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1

Time Rate of
Consolidation
1D THEORY OF CONSOLIDATION TIME-INDEPENDENT ANALYSIS
LOG EFFECTIVE STRESS
V
O
I
D

R
A
T
I
O
H =
H*C
1 + e
o
Log (

2

1
)
Cr
1
Cc
1
PRECONSOLIDATION
PRESSURE( pc)
Rebound COMPRESSION INDEX
COMPRESSION INDEX
Primary Consolidation
2
LOG TOTAL STRESS
V
O
I
D

R
A
T
I
O
1D THEORY OF CONSOLIDATION TIME-DEPENDENT ANALYSIS
UNDRAINED LOADING:
PORE PRESSURE GENERATION
NO CHANGE IN EFFECTIVE STRESSES
NO SETTLEMENT
INITIAL STRESS
FINAL STRESS
Primary Consolidation
LOG TOTAL STRESS
V
O
I
D

R
A
T
I
O
1D THEORY OF CONSOLIDATION TIME-DEPENDENT ANALYSIS
DRAINED LOADING:
PORE PRESSURE DISSIPATION
INCREASE IN EFFECTIVE STRESSES
SETTLEMENT
INITIAL STRESS
FINAL STRESS
Primary Consolidation
3
Terzaghis 1D Theory
Flow of Water under Stress
4
Terzaghis 1D Theory
Terzaghis 1D Theory
5
Excess PWP Variation with Depth
clay
open
open
z
H
dr
z=0 top open
z=1 middle
z=2 bottom open
Two way drainage
Excess PWP variation with Depth
clay
open
closed
z
H
dr
z=0 top open
z=0.5 middle
z=1 bottom closed
One way drainage
6
Excess PWP variation with Depth
Time Factors for constant
Excess pwp with depth
7
Average Degree of Consolidation
Average Degree of Consolidation
wrt Time
8
Excess pwp Distributions
dr
v
v
H
t C
T
2
=
H
H
dr
=H/2
H
dr
=H
H
Open drainage
Open drainage
Open drainage
Closed drainage
1D Average Degree of Consolidation across
a layer
Time Factor Tv
9
Oedometer Test
=P/A
Record for each stress
increment ():
Change in height of
specimen with time
t=0, u
e
=0%, t=
h
w
= /
w
t=1, u
e
=100%
t=2, u
e
=50%
Determining C
v
using Log Time Method
dr
v
v
H
t C
T
2
=
50
2
50
2
50
2
196 . 0
t
H
t
H T
C
dr
V
v

= =
10
Determining C
v
using Root Time Method
dr
v
v
H
t C
T
2
=
90
2
90
2
90
2
848 . 0
t
H
t
H T
C
dr
V
v

= =
Settlement Magnitude wrt Time
( )
c
time c
S
S
U =
S
c(time)
=U S
c
Where U is degree of consolidation
11
Settlement Magnitude wrt Time
How good are predictions
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
F
i
l
l

H
e
i
g
h
t
m
0
200
400
600
800
1-Oct-00
30-Nov-
00
29-Jan-
01
30-Mar-
01
29-May-
01
28-Jul -
01
26-Sep-
01
25-Nov-
01
24-Jan-
02
S
e
t
t
l
e
m
e
n
t
,

m
m
SR-WBL
SR-EBL
Predi cted Lower Bound
Predi cted Upper Bound
12
How good are predictions
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
s
e
t
t
l
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
)
1 10 100
fill height (m)
ESTIMATED SETTLEMENT DURING CONSTRUCTION
VERSUS FILL HEIGHT
ESTIMATED
MEASURED
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
F
i
l
l

H
e
i
g
h
t
,

m
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
0
1
-
O
c
t
-
0
0
3
0
-
N
o
v
-
0
0
2
9
-
J
a
n
-
0
1
3
0
-
M
a
r
-
0
1
2
9
-
M
a
y
-
0
1
2
8
-
J
u
l
-
0
1
2
6
-
S
e
p
-
0
1
2
5
-
N
o
v
-
0
1
2
4
-
J
a
n
-
0
2
E
x
c
e
s
s

P
.

P
.
k
P
a
EBL-m WBL-m Predicted
February 2001
August 2001
Time Rate Predictions