly inidents are not without any alulation or 7rogram and in
ase man treads the 7ath o+ +ul+illing his duties9 he an bene+it +rom all 7leasant and
un7leasant events in order to 7er+et his sel+ and moral 6ualities to ahieve suess in the
herea+ter.
A believer is suh that in all these inidents he assumes a stane o+ absolute serenity and is
satis+ied and 7atient with divine destiny and believes that this 7atiene and satis+ation9 along
with e++orts and struggle would lead to the develo7ment o+ sel+ and maturity o+ his 7ersonal
e0ellenesB and he does not 7ay attention to any harm9 beause he would be rewarded by the
meri+ul Eord in the herea+ter +or his 7atiene9 ontentment9 e++orts and struggle.
It is due to this +aith and belie+ that a believer welomes hardshi7s and alamities with o7en
arms and does not om7lain in any wayB he is more stable than a mountain and as muh as he
an he tries to solve those 7roblems.
Summarily9 the believer on the basis o+ his +aith in Allah and the world o+ herea+ter9 his +aith
in divine 7ro7hets9 and deriving the 7rogram o+ his li+e +rom the 7ro7hets and their suessors9
is having the +ollowing 6ualities:
%. He is in ontrol o+ his 7assions and sel+ish desires and is 7atientB there+ore he re+rains +rom
ations9 whih may ause de+eat9 disgrae and mis+ortune.
#. @ith on+idene that he is having the unseen hel7 o+ the Eord o+ the worlds9 he is 7atient in
ma8ing e++orts to +ul+ill his obligations and is 7atient in his struggles and e++ortB he on+ronts
the di++iulties o+ li+e with 7erseverane and stead+astness.
(. He on+ronts the hardshi7s and tries to solve them with 7atiene and om7lete
stead+astness.
'. In +ae o+ e0tremely serious di++iulties9 he does not lose his sel+&ontrol and is 7atient and
+orbearing +or the sa8e o+ divine 7leasure and 7ro0imity to God.
'ut What Is (he Condition &f (he .isbeliever$
How an a disbeliever have suh 7atiene and stead+astnessA @hen he has not gained +rom
the +ruits o+ the lo+ty tree o+ +aithB the disbeliever is a a7tive o+ base sel+ish desires and these
desires 7ull him all the time. The disbeliever is degraded be+ore his sel+ish desires and he
annot ontrol them 7ro7erly and is unable to gain immunity +rom deviation. A disbeliever
does not have any 7oint o+ reliane when on+ronted with hardshi7s that he ould be stead+astB
and that is why he loses his 7atiene and stead+astness when surrounded by di++iulties and
hardshi7s and des7airs o+ ahieving the aim. The disbeliever loses his 7atiene and
stead+astness in +ae o+ unavoidable di++iulties9 li8e old age and some diseases and near to
death or at the death o+ his relatives or loss o+ 7ro7erty. He +inds that no avenues is o7en +or
him and he +alls into grie+ and sorrow and is seen om7laining about it +ervently. There+ore
the disbeliever is very muh disgusted and an0ious when suh inidents our but he annot
do anything.
The disbeliever who had no aim in his li+e9 e0e7t the +ul+illment o+ base desires9 worldly
suess and eating9 drin8ing and slee7ingMhow an he remain 7atient and stead+ast in the
hardshi7s and sorrows o+ li+e that be+all everyoneA
3* 1afet/ &f (he 'od/ And 1oul
Sine the believer ste7s +orward +rom the as7et o+ insight and bases his ations on the
+oundation o+ ertainty in Allah and truth+ulness o+ His 7romise he has more 7eae o+ mind
and is less a++lited with diseases o+ the soul. He does not lose ontrol o+ himsel+ and does not
allow himsel+ to beome an0ious and worried and as a result9 he is sa+e +rom some 7hysial
diseases9 whih are also auses o+ s7iritual illnesses. 1y the strength o+ +aith and attention to
values o+ +aith9 the ure o+ believing 7ersons is +aster than others9 beause the soul and body
have om7limentary in+luene on eah other.
3oreover9 sine the believer has aess to the +irm guidane o+ divine 7ro7hets with regard to
the sa+ety o+ body and soul9 he believes in their well&beingB he ma8es use o+ those instrutions
and in this way assures the health o+ his body and soul.
1ut what is the ondition o+ the disbelieverA Sine the disbeliever does not have +aith in the
wise and 7ower+ul God9 and onsiders the e0istene o+ his sel+ and the whole world as
aimless9 he has a +eeling o+ hollowness9 aimlessness and on+usion. That is why he is not
stead+ast and does not have ontentment o+ the soul and the most insigni+iant aident tends
to ast him into des7air and an0iety and also leads to the worst 7hysial ailments. In the same
way9 it is 7ossible that wea8ness o+ soul may lead to sin+ulness so that he may oneal his
inner worry and a77rehension. The disbeliever is more 7rone to diseases o+ the soul9 an0iety
and inner a77rehension as well as 7hysial diseases.
Also9 the disbeliever does not have +aith in guidane o+ 7ro7hets based on the +irm message o+
God with regard to 7hysial and s7iritual health and the most bene+iial manners that
believers usually +ollow. They have no +aith in themB there+ore they give u7 ho7e in +ae o+
7roblems and hardshi7s and most +all into diseases o+ the soul or the body.
4eed &f Choosing A Correct World View
The 7eriod o+ youth and maturity is a very sensitive and ruial 7eriod +or ma8ing the +uture.
As i+ it is a 7eriod o+ the beginning o+ a new li+e. In this stage9 the intelletual a7aity and
thin8ing 7ower develo7s leading to +irm belie+s in the +uture. And the youth should be
sensitive +or the +uture during this 7eriod and they should hal8 out a 7lan +or themselves.
Eosing this valuable o77ortunity would ma8e them su++er an irredeemable harm9 beause the
o77ortunity 7asses and the age whih has gone by does not ever ome ba8.
3an is a sensible being having +oresight and he annot9 li8e 7ure beasts9 +ollow his sel+ish
desires. He is su77osed to ma8e use o+ his reasoning ability and should identi+y his duties in
this world. He must +ollow the 7ath o+ humanity and ahieve his real suess. A man with
intelligene and +oresight does not waste the valuable o77ortunity o+ his li+e9 but onsiders
two things neessary +or himsel+ and tries to ahieve them: thirdly orret belie+9 organized
and aounted 7rogram.
The youth is su77osed to use this o77ortunity9 and to identi+y the real aim o+ li+e and ma8e a
+irm determination +or his +utureB he should tread the 7ath o+ his atual suess and should
wal8 on it with awareness and 7er+et insightB and he should ma8e e++orts to +ul+ill his aim.
1ut it is lear that hoosing a 7ro7er 7rogram and 7reise 7ath o+ suess de7ends on the
belie+ and world view o+ a 7erson. "very 7erson with regard to ognition and belie+ about the
world would identi+y the aim o+ li+e and the 7ath that he should tread and he should determine
the +uture and ma8e a 7rogram +or it. As muh 7er+et and orret are our ognitions about the
basi 7roblems o+ the world o+ e0istene9 we an reognize the aim o+ li+e in a better way and
an ma8e e++orts to at aording to that 7rogram in the best way. *n the other hand9 i+ our
ognition about the basi matters o+ the world o+ e0istene :world view; are wrong and we
harbor invalid belie+s9 we would ma8e a mista8e in seleting the aim and 7ath and also the
7rogram o+ the +uture and would +all into the bottomless abyss o+ destrution.
There+ore9 the +irst need +or a man o+ +oresight is to strengthen the basis o+ belie+s and a right
world view. "very sensible 7erson needs that in the +irst stage o+ li+e in his youth9 he should
wor8 towards strengthening his belie+s and he should through reasoning and evidenes ma8e
the basis o+ his +aith strong. And through this he an save himsel+ +rom on+usion9 7er7le0ity
and deviation.
1asially researh and uriosity in e07osing the serets o+ the world is in the nature o+ a man
with insight. How an he ignore these natural desires and how an he satis+y his intelletA I+
he doesn5t9 what would be his su7eriority over other beastsA
What is World View$
Reognition and imagination that man is +rom the world o+ e0istene is alled as 4world
view5. In other words9 4world view5 is that whih 7rovides 7ro7er re7lies to the +ollowing
+undamental matters:
Has this world ome into e0istene automatially or a higher being has reated it and whih
ontrols itA I+ it has a reator9 what ty7e o+ e0istene does He haveA @hat 6ualities are 7resent
in HimA @hat is the aim in reating man and the worldA Is the li+e o+ man 7ermanent in this
world or it is as suh in another world that is the world o+ the herea+ter where man is
trans+erred a+ter death9 so that he may reom7ensed +or his deeds and behaviorA @hat ty7e o+
a world is herea+ter9 Paradise and HellA @hat ty7e o+ an e0isting being man isA And what
a7aities are 7resent in himA Goes man have duties and res7onsibilities in this worldMA
Fan man9 in order to seure suess o+ his world and herea+ter arrange a 7er+et 7rogramA *r
it is neessary +or him to +ollow divine guides and 7rograms o+ 7ro7hets having ontats with
divine revelationA @hat ty7e o+ 7ersons the 7ro7hets are and what 6ualities do they haveA
AndMA
@hether there is need o+ a 7erson who is aware and 7ower+ul and su77orted by 7ro7het and
Almighty Allah to assure orret a77liation o+ laws and rules o+ religion9 guidane o+ 7eo7le9
guarding the soial system9 maintaining <ustie in soiety and survival o+ the 7ath o+ 7ro7hetsA
Re7ly o+ 7eo7le to these ty7es o+ 6uestion is not similar. *n the ontrary every grou7 will
give their s7eial re7ly aording to its belie+ and world view. Their total re7lies sha7es a
system o+ thin8ing9 whih is named as world view.
What is Ideolog/$
A+ter seletion o+ the world view it is the turn o+ ideology
/
. Terminologially9 ideology
im7lies an organized and aimed 7rogram and a 7er+et guideline o+ li+e and a system o+
thin8ing whih determines the duties o+ man.
There+ore the term9 4world view5 is the +oundation and ideology is its 7rodutB that is seletion
o+ an ideology de7ends on seletion o+ a world view. In +at9 world view is om7lete
reognition with regard to e0isteneB but ideology means reognition and awareness o+ duties9
dos and don5ts and values.
Re7lies to suh 6uestions are alled as ideology in terminology:
@hat is our duty in this worldA @hat res7onsibility do we haveA In what at does the suess
and real 7er+etion o+ man liesA @hat are good deeds and what are bad deedsA And...A
In what ations does the well&being o+ man lieA @hih ats should we 7er+orm and whih
should we leaveA...A
4eed of stud/ and investigation
Suh 6uestions arise +or all urious youths9 intelletual9 wisdom see8ers and see8ers o+ truth
and demand a77ro7riate re7lies. >ouths9 during the 7eriod o+ in6uisitiveness and researh and
during the develo7ment o+ their o7inions and views are in the stage o+ onluding their +aith
and belie+. That is why it is neessary that during this 7eriod9 they should have orret view
about the world and should strengthen their belie+s. They should use their +oresight9 ma8e
investigations and derive satis+atory re7lies to all suh 6uestions.
There+ore9 it is most neessary to obtain a orret and de+inite world view and a lear and a
+irm ideology. Sine you are sensible and have +oresight and the in6uisitive intellet does not
allow you to ignore these +undamental mattersB 7assing over these matters in a ursory
manner would lead man to +all into on+usion and 7er7le0ity and ma8es his li+e a dread+ul
abyss o+ +utility and 7er7le0ity.
Princi"les of World View
/
Ideology onsists o+ two Eatin words: IdeaO logy. Idea is in the meaning o+ view9 belie+ and
imagination. Eogy is in the meaning o+ identity and study. There+ore ideology means the
ognition o+ belie+s and views and study into religious belie+s.
-owadays in addition to its usual meaning it is also used in the sense o+ a system o+ views
that 7eo7le have about every as7et o+ human li+e. %. It almost means same as world view. #.
System o+ thin8ing whih is a guideline +or li+e o+ man and whih s7ei+ies the dos and
don5ts and values and that is why it is onsidered to be an e++et o+ the world view. In this
boo8 we have used the word o+ ideology in this sense.
Eet us one again revise the 6uestions that arise in the disussion o+ world view. @e an
divide suh 6uestions into +our grou7s:
%. ,uestions related to the beginning o+ e0istene and reator o+ universe and His 6ualities9
and this disussion is alled 4Knowing God5.
#. ,uestions related to the +uture o+ man and li+e a+ter death that is alled as 4Knowledge o+
resurretion5.
(. ,uestions related to needs o+ man o+ an organized 7rogram and need +or 7ro7hets and need
o+ leadershi7 and their guidaneB whih is alled as 8nowledge o+ 7ro7hethood or
messengershi7.
'. ,uestions related to the need o+ man +or guides o+ the Almighty Allah9 whose e0istene is
neessary +or organization o+ an e6uitable soiety9 guarding and a77liation o+ heavenly laws
and guiding 7eo7le. This disussion is named as 8nowledge o+ reognizing the Imam.
L. ,uestions related to 7rograms9 duties and religious res7onsibilities9 whih are sent through
7ro7hets.
1earch for 5od
"ven history learly shows and it an be onluded through researh and investigation also
that the man o+ the 7ast and even 7re&histori man was aware o+ a higher being :who is named
as God or any other name; and he humbled be+ore Him and worshi77ed Him and 7er+ormed
various rituals to see8 His 7leasure.
-ow the 6uestion arises9 that how man in the beginning beame attentive to GodA @hat was
the ause that turned his thin8ing to GodA @hih +ator made him inlined to go out in searh
o+ the reator o+ universeA @hat is the aim and ause o+ this viewA 1asially whih +ator was
e++etive in om7elling man to thin8 about God and God&worshi7 and to ontem7late on these
linesA
Re7lies to these 6uestions are 7ossible i+ one 7uts in a little e++ort: Human beings 7ossess an
instint alled as the instint o+ +inding out the ause o+ every 7henomenon. Sine the +irst
day9 man was aware o+ ausation and he searhed +or the ause o+ every 7henomenon and
every need+ul e0isting being. I+ he beame hungry9 he went in searh o+ +ood9 beause he
onsidered eating as a ause o+ removal o+ hunger. I+ he beame thirsty9 he went in searh o+
water9 as he onsidered drin8ing water to be the ause o+ removing thirst. I+ he heard a sound
+rom behind the wall9 he beame ertain that it had a ause and went to +ind it. I+ he +ell ill9 he
8new that it was as a result o+ a ause and he went out in searh o+ its ure. In order to esa7e
old9 he too8 re+uge with heat9 sine he onsidered heat to be the ause o+ removing old.
See8ing the ause and in6uisitiveness is 7laed in the nature o+ all human beings. "very man
is always trying to beome aware o+ auses. There+ore9 with regard to every 7henomenon9 the
6uestion9 =@hy and +or what reason? arises. He always tries to satis+y his sense o+ uriosity
through satis+atory re7lies.
3an is basially a 4see8er o+ ause5 and he annot give u7 this instint or ignore it. All human
beings C es7eially the earliest man C were having this natural instint. 3an lived in this
world and was on+ronted by inidents and astonishing 7henomenaB the hange o+ days and
nights9 summer and winter9 movement o+ moon9 sun and stars9 7euliarities o+ animals and
7lants9 lo+ty mountains9 vast seas9 +lowing water bodiesMhe saw all o+ this with his eyes and
+ell into ontem7lation and as8ed himsel+: @hat is the ause o+ this world and who has
brought it into e0isteneA This universe must de+initely be having a ause and the wise and
7ower+ul reator has reated it and He is ontrolling it.
In this way9 the earliest man beame ognizant o+ Almighty Allah and on+essed to his
e0istene9 and humbled himsel+ be+ore His greatness and in brie+ it an be said that see8ing
God is in the nature o+ man.
Although a grou7 has +allen into doubts and beame involved in worshi7 o+ +alse deities and
gradually sun worshi79 moon worshi79 +ire worshi7 and star worshi7Malso a77eared in
human beings.
However the a77earane o+ +alse deities is itsel+ 7roo+ that man 7aid attention to his innate
nature o+ see8ing ause and onluded that a ause was neessary to ontrol this world. 1ut he
+ell into misunderstandings with regard to other as7ets and onsidered +alse gods to be the
ause and onsidered them as true reators9 and beame involved in their adoration.
In short9 it an be said that man searhes +or the ause o+ all e0isting things and 7henomena
through natural instint 7laed in his nature and in this way9 he reahes u7 to Almighty Allah9
who is the +inal ause o+ all things and *ne to whom all are need+ul. In this way9 His being is
revealed to them and they begin to worshi7 Him.
,uran also onsiders see8ing God to be an innate nature and says:
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And if you should ask them, Who created the heavens and the earth? they would most
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And if you ask them, Who created the heavens and the earth and made the sun and the
moon su(servient, they will certainly say, Allah) Whence are they then turned away?!
"*&:+,'
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And if you ask them Who is it that sends down water from the clouds, then gives life to the
earth with it after its death, they will certainly say, Allah) -ay: All .raise is due to Allah)
/ay, most of them do not understand)! "*&:+$'
Evidences for eqistence of 5od
rnowing 5od according to the +ol/ suran
The Holy ,uran has used many sim7le and very basi tehni6ues to 7rove the e0istene o+
GodB methods9 whih are nie as well as easy to understand +or everyone. This style is not
om7le0 and di++iult li8e the reasonings em7loyed by 7hiloso7hy9 that it may not be
understood by all. This most sim7le method does not re6uire 7re+aes and advaned learning.
"very 7erson an bene+it +rom it in aordane with his or her awareness and 8nowledge. That
sim7le and beauti+ul method is alled as 4evidene o+ order5 that awa8ens the innate natures o+
see8ing God. There+ore study and ontem7lation on the serets and 7euliarities o+ the reated
world is one o+ the best ways o+ 8nowing God.
In a large number o+ verses9 ,uran has mentioned e0am7les o+ the astonishing as7ets o+
universe and wants man to thin8 in the right way and to onlude the e0istene and being o+
the Almighty Allah +rom the order and om7atibility. Aording to ,uran9 eah 7henomenon
o+ the world is a divine sign :Ayah;. Ayah im7lies a sign or a mar8. I+ man sees the
7henomena o+ the world as they are9 he would begin to believe in e0istene o+ their reatorB
although ,uran is not a boo8 o+ natural siene that it may disuss serets o+ the 7henomena
o+ the world in detail and e07ose them to man. 1ut it has mentioned in brie+ their astonishing
as7ets only to 7rove the e0istene o+ the ma8er o+ Dniverse so that it may awa8en the minds
o+ those who have the +aulty o+ thin8ingB and that it may all their attention so that they may
disuss and be urious about the e07osition o+ astonishing serets o+ -ature and in this way
they may begin to have +aith in the reator o+ the world. In addition to this9 they may also
bene+it to seure the needs o+ li+e and inhabit the world.
That is why it an be said that the siene o+ 8nowing man9 8nowing animals9 8nowing 7lants9
8nowing lands9 8nowing s7ae9 7hysis and hemistry are the best ways to 8now God.
In the Holy ,uran9 there are numerous verses whih mention e0am7les o+ the astonishing
as7ets o+ reation whih awa8en the nature o+ man to see8 God9 so that he may begin to have
belie+ in the e0istene o+ a wise and a 7ower+ul reator through his onsiene. So that he may
see the reator o+ the world with the eyes o+ his onsiene and that he may beome attahed
to Him. These verses an be divided into di++erent grou7s and eah o+ them tal8 o+ one
7artiular as7et:
At Verses that em"hasiue contem"lation on the creation of man
The Almighty Allah says in ,uran:
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-o let man consider of what he is created: 0e is created of water .ouring forth, 1oming
from (etween the (ack and the ri(s)! "2+:345'
And He says:
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And one of 0is signs is that 0e created you from dust, then lo6 you are mortals "who'
scatter) And one of 0is signs is that 0e created mates for you from yourselves that you may
find rest in them, and 0e .ut (etween you love and com.assion7 most surely there are signs
in this for a .eo.le who reflect)! "$8%*84*,'
And He says:
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And one of 0is signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your
tongues and colors7 most surely there are signs in this for the learned) And one of 0is signs
is your slee.ing and your seeking of 0is grace (y night and "(y' day7 most surely there are
signs in this for a .eo.le who would hear)! "$8%**4*$'
And He says:
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And Allah has (rought you forth from the wom(s of your mothers 9 you did not know
anything 9 and 0e gave you hearing and sight and hearts that you may give thanks)!
",+:52'
And He says:
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We have created you, why do you not then assent? 0ave you considered the seed? :s it you
that create it or are We the creators?! "3+:3543&'
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There surely came over man a .eriod of time when he was a thing not worth mentioning)
-urely We have created man from a small life4germ uniting "itself': We mean to try him, so
We have made him hearing, seeing)! "5+:,4*'
Points
Im7ortant 7oints are mentioned in the above verses +or man to ontem7late on:
%. Previously man was nothing9 e0e7t a mi0ed s7erm9 whih underwent various stages to
+inally assume the sha7e o+ man. This 7roess is worth ontem7lation and study.
#. Human beings are reated in 7airs so that they might re7rodue and also derive om+ort
+rom eah otherB and God has 7ut love and mery amongst them9 whih is one o+ the divine
signs.
(. He reated human beings in various olors and raes9 who s7ea8 di++erent languages and
this is also a remar8able sign and it is worth ontem7lation.
'. In the beginning man was not aware o+ anything and he leant everything +rom eyes9 ears
and other senses and onsiene. And this too is an astonishing sign worth ontem7lation and
study.
L. Slee79 rest and willingness to obtain livelihood is also a great divine sign.
I+ man loo8s at his beauti+ul struture and 7onders well on the e0traordinary system and its
astonishing as7ets9 he would onlude that it has not ome into being on its own by
oinidene. *n the ontrary it has a wise and a 7ower+ul reator.
't Verses that em"hasiue contem"lation on creation of "lants fruits and
human foods
The Almighty Allah says in the Holy ,uran:
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And 0e it is Who sends down water from the cloud, then We (ring forth with it (uds of all
".lants', then We (ring forth from it green "foliage' from which We .roduce grain .iled u.
"in the ear'7 and of the .alm4tree, of the sheaths of it, come forth clusters "of dates' within
reach, and gardens of gra.es and olives and .omegranates, alike and unlike7 (ehold the
fruit of it when it yields the fruit and the ri.ening of it7 most surely there are signs in this
for a .eo.le who (elieve)! "+:&&'
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And in the earth there are tracts side (y side and gardens of gra.es and corn and .alm
trees having one root and "others' having distinct roots 9 they are watered with one water,
and We make some of them e;cel others in fruit7 most surely there are signs in this for a
.eo.le who understand)! ",$:#'
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Then let man look to his food, that We .our down the water, .ouring "it' down in
a(undance, then We cleave the earth, cleaving "it' asunder, then We cause to grow therein
the grain, and gra.es and clover, and the olive and the .alm, And thick gardens, And fruits
and her(age, a .rovision for you and for your cattle)! "28:*#4$*'
And He says:
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0ave you considered what you sow? :s it you that cause it to grow, or are We the causers
of growth? :f We .leased, We should have certainly made it (roken down into .ieces, then
would you (egin to lament)! "3+:+$4+3'
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Who made the earth for you an e;.anse and made for you therein .aths and sent down
water from the cloud7 then there(y We have (rought forth many s.ecies of various her(s)
<at and .asture your cattle7 most surely there are signs in this for those endowed with
understanding)! "*8:3$43#'
Points
Some very im7ortant 7oints are mentioned in the above verses also so that man may 7onder
over them:
%. 3an is in need o+ di++erent ty7es o+ +oods9 and vegetation and 7lants guarantee this need
and 7rodue +ood +or him.
#. Plants de7end on water +or their own growth9 whih +alls +rom the s8y as rain.
(. Although trees and shrubs grow +rom the same earth and use the same water9 they 7rodue
di++erent 8inds o+ +ruits and grains.
'. Plants9 li8e animals are also reated in 7airs.
L. Freation o+ +ruits9 grains9 vegetables are remar8able and deserve ontem7lation and
attention. In these verses9 ,uran has alled attention to the world o+ 7lants and vegetation to
highlight astonishing as7ets o+ the 7lant 8ingdom so that all may beome aware o+ God
reator and that they may bene+it +rom them and their +ruits.
Ct Verses that em"hasiue contem"lation on the im"ortance of rain and
water
The Almighty Allah says in the Holy ,uran:
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Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night
and the day, and the shi.s that run in the sea with that which .rofits men, and the water
that Allah sends down from the cloud, then gives life with it to the earth after its death and
s.reads in it all "kinds of' animals, and the changing of the winds and the clouds made
su(servient (etween the heaven and the earth, there are signs for a .eo.le who
understand)! "*:,+#'
And He says:
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0ave you considered the water which you drink? :s it you that send it down from the
clouds, or are We the senders? :f We .leased, We would have made it salty7 why do you not
then give thanks?! "3+:+2458'
And He says:

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Allah is 0e Who created the heavens and the earth and sent down water from the clouds,
then (rought forth with it fruits as a sustenance for you, and 0e has made the shi.s
su(servient to you, that they might run their course in the sea (y 0is command, and 0e has
made the rivers su(servient to you)! ",#:$*'
Points
%. These verses desribe the beauti+ul water yle in nature. The water in oeans eva7orates
through heat o+ sun and a77ears in the s8y in +orm o+ loudsB and then through the movement
o+ the winds9 is trans+erred to di++erent 7arts o+ the earth9 where it +alls in +orm o+ rain and
beomes available +or human beings9 animals and 7lants. This is one o+ the divine signs that
He has reated suh a novel system.
#. Although sea water is saline and bitter9 rain water is sweet and 7otable.
(. @ater9 whih is the netar o+ li+e +or 7lants9 animals and human beingsB was reated as a
li6uid9 so that it may +low in the +orm o+ streams to be made available +or all and also used as
mode o+ trans7ortation :shi77ing;.
Freation o+ water and its yle in nature is one o+ the amazing signs o+ His reation and +or
those who have sense9 it is worth ontem7lationB and the order9 oordination and onnetion
between human beings9 animals9 7lants9 heat o+ the sun9 wind and earth show that these are
the best evidenes o+ the e0istene o+ a wise and 7ower+ul reator.
&rderliness And Coordination In (he World
Eoo8 at a boo8B it onsists o+ millions o+ letters and thousands o+ words9 all o+ them in a
7ro7er arrangement. @hat is the relation between these letters and wordsA Are they 7laed
ha7hazardly besides eah other without any systemA *r they are arranged in a systemati
mannerA
A+ter you read the boo89 you onlude that all the letters9 words9 sentenes and di++erent
setions o+ it are 7er+etly onneted to eah other and a77ro7riately 7laed one a+ter another
in order to ahieve a single aim. These letters and words are arranged in a 7artiular way and
eah o+ them has a 7euliarity. >ou will understand well that an aim was +ollowed in
arrangement and om7ilation o+ these letters and words.
>ou will also realize that the om7iler o+ the boo8 7ossessed intellet and understanding and
was 7reviously aware o+ his wor8 and he arranged the letters and words with +oresight and
aim in this 7artiular wayB and that he is an e07ert o+ his +ield. In an organized olletion9 eah
o+ its 7arts is related to others and +ollows a single aim. "very 7art is having a 7artiular
7osition and +untion9 that i+ it is 7laed in another 7lae or does not 7er+orm its +untion9 its
<ob would remain inom7lete and the intended aim would not be realized.
Fan you have the +eeling that it ame into being on its own oinidentally without any aimA
Fan you imagine that an e0isting being without sense and 7ere7tion C +or e0am7le the wind
C has 7ulled the 7en aross the 7a7er and this boo8 was 7rodued through this 7roessA >ou
an never imagine that the boo8 ame into being automatially without an ob<etive and
annot in any way 7resume that it ame into e0istene through a thing la8ing sense and
7ere7tion and it oinidentally too8 the sha7e o+ this boo8. 1eause you 8now that every
7henomenon has an a77ro7riate ause and i+ someone was to ma8e suh a su77osition9 you
would laugh at him and onsider his statement senseless. There+ore the 7resene o+ the boo8
and systemati arrangement o+ its words lead us to onlude the +ollowing:
!irstly9 that the boo8 is having a writer or a om7iler.
Seondly9 that the writer is wise9 intelligent and e07ert in his +ield and that he +ollowed a
7artiular aim in his wor8.
In the same way9 every orderly and aimed mehanism leads you to onlude that it has a wise
and an aware ma8er and as muh om7le0 that mahine9 as muh would be the a7ability o+
its ma8er.
The great boo8 o+ reation is also having letters9 words and sentenesB every e0isting thing
and 7henomenon are words and sentenes o+ this great boo8. *urrenes and 7henomenon o+
the world are not ha7hazard and random9 on the ontrary li8e letters and words o+ the boo8B
they have order and oordination throughout. In this great boo89 you would see that in the
struture o+ human body9 whih is a boo8 o+ reation9 there are hundreds o+ systemati and
orderly mehanisms and in the struture o+ eah o+ them you would see 7reision and
auray. This system is made u7 o+ various organs that wor8 in unison. They oo7erate with
eah other and +ul+ill the needs o+ eah other. "very system o+ the human body is li8e a huge
wor8sho7. And all these wor8sho7s are onneted to eah other. All the 7hysial organs o+
man wor8 in order and oordination9 so that man an ontinue to live.
Human body also is unable to survive all by itsel+. *n the ontrary9 it de7ends on various
other e0isting things li8e water9 air and di++erent ty7es o+ nourishmentsB trees9 7lants and
animalsB and also various natural minerals o+ the earth. He annot live without them and he is
also de7endent on the heat and light o+ the sun9 the orderly movement o+ the earth and the
rotation o+ the days and night and the di++erent seasons.
So muh so9 that you would say that all o+ them sha7e a single real entity in whih 7er+etion9
organization and om7atibility is maintained. Eoo8 at this great boo8 o+ reationB that is this
world9 are+ully and ta8e note o+ its searhing and beauti+ul wordsB you would de+initely see
oordination and system in them. @hat do you seeA >ou would well understand that this great
reation has not ome into being by oinidene and without any ob<etive. Senseless and
im7ere7tive -ature ould not have brought into e0istene suh a 7reise system. It annot
write suh a meaning+ul and aimed boo8.
1y loo8ing at the world and by understanding its onnetion and oordination9 you would
niely be able to disover its atual ause. >ou would onlude the world is a reation o+ a
wise and 7ower+ul being9 who reated it with a 7artiular aim and who is also ontrolling it.
>ou would see this system everywhereB every 7henomenon you study9 you will beome aware
o+ the 8nowledge and 7ower o+ the God9 reator o+ the world. And this way o+ loo8ing and
7ondering is the best way to reognize GodB and it is alled as the evidene o+ order.
-umerous verses o+ ,uran em7hasize ontem7lation on the reation o+ the earth and the
heavens9 sun and stars9 animals and 7lants9 systemati a77earane o+ day and night9 7hysial
develo7ment o+ man9 di++erenes o+ olors9 +aes and languages in order to disover the
reator o+ the world.
Water C/cle
Gistribution o+ water between e0isting things is very remar8able and amazing. The real
soures o+ water are the seas9 oeans and la8es. @ater is distributed throughout the earth +rom
these bounti+ul soures.
@ater o+ oeans9 seas and la8es9 under the e++et o+ the heat o+ sun9 turns to va7or and rises to
the s8y. Ka7ors wander in s8y with the movement o+ winds. @hen tem7erature and 7ressure
reah a 7artiular level9 they a77ear in +orm o+ louds and +loat to various 7arts o+ the earth by
the movement o+ +ast and slow winds9 where they dro7 as rain9 soa8ing u7 the earth and
giving rise to vegetation and greenery. Rain water then see7s into the earth and is stored in it
+or need+ul times. The stored water sometimes eru7ts +rom the la7 o+ mountains in +orm o+
s7rings or human beings ma8e e++orts to dig wells and gain +rom the li+e&giving soures o+
water in the earth.
Gro7s o+ rain9 in s7eial irumstanes9 +all to the ground slowly and beauti+ully in +orm o+
snow. Snow whih is very bene+iial +or vegetation as it turns into water gradually and see7s
into the earth and is stored underground or emerges as s7rings and rivers and beomes
available +or those who need it and in the end return to the seas.
The 6uality o+ the rising o+ va7or and its being trans+erred +rom one 7lae to another by the
hel7 o+ wind itsel+ deserves ontem7lation. I+ wind 7ower had not been there9 how the louds
would have been distributed in the atmos7hereA How they would have traveled here and
thereA I+ the heat o+ the sun had not been there9 would the water o+ the sea have turned into
va7orA I+ the water had only turned into va7or at tem7erature o+ a hundred degrees9 would it
have been su++iient +or e0isting beingsA @ould human li+e have been 7ossible in those
irumstanesA I+ rain had not +allen down in dro7s9 what di++iulties it would have broughtA
!or e0am7le9 i+ rain +ell +rom the s8y in one 7lae in +orm o+ a stream9 what would ha77enA
@ould it have been able to see7 into the earth in a gradual manner and be stored in itA
,uality o+ rain and snow in 7uri+ying the atmos7here is also remar8able and worth 7ondering.
I+ rain and snow had not absorbed the to0ins and dirt o+ the atmos7here9 would you have been
able to breatheA
-ow you must have noted what valuable 6ualities are 7resent in water9 snow and rain. How
the sea and sun9 wind and loud and rain et. at in a 7reise oordinated way to 7rovide
means o+ li+e +or us and other e0isting things.
@hat does this system and oordination 7roveA Is it not the best 7roo+ that intelligene and
determination had a role in the reation o+ this magni+ient worldA Goes this system and
oordination not tell us that a wise and a 7ower+ul being has reated this worldA And that He
reated man and other e0isting things and all that they needA
-ow9 that we have mostly understood well the value9 im7ortane and 6ualities9 we must see
what the Almighty Allah has +i0ed as our duty be+ore these bounties. He has ommanded us to
en<oy the bene+its o+ these bounties and be obedient and than8+ul to Him. That we drin8 it and
give to othersB that we may 7uri+y ourselves and our surroundings through it. @e should ta8e
are that we must not waste it9 that we should be thri+ty in using water so that others may not
have to +ae its shortage. @e must not 7ollute rivers9 streams9 seas and sea shores. @e should
try to save underground water bodies and use this great divine bounty in a nie way9 on whih
human9 animal and 7lant li+e de7ends to 7o7ulate the earth and to guarantee the needs o+ all.
The Almighty Allah says in the Holy ,uran:
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and We have made of water everything living)! "*,:$8'
And He says:
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Allah is 0e Who sends forth the winds so they raise a cloud, then 0e s.reads it forth in
the sky as 0e .leases, and 0e (reaks it u. so that you see the rain coming forth from inside
it7 then when 0e causes it to fall u.on whom 0e .leases of 0is servants, lo6 they are
=oyful)! "$8:#2'
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0e it is Who sends down water from the cloud for you7 it gives drink, and (y it "grow' the
trees u.on which you .asture) 0e causes to grow for you there(y her(age, and the olives,
and the .alm trees, and the gra.es, and of all the fruits7 most surely there is a sign in this
for a .eo.le who reflect)! ",+:,84,,'
5reen eaves
All o+ us re6uire +ood and we annot survive or wor8 without nourishment. Trees and 7lants
7re7are +ood +or us. The green leaves o+ 7lants are small +ood&ma8ing wor8sho7sB they wor8
and 7rodue +ood +or us.
Plants and trees obtain water and minerals +rom soil through roots and trans7ort them to the
leaves through stems.
Farbon dio0ide also9 whih is 7resent in the atmos7here enter the leaves through numerous
tiny 7ores and light and solar energy also heats u7 the leaves.
At that time9 the wor8sho7 o+ green leaves starts wor8ing and 7re7ares +ood with the hel7 o+
the sun.
Plants 7rodue more +ood than what is re6uired +or their own useB they use some o+ it and the
rest is stored +or us.
Shee7 and ows also re6uire +ood and they graze on green grass and +eed on grains and
7rodue +or us mil89 heese and meat. !owls also +eed on grain and 7rodue eggs and hi8en
+or us.
All animals and beasts are in need o+ 7lants and the +ood o+ all o+ them is 7re7ared through
green 7lants. -o human being or animal an 7rodue their +ood without the hel7 o+ 7lants. All
are in need o+ 7lants.
Human beings are in need o+ 7lants and animals9 and animals re6uire 7lants and 7lants re6uire
water9 soil9 arbon dio0ide and sunlight to 7re7are the +ood.
-ow let us see who has reated the sun9 so that it may shine on the earth and distribute light
and energy +or the 7lants to 7rodue +ood +or us. @ho has reated these systemati and
oordinated trees and 7lants and given to the green leaves the 7ower o+ 7roduing +oodA
That wise and 7ower+ul being is God9 who is all 8nowing and all 7ower+ul.
That wise and 7ower+ul reator loves us so muh that through +oresight He has reated
everything that we might ever need. @e also love HimB we than8 Him +or His bounties9 ae7t
His guidane and +ollow them C who an guide our li+e better than Almighty GodA
.igestive 1/stem
@e re6uire +ood +or health9 survival9 movement and wor8. 3aterials re6uired by our body are
7resent in the +oods that we eat. 1ut most o+ them are not absorbed into our body in their
original +ormB on the ontrary they have to be digested. Gigestion is the 7roess o+ brea8ing
u7 the +ood that we eat into a +orm that an be absorbed into our body to 7rodue
nourishment.
And this im7ortant +untion is 7er+ormed through the digestive system. Gigestive system
onsists o+ a tube whih begins +rom the mouth and ends at the last outlet :anus;. Passing
through this small wor8sho79 +ood undergoes hundreds o+ thousands 7roesses and +ine and
amazing reations and beomes digested and absorbable. So many elaborate 7roesses ta8e
7lae9 whih an hardly be desribed over here. Some o+ them are mentioned by way o+
e0am7les.
@e shall divide the digestive trat into 7arts and e07lain the +untion o+ eah 7art in brie+.
3outh: Some organs are 7resent in the mouth whih are e++etive in digestion: li7s9 tongue9
teeth :in 7artiular way;9 <aws and three 7airs o+ salivary glands.
@hen the morsel enters the mouth9 the li7s lose the entrane so that the +ood may not +all
out. The tongue rotates in the mouth and 7laes the morsel under the teeth. The lower <aw
moves u7 and down so that the morsel may be hewed and beome so+t. All this time9 the
salivary glands serete li6uids and enzymes on the sur+ae o+ the morsel so that it may hel7 in
digestion. Seretion o+ salivary glands ontinues at other times also and 8ee7s the tongue and
li7s moist to +ailitate s7ea8ing and breathing and also to hel7 in the sense o+ taste.
Throat and the 7roess o+ swallowing: Three 7assages are 7resent in the gullet9 the nasal tube9
res7iratory tube and the +ood trat9 whih is onneted to the stomah. !ood must not enter
the air tube or it would disru7t breathing and we would ho8e. @hen the morsel in the mouth
is ready to be swallowed9 the tongue gathers it and sends it to the throat. At that same time the
uvula is raised and loses the nasal tube. The air tube is also losed by the e7iglottis. The only
thing o7en at that moment is the +ood tube and the morsel enters it and by the worm li8e
movements is 7ro7elled to the stomah.
Firular musles in the last 7art "so7hagus :ardia; is normally ontrated and it 7revents the
stomah <uies +rom entering the eso7hagus9 but on reeiving worm&li8e motions to this end9
the ontration o+ musles goes away and the entry o+ +ood to the stomah is +ailitated.
Stomah: The +ood matter remains in the stomah +or a 7eriod o+ time. Gi++erent ty7es o+
+oods stay in the stomah +or di++erent lengths o+ time. A+ter the +ood enters the stomah9
wea8 ontrations a77ear in its musles. They beome stronger and more +re6uent gradually.
These ontrations in the +orm o+ worm&li8e waves begin +rom below :ardia; and throughout
the length o+ the stomah travel to the 7ylori s7hinter9 and as they reah the 7ylori
s7hinter they beome stronger and ausing the so+tening o+ +ood matter and its mi0ing with
the gastri <uies.
There are numerous glands in the inner wall o+ the stomah that serete enzymes and s7eial
li6uids on the sur+ae o+ the +oodB with this ation starh is onverted into gluose and 7rotein
is hanged to amino aids. Also the +ood matter is onverted into smaller 7artiles +it to be
absorbed by the di++erent ells o+ the body. The +ood matter through these ations and
reations assumes the +orm o+ a 7aste9 whih is alled as hime and a+ter that it gradually
enters the duodenum.
Guodenum: The initial 7art o+ the small intestine is alled duodenum. @hen the +ood enters
the small intestine9 it +irst 7asses through the duodenum and at this 7lae through 7anreas
and gall bladder li6uids are s7rayed on its sur+ae9 whih a++et digestion o+ +ood in a
systemati manner.
Small intestine: The +ood does not stay in the small duodenumB on the ontrary it 7asses
through it into the small intestine. 3atter resultant +rom digestion o+ +ood through the small
intestine is absorbed and enters the blood stream9 so that with the irulation o+ blood it may
ome at the dis7osal o+ all the ells o+ the body. The inner sur+ae o+ the small intestine has
numerous +olds through whih the digested +ood is absorbed into the blood stream and
trans+erred to the liver.
Earge intestine: The large intestine is the last 7art o+ the digestive trat. @hen +ood enters the
large intestine no use+ul or absorbable matter remains in it. Things that remain behind in it are
a 6uantity o+ water9 salts and a little undigested +ood matter. The walls o+ the large intestine
absorb the water and salts and in the end9 hal+ solid e0rement inluding dead and alive
bateria and indigestible matter remains in the retum till it is e0reted through the anus.
Mechanism of 1ight
"ven now as you read this boo8 you are onerned with eyes and are om7letely aware o+
their value and e0istene. 1ut 7erha7s till now you have not rightly thought about the
onstrution o+ this small but om7le0 and deliate organ o+ sight. The eye is one o+ the most
beauti+ul and amazing signs o+ Almighty AllahB suh that by studying it and 7ondering on the
7roess o+ its reation9 it is 7ossible to disover the e0istene o+ the wise and 7ower+ul God9
who is the reator o+ the worldB and to beome ognizant o+ the unlimited as7ets o+
8nowledge and 7ower. There are so many amazing as7ets o+ the human eye that it is not
7ossible to mention all o+ them in this boo8. 1ut we shall indiate some o+ them here. !irst o+
all let us beome aware o+ the struture o+ the eye ball and a+ter that we an ta8e u7 the
disussion o+ 8nowing God.
1tructure of the E/e
The eye ball is the real instrument o+ seeing9 whih wor8s li8e a amera C on the ontrary
more om7le0 than a amera. The eye ball is made u7 o+ three layers: slera9 horoids and
retina.
%. @hat is the SleraA It is a veil whih is hard9 +irm9 white and turbid and is a77ro0imately
one millimeter thi8. It overs the om7lete eye ball and 7rotets it. !ront o+ this sheet :slera;
is trans7arent in order to allow light to enter the eye. It is 8nown as the ornea.
#. @hat is the FhoroidA It is a thin and bla8 urtain inside the slera and whih hanges the
interior o+ the eye into a dar8 hamber. Inside the horoid are a large number o+ blood veins
whih su77ly nutrition to eye strutures and in +at horoids is also the +ood giving layer o+
the eye. The +ront 7ortion o+ the horoid is in the +orm o+ a irular urtain +i0ed behind the
ornea and whih is 8nown as iris.
There is an a7erture in the enter o+ iris9 three to si0 millimeters in diameter and it is 8nown as
the 7u7il. The 7u7il automatially enlarges and ontrats to regulate light entering the eye.
(. @hat is the retinaA Retina is innermost sensitive layer o+ the eye. Images o+ bodies whih
ome be+ore the eye +all u7on this urtainB the inner sur+ae o+ the retina is the +irst olored
layer. A <elly li8e substane alled vitreous humor +ills the s7ae between lens and retina. The
lens9 iris and ornea are nourished by a lear +luid9 a6ueous humor9 +ormed by the iliary body
and whih +ills the s7ae between lens and ornea. Two ty7es o+ ree7tors C rods and ones C
are 7resent. Rods are mainly +ound in the 7eri7heral retina and enable us to see in dim light
and to detet 7eri7heral motion.
They are 7rimarily res7onsible +or night vision and visual orientation. Fones are 7rini7ally
+ound in the entral retina and 7rovide detailed vision +or suh tas8s as reading or
distinguishing distant ob<ets. They also are neessary +or olor detetion. These
7hotoree7tors onvert light to eletrohemial im7ulses that are transmitted via the nerves to
the brain. Rods are a77ro0imately %#$ million and ones are +ive million in number.
The +luid +lows +rom iliary body to the 7u7il and is absorbed through the hannels in the
angle o+ anterior hamber. The deliate balane o+ a6ueous 7rodution and absor7tion ontrols
7ressure within the eye. *7tial nerves onnet the retina to the brain.
>ellow s7ot C at the rear o+ the eyeball there is a de7ression on the retina wall elli7se in sha7e
and it is one millimeter in diameter and alled as the >ellow s7ot. The >ellow s7ot is e0atly
in line o+ the 7u7il and it +ouses the light that +alls on it. >ellow s7ot is a 7art o+ retina and is
its most sensitive 7ortion and onial ells are om7ressed here in onentration and eah o+
them is onneted through a nerve to the enter o+ sight in the brain. In order to see bodies
learly9 our eyes automatially irle the sur+ae o+ that body whose image +alls on the >ellow
s7ot.
(rans"arent Mantles of the E/eball
Trans7arent mantles o+ the eyeball are 7arts whih allow light to 7ass through them and whih
+ous on the sur+ae o+ retina. These trans7arent mantles are as +ollows: Fornea9 A6ueous
humor9 lens and Kitreous body.
%. Fornea: It is the same +rontal 7art o+ the sleroti9 whih is +oremost and trans7arent.
#. A6ueous humor: It is a trans7arent li6uid9 whih +ills u7 the s7ae between ornea and lens.
(. Eens: It is a body9 whih is urved at both the ends and is 7resent in the +ront 7ortion o+ the
eye and behind the iris. It is better that you 8now that the lens is sus7ended with the hel7 o+
sus7ension ligaments and is <oined to the horoid and oneals the sur+ae o+ the lens with a
deliate9 trans7arent and ad<ustable veil alled as rystalloid. The lens is om7osed o+ long
ord&li8e ells and some o+ them even have nuleus. The lens ords are hard and onentrated
and they +orm the nuleus o+ the lens.
'. Kitreous body: It is a trans7arent matter9 whih +ills the inner s7ae o+ the eyeball and is
7artly ondensed in the +orm o+ a deliate urtain.
+ow do we see obects$
!rom the bodies that are 7laed be+ore our eyes9 rays o+ light are re+leted to our eyesB these
rays ross the ornea and enter the lens through the 7u7il. They 7ass the lens as well till they
are re+leted on the >ellow s7ot at the rear o+ the eyeball on the sur+ae o+ retina. In this
manner their image9 whih is re+leted and redued in size +alls on sensitive onial ells o+
the >ellow s7ot. These ells onvey the image through o7tial nerves to the entre o+ sight in
the brain. The soul or the sel+ o+ man in this way is able to see ob<ets through this 7roess
and reations and it an beome aware o+ the olor9 volume and distane o+ those ob<ets.
Adustment of image
>ou 8now that ob<ets are learly visible only i+ their image +alls e0atly on the >ellow s7ot9
neither behind it nor in +ront o+ it. In ordinary irumstanes the lens an throws a lear image
o+ anything that is at a distane o+ si0 meters or more on the most sensitive 7art o+ the eye that
is the >ellow s7ot. 1ut the lesser the distane o+ the ob<et to eye9 the lesser would be its
visibility as its image would +all muh behind the >ellow s7ot and hene that ob<et would not
be seen learly.
1ut aording to the 7lan that is in +ore in the reation o+ the eye9 this di++iulty has been
solved in a beauti+ul manner9 in the way that urvature o+ the lens is hangeable. A healthy
and normal eye automatially ad<usts the urvature o+ its lens aording to the distane o+ the
ob<et whose image it wants to +ous on retina. I+ the distane o+ the ob<et is lesser than
normal the urvature o+ also inreases in aordane with it so that its image +alls e0atly on
the >ellow s7ot. In suh a way: that iliary musles e0ert 7ressure on the eye and this auses
the sus7ensory ligaments to be elongated as a result o+ whih the surrounding o+ the lens is
strethed and in its middle it is having a hard nuleus9 whih does not allow the strething
beyond a ertain 7oint. In order to see the near ob<ets9 the thi8ness o+ the lens inreases as a
result o+ whih the distane o+ its +ous hanges and in order to see ob<ets at a distane its
thi8ness dereases. This 7roess is 8nown as +ousing. It is one o+ the most minute and swi+t
ation o+ the eye9 whih is 7er+ormed during the seeing o+ ob<ets. In every moment that we
see around us and see the near and +ar senes and things9 our lens hanges its thi8ness
hundreds o+ times in suession and we see all the ob<ets niely and learly. Have you so +ar
7aid attention to these minute ations o+ the eyeA
@e 8now that this small body is om7osed o+ hundreds o+ smaller organs and millions o+
di++erent ty7es o+ ells and eah o+ them have a s7eial +untion and they 7er+orm these
+untions. A77arently the eye is a small body9 but in +at it is a great wor8sho79 whih
aurately and regularly +untions as a amera. It is a olletion9 whih is om7atible9 aimed
and onneted and whih +ollows a single aim and +ul+ills an im7ortant need o+ manB that is to
see ob<ets. Truly9 i+ there had been no sight9 how dar8 this world would have been +or usAN
-ow we 7ose the +ollowing 6uestions to our intellet and listen to its re7lies: Gid the three
layers o+ the eye a77ear on their own or it is someone else who had reated them with
+oresightA
Gid the trans7arent overing o+ the eye beame trans7arent by hane or it is someone else
who made them trans7arent so that light may 7ass through itA
How did the eye ome to have trans7arent a6ueous humor and vitreous bodyA @ho has
onstruted these two li6uids with s7eial visosity and +ormulaA @ere the glands that serete
these li6uids aware o+ the needs o+ the eyeA Gid the 7u7il ome into being automatially or it
was the man who 8new that the eye needed an a7erture so that light may 7ass through it9 and
so he reated it in this wayA
Has the 7u7il itsel+ seleted the re6uired diameter through +oresight or it is someone else who
has designed and reated it in this wayA Goes the 7u7il 8now that it needs to be o7ened and
shut to regulate the 7assage o+ light through itA *r it is someone else who in+ormed it o+ this
need and who reated it in this wayA Gid the >ellow s7ot ome to be loated in line with the
7u7il and +ous o+ the lens so that image may +orm on it or it is someone else who has 7laed
it thereA
Gid the most sensitive ells o+ retina ome to be situated e0atly at the >ellow s7ot in line
with lens or it is someone else who has 7laed them in this wayA Go the o7tial nerves
onnet to the ells o+ yellow s7ot by hane so that their messages may be trans+erred to the
brain or it is someone else who has 7re7lanned thisA Go the o7tial nerves onnet the eye to
the brain in aimless way by hane or they have an aim and a reator with aim who has done
thisA
@ho has reated the o7tial lens with suh 7reision and whih e07ert 7hysiist has 7lanned
itA
Is the eye also aware o+ the siene o+ 7hysis and the disussion o+ lensesA Is the lens aware
o+ its sensitive 7ositionA Is the overing o+ the lens automatially ad<ustableA Has the eye
itsel+ made the at o+ +ousing 7ossible +or the lens or it is someone else who has determined
thisA And whetherMA
Eastly9 has this systemati9 om7atible and aimed devie ome into e0istene through hane
and oinidene or it is a wise and a 7ower+ul reator who has reated itA The re7ly is lear to
all those who have sense: Study o+ intriate and diminutive mahinery o+ our eye guides to its
wise and 7ower+ul reator and in this intriate mahinery9 we ourselves see the signs o+ His
8nowledge and unending 7ower.
1econdar/ &rgans &f (he Machiner/ &f 1ight
Here we shall learn about the +irst o+ the seondary organs o+ the mahinery o+ sight C without
whih the 7roess o+ seeing remains de+etive. @e would beome +amiliar with it and a+ter
that through 7osing o+ 6uestions we will see8 to 8now who their reator is.
As mentioned be+ore the mahinery o+ sight onsists o+ two 7arts: %. The eyeball9 whih
7er+orms the +untion o+ seeing #. Seondary organs9 whih are res7onsible +or 7roteting the
eye and ensuring its movement and hygiene. These organs are as +ollows: "ye so8et9 eyelids9
tear glands9 musles surrounding the eyes and nerves. @e shall e07lain eah o+ them brie+ly to
8now about their +untions:
%. "ye so8et: It is a bony hollow in the sha7e o+ a 7yramid whose base is in the +ront and its
ti7 is at the ba8. "ye so8et is divided into two 7arts with a onave urtain: the +ront 7ortion
o+ whih is the abode o+ the eyeball and the rear 7ortion ontains the o7tial nerves9 musles
surrounding the eyeball9 sensitive nerves and nerves o+ movement and blood veinsB and the
s7ae between them is +illed with +at tissue.
#. "yebrows: @hih are situated at the +rontal 7ortion o+ the eye so8et and they 7revent
sweat +rom entering the eyes.
(. "yelids: They are sha7ed as 7arts o+ s8in whih are strethed over the eyeball. "very eyelid
has s8in in its +ront sur+ae 7ortion and in its rear 7ortion9 musles and tissues are attahed to
it. The inner sur+ae o+ the eyelid is overed with a trans7arent tissue named on<untiva.
3usles o+ the eyelid are o+ two ty7es: %. 3usles9 whih ontrat o7ening the eyelids #.
Firular musles9 whih are 7ulled over the eyeball.
The +untion o+ the eyelids is to 7rotet the eyeball and to 7revent entry o+ +oreign ob<ets into
it9 es7eially during slee7 when there is no need o+ the +untion o+ the eyeB it overs its whole
sur+ae and 7rotets it +rom 7ossible dangers. 3oreover9 in the inner edge o+ the eyelids9 holes
are arranged and these :#L or #. holes; serete a s7eial ty7e o+ +at to so+ten the eyeball. The
u77er eyelid through systemati and swi+t movement oveys tears to every 7art o+ the eyeball
and 8ee7 it moist and also does not allow any dust or dirt to aumulate in it.
'. "yelashes: @hih are is the +orm o+ some short strands o+ hair whih grow +rom the edge o+
the eyelids.
L. Tear glands: Glands situated in the e0ternal u77er 7ortion o+ every eye are named as tear
glands. These glands 7rodue tears9 whih are om7osed o+ water and a little 6uantity o+ salt.
Tears sereted +rom these glands 8ee7 the sur+ae around the eyelids overing the eye always
moist9 and they wash itB the remaining tears ollet in the inner orner o+ the eye and +rom
there are sent to the nose through the tear dut where they gradually eva7orate moistening the
air whih is inhaled.
.. 3usles surrounding the eye: These musles o+ the eyeball ause it to move in di++erent
diretions as +ollows:
A; Giretly outward9 whih ta8es the eyeball outward. 1; Giretly inward9 whih ta8es the
eyeball inward and towards the nose. Fontration o+ diretly outward musles o+ eah eye
usually moves along with the musles o+ the other eye as a result o+ whih both eyes move to
the right or the le+t in unison.
F; Giretly u7ward musles9 whih move the eyeball to the to7. G; Giretly downward
musles9 whih move the eyeball down et.
2. -erves: These inlude the o7tial nerves9 whih reeive o7tial messages +rom retina and
trans+er it to the enter o+ brain in +orm o+ eletrial im7ulses and other nerves.
-ow we 7ose the +ollowing 6uestions to ourselves: Is the eye aware o+ its im7ortane and
intriay o+ its own e0istene that hose this solid eye so8et as its abodeA *r it was by
hane that it ame to ou7y this sa+e 7laeA *r it was someone else who 7rovided this sa+e
re+uge to it as a result o+ +oresightA
Gid the eye itsel+ brought into e0istene eyebrows above itsel+ in order to 7revent the entry o+
sweatA *r the eyebrow was aware o+ this need o+ the eye and it hastened to o++er this hel7A *r
it was someone else who reated eyebrows above the eyeA
Gid the eyelids by hane beome as suh in order to 7rotet and wash the eyesA @ere the
eyelids aware o+ the hygiene re6uired by the eye that they rubbed +at over its sur+ae and
washed it through tears and ontinuous swi+t movementA *r it was a wise and a 7ower+ul
reator who determined thisA
@ere the tear glands 7laed in the eye by haneA @ho has devised the om7osition o+ this
disin+etant li6uidA Gid the tear glands 8now that salty water is neessary to disin+et the
sur+ae o+ the eyeA Is the hole in the orner o+ the eye C through whih the e0ess tears are
drained C ome into e0istene by haneA *r it was the eye whih 7roured this a7ertureA @as
the eye aware o+ the need o+ the nose and the res7iratory organs to moisten the inhaled air that
it auses the e0ess tears to drain into the noseA *r it was a wise and a 7ower+ul reator who
designed all this through +oresightA
Go the holes that serete +at in the eyelids ome into being on their ownA *r the eye9 sine it
needed them9 reated themA @ere the eyelids aware what hel7 they are rendering to maintain
the hygiene o+ the eye by sereting this +atA
Gid the musles o+ the eye and eyelids with those variations ome into being o+ their ownA *r
did the eye bring them into e0isteneA *r it was someone else who determined them on the
basis o+ +oresightA
Gid the o7tial nerves with all their intriay and s7eialty9 onnet the eye to the enter o+
sight inside the brain automatiallyA *r it is a 8nowing being who has determined this
onnetionA
In other words: Is suh om7atible and systemati olletion9 all 7arts o+ whih are onneted
to eah other and 7ursue and realize a single aim C that is to see C is it 7ossible that it ome
into being on its ownA
>es9 every intelligent 7erson will re7ly that in suh a om7atible9 interonneted and
systemati olletion C in whose ma8e&u7 hundreds o+ laws and thousands o+ miniaturizations
and amazements have ome into ation C it annot be thought to have ome into e0istene by
hane or oinideneB it is the wise and a 7ower+ul reator who has brought them into
e0istene.
This is the orret re7ly. @hen we loo8 at the om7le0 struture o+ the eyeball and when we
study and ontem7late on the onnetion o+ the eye to its seondary 7arts and the onnetion
o+ all o+ them to the brain and the relationshi7 o+ this olletion with other 7arts o+ the body
and the onnetion o+ the whole body to the outer world9 we realize the whole world to be a
single and great onnetion and witness that this great world is having a single9 wise and
7ower+ul reator9 who has reated it and who also ontrols it.
I+ we loo8 losely and with insightB we would be able to see the signs o+ the 7ower9
8nowledge and wisdom o+ the great reator o+ the world everywhere. @e shall reognize Him
and onnet ourselves to him with sinerity. And we would humble ourselves in +ront o+ His
7ower and greatness and we would than8 +or the innumerable bounties and blessings +rom the
de7ths o+ our hearts. His 7ure love would 7ermeate throughout our selves. @e would realize
that only He is worthy o+ worshi7 and we would ae7t only His ommands and we would
submit only to Him.
Circulator/ 1/stem
The irulatory system is an e0tremely remar8able and amazing system o+ the human body.
"ven as you read this boo89 your heart beats a77ro0imately seventy times every minute and
with ontinuous and 7reise beats onveys nourishment and o0ygen to all the ells o+ your
body. Go you 8now what would ha77en i+ your heart sto7s beating only +or a +ew minutesA
Study o+ our irulatory system :heart9 veins9 arteries and a7illary hairM; guides us to the
e0istene o+ a wise and a 7ower+ul reator.
1lood +lows at the edge o+ and around all the ells o+ the body li8e a steam o+ water and it
onveys nourishment and o0ygen to them. Red globules +loat in the li6uid o+ blood. In every
ubi millimeter o+ blood9 there are a77ro0imately +ive million red globules and in the body
o+ every man there are around #L$$$ million red globules. These globules have a very
intriate and remar8able +untion.
Their +untion is to onvey o0ygen to the ells and to reover arbon dio0ide +rom them and
in order to +ul+ill this li+e&giving +untion they to moving and irulating through the body
nerves ontinuously. The length o+ this 7assage is great. An average red globule has the li+e&
s7an o+ %#$ days and new globules are being ontinuously manu+atured by the blood ma8ing
enter o+ the body.
It would be better i+ we organize a sienti+i <ourney with a grou7 o+ globules so that we may
understand the various stages o+ this <ourney and we may be able to loo8 losely at the
intriate and amazing system o+ blood irulation. Ge+initely by seeing this systemati and
amazing om7atibility we would say: Great9 wise and 7ower+ul is the reator9 who has reated
suh an elaborate system.
)* %irst stage
I+ you have a 7hoto or a 7iture in your houseB you should loo8 at it9 loo8 at the le+t vertial o+
the heart. *ur su77osed <ourney begins at ) am on Saturday in the om7any o+ a grou7 o+ red
globules9 whih are arrying o0ygen with them. The ontration o+ the le+t ventrile reates a
severe movement9 whih ta8es us to the outer stage. It is e0tremely amazing and interesting
that we have reahed into a wide and a branhed anal9 the aorta9 whih has many branhes9
distributes blood and onveys to every organ a +i0ed amount o+ blood.
,* Passage
Through ontinuous and re7eated beatings9 whih reah us +rom the rear we are in suh
motionB and we as8 the globules with whom we are traveling: @hat is our route and where are
we headedA They re7ly: @e are moving to the brain. Fontinuous ontrations o+ the heart
reate new beats and send us +orwardB the 7assage gradually beomes narrow and narrower9
so narrow that i+ it is almost a hundredth o+ a human hairB these are 8nown as a7illaries and
they are e0tremely thin and have many loo7s.
-* 1tage of narrow "assages
@e as8 our o&traveler globules: Shall we rest +or a while enrouteA They re7ly: -o9 but at the
edge o+ these ells we would redue our s7eed and give them the o0ygen that we are arrying
and ta8e arbon dio0ide +rom them9 whih is the by7rodut o+ the heating o+ the ells and ta8e
it ba8 with us. Here we saw that the o0ygen that the globules arry is given to the ells and
the ells ta8e u7 the +reshly inhaled o0ygen and give ba8 arbon dio0ide to the globules.
3oreover9 we also saw that the ells serete their e0ess matter into the blood stream so that
the blood may ta8e it away +rom there to be dis7osed at another 7lae.
0* Return ourne/
The olor and +orm o+ the red globules have hanged and it is no more having that same <oy
and ha77iness and 7assing through other narrow and interlaed 7assages with whih they are
well a6uaintedB they are on the return <ourney. @here are they returningA To the heart on the
return route they are being beaten ontinuously +rom the rear through the ontrations o+ the
heart and we are being 7ushed ahead as i+ something is 7ulling us ahead. Gradually the way
widens and we 7ass through the aorta and reah a dar8 7assage and as8 what its name is. It
re7lies: Artery :as im7ure blood 7asses through it; and +inally we reah the end o+ our <ourney
into the heart.
2* Entering the right atrium
-ow that we have reahed the heart9 has our <ourney ome to an endA -o...on the ontrary we
rest only +or a short while and the valve below us o7ens and all o+ us enter the right ventrile.
It is e07lained that this ventrile is having three 7arts and its +untion is e0tremely sensitive. It
o7erates only on one side and it o7ens only +rom the atrium into the ventrile and it does not
o7en +rom the ventrile into the atrium. *n the ontrary it loses om7letely and without
leaving any hole or ga7 +or the blood to +low into the ventrile.
3* 1evere beating
At the stage o+ the three&lobed ventrile9 we +eel that we have been given a hard 7ush and
thrown out o+ the right ventrile. @here are we goingA To the lungs. @hat +orA To obtain
o0ygen. Through some ontinuous beatings9 we reah to the alveoli. Globules are 7resent at
the edge o+ +ree air9 whih enters the lungs +rom outside. In the lungs9 o0ygen is 7i8ed u7 and
arbon dio0ide eliminated9 and the o0ygenated blood returns to the heart via the 7ulmonary
veins9 thus om7leting the iruit.
* Entering the left atrium
A+ter the globules ta8e u7 o0ygen they enter the atrium ha77ily and the valve :mitral valve;
o7ens downwards and goes into its +irst stage in the le+t ventrile as be+ore. @e immediately
bids +arewell to it be+ore a 7ower+ul ontration ould send us ba8 to that same hannel and
thus we se7arate +rom our +riends.
In this su77osed <ourney we ome to 8now about two ty7es o+ blood irulations: General
irulation and 7ulmonary irulation. General blood irulation begins +rom the le+t ventrile
o+ the heart li8e a 7ower+ul 7um7 and sends the blood to all the tissues o+ the body and ends at
the right ventrile. Pulmonary irulation begins +rom the right ventrile and 7assing through
a7illaries reahes the lungs and a+ter the e0hange o+ o0ygen and arbon dio0ide9 returns to
the le+t ventrile.
1tages of heart beat
A+ter a om7atible and simultaneous ontrations o+ the ventriles9 the atriums o7en and 7ull
the blood +rom the arteries to themselves and gradually +ill u7. At this 7oint begins the general
e07ansion o+ the heart as at this stage all the avities o+ the heart are at rest:
%. Fontration o+ the atrium ta8es 7lae a+ter the general rest+ulness and sends the two bloods
+rom the atriums to the ventriles.
#. Fontration o+ the ventriles9 whih on one hand send blood to body tissues and on the
other hand send it to the lungs.
(. General rest
These three stages together our in a77ro0imately one&eighth o+ a seond and in this way the
heart o+ a human being beats +or 2$ times a minute.
I+ we loo8 at the intriate and systemati wor8ing o+ the heart and blood irulation9 we would
realize that this advaned and remar8able mahinery is having a wise and a 7ower+ul reator
who has reated it with this minuteness and +inesse.
To +urther motivate re+letion we an 7ose the +ollowing 6uestions to our intellets and see8
re7lies to them:
%. @ith all this om7le0ity and marvel9 is it 7ossible that the heart ame into being on its own
without any aimA
#. Go the atriums and ventriles o+ the heart themselves assumed their 7resent sha7es and
+ormsA
(. Gid the heart valves 7lan suh a res7onsibility and s7eialty +or themselves and then
brought themselves into e0isteneA
'. Has the elegant networ8 o+ veins9 a7illaries and a7illary hairs ome into being
automatially and by oinideneA
L. Has disi7line9 om7atibility and oo7eration between the heart and networ8 o+ veins and
res7iratory system develo7ed through haneA *r whetherMA
>our intelligent re7ly is absolutely lear: A great9 wise and 7ower+ul reator has reated suh
an amazing system. God is great.
A 5lance at the Created World
In the morning you see how the sun rises gently +rom behind the mountains and what beauty it
arries and how it illuminates the 7lains and +ields. Truly what beauty and larity this
illuminated ball bestows to the mountains and 7lainsN Iust thin8N I+ the sun does not arise and
all the time it is only a dar8 night what we would have doneA Have you thought how the sun
got suh light and heatA Go you 8now how muh is the volume o+ the sunA
The volume o+ the sun is a77ro0imately a million times that o+ the earth. That is i+ the sun was
a ball em7ty +rom inside9 it would have aommodated nearly one million earths inside it. The
sur+ae tem7erature o+ this +iery ball is .$$$ degrees entigrade. >ou 8now that with all this
heat how it heats u7 this earth and all that is on it. Sine it is situated at an a77ro7riate and
determined distane :at a distane o+ around %L$ million 8ilometers; it onveys only
neessary light and elements to the earth.
-o one 8nows what would have ha77ened i+ the distane o+ the sun to the earth had not been
as suh. I+ the distane o+ the sun to the earth had been less than thisB +or e0am7le it had been
hal+ o+ this9 what would have ha77enedA It is de+inite that no living being would have been
able to survive on its sur+ae9 and the heat o+ the sun would have sorhed all the 7lants9
animals and human beings. I+ the distane o+ the sun to the earth had been more than thisB +or
e0am7le i+ it had been twie than what it is at 7resent9 what would have ha77enedA
In that ase9 su++iient light and heat would not have reahed the earth and everything would
have +rozen to death. All the water would have +rozen to ie and no li+e would have survived.
Thus it is lear that this distane is lin8ed to an awareness9 7reision9 determination and
+oresight.
It is through the light and heat o+ the sun that 7retty bunhes o+ wheat reah suh ri7enessB it
is as a result o+ the hot rays o+ the sun that all vegetation and trees reah maturity and 7rovide
+ruits and +ood +or us human beings. Gi++erent ty7es o+ +oods that we obtain are 7re7ared
through the energy o+ the sun. It is in +at the energy o+ the sun9 whih ollets in all 7lants
and +ood artiles and we gain energy +rom them. Animals also bene+it +rom the energy stored
in 7lants and they trans+er them to us in +orm o+ animal +ood. !or e0am7le9 they +eed on grass
and 7rovide us with mil8 and we also bene+it +rom the meat and other seondary +oods based
on mil8 and meat.
@hat do you understand by ontem7lating on the glory and beauty o+ the sun9 its 7reise and
determined distane to the earth9 bene+it o+ the 7lants9 animals and human beings +rom the
heat and energy o+ the sunA And what do you onlude a+ter seeing and 7ondering on the
7er7etuity and amazing om7atibility o+ all the 7arts o+ the worldA @hat do you seeA Go you
see an unsystemati and inom7atible olletion or a olletion whih is great and 7er+etly
om7atibleB o+ whih we are also a 7art. @hat an you onlude +rom the system and
om7atibility o+ this 7reise olletionA
System and 7reision9 whih enom7asses all the 7arts o+ this world9 what does it showA Fan
you re7ly to this 6uery in a +oolish way and say: The reator o+ this great system is a being
who is unaware9 ignorant and 7owerlessA Suh a re7ly would never be ae7ted by our
awa8ened onsiene and wise intellet. *n the ontrary it would say: The intriate system
and the oherene and 7er7etuity o+ this great olletion is a sign o+ the greatness9 7ower and
awareness o+ a su7erior reator who is a7able o+ reating and ontrolling the beings o+ this
world in this way and he had the +oresight to 8now +rom be+ore the needs o+ eah o+ them
7er+etly and gave them the a7aity to +ul+ill them. He also determined the 7ath and aim +or
eah o+ them. @ho is that 7ower+ul and 8nowing reatorA
That 8nowing and 7ower+ul reator is none but God9 who has reated all the bounties +or us
and whih He has given under our ontrol. He reated the sun9 moon and earth +or us so that
we might through e++orts and oo7eration9 inhabit the earth and by obtaining 8nowledge and
learning9 disover the serets and amazements and loo8 at the great signs o+ our reator and
Eord and through on+idential 7rayers beseeh Him:
The highest and the best ondition o+ man is when he su77liates his Eord and beseehes Him
in seret. And i+ su77liation and seret 7rayer to his God had not been there9 what value li+e
would have hadA How worthless man would have beenA
>ou ontem7late on the reation o+ the night and day and every morning and evening you
reite on+idential su77liations to the reator o+ the night and day. >ou 8now that night and
day is due to rotation o+ the earth. "very night and day om7letes one rotation. Hal+ the earth
whih omes be+ore the sun is illuminated and it is day over there and the other hal+ is dar8
and it is night over there. 1y rotation o+ the earth9 the day seems to be entering the night and
the night seems to be entering the day and days and nights +ollow eah other in a systemati
way. Guring the day9 7lants and trees grow under the light and heat o+ the sun. Human beings
beome involved in e++orts and wor8 renovated by the rest they got during the night and begin
a new day with more vigor and su77liation to the Almighty.
Have you ever thought what would have ha77ened i+ the rotation o+ the earth had not been so
systemati and 7reiseA In some 7arts o+ the earth there would have been 7er7etual nights and
in some 7arts there would have been ontinuous dayB hot and sorhing. A77earane o+ day
and night are also lear signs o+ the 7ower9 greatness and awareness o+ the wise and 7ower+ul
reator o+ the world.
(hree Im"ortant Points
%. @e should loo8 in the world o+ reation9 and 7onder and realize the system9 oherene and
om7atibility o+ its innumerable 7arts and as8: =@ho has reated this world and who ontrols
itA?
#. The great and systemati olletion o+ the world o+ reation is lear evidene that: =A
8nowing and 7ower+ul reator has reated it and only He ontrols it9 and He is God.?
(. The 8nowing and 7ower+ul God who has reated the world has also determined duties +or
our growth and suessB the most im7ortant o+ whih may be listed as +ollows:
A; @e loo8 at the signs o+ the greatness and 7ower o+ our Eord and ontem7late on it.
1; That we disover the serets and amazing as7ets o+ the world through 8nowledge and
learning.
F; That we gain 7ro0imity to Him through worshi7 and su77liations.
G; That we inhabit the earth through e++orts and oo7eration and s7read <ustie and e6uity in
it.
Ever/ Phenomenon has a Cause
>ou move your hand and 7i8 u7 the 7en9 but your +riend does not move his hand and 7i8 u7
the 7en9 whyA It is so beause you intended to 7i8 u7 the 7en your +riend had no suh
intention and desire. The intention o+ 7i8ing u7 the 7en is a new 7henomenon whih is
atualized in yoursel+B you have brought this new 7henomenon into e0istene. Intention is
related to you and is the at o+ yoursel+9 and the movement o+ the hand is also related to you
and is your intention. >ou did not move your hand 7reviously sine you had no intentionB you
intended at a later stage and a+ter intending9 you moved your hand and 7i8ed u7 the 7en. The
7henomenon o+ intention is the e++et o+ youB i+ you had not been there9 no intention would
have ta8en 7lae. The intention has not ome into being on its ownB on the ontrary it is +rom
you. There is a s7eial relationshi7 between you and intention9 whih is alled as the
relationshi7 o+ ause and e++et. >ou see this s7eial relationshi7 in your own being with
7er+et larity and are 7er+etly aware o+ it.
Another Eqam"le
>ou have the memory o+ a bunh o+ +lowers that you had 7reviously seenB now you reall it
:whih is alled as the imaginative +orm;: This image o+ the +lowers is a new 7henomenon9
whih has ome in your mind. Has it a77eared automatially or you have brought it into
beingA *+ ourse9 you have brought it into e0istene. I+ you were not there9 the +orm o+ the
+lowery branh would also not have been there.
This mental image is related to youB that is its e0istene is not inde7endentB on the ontrary it
has ome into e0istene +rom you. >ou are the ause and the mental image is the e++et and
this s7eial relationshi7 is named as the relationshi7 o+ the ause and e++et. >ou see this
relationshi7 in your own sel+ and are 7er+etly +amiliar with it.
There+ore9 we onlude that you and every 7erson will +ind the ausality in the sel+ and you
see it 7er+etly learly.
3oreover9 you will +ind this s7eial relationshi79 4relationshi7 o+ the ause and e++et5
between yoursel+ and your bodily and mental ats and relate them to yoursel+ as you are their
ause and say: I saw9 I heard9 I touhed9 I smelt9 I tasted9 I moved9 I thoughtMyou onsider
yoursel+ as the ause and seeing9 hearing9 touhing9 smelling9 tasting9 moving and thin8ing as
you e++ets and onneted to you. These ations have originated +rom your being and i+ you
had not been there9 your ations and movements would also not have been there.
3an has named ausation that is the relationshi7 with the ause to e++et as the law o+ ause
and e++et. In the beginning between his own being and s7iritual and mental 7henomena and
verbalized his movements and ations between his own sel+ and his mental 7henomena9
ations and movementsB then he transmitted this law +rom outside his being.
aw &f Causation Is A %undamental Absolute And !niversal aw
3an9 on the basis o+ that realization when he omes aross a 7henomenon whose e0istene
de7ends on :or is related to; another 7henomenon he understands that between these two
7henomena also the relationshi7 o+ ause and e++et is 7resent and in these irumstanes he
deides that the 7henomena whih are themselves in need o+ others are e++ets and the +ator
whih has brought these into e0istene is the ause.
3an through study9 researh and e0essive e07eriments has onluded that some worldly
7henomenon have di++erent ty7es o+ relationshi7s with other 7henomenaB suh relationshi7
whih e0ist between himsel+ and his mental 7henomena and on the basis o+ this dee7
understanding he ae7ts the law o+ ausation to be om7lete and universal.
It is li8e om7leting a <ob in antii7ation o+ its desired resultB it is the best evidene that one
has ae7ted the law o+ ausality as a om7rehensive law9 on drin8ing water he awaits +or the
6uenhing o+ thirst and on eating9 waits +or the satiation o+ his hunger. In winter9 he ta8es the
re+uge o+ warmth o+ +ire and in summer heat he loo8s +or the oolness o+ shade. In any ase9
all o+ us in daily li+e and in all our movements and ations ae7t ausality as an absolute and
universal +undamental and in this way reate an im7ression.
4o Effect Is Without Cause
I+ the window o7ens and you have not seen who o7ened it9 what will you thin8A @ould you
say that it o7ened automatially :without any ause;A I+ you heard a sound and do not see
what has 7rodued it9 what will you onludeA @ould you thin8 that it ame by oinidene
and without any 7ro7er auseA I+ you heard a voie and do not see who has 7rodued it9 what
will you onludeA I+ you +eel hot or old9 would you thin8 that it has no auseA I+ a stone is
thrown at the window9 brea8ing the glass and you annot +ind who has thrown it9 what would
you onludeA @ould you onlude that the stone arose +rom the ground automatially and
without any ause and hit the glassA
>our re7ly to the above 6uestions is lear. >ou will say: I 7ossess reason and intellet and I
8now that none o+ the worldly 7henomena are without a ause or a doer9 even though I might
not 8now what the ause is9 beause not 8nowing it is not the 7roo+ o+ its absene. That is why
you will ma8e as muh investigation and be urious about it till you don5t +ind the real ause
o+ the 7henomena. And i+ su77ose you annot +ind the ause in one instane9 you will not say
that it has no ause9 on the ontrary you would say that the ause o+ this 7henomenon is not
8nown.
Intelletuals and inventors have +ully ae7ted the law o+ ausation and they try to +ind the
ause o+ things in laboratories. @henever they ome aross a new 7henomenon9 they are
ertain that it is having a ause and that is why they ondut +resh e++orts to +ind it.
World Is Also +aving A Cause
@e 8now that the law o+ ause and e++et is a +undamental9 absolute and a universal law. And
no 7henomenon is without a ause and all the 7henomena o+ the world have a ause. This
om7lete law is 7ratially ae7ted by everyone in the world.
"very 7henomenon has a ause9 i+ the ause o+ that is a 7henomenon it also has a ause9
there+ore sine the whole reated world is a 7henomenon and need+ul and does not have
inde7endent e0istene C it is in need o+ someone or something su7eriorB basially being in
need o+ another is the +irst 6uality o+ a 7henomenon9 every big and small 7henomenon is C
need+ul and related to someone or something else9 its e0istene is not on its own9 i+ it had
e0isted inde7endently9 it would have endured +orever and had also not been need+ul. The
world o+ 7henomena is need+ul o+ e0istene and being9 that is why it is in need o+ a being that
is higher and need+ul C whih is the soure o+ bestowing e0istene to all the 7henomena and
the e0isting beings are need+ul and limited.
That being whih is higher and that inom7arable and unlimited entity9 whih is the soure o+
e0istene and whih does not have any de+et and need9 is the Almighty God. He is the one
who reated this world9 is always ontrolling it through his blessings and nurtures it. I+ His
blessing and +avor is ut o++ +or even a moment9 all would be destroyed.
&bection
>ou said that every 7henomenon is in need o+ a auseB there+ore God also is in need o+ a
ause9 what is the ause o+ GodA In other words: God has reated every e0isting thing9 so who
has reated GodA
Re"l/
>es9 we said that every 7henomenon is need+ul o+ a ause9 but I did not say that every entity is
need+ul o+ a auseB there+ore every 7henomenon and every e0isting thing9 whih is need+ul
and limited9 is in need o+ a ause9 but not the Almighty Allah who is Sel+&su++iient and a
7er+et entity. He does not have need o+ a ause. "0istene is His very being. He does not
have any need that others may +ul+ill His need.
In other words9 the riteria o+ need+ulness o+ ause is need and limitationB and generosity and
7ersonal 7overtyB and there is no de+et and limitation in God Almighty that He should have
need o+ auseB on the ontrary he is absolutely Sel+&su++iient and there is nothing higher than
Him that He should be need o+ itB i+ he had been the e++et o+ another9 He would have been in
need o+ that other and in that ase he would not be God. He is there by Himsel+ and by His
own being and others endure beause o+ HimB God is higher and su7erior.
In the Holy ,uran9 He says:
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O men6 you are they who stand in need of Allah, and Allah is 0e Who is the -elf4
sufficient, the >raised One)! "$3:,3'
3an is intelligent and he is having +oresight. He an understand the realities o+ the world
through ontem7lation and ma8ing logial reasonings. So +ar we have learnt about two
reasonings o+ Knowing God: 7roo+ o+ order and 7roo+ o+ ausation. @e have also disussed
these two to7is in some details:
@ith regard to the reasoning o+ order9 we said: The reated world is based on order9 system
and oordination and 7er+et relationshi7B every order9 system and oordination and
determination is reated by a wise and 7ower+ul reatorB thus this world is also the reation o+
a wise and a 7ower+ul reator.
In this reasoning :reasoning o+ order; we +irst 7ay attention to the order9 oordination9
7reision and determination that is 7resent between 7arts o+ the world and at that time with
re+erene to this belie+ that 4every system and determination has an aware and a 7ower+ul
oordinator and determiner59 we onlude that this great order and oordination in this world
also has a wise and a 7ower+ul reator.
1ut in the evidene o+ ause9 we don5t see other than order and om7atibility between the
7henomena o+ this worldB on the ontrary9 we loo8ed at the being and the e0istene o+
7henomena and noted the need and s7eial need whih every 7henomenon has +or ause C that
every 7erson has 7ro+ound belie+ in it C we 7resent the matter in this manner:
"very 7henomenon that omes into e0istene9 its e0istene is not inde7endentB on the ontrary
it is related and de7endant on something else9 whih is alled as the ause.
This world is also om7osed o+ various 7henomenaB there+ore it has to have a ause.
@ith regard to the reasoning o+ ausality it an be said that every 7henomenon that omes into
being9 its e0istene is de7endant and need+ul. And its being is not on its own9 on the ontrary
it is de7endent on a ause and the world and everything 7resent in it on one side is a
7henomenon and all are reated C so they must have ome into being +rom the soure o+
reation and we all that unlimited 7ower as God.
1oth the reasonings o+ order and ausality are to remove the dust o+ ignorane and
arelessness +rom the eyes o+ +oresight and nature o+ man9 so that he may see the reality with a
lean nature and an awa8ened intellet. And that he sees the brightest o+ the bright and
strengthens his +aith in the High and the 3ighty Eord.
1ut the 7ure natures o+ man are aware o+ his great and 7ower+ul reator in suh a way and this
matter is so lear to them that they re6uire the least reasonings. These 7ure natures and aware
7ersons onsider everything to be relying on the 7ower and invinible determination o+
Almighty Allah and in all hardshi7s and di++iulties9 he ta8es re+uge in Him and is never
a++lited with des7air and ho7elessness9 sine he 8nows no matter how 7ower+ul the
7henomena may be they are in need o+ Almighty God and they are under His ontrol. These
7ure natures and these aware 7ersons C sine they saw that everything was in need o+ God C
they do not submit to anything other than the Almighty Allah and they do not ae7t any
ommand and guardianshi7 e0e7t His C and <oin the li+e o+ the world with res7et and
suess with everlasting ha77iness o+ the herea+ter.
Dltimately9 we onsider it neessary to mention that in order to 7rove the e0istene o+ the
reator o+ the world we also de7end on evidenes in boo8s o+ 7hiloso7hy and sholastiism
+or numerous and 7ro+ound reasoningsB but +or the sa8e o+ brevity9 we shall be ontent with
this muh.
It is mentioned in the Holy ,uran:
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your ?ord is the ?ord of the heavens and the earth, Who (rought them into
e;istence! "*,:3+'
sualities of 5od
*n the basis o+ the disussion so +ar9 we have understood that this world is having a ause
whih has reated and manages it. In this setion9 we would learn about the 6ualities o+
Almighty God9 in order to reognize Him better. The 6ualities o+ God an be divided into two:
,ualities o+ 7er+etion and 6ualities o+ ma<esty.
"very 6uality that is +rom 7er+etions and elevated ran8s is the root o+ e0istene and whih
inreases its value and e0istene. @ithout that it should neessitate de+et and limitation9 is
named as the 6uality o+ 7er+etion and beauty. Ei8e: 8nowledge9 7ower9 li+e9 hearing9 sight9
intention9 s7ea8ing9 bene+iene9 mery and other suh 6ualities.
!or e0am7le 8nowledge9 whih an be de+ined as the 7resene9 a77earane and e0istene o+ a
thing +or the 8nower9 is a 7er+etion o+ e0istene. And there is no de+et in its meaning and its
evidene is not desribed as one neessitating de+et and limitation.
Although it is 7ossible that it may be true in some limited im7liations9 but this im7liation
has not a77eared +rom the as7et o+ de+et and limitation9 on the ontrary it is a ran8 +rom the
ran8s o+ e0istene and whih omes into e0istene +rom the root. And in this way the 6uality
o+ 7ower and li+e is also inluded as the 6ualities o+ 7er+etion.
The Almighty Allah is the 7ossessor o+ all o+ them and is endowed with them. ,ualities o+
7er+etion are also alled as Positive Attributes :Si+aat&e&Thubutiyyah;9 as they are 7roved to
belong to Allah.
Sholars have mentioned reasonings to 7rove the 6ualities o+ 7er+etion +or Almighty Allah
and two o+ those reasonings are om7aratively sim7le:
!irst evidene C These 7er+etions e0ist outwardly9 8nowledge is in the outward and some
e0isting beings 7ossess 8nowledge9 7ower also e0ists outwardly and some e0isting beings
7ossess 7ower and 7er+orm some ations. Ei+e is also in the outward and some e0isting beings
are alive and 7er+orm their +untions with 8nowledge and intention.
Thus the 6ualities o+ 7er+etion have an outward e0istene and are themselves a 7henomenon
and as we stated 7reviously9 every 7henomenon is in need o+ a ause and a doer that invents it9
and that is the Almighty Allah9 the reator o+ the world. There+ore sine e0istent beings and
7henomena o+ the world in +at are related to the being o+ the Almighty Allah9 the 6ualities o+
being and 7er+etion are also related to God and it is Him that has bestowed those 6ualities to
them. *n the other hand9 the 1estower o+ 7er+etion Himsel+ 7ossesses those 7er+etions. *n
the ontrary He is higher than those stages. God9 who has given 8nowledge9 7ower and li+e to
the reatures9 it is not 7ossible +or Him to la8 those 6ualities. I+ He did not have them9 He
would not have been able to bestow others with them.
Seond evidene is the 7roo+ o+ order C >ou disovered and understood the various as7ets o+
the 7reise and amazing system by the reator o+ the world in the 7revious lessons9 that how
muh 7reision and beauties He has em7loyed in their reation and with what onnetion and
7reise oordination has He reated and managed them although all 7henomena o+ the
beauti+ul world are inter&related. Through study o+ suh an amazing and om7atible system it
an be easily onluded that their reator is also is all&8nowing9 7ower+ul and living9 and he
has reated this 7reise system through 8nowledge9 7ower and 7lan and He has been aware
and aimed in its reation.
"0istene o+ suh a 7reise and beauti+ul system is the best 7roo+ that their reator has
8nowledge9 7ower and li+e. 1ut an senseless matter reate and manage suh a 7reise and
oordinated systemA *r an a boo8 o+ siene or a beauti+ul wor8 o+ art be 7rodued +rom a
senseless and wea8 beingA Then how an it be imagined that this great world9 with all the
serets and amazing things9 with suh system and oordination ould have ome into being
+rom senseless and non&intentional natureA
Attributes &f Perfection
In the 7revious lessons9 where the 7roess and relationshi7 o+ ause and e++et was e07lained
and 7roved9 it beame lear that: the e++et no matter how muh 7er+etion and beauty it had9
all o+ it is reeived +rom its ause and the ause is in 7ossession o+ all these 7er+etions and
beauty at a higher sale. There+ore God Almighty9 who is the reator and real ause o+ the
heavens and earth and all that is 7resent in them9 He 7ossesses all the 7er+etions and beauties
o+ the universe.
Knowledge9 7ower and li+e are the attributes o+ 7er+etion9 whih are 7resent in some
reatures: sight9 hearing and s7eeh are the attributes o+ 7er+etion9 whih man is in
7ossession o+.
@e onsider the learned and aware man due to his learning and awareness to be su7erior and
more 7er+et than one who is not in 7ossession o+ this 8nowledge. @e also onsider the
7ower+ul and strong man due to his 7ower and strength to be su7erior to one who does not
have this 7ower and strength. The seeing and the hearing man or one who has these two
6ualities is in 7ossession o+ 7er+etions9 whih a blind and dea+ 7erson does not have.
There+ore we say: Ei+e9 8nowledge9 7ower9 insight are the attributes o+ 7er+etion and values
that some reatures 7ossess them in a limited 6uantum. !or e0am7le9 the body o+ man
7ossesses li+e9 but this li+e is limited in every as7etB i+ he does not eat9 he would dieB i+ he
does not breathe9 he would die. His li+e has a beginning and an endB it has limitations and
onditions.
3an is seeing9 but his sight is limited and onditional9 and he annot see beyond a distane
and he annot see the whole world in a single moment. He is also unable to see in the dar8M
and in this way every attribute o+ 7er+etion 7resent in the reatures is limited and onditional.
Seeing the 7er+etions and beauties 7resent in e0isting things we onlude that the God o+ the
world9 is the reator and the real reator ause o+ all reatures9 and He 7ossesses these
attributesB beause i+ He had not 7ossessed them9 He would not have been able to bestow
them to the reatures. 1ut the 7er+etions that the Almighty Allah 7ossesses do not have any
ondition and limitation and they do not have any derease and are muh higher.
Sine we onlude that God is the 7ossessor o+ all 7er+etions that e0ist in the world9 we
desribe the Almighty Allah with these 6ualities and say: God is living. God is all&8nowing.
God is all&7ower+ul. God is seeing. God is hearing. God is s7ea8ing. God is meri+ul. God is
bene+ient9 God is sel+&su++iientMbut sine all o+ us are onerned in a limited and restrited
sense with these 6ualities9 we use om7arison in our desri7tions and we say: God is living9
but not li8e our li+e whih is limited9 de+iient and whih is to end9 on the ontrary He is muh
higher.
God is 8nowing9 but not li8e our 8nowledge9 whih is limited and de+iient and whih an be
se7arated +rom our being9 that sometimes we are 8nowing and sometimes ignorantB there+ore
we always aom7any our desri7tion with two sentenes: 4Allah is the greatest5 and 4Glory
be to Allah5 as both these sentenes absolve the Almighty Allah o+ every 8ind o+ limitation9
de+et and shortoming.
Can we imagine 5od and +is Attributes$
This imagination im7lies whether we an see God and His attributes in our imaginationA It is
lear that we an imagine the senes o+ the heavens and we an imagine the sene o+ sunset.
@e an imagine the +ae o+ 7arents and a++etion o+ 7arents. Fan we imagine God and His
attributes in the same wayA I+ we see what we imagine9 we would see that it is also limited
and it has ou7ied our imagination. 1ut that whih is unlimited in every way9 annot be
ou7ied in a limited mind. There+ore when we imagine the attributes o+ the 7er+etion o+
Allah and +or e0am7le9 when we thin8 about His 7ower9 we should say: Allah is the greatest
and glory be to GodB that is Allah is the most su7erior and is 7ure o+ every de+et and
de+iieny.
Com"arison +ow will /ou describe the sea to one who has never seen it$
Iust su77ose one o+ your +riends has never seen the seaB how will you desribe it to himA >ou
would have to hel7 his intelligene and imagination. !or e0am7le i+ he has seen a small 7ond
or a small dith +illed with rain water9 you will say: sea is also a water body9 but not li8e these
water bodies9 on the ontrary it is muh bigger and dee7erB you would say: sea is also a 7ool
o+ water li8e these 7ools9 but muh dee7er9 wider9 but in s7ite o+ that some o+ those who have
never seen the sea would not be able to imagine its wideness and de7th and you will have to
say that the sea is muh wider and dee7er than what you imagine.
Somewhat suh is our ondition with regard to the attributes o+ 7er+etion o+ GodB in every
7er+etion we see a small 7ool having hundreds o+ limits9 restritions and de+etsB but we
understand that Almighty Allah is having all these 7er+etions and beauties in an unbounded
and limitless manner and without any de+et or shortomingB there+ore with imagination o+
every 6uality o+ 7er+etion that we see in the reatures9 we remove limit and restritions +rom
it and assoiate it to Allah and as muh good the 6uality is9 we believe in its better and higher
+orm +or the Almighty Allah and although the Almighty Allah is muh higher than the
desri7tion o+ one who does not reognize Him. :Glory be to God +rom what they attribute to
Him e0e7t the sinere servants o+ Allah;
Can 5od be seen$
"yes an see things9 +or e0am7le that tree whih is in the garden o+ the shool and that +lower
whih grows under the tree will also be seen with the eye. *ur eyes an see only some bodies
among all the e0isting beings. 1odies whih are in range o+ sight and su++iient light +rom
them reahes to the eyes are only the ones visible to the eyes.
1ut the eyes are not able to see many things whih are at a great distane or lie beyond the
+ous o+ the eyes. Fan the eyes see all that whih lies in the de7ths o+ the s8ies and seasA
3oreover9 there are many things whih are 7resent9 but whih are not visible to the human
eyeB +or e0am7le9 you 7ossess 8nowledge9 intellet and loveB are they visible to your eyesB or
it is that their e++ets are seen by the eyes.
I+ we had been able to see God with the eyes9 He would indeed have had a body li8e other
bodies and whih ou7y a s7ae and whih are 7resent at one 7lae and absent elsewhere9 He
would have been li8e a reature9 li8e other reatures whih are limited and whih need s7aeB
and li8e other things whih have a beginning and an end9 and whih go on hanging +rom one
state to another. I+ God had been a body9 He would be 7resent here and absent there. And He
ould not have been able to reate and see the things whih are there. I+ God had been a body
li8e other bodies o+ reatures He would not have been their reator and su7erior to them. That
is why sine God is not a body He annot be seen with the 7hysial eyes9 on the ontrary He
an be disovered by reason and insight o+ man through seeing e0isting things :whih are in
+at His signs and e++ets;. "yes annot see Him but He sees all eyes and He is most 8nowing
and is well in+ormed in every as7et.
1ome Attributes &f Perfection
)* Power
God is 7ower+ulB that is He an do anything that is logially 7ossible. He 7er+orms all His ats
+rom the as7et o+ 8nowledge9 hoie and intention and He is neither om7elled to do
anything or to leave it. His 7ower is endless and without any limit. In the Holy ,uran9 He
says:
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surely Allah has .ower over all things)! "*:*8'
,* rnowledge
That is He 8nows everything and enom7asses all e0isting things and worldly 7henomenaB
and nothing is hidden +rom HimB so muh so that He is also ognizant o+ the intentions and
thoughts o+ 7eo7le. He says in ,uran:
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-ay: Whether you hide what is in your hearts or manifest it, Allah knows it, and 0e knows
whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth, and Allah has .ower over all
things)! "$:*&'
-* ife
God is living. That is He is a being that ats aording to 8nowledge and 7ower. Ei+e o+ God
does not im7ly that He breathes and moves li8e human beings and that he eats and grows. *n
the ontrary9 it im7lies that His ats are based on intention and 8nowledge.
0* Intention
God is having intentionB that is He 7er+orms His ations with intention. And He is not li8e
+ire9 whih had no intention o+ its own to burn and whih does not have disretion. 1ut He
does whatever He wants. And i+ He does not ma8e an intention9 He does not do it. His
intention and will is a 7er+etion o+ the sub<et but God who is at the ultimate stage o+
7er+etion and e0istene9 would not la8 any o+ these 7er+etions. In ,uran also9 intention is
related to God. He says:
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Our word for a thing when We intend it, is only that We say to it, @e, and it is)! ",+:#8'
And He says:
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-urely Allah will cause those who (elieve and do good deeds to enter gardens (eneath
which rivers flow, surely Allah does what 0e .leases)! "**:,#'
2* +earing
God is hearingB that is He is aware o+ every sound and nothing is hidden +rom Him.
3* 1eeing
God is seeing. That is He an see every event and 7henomenon and He is the witness and seer
o+ them all. In ,uran also9 in numerous 7laes9 hearing and seeing is related to God. !or
e0am7le the Almighty Allah says:
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-urely Allah commands you to make over trusts to their owners and that when you =udge
(etween .eo.le you =udge with =ustice7 surely Allah admonishes you with what is e;cellent7
surely Allah is -eeing, 0earing)! "#:32'
* 1"eech
God is s7ea8ing. That is He an e07ress and e07lain His +ats and aims to othersMthese are
some o+ the 6ualities o+ 7er+etion or 7ositive attributes with whih the Almighty Allah is
desribed.
He 7ossesses other attributes and names also9 whih are 7resently not mentioned here.
Im"ortant Reminder
,ualities o+ God are not de+iient and limited li8e our 6ualities. Sine we are de+iient in
attributes and being9 we annot do anything without senses and 7hysial organs. Although we
7ossess them9 we annot do anything without see8ing limbs and organs. @e 7ossess the
a7aity to hear but we annot hear without ears. @e 7ossess the a7aity to see but we
annot hear without eyes.
1ut the being o+ the Almighty Allah9 sine it is at the ultimate level o+ 7er+etion and His
6ualities also are 7er+eted to the highest level9 He sees without eyes9 He hears without ears
and 7er+orms ats without limbs and organs and He understands without brain and nerves.
Sine the way o+ seeing and hearing is that they an only be 7er+ormed through eyes9 ears and
nerves9 on the ontrary the reality o+ seeing and hearing is nothing e0e7t that they should be
+or a 7erson who is a77arent and lear9 although it should be without the inter+erene o+
senses.
@e also9 i+ we had not been de+etive9 would have been able to see and hear without the
inter+erene o+ eyes and earsB indeed seeing and hearing would have been 7roved +rom them.
1ut the Eord o+ the reated world9 sine with regard to His being and 6ualities is at the
ultimate level o+ 7er+etion9 His 6ualities and ats are also 7er+et and unrestrited and do not
have needs li8e us.
In the same way9 sine we are de+iient9 we are om7elled to use the tongue9 mouth and
outlets o+ 7ronuniation in e07laining our aims9 but Almighty Allah has no need o+ tongue and
mouth in s7ea8ing and e07ressing Himsel+9 but He e07resses His aims in other ways and
whih is also s7ea8ing. Sine s7ea8ing does not only mean that its aims should be e07ressed
through the tongue and mouth9 on the ontrary i+ this same ation an be 7er+ormed without
tongue and mouth9 it would also be onsidered s7ea8ing.
There+ore the 6ualities o+ God are very muh di++erent +rom our 6ualities.
4egative Attributes
"very attribute that negates de+et and limitation +or the Almighty Allah is alled as negative
attribute. It is also alled as Si+at Salbiya9 beause their meaning is negative. The being o+ the
Almighty Allah is a 7er+et being without any limit and is having no de+et and limitation.
That is why He is having neessity o+ e0istene and absene annot be imagined about Him.
He 7ossesses all 7er+etions and no 7er+etion an be ta8en away +rom Him.
*n the ontrary9 He is 7ure o+ every 8ind o+ de+et. ,ualities that negate His de+ets are alled
as -egative attributes or Si+aat Salbiyah. They are too many9 but here we mention only a +ew
o+ them:
)* 5od is not 'od/
1ody is something whih 7ossesses length and breath9 de7th and +orm9 whih ou7ies s7ae
aording to its volume and it annot remain without having a s7eial s7ae. And that is why
God is not a body9 beause i+ He had been a body He would need s7ae9 so that He may
ou7y it. And suh a need+ul being annot be -eessary 1eing :@a<ibul @u<ud;9 beause
neessity o+ being is not om7atible with need+ulness and limitation. God is the reator o+
s7aes9 how an He be need+ul o+ s7aeA
,* 5od is not visible to Ph/sical E/es
That is He annot be seen with material eyes9 beause only bodies9 e++ets and their s7eialties
an be seen with eyes9 while the +at is that we have 7roved above that God is not a body.
There+ore He would never be visible. Almighty Allah would neither be seen in this world nor
in the world o+ the herea+ter. He is an unlimited and abstrat being without the e++ets and
6ualities o+ matter and bodyB how an He beome visible to a material eyeA "yes an see a
thing whih is 7laed at a 7artiular distane +rom it.
Sine the being o+ God is neither limited nor ou7ies s7ae9 in that ase it is 7ossible that
someone says: I+ God had e0isted He would have been visible to the eye or 7ereived through
one o+ the senses. How an His being be ae7ted when none o+ the senses 7ereive HimA It
would be said in re7ly: The so7e o+ being is not on+ined to 7ere7tionsB in this world we are
having hundreds and thousands o+ material things9 whih annot be 7ereived through senses.
Fan you not see the 7ower o+ gravity o+ the earth and 7ower o+ eletriity in wiresA Fan you
see eletrons and 7rotons 7resent in an atom and their movementA Fan you see li+e in a living
thingA Fan you see the human and animal soulA Fan you see the a++etion o+ the mother +or
her hildrenA Fan you see and hear all the sounds in the atmos7hereA "t.
"ven though all these things are material and 7hysial9 they are not 7ereived by any o+ the
senses9 but you ae7t their e0istene9 sine you see their e++ets.
Thus how an you e07et to see the reator o+ the world when He is a being abstrat o+ matter
and materiality and muh above time and s7aeA Suh unlimited being annot ou7y the
limited vessel o+ 7ere7tion9 but you see the e++ets and signs o+ the reator o+ the world in the
beauties and amazing as7ets o+ the world and gain +aith in His being.
In the Holy ,uran also9 it is mentioned learly that the Almighty Allah would never be visible
to the 7hysial eyes:
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Aision com.rehends 0im not, and 0e com.rehends "all' vision7 and 0e is the Knower of
su(tleties, the Aware)! "+:,8$'
-* 5od is not Ignorant
In the disussion o+ Positive Attributes it was 7roved that 8nowledge is a 7er+etion o+ being
whih the holy being o+ God 7ossesses. Sine the being o+ God is unlimited9 His 8nowledge
would also be unlimited and He is aware o+ everything in every ondition and de+et and
ignorane is not 7resent in His being. There+ore the Almighty Allah is not ignorant.
It is mentioned in the Holy ,uran:
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0* 5od is not +el"less
Previously in the disussion o+ the Positive attributes9 we 7roved that 7ower is an e0ellene
and the being o+ God is in 7ossession o+ it. And sine the Almighty Allah is an unlimited
being9 His 7ower is also not having any limit9 and He has 7ower over every 7ossible matter.
That is why God is not hel7less in anything.
2* +e is not subect to Change
He does not age and is not suse7tible to disease. He neither slee7s nor gets tired. He does not
beome regret+ul o+ onse6uenes9 beause suh 6ualities are only assoiated with materiality
and 7hysialityB and sine we have already 7roved that God is not a 7hysial body9 suh
hanges an never a77ly to Him. There+ore 8nowledge9 hearing and seeing9 intention and His
other 7ositive attributes are also suh that they annot hange or be a++eted by anything.
It is said in the Holy ,uran:
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Allah is 0e (esides Whom there is no god, the <ver living, the -elf4su(sisting (y Whom
all su(sist7 slum(er does not overtake 0im nor slee.! "*:*33'
3* 5od does not occu"/ 1"ace
He an neither be on+ined to a 7lae either in the earth or the heavens9 beause He is not a
body that He should be in need o+ s7ae. He is the reator o+ the s7aes and He e0isted be+ore
them. God is a being abstrat +rom matter and materiality and He enom7asses all the beings
and He does not ou7y a 7artiular vessel. His being is unlimited and unrestrited and He
enom7asses all the 7laes. He is 7resent and seeing everywhere and the terms o+ 4here5 and
4there5 are not used about Him.
1ut when we raise our hands to the s8y in su77liation it does not im7ly that we onsider God
to be in the heavens. *n the ontrary we e07ress our humility and sinerity to Him and we
visualize ourselves as a hel7less and an an0ious beggar.
Also i+ we label a mos6ue and the Kaaba as the House o+ Allah9 it is so beause we mean to
say that the Almighty Allah is worshi77ed in them and that He had Himsel+ honored them by
mentioning them as His houses.
* Allah is not 4eedful
Allah is a being that is unlimited and 7er+et +rom every as7et and no de+et9 limit or absene
is 7resent in His being. That is why He is a -eessary 1eing :@a<ibul @u<ud; and absene
and de+iieny annot be imagined about Him. And sine He is suh9 He is not in need o+
anything. All 7er+etions are bestowed by Him and He Himsel+ in the 7osition o+ a uni6ue
being is in 7ossession o+ all 7er+etions. He does not la8 anything that he should be in need
o+ it. There+ore God is not need+ul o+ anyone or anything.
I+ He has +i0ed duties +or the 7eo7le and wants them to struggle in Iihad9 it is not beause He
is in need o+ worshi7 and Iihad. *n the ontrary9 7eo7le themselves are in need o+ religion9
Iihad and worshi7 +or 7er+etion o+ selves and suess o+ herea+ter. And meri+ul God by
sending the 7ro7hets and +raming o+ laws and rules o+ religion has guaranteed their needs.
Peo7le do not +avor God by being religious9 on the ontrary the Almighty Allah is Kind that
He has +avored and guided them by sending 7ro7hets and +raming laws +or them.
I+ He has made Ja8at and Khums obligatory9 and as8ed 7eo7le to hel7 the needy and use
+unds in haritable and 7ubli wel+are9 it is not beause He is in need o+ material hel7 o+ the
7eo7leB it is beause suh things are neessary to administer soiety and are there +or the well&
being o+ the 7eo7le in general.
3oreover9 the Almighty Allah +avored human beings and the material hel79 whih was +or the
well&being o+ human soiety9 He labeled it as worshi7 at. *n the ontrary He onsidered it to
be the greatest worshi7 at. Suh that i+ it is 7er+ormed with the intention o+ solely see8ing the
7ro0imity o+ God9 it will be a +ator o+ 7er+etion o+ sel+ and will earn a hundred +old reward
in the world o+ the herea+ter.
* 5od is not !nust
God never ommits any 8ind o+ in<ustie sine He does not re6uire anything that He should
be un<ust. 3ore details on this matter will be mentioned in the disussion o+ divine <ustie.
* 5od has no Partner
-either has He a 7artner in reation nor in the administration o+ the worldB nor has He
7ermitted ta8ing anyone or anything else as a deity. 3ore details on this matter will be
mentioned in the disussion o+ oneness o+ God.
It is mentioned in the Holy ,uran:
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multi.lies it and gives from 0imself a great reward)! "#:#8'
&neness of 5od
*neness o+ the godhead is the +undamental 7rini7le o+ all heavenly religions and a s7eialty
o+ the religion o+ Islam. Givine 7ro7hets alled 7eo7le to belie+ in oneness o+ God and
monotheism and 7rohibited them +rom 7olytheism and duality. The Holy Pro7het o+ Islam :S;
began his mission with monotheism and in the +irst stage announed: Say 4there is no god
e0e7t Allah5 and be suess+ul. Eaws and belie+s o+ Islam are based on the oneness o+ the
godhead.
The Holy ,uran has aorded a s7eial 7osition to monotheism through numerous verses in
suh a way that it an be said to be a boo8 o+ monotheism that o77oses 7olytheism. The Holy
,uran onsiders 7olytheism to be the only sin whih is un+orgivable under every
irumstane. And He says:
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-urely Allah does not forgive that anything should (e associated with 0im, and forgives
what is (esides that to whomsoever 0e .leases! "#:#2'
There are many 8inds o+ monotheisms and we mention some o+ them in brie+ as +ollows:
Monotheism &f (he 'eing
3onotheism o+ the being im7lies that all worldly 7henomena are aused by a single being and
e0e7t Him there is no other reator. The great being9 who is alled as 4Allah5 is one and not
more and He is uni6ue. He has an inde7endent e0istene without any need whereas all
7henomena o+ the world are related to Him and are in need o+ Him.
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And He says:
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"+:,&'
In boo8s o+ 7hiloso7hy and sholastiism oneness o+ the godhood is 7roved through various
logial reasonings.
1ut we do not need to mention their details and e07lanations. I+ it is in the meaning o+ being
that is neessary9 7ure and limitless9 you will indeed realize that suh a being should
neessarily be uni6ue and not multi7le. In e07lanation o+ the matter it an be said that e0isting
beings are not other than o+ two 8inds: either they are limited or unlimited and absolute.
Eimited beings are those whose e0istene is having a limit and they do not 7ossess the being
and 7er+etions o+ others and they an be negated +rom it. !or e0am7le: the e0istene o+ man
is limited beause he is a man and that is why other things li8e 7lants and li+eless things are
7laed with him and they an be negated +rom him. It an be said: 3an is not 7lant and
li+eless matter and they are also not human.
Sine suh beings do not 7ossess e0istene in the 7osition o+ their own being9 they are need+ul
and they have to ta8e their e0istene +rom others. In suh limited beings multi7liity9
imagination and 7ossibility o+ ourrene is 7resent. As it is said :in 7lural +orm;: Human
beings9 animals9 7lants and li+eless matters.
The seond ty7e is unlimited beings: Sine suh beings do not have limits and 6uantitiesB on
the ontrary they are absolute9 7ure and unlimited. Sine they are unlimited and do not have
any de+et9 they 7ossess all the 7er+etions and are needless +rom every as7et and +ree o+
need in their being. In this su77osition9 the e0istene o+ the greater and more +ree o+ need is
not there that it should be needed.
In suh a being atually9 there is no imagination o+ multi7liity. In +ront o+ a being that is
unlimited9 how an we imagine another being who is unlimited and whih should be its
7artner in reating and ontrolling the universeA 1eause i+ the seond su77osed being also
7ossesses all the 7er+etions o+ the being and is a 7art o+ its being9 and i+ it la8s some o+ the
7er+etions o+ the +irst being9 he would be one and the same.
And i+ he la8s some 7er+etion he would be limited and need+ul and suh a being annot be
onsidered as a 7artner o+ God. This leads us to onlude that all 7henomena o+ the world are
limited and need+ul and are related to the Almighty Allah and we only have a single uni6ue
and 7ure being and He is one and has no 7artner.
&neness in Attributes
*neness in attributes means that the 6ualities o+ the Almighty Allah are His very being and
not additional to His being. A +ew 7oints an be mentioned to e07lain it:
%. "0isting beings 7ossess an e0istene and 6ualitiesB +or e0am7le you see a white 7a7er and
say: This is a white 7a7er. In this e0am7le9 47a7er5 is the being and 4white5 is the 6uality.
Pa7er an be white and it annot be white. @hiteness is inidental to the 7a7er and it does not
have a se7arate e0istene. @hiteness is other than the 7a7er and that is why it is 7ossible +or it
not to be white.
Another e0am7le: Eet us onsider a 8nowing man. Here we have a 8nowing man and
8nowledge. 3an is a being and 8nowledge is his attribute. Knowledge is not in the 7osition o+
the being o+ manB on the ontrary it is an inidental matter. I+ 8nowledge had been in the being
o+ man9 he would not have re6uired a6uiring it. Thus 8nowledge is neither the very being o+
man nor a 7art o+ his being.
#. Previously you read that the Almighty Allah 7ossesses all the attributes o+ 7er+etion. Sine
He is an unlimited being9 it is neessary +or Him to have all 7er+etions. And i+ not9 He would
be de+iient9 limited9 need+ul and an e++et. >ou also learnt about the 6ualities o+ 7er+etion
li8e 8nowledge9 7ower9 li+e9 hearing and sight.
-ow the 6uestion arises that o+ what ty7e the 6ualities o+ Almighty Allah areA Are they li8e
6ualities o+ other 7eo7le whih are inidental and additional to their beingsA Fan the divine
being o+ Almighty Allah be ever bere+t o+ 8nowledge9 hearing and seeing and are these
6ualities inidental to His being9 as in the ase o+ human beingsA *r that the 6ualities o+
Almighty Allah are o+ some other 8indA I+ you 7onder on the above disussion9 you would
easily get the re7ly to this 6ueryA
In order to e07lain this we should say: The Almighty Allah is a being in suh a way that His
e0istene is unlimited9 absolute9 and 7ure and has no end. Positive attributes o+ suh a being
annot be denied. And i+ not9 He would be limited9 de+iient and need+ul. There+ore
8nowledge9 7ower and li+e and other 7ositive attributes are the very being o+ Almighty Allah9
and not inidental and additional to His being. That is why He is always in 7ossession o+ the
6ualities and He does not need to a6uire them.
The Almighty Allah is an unlimited being9 and is 8nowledge9 7ower and li+e itsel+. Sine His
being is -eessary 1eing :@a<ibul @u<ud;9 His 8nowledge9 li+e and 7ower would also be
neessary and +ree o+ need o+ ause and unlimitedB although He is only a single being and not
moreB but He is suh an unlimited being that di++erent meanings an be se7arated +rom Him.
@ith regard to Almighty Allah it is not that we should have a desribed being and the
attributes be se7arate +rom HimB on the ontrary9 His divine being and 7ositive attributes are
in +at eah other and He is one unlimited and absolute being.
In -ah<ul 1alagha9 Ali Ibn Abi Talib :a.s.; has mentioned this ritial matter and said:
=Per+etion o+ sinerity is to deny Him attributes9 beause every attribute is a 7roo+ that it is
di++erent +rom that to whih it is attributed and everything to whih something is attributed is
di++erent +rom the attribute. Thus whoever attahes attributes to Allah reognizes His li8e9 and
who reognizes His li8e regards Him twoB and who regards Him two reognizes 7arts +or
HimB and who reognizes 7arts +or Him mistoo8 HimB and who mistoo8 Him 7ointed at HimB
and who 7ointed at Him admitted limitations +or HimB and who admitted limitations +or Him
numbered Him.?
)
&neness in Creation
Freation is in the meaning o+ origination. *neness in reation im7lies that Almighty Allah9
sine He is one in His being and does not have any 7artner9 in reation also He is one and
there is no reator other than Him. Previously we mentioned that beings are o+ two ty7es: one
is suh that its being is its very e0istene and has no need o+ anyone or anything else.
Seondly there are beings9 whih in the 7osition o+ e0istene do not have inde7endent
e0istene and they need other beings to bring them into e0isteneB and that is uni6ue being o+
the Eord o+ the worlds.
That is why all 7henomena o+ the world need Almighty Allah +or their e0istene and they
have no other who has given them e0istene9 as the 7ossible 7henomenon sine originally are
need+ul o+ the holy being o+ Almighty Allah and in survival9 ontinuity o+ being9 and in their
ations and e++ets are also related to and need+ul o+ this needless being. I+ they are not
inde7endent e0istene they also do not have inde7endene in ation and e++ets.
It is God who has brought them into e0istene and not made their beings null and void. That is
why whatever is there9 is +rom Almighty Allah and it does not have any reator and originator
other than Him. This is the meaning o+ oneness in reation.
There is no 7ower and strength e0e7t that o+ Allah9 the High and the 3ighty. Although
7henomena o+ the world have e++etsB +or e0am7le the Sun 7ossesses light and heat9 it hel7s in
the growth o+ 7lants and 7lants in turn 7re7are +ood +or animals and human beings. And
hundreds and thousands o+ other e++et li8e we see in -ature in this worldB suh e++ets annot
be denied9 but they are not reators and originators. *n the ontrary in e++et o+ natural
ations or reation the e++ets that are bestowed to them beome obvious.
The reator o+ the universe is one who has given e0istene to natural beings and has bestowed
e++ets and s7eialties to them. Sientists have made amazing new inventions through
e07eriments and researh9 but with a little attention it an be onluded that they have not
brought them into e0isteneB on the ontrary their most im7ortant ahievement is the
e07osition o+ serets hidden in material natures9 whih the reator o+ the world has 7laed in
their beings. @e do not negate the ausality and e++ets and e++etuality o+ the material world.
*n the ontrary we also do not negate the inde7endene o+ their e++ets. !rom these
statements we an onlude that sine the Almighty Allah is one in His being9 He is also one
in His reation and that He has no 7artners.
@e an onlude +rom the Holy ,uran that the 7olytheists o+ the Arabian Peninsula also
on+essed to oneness in reation.
The ,uran says:
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-ah<ul 1alagha9 Sermon %.
And if you ask them, Who created the heavens and the earth and made the sun and the
moon su(servient, they will certainly say, Allah) Whence are they then turned away?!
"*&:+,'
And He says:
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And if you ask them Who is it that sends down water from the clouds, then gives life to the
earth with it after its death, they will certainly say, Allah)! "*&:+$'
And He says:
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:s there dou(t a(out Allah, the Maker of the heavens and the earth?! ",#:,8'
And He says:
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0e is Allah the 1reator, the Maker, the Cashioner7 0is are the most e;cellent names!
"3&:*#'
It an be onluded +rom suh verses that the 7olytheists o+ the Arabian Peninsula and the
ones addressed in the ,uran 8new that reation was +rom Almighty Allah and they were not
7olytheists in this matter. 1ut it annot be onluded +rom these verses that the 7olytheists o+
all areas o+ the world also have same belie+ and that they ae7t oneness o+ god in reationB as
in the ase o+ JoroastriansB who believe that all good is reated by >azdan and all evil is
reated by Ahriman. However we would re+ute this belie+ in the disussion o+ monotheism
through logial reasonings.
&neness in ordshi" and Will
@e mentioned 7reviously that sine Almighty Allah is a uni6ue and single beingB He also is
one in reation and has no 7artner in it. -ow we shall 7rove that He is also one in Eordshi7
and ontrol o+ universe. !irst we should de+ine lordshi7 and will and a+ter that we should set
out to reason out +rom them.
Eord in ditionary means one having something in His ontrol so that He may re+orm its
ondition. @ill is also in the same meaning: +or e0am7le a 7iee o+ land is given in harge o+ a
7erson in order that he may 7er+orm all neessary ats with regard to it. The gardener is
identi+ied as the lord and manager o+ the agriultural 7lot. The gardener is not the reator o+
the 7lotB on the ontrary he is the lord and areta8er. *r +or e0am7le i+ a 7erson is given the
7ower o+ reation and administrative matters are le+t at his disretion9 he would also be alled
as the lord and ontroller. *r a man who is entrusted with the matter onerning 6uadru7edsB
he is also onsidered as their lord and administrator.
-ow the 6uestion arises that who is in ontrol o+ the universeA Is it under the ontrol o+ God9
who has reated it without any 7artnerA *r He has handed over the harge o+ all or some o+
the 7henomena to someone or something elseA And this same matter is the to7i o+ our
disussion. !rom ,uran and history it an be onluded that although the 7olytheists o+ the
Arabian Peninsula ae7ted the oneness o+ god in reation9 they did not asribe to belie+ in the
oneness o+ god in ontrolling and administering the worldB on the ontrary they onsidered
other 7ersons and things to be His assoiates in this regard.
Polytheists o+ the Arabian Peninsula9 li8e 7olytheists o+ all ountries o+ the world9 believed
that the Eord reator o+ the world :greater being; has entrusted the management o+ the world
to invisible 7owers li8e angels9 <inn9 god o+ men9 god o+ animals9 god o+ seas and deserts9 god
o+ 7lants9 god o+ human re7rodution9 holy s7irits9 evil s7iritsB so that they may ontrol the
world o+ nature inde7endently and beause o+ this belie+9 whenever they were on+ronted by
dangers9 alamities and to solve di++iulties and +ul+illment o+ needs they ta8e re+uge in a
7ower related to the unseenB and to attrat his attention 7er+orm o++erings and rituals.
And as they were only 4imaginary5 unseen 7owers9 they sha7ed their images in wood9 stone
and metal and named them as idols and during worshi7 +oused their attention on them and
humbled themselves be+ore them while in +at their aim was to +ous attention on unseen
7owers and di++erent deities.
1ut the Holy ,uran onsiders 7olytheism in lordshi7 and will an invalid belie+ and also
regards lordshi7 as a s7eial attribute o+ Almighty Allah. There are numerous verses in the
Holy ,uran whih mention this 7oint:
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Allah is 0e Who raised the heavens without any .illars that you see, and 0e is firm in
.ower and 0e made the sun and the moon su(servient "to you'7 each one .ursues its
course to an a..ointed time7 0e regulates the affair, making clear the signs that you may
(e certain of meeting your ?ord)! ",$:*'
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-urely your ?ord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in si; .eriods, and 0e is
firm in .ower, regulating the affair, there is no intercessor e;ce.t after 0is .ermission7 this
is Allah, your ?ord, therefore serve 0im7 will you not then mind?! ",8:$'
*u7ying the seat o+ authority and ommand :Arsh; is a simile +or om7lete authority on the
entire world to administer and ruling whih is this same destiny and lordshi7. That is why
lordshi7 and divine will are also 6ualities only o+ Almighty Allah and the holy being o+ Allah
+rom this as7et is also uni6ueB and e++et o+ auses and other ause will be there with His
e0istential 7ermission.
As mentioned in other verses also:
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/ay6 your ?ord is the ?ord of the heavens and the earth, Who (rought them into
e;istence! "*,:3+'
And He says:
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-ay: What6 shall : seek a ?ord other than Allah? And 0e is the ?ord of all things!
"+:,+#'
And He says:
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All .raise is due to Allah, the ?ord of the Worlds)! ",:*'
There+ore as the Almighty Allah is single in His being and reation and 7reviously you have
learnt about the argumentations o+ the same9 in lordshi7 and administering o+ the world also
He is alone9 without any 7artners. He ontrols the world and does not leave matters related to
the whole world to anyone or anything else. Philoso7hial reasoning means the same that was
mentioned in the oneness in reation.
There we mentioned that the 7ossible 7henomena o+ the world in His being and ations are
need+ul o+ a being as His e0istene is +ree o+ need o+ others and suh a being is not e0e7t the
being o+ the Almighty Allah. It was also mentioned there that the worldly 7henomena :visible
and invisible; sine they are de7endent on a higher being +or their e0istene9 in their ations
and e++ets also they are in need o+ that sel+&su++iient being and are +ully de7endent on it. @e
don5t have a 7ermanent and needless being among the worldly 7henomena that lordshi7 and
ontrol o+ the world an be entrusted to it.
And i+ we see ausality and e++etiveness in the 7henomena o+ the world9 we should onsider
them to be His diret ations and imagine that the ontrol o+ the world is entrusted to it. *n
the ontrary as mentioned in ,uran9 mediums and auses at through the 7ermission o+ Allah.
Although angels are mediums o+ divine +avors and 7ossess e++ets9 but their in+luene is not
inde7endent. In the same way9 material auses have e++et in the being o+ ausality and not
that they are inde7endentB on the ontrary they themselves and their e++ets are need+ul and
de7endent on Almighty Allah.
&neness in Worshi"
*neness in worshi7 means monotheism and restriting worshi7 only to the holy being o+
Almighty Allah. *neness in worshi7 was the most im7ortant all o+ the 7ro7hets. ,uran says:
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And certainly We raised in every nation an a.ostle saying: -erve Allah and shun the
-haitan)! ",+:$+'
And He says:
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And We did not send (efore you any a.ostle (ut We revealed to him that there is no god
(ut Me, therefore serve Me)! "*,:*3'
@orshi7 means servitude and obeisane and a s7eial humility in +ront o+ the deity with the
ondition that the worshi7 at should arise +rom belie+ in divinity9 lordshi79 will and
reatibility o+ the deity. Sine divinity9 lordshi79 will and reatibility are reserved only +or the
holy being o+ Almighty Allah worshi7 and servitude should also be reserved +or Him and no
other being is eligible +or this 7osition and this is the meaning o+ oneness in worshi7.
As o77osed to oneness in worshi79 we have 7olytheism in worshi7. It an be onluded +rom
the Holy ,uran that some 7eo7le worshi7 beings other than Allah9 li8e: angels9 unseen
7owers9 sun and moon and some starsB they 7ay homage to them and ma8e o++erings and
sari+ies to them. Their worshi7 arises +rom belie+ that those deities have lordshi7 and
ontrol o+ the universe and they an guarantee the +ul+illment o+ their needs e++etively and
diretly. They 7er+orm worshi7s9 o++erings and sari+ies to be notied by them. And i+ they
7aid homage be+ore the idols o+ stone9 woods and metals9 it was beause they onsidered them
to be an e07ression o+ those hidden beings and through invalid on<etures onsidered their
worshi7 to be a medium o+ divine 7ro0imity9 while they annot do anything. ,uran has
ridiuled the 7olytheists +or this worshi7 and says: @orshi7 Allah as He is the doer o+ the
world. The Holy ,uran says:
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.rofit?! "3:5+'
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Eou only worshi. idols (esides Allah and you create a lie7 surely they whom you serve
(esides Allah do not control for you any sustenance! "*&:,5'
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And surely Allah is my ?ord and your ?ord, therefore serve 0im7 this is the right .ath)!
",&:$+'
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O men6 serve your ?ord Who created you and those (efore you so that you may guard
"against evil')! "*:*,'
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1ertainly We sent /uh to his .eo.le, so he said: O my .eo.le6 serve Allah, you have no
god other than 0im! "5:3&'
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And they serve (eside Allah what can neither harm them nor .rofit them, and they say:
These are our intercessors with Allah)! ",8:,2'
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they were en=oined that they should serve one Bod only)! "&:$,'
And said:
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-ay: : am only commanded that : should serve Allah and not associate anything with
0im! ",$:$+'
As you must have noted9 the Holy ,uran negates the lordshi79 divinity and reation o+ +alse
deities and their worshi7B and delares it to be a wrong+ul and useless at and onsiders
worshi7 to be reserved only +or the Almighty Allah as lordshi7 and ontrol o+ the universe is
reserved +or Him alone. In the 7revious lessons we have learnt through 7hiloso7hial
reasonings and there is no need to re7eat it again.
As mentioned in the history o+ worshi7 :religion;9 every humility9 even the goal o+ humility
annot be ta8en to be an im7liation o+ worshi79 on the ontrary humility in worshi7 is that it
should have ome +rom belie+ in divinity9 reation and lordshi7 o+ the deity. And that is why
the 7rostration o+ angels be+ore His "minene9 AdamB sine Almighty Allah had ordered it9 it
was not 7olytheism. ,uran says:
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And when We said to the angels: Make o(eisance to Adam7 they made o(eisance, (ut :(lis
"did it not') 0e said: -hall : make o(eisance to him whom Thou hast created of dust?!
",5:+,'
It is 8nown that 7rostration be+ore His "minene9 Adam :a.s.; was not worshi7 and
7olytheism9 otherwise Almighty Allah would never have ordered it. And in the same way9 the
7rostration o+ Pro7het >usu+ and his brothers in +ront o+ their 7arents was not worshi7 and
7olytheism as mentioned in ,uran that Pro7het >usu+ :a.s.; seated his 7arents on the throne
and +ell down in 7rostration to them along with his brothers.
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And he raised his .arents u.on the throne and they fell down in .rostration (efore him)!
",*:,88'
It is learnt that the 7rostration o+ angels +or Adam :a.s.; and the 7rostration o+ Pro7het >usu+
:a.s.; and his brothers +or Pro7het >a6ub :a.s.; was not worshi7 and 7olytheism. 1eause
angels9 Pro7het >usu+ :a.s.; and his brothers did not 7rostrate be+ore Adam :a.s.; and >a6ub
:a.s.; due to belie+ in their divinity9 reation and lordshi7. *n the ontrary it was on aount o+
res7et and honor.
Kissing the 1la8 Stone and touhing it and irling the Kaaba in the holy religion o+ Islam is
onsidered as worshi7 at and it is ordered to 7er+orm it. In s7ite o+ the +at that the goal o+
humility is Kaaba9 it is not onsidered as 7olytheism. There+ore the Jiyarat o+ the holy tomb
o+ the Holy Pro7het o+ Islam and 8issing o+ the saro7hagus and su77liation near it also will
not be onsidered as im7lied 7olytheism. And in the same way9 visiting the tombs o+ the Holy
Imams :a.s.; and 8issing their graves and see8ing the mediation o+ those 7uri+ied souls with
Almighty Allah and 7raying and see8ing their interession are also not onsidered 7olytheism.
1eause all visitors 8now that the Holy Pro7het :S; and Holy Imams :a.s.; were servants o+
Almighty Allah and need+ul o+ Him. Their honor and res7et is not due to belie+ in their
divinity9 reation and lordshi7. Res7et o+ those holy tombs is only due to the +at that they
are related to the holy souls o+ the Holy Pro7het :S; and his hosen desendants and in
traditions Almighty Allah has ordered 7aying res7et to them9 to 8ee7 their memory alive and
e07ress our loyalty to those hosen ones.
3ediation through these holy souls9 whih is 7roved beyond doubt in Islami law9 is in +at
obediene o+ the laws o+ Shariah and a medium o+ gaining 7ro0imity to Almighty Allah. >ou
ta8e advantage o+ natural auses in the matters o+ li+e and it is not 7olytheism9 see8ing
mediation o+ holy souls o+ divine saints an also be +rom unnatural auses. 1ut in any ase
neither natural ause have inde7endene in their e++ets9 nor unnatural auseB and they annot
be onsidered as 7olytheism.
.ivine ustice
Givine Iustie is a 7ositive attribute and one o+ ationsB im7lying that all ats o+ God are
7er+ormed in aordane with <ustie and His holy being is 7ure o+ in<ustie. Givine <ustie is
an Islami belie+ and it is asribed to by all 3uslims in general9 although there is di++erene o+
o7inion in its inter7retation between sholasti theologians and they are divided into two
grou7s: 3utazali and Ashari or Adliya and Ghair Adliya.
In the Holy ,uran9 the 6uality o+ <ustie is 7roved +or Almighty Allah and in<ustie is negated
about Him. !or e0am7le:
It is said in ,uran:
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Allah (ears witness that there is no god (ut 0e, and "so do' the angels and those
.ossessed of knowledge, maintaining 0is creation with =ustice7 there is no god (ut 0e, the
Mighty, the Wise)! "$:,2'
And He says:
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And the word of your ?ord has (een accom.lished truly and =ustly7 there is none who can
change 0is words, and 0e is the 0earing, the Knowing)! "+:,,3'
And says:
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-urely Allah does not do in=ustice to the weight of an atom, and if it is a good deed 0e
multi.lies it and gives from 0imself a great reward)! "#:#8'
There is no doubt in the goodness o+ <ustie and evil o+ in<ustie. "veryone li8es <ustie and
7raises one who is <ustB they onsider in<ustie as evil and ondemn the un<ust. Iustie has
many de+initions9 but this is not the time to mention them or to do any researh on this to7i.
The best de+inition is that whih is derived +rom the words o+ -ah<ul 1alagha: Imam Ali :a.s.;
has mentioned <ustie to be su7erior to generosity and he says:
Iustie is 7laing everything in its a77ro7riate 7lae.
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Iustie im7lies +ul+illment o+ the rights o+ all those who have a right.
"very 7erson9 aording to his reation9 has some s7eial rights and others are duty&bound to
honor themB li8e the right to wor8 and 7ossession o+ the +ruits o+ their labor9 right o+ seurity
and +reedom9 li+e and right o+ eduation9 right to marry and re7rodue and tens o+ other rightsB
<ust as one who res7ets the right o+ others in his soiety and he does not tres7ass on them. @e
an use two reasonings to 7rove <ustie o+ Allah and to negate that He is un<ust:
(he %irst Proof Is suran
The Almighty Allah in numerous verses o+ ,uran has ordered <ustie and e6uity and He has
7rohibited in<ustie and ruelty.
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Fom7ilation o+ -ah<ul 1alagha9 Pg. %(%.
@e 7resent three verses by way o+ e0am7le:
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-urely Allah en=oins the doing of =ustice and the doing of good "to others'! ",+:&8'
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O you who (elieve6 (e maintainers of =ustice, (earers of witness of AllahFs sake!
"#:,$3'
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And do not think Allah to (e heedless of what the un=ust do7 0e only res.ites them to a
day on which the eyes shall (e fi;edly o.en)! ",#:#*'
The God9 who has ommanded <ustie and e6uity to 7eo7le9 and warned them against
in<ustie and rueltyB how is it 7ossible that He should Himsel+ be un<ust to His reatures.
(he 1econd Is ogical Proof
*ne who does not observe the rights o+ others and o77resses them9 is not in other than some
onditions: either he does not 7ereive the evil o+ in<ustie or he is need+ul o+ that whih he
ta8es +rom the o77ressedB or usur7s the +ruits o+ their labor in order to remove his de+iieny
or he does not have the 7ower o+ +ul+illing their rights. *r he is miserly and he observes
miserliness in +ul+illing the rights o+ others or ommits in<ustie by way o+ revenge or a vain
7ast time.
1ut none o+ these 7ossibilities e0ist with regard to Almighty Allah9 beause you have seen
be+ore He is all&8nowing and wise and He 7er+orms all His ations under the ditates o+ His
8nowledge and wisdom9 and ignorane is not +ound in His being. He is in 7ossession o+ all
7er+etions and is not de+iient in any o+ them.
He is the owner o+ all 7er+etions and does not have any de+et so that He should need to
o77ress others in order to ma8e u7 +or His de+iieny. He is bene+ient and generous and His
own 7ossessions are not redued in bestowing them to others so that He should be miserly in
it. He is absolute 7ower and He does not wea8en by giving 7ower to others.
There+ore sine in<ustie is an evil at whose evil is 7ereived by all sensible beings9
Almighty Allah is also 7ure o+ in<ustie. He bestows 7er+etion to every e0isting being9
inluding man9 aording to its a7aity and a7ability and He does not tres7ass any o+ their
rights.
ustice in Creation
Iustie in reation is in the meaning that onsideration must be observed with regard to
a7aities in reation o+ e0isting beings o+ the world and +rom the side o+ Almighty Allah
there is no hindrane o+ grae and unlaw+ul disrimination is e0erised and in e07lanation o+
this statement9 it is neessary to understand the +ollowing 7oints:
!irst 7oint: Phenomena o+ the world o+ e0istene an be divided into two 8inds: abstrat world
and material world.
A; Abstrat world: Abstrations are e0isting beings9 whih do not have movement and
growthB they are +rom the beginning as they should be and in terminology they have absolute
+untions and are not material and 7hysialB they are not visibleB they neither deteriorate nor
die. They are mediums o+ divine +avors and they have no disobediene or o77osition.
These invisible beings in the terminology o+ religion are introdued as angels9 armies o+ God9
destiny9 distributor9 throne9 hair9 tablet and 7en. !rom suh de+initions it an be onluded
that between the reator o+ the world and the 7henomenon o+ the e0isting world there are
onnetions whih are invisible. In other words9 the system o+ reation has ome into being
with a 7artiular se6uene and is being administered in this way. Angels are en+orers o+
divine ommands and they never disobey or o77ose God.
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they do not diso(ey Allah in what 0e commands them, and do as they are commanded)!
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And there is none of us (ut has an assigned .lace)! "$5:,+#'
It is said that the 7ositions o+ angels are divinely ordained and not by way o+ gaining
eligibility +or the sameB suh that eah o+ them have a s7eial e0istene and their
res7onsibilities are derived +rom it. It should not remain unsaid that angels in their beings and
ations do not have inde7endene9 on the ontrary9 they are mediums and not more than that
and they are need+ul o+ and related to Almighty Allah who is needless9 7ower+ul9 8nowing and
wise.
1; 3aterial and 7hysial world: 3ateriality as o77osed to abstratness 7ossesses a +orm and
sha7e. They are hangeable in essene and they have movement and growth. 3aterial +orms
undergo hanges9 but the matter remains. @hen matter9 under the e++et o+ movement
beomes a7able to ae7t a new +orm it is bestowed that +ormB +or e0am7le the a77le treeB it
7ossesses a matter and a +orm. Its +orm an be de+ined to be an a77le tree9 whih grows and
gives +ruits.
And its matter is de+ined as something9 whih has ta8en the sha7e o+ the a77le tree. It means
that the matter o+ the a77le tree was having another +orm 7reviouslyB +or e0am7le it was an
a77le seed and it develo7ed the a7ability to beome a tree. A+ter that the +orm o+ the tree was
given to it. Then the tree beame dried and its +orm hanged and it turned into dust. 1ut its
matter is the same 7revious matter9 but it does not have the signs o+ the a77le tree. State o+ the
matter9 its +orm9 hange and trans+ormation will ontinue in the same way.
The world o+ matter and materiality is very vast and human beings do not have 7er+et and
orret 8nowledge about them. *ur awareness is limited with the earth and limited number o+
earthly e0isting things li8e di++erent 8inds o+ 7lants9 animals9 minerals9 water9 air9 light9 heat
and some 8nowledge o+ the sun and some starsB but we are mostly ignorant o+ the universe
and gala0ies and stars. @e do not have 7er+et 8nowledge o+ the great universe9 whih is
mostly unseen by us9 although we have onduted e0tensive researhes and still ontinue to
do soB and the serets unraveled so +ar are very less in om7arison to the millions o+ serets
that still remain to be unraveled.
1ut that whih an be said in brie+ is that all o+ them are 7henomena o+ material beings whih
have evolved through ages under the e++et o+ di++erent natural +ators to assume a new +orm
and when new a7abilities develo7ed9 they assumed a new +orm. @e also do not have 7reise
and om7lete awareness about the +uture o+ this movement and 7er7etual searh. Glory be to
Allah9 the greatest.
Seond 7oint C Eaw o+ general ausality: Previously we learnt the meaning o+ ause and
e++et. "++et is the 7henomenon9 whih does not e0ist in its own being. Its e0istene and non&
e0istene is same and it is in this as7et that it is need+ul o+ a ause. Fause is something on
whih the e++et de7ends. 1etween every ause and e++et there is a relation o+ 7artiular
originality. "very e++et is not reated by every ause.
And every e++et is not resultant o+ every ause. I+ the ause is a 7henomenon9 it is itsel+ in
need o+ a ause. And in the same way9 its ause and the ause o+ its ause9 and this ontinues
till we ome to a ause9 whih is not a 7henomenon. That is a being +ree o+ need and sel+&
su++iient in its e0istene and that is the Almighty Allah who is a neessary being :@a<ibul
@u<ud; and who is also alled as the ause o+ all auses.
There+ore9 the law o+ ause and e++et is a om7lete and all&enom7assing law9 whih ontrols
the world o+ e0istene and whih has endowed it a system. Almighty Allah has reated the
universe and He ontrols it through the system o+ ause and e++et. The world is having
disi7line and it +ollows a +i0ed lawB it is administered by the ommand o+ God. It is
mentioned in the Holy ,uran that:
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-urely We have created everything according to a measure) And Our command is (ut one,
as the twinkling of an eye)! "3#:#&438'
In this legal system9 every 7henomenon holds a 7artiular 7osition and does not in+ringe it. I+
it had been other than this9 the whole system would have olla7sed.
-ow we shall e07lain divine <ustie in reation in detail: Givine <ustie in reation im7lies
that the origin o+ the reation o+ man and the distintive 6ualities o+ all <ust 7ersons is
aording to their a7ability and eligibility and denying grae and im7ro7er 7re<udie has not
been resorted to.
Aording to this e07lanation9 man is an e0isting being o+ the natural world. Ei8e 7lants9 he
res7onds to nutrition9 he has growth and re7rodutionB li8e di++erent animals he 7ossesses
7ere7tions and intentional movement. There+ore he an be onsidered as a 8ind o+ 7lant and
animal. 1ut he is in 7ossession o+ an im7ortant e0ellene9 whih is not 7resent in other 7lants
and animals.
3an has intelligene and reason9 whih is not +ound in any o+ the animals. The ause o+ this
e0ellene is his abstrat and ethereal soul to whih the humanity o+ man is related. In
terminology he is alled as the 4+orm o+ human genus5. Ei8e other e0isting beings9 man also
7ossesses matter as well as a +orm.
3atter o+ man is that whih was 7resent in another +orm 7reviously and now it has assumed
the sha7e o+ man and has ae7ted the abstrat ethereal soul. "very matter is not a7able to
ae7t the human soul. 3atters that have ae7ted the +orm o+ 7lants or animals annot
diretly ae7t the human soul and beome humans. It is only the seed o+ man :s7erm; that
an ae7t the soul o+ man and beome a human beingB and that also a+ter many amazing
hanges and growths.
The seed o+ man also was not a seed 7reviouslyB on the ontrary it was 7resent in another
+orm. It beame a seed gradually and a+ter undergoing hanges. @hen the human s7erm was
7laed in an a77ro7riate 7lae C that is in the womb o+ a mother C it mi0ed with the +emale
egg and beomes a7able o+ ae7ting the human soul and it is <oined to it and it should be as
suh sine Almighty Allah is not miserly.
1ut human beings also all are not same +rom the as7et o+ sense9 memory9 +orm9 s8in olor9
height and 7hysial 7er+etion or de+iienyB on the ontrary they are di++erent +rom eah
other. These di++erenes are also e++ets o+ the s7eialties o+ the 7arents and their anestorsB
8ind o+ nutrition o+ the 7arents is e++etive during 7regnany and latationB their environment9
health or si8ness o+ the +ather mother or grand7arents. The s7erm9 whih ae7ts the +orm o+
a s7eial human being9 is a7able in this way and aording to the system o+ ause and e++et
should be reated li8e this.
There+ore every man in the system o+ ause and e++et 7ossesses a s7eial 7osition and
aording to s7eial 6ualities9 whih his matter has bestowed has the eligibility o+ being and
in the same way and without in<ustie and disrimination obtains the being and 7er+etions o+
being. 1ut i+ it is other than this9 it should be that the universal law o+ ause and e++et will be
deranged and the original system will go awry and basially will not reate e0istene.
There+ore <ustie in the reation o+ man and the world im7lies that 7henomenon o+ the world9
inluding human beings are aording to the a7ability that they have develo7ed eligibility o+
being and in the same 6uantum and in the same manner are given similar e0istene9
7er+etions o+ being9 and denying grae and im7ro7er 7re<udie has not been resorted to.
.ivine ustice and &bections Against It
Givine Iustie is an im7ortant Islami to7i9 whih is disussed everywhere in boo8s o+
theology and 7hiloso7hy. Philoso7hers and sholars o+ Islam believe in it and they de+ended it
energetiallyB on the other hand some o77onents have denied and re+uted <ustie o+ Allah and
have e07ressed doubts in this regard and still do it. They onsider destrutive earth6ua8es9
damaging +loods9 hildren born disabled and diseased9 di++erenes between human beings9
7resene o+ arnivorous beasts and 7oisonous re7tiles as signs o+ the absene o+ <ustie in
reation and in this way they have also denied the root o+ the e0istene o+ the reator o+ the
world and also reated doubts in resurretion.
There+ore9 in 7resent onditions9 need is +elt +or a 7lan to 7rove the matter o+ divine <ustie
and re7lying to the doubts. Gisussion o+ <ustie and re7lying to ob<etions against it is one o+
the im7ortant 7oints o+ 7hiloso7hy and theology9 whih is studied in detail in boo8s o+
7hiloso7hy and theology and 7roved as a +at. Regret+ully all those ob<etions annot be
studied +ully in this brie+ writing9 but in order to assure that none o+ the doubts remain
unanswered9 we shall mention their sim7le and brie+ re7lies. The most im7ortant ob<etions
and their re7lies an be divided into +our grou7s:
%irst 4atural Calamities
Ei8e destrutive earth6ua8es9 damaging +loods9 terri+ying storms and other natural alamities
are inluded in this grou7. It is said: *urrene o+ these bitter ha77enings9 whih are mostly
aom7anied by great losses in terms o+ li+e and 7ro7ertyB how an they be om7atible with
divine <ustie. @hy He does not 7revent suh inidentsA @hy He has reated the world in this
wayA
In brie+9 it an be said that suh 8inds o+ ourrenes9 li8e natural ha77enings are as a result o+
7artiular auses9 on the other hand 7reviously you have seen that Almighty Allah has reated
and He administers the world o+ nature and material 7henomena through the system o+ ause
and e++etB and that He has arranged the world aording to the system o+ ause and e++et and
not that He +irst reated the 7henomena and a+ter that He gave ause and e++et to themB on the
ontrary ause and e++et in their very essene are related to eah other. "ah o+ the auses
and e++ets are 7laed in a 7artiular 7osition and negation o+ eah o+ them would be
onstrued as denial o+ the total system. !or e0am7le9 loo8 at the stages o+ numbers: eah o+
the numbers :%&#&(Mand so on; holds a s7eial 7osition. -umber +ive annot ta8e the 7lae o+
ten and vie versa. It is not 7ossible to om7letely remove number +ive +rom the serial o+
numbers. Its removal would im7ly removal o+ numeri system.
The system o+ reation is also li8e this. "very 7henomenon holds a s7eial 7osition and is
onneted to its natural ause. It terminates at the ause o+ the ausesB that is Almighty Allah
as His being is +ree o+ need o+ others. All 7henomena o+ the world o+ e0istene has ome into
e0istene through His intention and they are administered by the sameB but not through
di++erent intentionsB on the ontrary through a wides7read intention. ,uran says:
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And Our command is (ut one, as the twinkling of an eye)! "3#:38'
There+ore earth6ua8e is a natural 7henomenon and aording to the statement o+ e07erts9 it
has numerous bene+its with it and in the system o+ nature it is onsidered to be an im7ortant
matter. They say: I+ there had been no earth6ua8es9 there would have been no mountains. And
i+ mountains had not been there9 there had been no rain and snowB and i+ rain had not been
there9 7lant9 animal and human li+e would have not been 7ossible.
Although sometimes9 some earth6ua8es are aom7anied by destrution o+ li+e and 7ro7erty9
whih are re6uisites o+ om7etition between natural 7henomena it annot be e07eted +rom
Almighty Allah that He should 7ersonally intervene in ase o+ destrutive earth6ua8es and
7revent them as 7reventing it would be only 7ossible by negating its ause and it would
neessitate the derangement o+ system o+ reation.
Preventing the damages o+ earth6ua8es is the +untion o+ human beings themselves. Almighty
Allah has given sense and intelligene to man9 so that through gaining 8nowledge and
e07eriene he may understand the auses and +ators underlying the earth6ua8esB and through
the reins o+ natures he may 7revent the damages aused by themB or at least minimize themB
that he should not inhabit areas 7rone to earth6ua8es and avoid onstrutions thereB as some
ountries have ta8en 7ro+ound ste7s in solving this 7roblem.
"s7eially9 the same thing an be said with regard to damaging +loods: !loods are aused by
heavy rains due to slo7e o+ sur+aes o+ the earth and +luidity o+ water. There+ore the +lowing
o+ +loods in s7eial irumstanes is a natural 7henomenon as it is the e++et o+ a 7artiular
ause. !alling o+ rain on highlands9 slo7ing o+ land and +lowing o+ water is among the great
divine bounties9 whih 7rovide li+e to 7lants9 animals and human beings.
And all o+ them are good in their own 7ositionB have you so +ar thought that i+ rain had not
+allen on highlands or i+ the earth had not been slo7ing or i+ the nature o+ water had not been
+lowing9 how our li+e would have beenA Although their neessary +ator is suh that in some
instanes there will be +loods entailing loss o+ li+e and 7ro7erty and the res7onsibility o+
7reventing these losses rests on sensible human beings. He must not build residential
buildings in +lood 7rone areas and that he must strengthen his onstrutions in aordane to
the 7ossibility o+ +loods. I+ man +alls short in this regard and su++ers losses9 it is due to his own
shortoming.
1econd Children born with "h/sical defects
*ne o+ the instanes that re+ute divine <ustie is the reation o+ hildren born with 7hysial
de+ets. Ei8e hildren who at the time o+ birth are dea+9 dumb9 blind9 7aralyzed9 disabled9
insane or s7asti. It is said: "0istene o+ suh de+ormed hildren who are om7elled to lead a
di++iult li+e and their 7arents also have to su++er a great deal on aount o+ themB how an it
be om7atible to divine <ustieA @hy they do not 7ossess 7er+et 7hysial health li8e other
hildrenA And why they were reated at allA Is it not in<ustieA
In re7ly to this doubt9 it an be said: The de+et o+ these hildren is either due to geneti
mutation through the 7arents or an also be as a result o+ ina77ro7riate diet o+ the 7arents9
es7eially o+ the mother during 7regnany and latation. *r as a result o+ to0i and harm+ul
matters that it may ome in ontat with during +etal develo7ment in a dirty environment. *r
it an be due to an in<ury reeived during its +etal stage.
In any ase9 the de+et o+ the newborn is related to the de+et o+ the matter that has ae7ted
the +orm o+ human being. Almighty Allah has not given a de+etive e0istene to suh hildrenB
on the ontrary He reated them but their a7aity o+ ae7ting matter was not more than this.
S7eial a7aity and a7ability o+ the matter o+ eah o+ them also would be the e++et o+ the
ause and its s7eial auses.
Two 6uestions arise at this 7oint: !irstly9 the God who is aware o+ the de+et o+ this matter9
why did He bring that de+etive human being into e0isteneA Seondly9 is the Almighty Allah
not a7able o+ bestowing a 7er+et and healthy matter to manA
In re7ly to the +irst 6uestion9 it an be said: As mentioned 7reviously9 the e0istene o+ material
7henomena is related to a 7artiular a7ability that develo7s in that matter. "very a7ability
that develo7s in that matter is aording to the +orm9 whih would be given to it. 3atters
whih develo7 the a7ability to reate the +orm o+ human beings would be given human
+orms. Human soul is good and 7er+etion9 it should be inreased9 +inally it is that i+ this
matter is having the a7aity o+ 7hysial maturity it will mature in the 7ro7er manner and i+
there was de+et in it9 it would be de7rived o+ 7er+et maturity.
In re7ly to the seond 6uestion9 it an be said: As mentioned 7reviously9 Almighty Allah has
reated and manages the 7henomena o+ e0istene through auses and e++ets and it is through
this that the world is arranged. It annot be e07eted +rom Almighty Allah to 7ersonally
intervene in some irumstanes9 and that without natural auses He should assure the 7er+et
develo7ment o+ a thing9 whih does not 7ossess 7er+et matter. It would im7ly that Allah in
some instanes nulli+ies the law o+ ause and e++et ausing disru7tion o+ the system o+ the
worldB and this is not ae7table. In other words9 there is no doubt in the 7ower o+ Almighty
Allah but His 7ower annot be related to a logially im7ossible matter and the derangement o+
the system o+ ause and e++et is +rom the logially im7ossible matters.
There+ore9 de+ets whih are seen in hildren are due to de+etive s7erm and la8 o+ a7ability
o+ the s7erm with whih the soul o+ man was added. And those de+ets themselves also were
e++ets o+ their s7eial ause and were neessary +ators o+ the material world and a 7rodut o+
om7etition o+ material beings and their 7revention is not 7ossible e0e7t through 7revention
o+ ourrene o+ their natural auses. Allah has bestowed man with intelligene and sense9 so
that he may disover through study and e07eriene the auses o+ these de+ets and that he may
use this 8nowledge in hildbirthB on the ontrary even at the time o+ seleting the s7ouseB and
that he may observe all the rules o+ hygiene in his environment and nutrition during
7regnany and delivery and an 7revent the birth o+ de+etive hildren to the ma0imum.
It is 7ossible that someone might say: In ase the 7arents and those res7onsible +or ma8ing the
environment healthy and general hygiene do not +ul+ill their obligations and they brought a
de+etive hild into this wordB but what is its +ault that it is om7elled to s7end its li+e in
e0treme di++iultiesA @e re7ly: Although he is not res7onsible +or this9 Almighty Allah has
also not made him res7onsible more than what he an bear. He is a man and every man is
given s7iritual 7er+etion aording to his a7ability and e++orts. His 7atiene and +orbearane
would also not remain unrewarded and in the world a+ter death9 he would be reom7ensed +or
them. His 7arents and other areta8ers would also be rewarded well.
(hird .ifferences between Individuals
Another e0use +or ob<eting to the <ustie o+ God is the di++erene o+ om7le0ion9 beauty and
ugliness9 intelligene and memory9 7hysial 7owers and other ty7es o+ suh matters. It is said
that all human beings have right to live9 why are they reated with suh di++erenesA @hy all
human beings are not given e6ual intelligeneA @hat is the +ault o+ ugly 7eo7le that they are
reated so uglyA Are suh di++erenes not disrimination and in<ustieA
In re7ly9 it an be said: These di++erenes or auses o+ di++erent a7abilities were 7resent in the
eggs o+ the 7arents and whih they inherited +rom their anestors or it is the e++et o+ the 7arts
and environment o+ their li+e or it is the e++et o+ ty7e o+ nutrition o+ the 7arents9 es7eially
that o+ the mother during 7regnany. In any ase9 di++erenes in human beings are due to
di++erenes in their natural a7abilities. In other words9 di++erenes annot be denied9 but they
should not be onsidered as im7ro7er 7re<udieB 7re<udie is <usti+ied only when two seeds
whih were same +rom the as7et o+ a7ability are given two 8inds o+ 7er+etion o+ e0isteneB
while the +at is that it is not so.
%ourth Eqistence of +armful Creatures
It is said that the e0istene o+ harm+ul reatures9 li8e arnivorous beasts9 7oisonous re7tiles9
di++erent harm+ul viruses and mirobes whih 7ose danger to the li+e and sa+ety o+ human
beings and some animalsB how an they be om7atible with divine <ustieA @hat is the bene+it
o+ suh harm+ul reaturesA And why were they reated at allA
In re7ly it an be said: Generosity and bene+iene o+ Almighty Allah demands that He must
bestow e0istene to every matter9 whih develo7s in itsel+ the a7ability to ae7t a soul in
7ro7ortion o+ its a7ability. I+ it develo7s the ability to ae7t the soul o+ animals9 it would be
given the soul o+ wild and harm+ul beasts9 the soul o+ animals will be added to it and i+ it
develo7s the a7aity o+ the e0istene o+ mirobe9 the same e0istene will be given to it.
Although suh animals may be harm+ul to man9 they are bene+iial and good to themselves.
Although the sor7ion is harm+ul +or human beings9 it is good and 7er+etion +or itsel+.
3oreover9 the e0istene o+ these animals is absolutely bene+iial although man has not yet
disovered those bene+its. *ur ignorane is not a 7roo+ o+ their uselessness.
Almighty Allah has given intelligene and sense to man so that he may gain bene+its +rom
even 7oisonous animals and that he may 7revent their harms. 3an is able to even on+ront
harm+ul viruses and mirobes by observing hygiene and by using antibiotisB and he an
neutralize them e++etively. There+ore the e0istene o+ harm+ul animals annot be onsidered
as evil and absene o+ <ustie in reation.
Role of ustice in Pro"hethood
Iustie is one o+ the 6ualities o+ the ats o+ God im7lying that all ats o+ God are based on
<ustie and that He does not o77ress anyone. This +undamental is not 7resent only in the
reation o+ e0isting beings9 as was mentioned 7reviouslyB on the ontrary it is the basis o+ all
the 7rini7les o+ +aith li8e 7ro7hethood9 Imamate and resurretion also. I+ someone has doubt
in divine <ustie9 he an also not 7rove the authentiity o+ 7ro7hethood9 Imamate and
resurretion. In the disussion o+ 7ro7hethood9 divine <ustie is used as reasoning in +our
instanes:
(he %irst Instance
The +irst instane is about the +raming o+ the laws o+ the Shariah and duties o+ 7eo7le and
onveying them through the 7ro7hets9 whih is alled as general 7ro7hethood. In this
disussion it is said as +ollows:
%. In 7hiloso7hy and theology9 it is 7roved through reasoning that although man is a reality
and not more than oneB he has a +ew stages o+ e0isteneB on one hand he is a 7hysial and
natural body 7ossessing its e++ets. Sine he is a body9 he re6uires nutrition and has 7otential
+or growth. *n the other hand he has an animal soulB and 7ossesses 7ere7tion and movement.
1ut the highest stage o+ his e0istene is the abstrat ethereal soul with whih his humanity is
onneted.
#. It is 7roved that although the material body o+ man is 7rone to dissolution and death9 his
human soul has no death and annihilationB on the ontrary at the time o+ death9 he is
trans+erred +rom this world to the world o+ the herea+ter so that in the everlasting world o+ the
herea+ter9 he may be reom7ensed +or his good and bad deeds.
(. 3an in this world has two ty7es o+ lives: *ne is a vegetative and animal li+e9 whih is
related to his 7hysial body. Another is the inner li+e9 whih is related to the soul and s7irit o+
man.
'. The s7iritual li+e o+ man is related to the 8ind o+ belie+s9 morals and his good and bad
deeds. I+ he was having orret belie+s in the world and 7ossessed good moralsB and that he
wal8ed on the straight 7athB his ethereal soul would be 7er+eted and it will be given a ha77y
and suess+ul li+e a+ter death. And i+ he had harbored invalid belie+s and had bad morals and
behaviorB and was deviated +rom the straight 7ath o+ humanityB he would sin8 into the dar8
valleys o+ bestiality and would have a di++iult and 7ain+ul li+e in the world o+ the herea+ter.
The Holy ,uran has9 in numerous verses9 introdued religion and religious law as the straight
7athB Almighty Allah as the guide and the 7ro7hets as warner and givers o+ glad tidings. !or
e0am7le:
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And We would certainly have guided them in the right .ath)! "#:+2'
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and Allah guides whom 0e .leases to the right way)! "*#:#+'
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-ay: The <ast and the West (elong only to Allah7 0e guides whom 0e likes to the right
.ath)! "*:,#*'
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-urely Allah is my ?ord and your ?ord, therefore serve 0im7 this is the right .ath)! "$:3,'
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And We have not sent you (ut as a giver of good news and as a warner)! "*3:3+'
As you have seen9 in these verses and tens o+ others li8e them9 religion and religious law is
desribed as the straight 7ath and Almighty Allah is introdued as the guide. Guidane is in
the meaning o+ showing the way and it annot be imagined without the 7resene o+ a 7ath.
Religion is de+ined as a olletion o+ orret 7rini7les o+ +aith9 morals and laws and rules o+
religionB and it is the same straight 7ath. @hih we as8 +rom Allah again and again in 7rayers
that He may guide us to it:
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Kee. us on the right .ath)! ",:+'
@ith attention to what is said above we onlude that: The God who has reated man and
bestowed 7er+etions to him9 and through the 7ower o+ 7er+etion has e6ui77ed him and
o7ened the way o+ 7er+etion +or him and so that in treading this di++iult 7ath9 he should be in
need o+ guidane and hel7B He did not at all leave him in ignorane and without any duties. To
abandon needy human beings is onsidered as in<ustie and an evil deed and the holy being o+
the wise9 8nowing and sel+&su++iient God will be 7ure o+ it.
Although in the disussion o+ general 7ro7hethood9 the law o+ grae has been em7loyed9 but
as you saw9 belie+ in divine <ustie is very im7ortant. I+ divine <ustie is not ae7ted in
7roving the need o+ 7ro7hethood9 relying on the law o+ divine grae would alone not have
su++ied and it would not have been able to re7ly to all the doubts.
(he 1econd Instance
The seond instane is about the distintive 6ualities o+ the 7ro7hets: In the disussion o+
7ro7hethood9 it was 7roved that 7ro7hets 7ossess distintive 6ualities and the most im7ortant
o+ them are the +ollowing three:
*ne: Fom7lete 8nowledgeB li8e the 8nowledge o+ laws and rules o+ religionB valid belie+s9
good morals9 whih are needed by human beings.5
Two: In+allibilityB that is immunity +rom mista8es9 +orget+ulness and sins.
Three: Power to 7er+orm e0traordinary +eats in instanes when it is neessary to 7rove the
veraity o+ the laim o+ 7ro7hethood.
These three 6ualities are onsidered neessary in 7ro7het. In 7roving their view they have
generally resorted to the 47roo+ o+ grae5B with the e07lanation that divine grae demands that
His 7ro7hets should have the three above mentioned virtues so that they be most suitable +or
the guidane o+ human beings.
1ut I thin8 that in this matter also it is better to ta8e the bene+it o+ divine <ustie with the
mention that sending o+ 7ro7hets who are ignorant o+ all or some o+ laws and in whose
7ro7agation there is hane o+ mista8e or that who does not have a mirale to 7rove his
7ro7hethood9 whih is not om7atible aording to <ustie o+ AllahB beause religion beomes
de+iient in guidane o+ 7eo7le on the right 7ath and the divine being o+ Almighty Allah is
7ure o+ this.
(hird Instance Allotting &f .uties
In sholasti theology9 it is 7roved that religious laws and duties should be aording to the
strength and a7abilities o+ the 7eo7leB in this also es7eially it an be onluded +rom verses
o+ ,uran and traditions as well as through logial reasonings. !or e0am7le the Holy ,uran
says:
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Allah does not im.ose u.on any soul a duty (ut to the e;tent of its a(ility)! "*:*2+'
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Allah does not lay on any soul a (urden e;ce.t to the e;tent to which 0e has granted it)!
"+3:5'
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And strive hard in "the way of' Allah, "such' a striving as is due to 0im7 0e has chosen
you and has not laid u.on you any hardshi. in religion! "**:52'
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Allah does not desire to .ut on you any difficulty, (ut 0e wishes to .urify you! "3:+'
This 7oint is also mentioned in traditionsB +or e0am7le:
The 3essenger o+ Allah :S; said:
=Harm and ausing harm are not santioned by Islam. Islam inreases the bene+its o+ 3uslim
and does not ause any evil to him.?
%%
The Holy Pro7het :S; also said:
=The Almighty Allah has made law+ul everything about whih a 7erson is distressed.?
%#
!rom suh verses and traditions an absolute law an be derived that Almighty Allah in
+raming laws and duties has ta8en into onsideration the strength o+ 7eo7le9 and the duty
im7osed on us is not di++iult and intolerable. Through this ommand9 we an derive a general
law with regard to ats9 whih are harm+ul and di++iult as the Holy Imams :a.s.; have
lari+ied them.
@e an see numerous e0am7les o+ them in the traditions o+ Ahl al&1ayt :a.s.; and the verdits
o+ the Islami <uris7rudents.
!or e0am7le: *ne o+ the most im7ortant Islami laws is with regard to +asting during the
month o+ Ramadan9 whih are highly em7hasized. 1ut one +or whom it is di++iult to +ast9 is
e0em7ted +rom it.
Ei8e those who are indis7osed and the +ast is harm+ul +or themB the e07etant women who are
near to their term and the +ast may be harm+ul to them or the +etusB travelers on a <ourney
santioned by religion and aged 7ersons +or whom it is di++iult to +astB all o+ them are
allowed e0em7tions in 8ee7ing the +asts o+ RamadanB although a+ter Ramadan9 in ase their
e0use does not e0ist anymore9 they must ma8e u7 +or the la7sed +asts by 8ee7ing them now
%%
3izanul Hi8mah9 Kol. #9 Pg. %/$.
%#
1iharul Anwar9 Kol. 2L9 Pg. '%(.
e0e7t +or aged 7ersons who are not bound to ma8e u7 +or la7sed +asts. Same order a77lies to
other laws and religious duties.
3ost o+ these e0e7ted orders are mentioned in traditions in irumstanes that there should
not be a 7artiular te0tual order about them and in ase no suh te0t e0ists9 a general law an
be derived with regard to ats whih are im7ossible or beyond human a7aity.
To 7rove this 7rini7le in addition to verses o+ ,uran and traditions9 we an also em7loy the
4rule o+ 8indness5B with the e07lanation that:
Givine <ustie on 7eo7le demands that the Givine law should not im7ose e0tremely di++iult
duties or e07et them to 7er+orm deeds9 whih are beyond their a7aity.
A7art +rom these9 one an also ma8e use o+ the 7rini7le o+ divine <ustieB with the
e07lanation that im7osition o+ duties9 whih are beyond human a7aity and harm+ul is also
an evil at and the holy being o+ Almighty Allah is 7ure +rom suh ats.
It is said that in Islami Shariah also there are some laws9 whih in the beginning seem to be
absolute and di++iultB li8e the obligatory nature o+ holy war and de+ense9 whih in addition to
being di++iult also sometimes ends in in<uries and martyrdom o+ the +ighters. 1ut we should
note the im7ortant 7oint that Iihad is a logial matter and it is onsidered as a need o+ the
soial li+e o+ man.
This order is not restrited to Islam9 on the ontrary all heavenly religions9 ommunities and
sets in irumstanes in whih their belie+s9 ideals9 territories and their own ommunity is
surrounded by enemies9 they 8now that their duty is to ma8e e++orts to de+end it. -ot only do
they onsider this di++iult at to be a duty9 whih they annot bear and a hardshi79 on the
ontrary they ta8e 7reedene in loyalty and sari+ie. They onsider their dead as martyrs
and honor their memory. In Islam also it is in the same wayB in verses o+ ,uran and traditions
sari+ie and loyalty in the way o+ Allah is 7raised and e0alted and a high 7osition is aorded
+or martyrs.
%ourth Instance ustice of 5od in the World After .eath
Givine 3essengers throughout the 7eriod o+ history have always s7o8en o+ resurretion and
the day o+ reom7ense. !rom the statement o+ Almighty Allah to the believers and 7ious He
has 7romised Paradise and bounties o+ Paradise and in this way enouraged belie+ and good
deeds. And to the in+idels He has 7romised Hell and hastisement o+ the Herea+ter. The basis
o+ the all o+ the 7ro7hets was as suh and through this the believers and righteous are given
ho7e and the in+idels and un<ust are warned.
-ow the 6uestion arises that whether Almighty Allah in the world o+ the herea+ter would
really +ul+ill His 7romise or that it is 7ossible +rom Him not to +ul+ill His 7romiseB or in
ontrast He would send the believers and the righteous to Hell and send the in+idels and un<ust
ones to ParadiseA 1eliever in divine <ustie say: Almighty Allah would de+initely honor His
7romise sine brea8ing o+ the 7romise is an evil deed and evil ats annot be ommitted by
Almighty Allah.
The same 7oint is e07lained in numerous verses o+ ,uran:
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And We will set u. a =ust (alance on the day of resurrection, so no soul shall (e dealt with
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-o this day no soul shall (e dealt with un=ustly in the least7 and you shall not (e rewarded
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Allah does not im.ose u.on any soul a duty (ut to the e;tent of its a(ility7 for it is "the
(enefit of' what it has earned and u.on it "the evil of' what it has wrought)! "*:*2+'
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And guard yourselves against a day in which you shall (e returned to Allah7 then every
soul shall (e .aid (ack in full what it has earned, and they shall not (e dealt with un=ustly)!
"*:*2,'
Here we onsider it neessary to mention some im7ortant and subtle 7oints:
It is onluded +rom traditions and verses that the reward and 7unishment o+ the herea+ter is
not a su77osed and sti7ulatedB on the ontrary it is +atual and onlusive and in the +orm o+
the good or bad morals that man had in the world. Paradise and bounties o+ Paradise are the
unseen as7et o+ good morals and harater o+ man and his attitude in the world9 whih would
be e07osed in the world o+ the herea+ter. Hell and hastisement o+ the herea+ter is also as suh.
In the Holy ,uran9 it is said:
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On the day that every soul shall find .resent what it has done of good and what it has
done of evil, it shall wish that (etween it and that "evil' there were a long duration of time7
and Allah makes you to (e cautious of "retri(ution from' 0imself7 and Allah is
1om.assionate to the servants)! "$:$8'
There+ore good or bad morals and good and bad harater that man has in this world and
whih beame the essene o+ man9 would remain with him until Iudgment Gay and he would
be resurreted along with it. Paradise and bounties o+ Paradise would be 7re7ared +rom good
morals and harater and Hell and the di++erent hastisements o+ the herea+ter would be
brought into e0istene through evil behaviors and des7ised morals.
Effect &f %aith &n Morals And 5ood 'ehavior
Knowing God9 7ro7hethood and resurretion are not imaginative and ine++etive mattersB on
the ontrary it is +aith in the res7onsibility o+ reation and with ation9 and they are
interde7endent o+ eah other. !aith is li8e the root o+ a tree and good deeds are li8e branhes9
leaves and +ruits o+ that tree. !aith and belie+ o+ onsiene annot be without the e++ets o+
deeds. *n the ontrary they are de+initely +ollowed by e++ets and neessities.
Through the medium o+ deeds9 7eo7le an sale the stages o+ +aith. As muh strong the +aith
isB as muh will be the e++ets +lowing +rom it. As less are deeds9 the +aith would also be as
wea8. *ne who e07resses +aith and religiosity9 but the e++ets o+ +aith is not visible in his
deedsB or that he is +aithless in his inward being and he ma8es a show o+ +aith to deeive
others or that he is having a very wea8 +aith and he annot 7ut it into 7ratie.
!aith is the soure o+ deeds9 +ul+illment o+ the vow o+ reation and religious duties. !aith
im7els man to submit be+ore divine ommands in all dimensions o+ li+e and to +ollow the
7rograms and guidane o+ 7ro7hets. In numerous traditions9 +aith is e07lained in this way. !or
e0am7le Imam Ali :a.s.; says:
=I as8ed the 3essenger o+ Allah :S;: @hat is +aithA He re7lied: Testimony by the heart9
ae7tane by the tongue and ation by the 7hysial organs and limbs.?
%(
I+ +aith has really 7ermeated in the heart o+ man9 its e++et would be de+initely seen in his
words and deeds.
The believer in his whole being has ae7ted Almighty Allah and has +aith in His e0istene.
He onsiders himsel+ answerable be+ore Him and submits be+ore Him and ommands o+
7ro7hets. He has ae7ted the reality that man and the world are not aimless and in vain and
man has not ome into e0istene to end in annihilation.
*n the ontrary9 he has ome +or the 7er+etion o+ his soul and to be trans+erred to the world
o+ the herea+ter and to ontinue his li+e in that world. He 8nows that every man is res7onsible
+or his own deeds and he would have to aount eah o+ his ats in this world. He would in
any ase have to +ae the onse6uenes o+ his deeds. A believer has +aith that death is not the
end o+ li+eB on the ontrary it is trans+er +rom the tem7oral world to the world o+ e++ulgene
and <oy and an everlasting li+e in the herea+ter.
How an a believer who has suh +aith be areless and ignorant o+ good morals9 ats and
wordsA Suh a belie+ trans+orms the li+e o+ man in all dimensions and it turns his attention
only towards one diretion: see8ing the 7leasure o+ Allah through +ollowing the ommands o+
7ro7hets. 1elie+ lies under the +oundation o+ deeds and a++ets man in three ways:
)* Morals
A believer has +aith in s7iritual li+e and he 8nows that he an onstrut and nurture his +uture
7ersonality in this world and that he would be raised with the same on Iudgment Gay.
I+ he is righteous9 he would be good and suess+ul in the +uture and i+ he is evil9 he would
have a dar8 and un+ortunate +uture and that is why he always ma8es e++orts to re+orm his sel+
and 7uri+y his being +rom all sorts o+ im7urities and strives to develo7 7er+et traits o+
%(
1iharul Anwar9 Kol. .)9 Pg. ./.
harater. He also tries to strengthen his human and ethereal 7ersonality and to ontrol his
sel+ish and animal desires.
,* Worshi"
Sine believer has +aith in Allah and onsiders Him as the sole reator and ontroller o+ the
universe9 he submits be+ore His greatness and unlimited 7ower and worshi7s only Him. He
assures himsel+ by Allah and remains inlined to Him. He also 7resents his re6uests to Him
alone and is always see8ing His re+uge. He begs +or His eternal 7ower and through worshi7
and remembrane o+ Allah9 tries to 7er+et and nurture his sel+ and see8s His 7ro0imity.
-* 1ocial Res"onsibilities
A believer onsiders the 7olitial and soial system as the best medium o+ suess in his world
and herea+ter and regards himsel+ bound to +ul+ill the duties im7osed on him to 7er+etion.
@hen on+ronted by in<ustie and o77ression9 he strives most in establishment o+ soial
<ustie. The believer man regards himsel+ to be onneted to the great and uni6ue ommunity
o+ Islam.
He onsiders greatness and well&being o+ the ommunity as his 7ersonal suess and well&
being and he ta8es its wea8ness and degradation as his 7ersonal wea8ness and degradation. In
his view9 the members o+ the Islami Dmmah are 7arts o+ his 7hysial body. He is always
desirous to im7art om+ort to them and to maintain their health and also +eels their 7ain and
disom+ort.
@hat he desires +or himsel+9 the same he desires +or other 3uslims. @hat he disli8es +or
himsel+9 the same he disli8es +or others also. As muh as he is thought+ul o+ his 7ersonal
om+ort and 7ros7erity9 as muh he tries +or the well&being and om+ort +or others. Ei8e he
+eels res7onsible +or his own well&being and that o+ his +amily members in the same way he
+eels res7onsible +or the well&being o+ the united ommunity o+ Islam and 3uslims as soial
res7onsibilities also originate +rom +aith and sha7e an im7ortant as7et o+ Islam. A +aith9
whih sends man to retirement and ma8es him indi++erent to the +uture o+ soiety9 is not true
+aith. The 3essenger o+ Allah :S; said:
=*ne who does not arrange the a++airs o+ 3uslims is not a 3uslim. And one who hears the
entreaty o+ a 3uslim and does not res7ond to it9 is not a 3uslim.?
%'
Ei+e o+ the 7ro7hets and im7ortant religious 7ersonalities is also the best testimony. They
s7ent their nights in worshi7 and in the battle+ield were as brave as lions. They did not sit in
reluse away +rom the 7roblems o+ the world engrossed in worshi7 and su77liationB on the
ontrary they were also 7resent in the +ore+ront in the soial s7here and 7ubli li+e.
And in on+ronting in<ustie9 o77ression and de7rivation9 they tried their very bestB and
strived to establish soial <ustie. And in +ul+illing these great res7onsibilities they did not
+linh in any way. They +ought the un<ust and tyrants and did not in any way +ear hardshi7s
and di++iulties.
%'
Al&Ka+i9 Kol. #9 Pg. %.'.
>es9 the shool o+ monotheism9 shool o+ morals9 7iety9 shool o+ worshi7 and inlination to
Allah9 shool o+ Iihad and stead+astness and loyalty9 on+ronting in<ustie and ine6uity9
en<oining good and +orbidding evilB all o+ them originate +rom right +aith.
It is said that sine +aith is the soure o+ good deedsB <ust as good deeds also 7lays an
im7ortant role in strengthening and stead+astness o+ +aith. As muh as we re+rain +rom sins
and bad harater and as muh as we try to 7er+orm good deeds9 as muh the e++ulgene o+
+aith would inrease in our hearts.
There+ore a+ter +aith in Allah9 resurretion and 7ro7hethood9 we should at on the ommands
o+ Allah so that we may sale the lo+ty stages o+ +aith. *ne who is ontent only with a notional
belie+ and he does not 7ut it into 7ratie9 and who +ollows the sel+ish desires would not only
+ail to ahieve the +inal aim o+ li+e but gradually9 lose his +aith as well. Knowledge and deeds
+or the human soul are having the same 7osition o+ two suh great things that not having any
o+ them would 7revent man +rom saling the high 7oints o+ God&worshi7 and way+aring in the
7ath o+ Almighty.