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Air Change Rate Control of Ventilated Ceiling concerning Heat Load in

Commercial Electrical Kitchen


Takashi Akimoto
1
, Susumu Horikawa
2
, Kiyotaka Ueno
3


1
Shibaura Institute of Technology, Dept. of Architecture and Building Engineering, Japan
2
Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka, Japan
3
Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka, Japan

Corresponding email: akimoto@sic.shibaura-it.ac.jp


SUMMARY

Ventilated ceiling system is an energy-saving replacement ventilation system for maintaining
comfortable working environment in kitchens. The technology was introduced from
Germany, but there have been no clearly determined relationships between their designs in an
electric kitchen and the ventilation design standards and no established design methods. This
study aims to establish design methods of ventilated ceiling systems appropriate for electric
kitchens by assessing the thermal environment created and energy consumed by the systems
while changing the amount of ventilation and the temperature of the air supplied. The
ventilated ceiling system formed thermal stratification, which improved displacement
ventilation, and maintained a good thermal environment in the working area. To meet the
standards of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the system should be operated at a
ventilation rate of 25 times per hour with supply air at 16
o
C or a ventilation rate of 20 to 40
times per hour with supply air at or below 20
o
C.


INTRODUCTION

Ventilated ceiling system is an energy-saving replacement ventilation system for maintaining
comfortable working environment in kitchens. The technology was introduced from Germany,
but there have been no clearly determined relationships between their designs in an electric
kitchen and the ventilation design standards and no established design methods. This study
aims to establish design methods of ventilated ceiling systems appropriate for electric
kitchens by assessing the thermal environment created and energy consumed by the systems
while changing the amount of ventilation and the temperature of the air supplied.


METHODS

The study was conducted in the main kitchen on the 19th floor of K Building (Osaka City,
Osaka Prefecture) and involved:
1) Monitoring the temperature and humidity of the kitchen and the amount of cooling water
supplied to the air conditioner while ordinarily using the kitchen and changing the amount and
temperature of air supply,
2) Analyzing the monitored data in terms of both the indoor environment and the amount of
cooling water consumed, and
Proceedings of Clima 2007 WellBeing Indoors
3) Constructing a model for analyzing air flows that almost reproduced the monitored results,
and using the model to comparatively analyze and estimate the system performances at
different heat emissions, which represented an assumed gas kitchen.
A plan of the kitchen and the positions of kitchen equipment are shown in Figure 1. The
kitchens were zoned into the heating zone, dishing zone, and rice-cooking zone from the left
to right in Figure 1. The ceiling was the ventilated ceiling system. A list of the kitchen
equipment is shown in Table 1. The total electric power capacity of the equipment was 155.1
kW (448A). The amount of ventilation supplied is shown in Table 2 for each zone. The design
ventilation was determined by the manufacturer by following the standards for air conditioner
and ventilation equipment (VDI) in Germany. An energy-saving method is used to control the
amount of ventilation based on the air current used by the kitchen equipment listed in Table 1.
Controlling the amount of ventilation so as to be proportional to the electric current consumed
in the kitchen may result in rises in the room temperature after the usage of the equipment
since the equipment does not quickly cool down. To prevent the problem, ventilation control
was tested which involved controlling the ventilation based on electric current consumption at
the time point certain period prior to the control as shown in Figure 2. When ventilation was
to be increased, the delay control was not used but the ventilation was increased
spontaneously to ensure safety. The monitored changes in the automatic control output signals
to the supply fans when the electric current consumption sharply dropped from 160A to 6A
are shown in Figure 3. Approximately 60 seconds (10 minutes) after the drop in current
consumption, the ventilation was reduced to the set value.
A large amount of vapor produced from brazing pans and other equipment was confirmed to
have been attracted by the cold air supplied form nearby outlet slits, causing rises in the cold
air temperature and dew on the surface of the slit metal plates. To minimize the mixing of the
vapor and the cold air, a hanging wall was installed to separate the heat-producing grills from
the slit metal down to a height of 150 mm.
The points where temperature and humidity were monitored are shown in Figure 4. The
monitoring conditions are shown in Table 3.



Figure 1. Plan of the kitchen
Proceedings of Clima 2007 WellBeing Indoors


Table 1. List of principal kitchen equipment

Article Electric power capacity
29 Steam convection oven 36.8kW
30a Multiplex IH rice cooker 31.5kW
30b IH rice cooker
36 Blazing pan 18.0kW
41 Blazing pan 12.0kW
42 Cylinder stove 10.0kW
43 Steam kettle 9.8kW
46 Electromagnetic cooker
10.211.2kW
48 Electromagnetic fryer 10.0kW
50 Electromagnetic Chinese oven 5.6kW
Total
155.1kW 448A
AkW3200

Table 2. Amount of ventilation for each zone (Mean ceiling height: 2.55 m)

Zone Area Capacity Ventilation
volume
Ventilation rate
Heating zone plus
dishing zone
46.8 m
2
119.4m
3
9,000 m
3
/h 75.4 times/hour
Rice cooking zone 27.3 m
2
69.6m
3
3,600 m
3
/h 51.7 times/hour
Subtotal 74.1m
2
189.0m
3
12,600 m
3
/h 66.7 times/hour
Preparation zone

1,580 m
3
/h
Total 14,180 m
3
/h





Figure 2. Schematic illustration of delay ventilation control

Proceedings of Clima 2007 WellBeing Indoors


Figure 3. Monitored ventilation during delay ventilation control



Figure 4. Points of monitoring (floor plan)


Table 3. Monitoring conditions

Ventilation rate Supply air
temperature
Delay control Hanging wall Date of
monitoring
Representative
day
Case 1 18 to 45 times/h
22
w/o delay control w/o hanging wall
7/107/13
7/11
Case 2 25 times/h
18
w/o hanging wall
7/187/21,24
7/19
Case 3 25 times/h
16
w/o hanging wall
7/257/26
7/26
Case 4 25 times/h
14
w/o hanging wall
7/277/28
7/28
Case 5 20 to 40 times/h
18
w/ delay control w/o hanging wall 8/1,3 8/3
Case 6 20 to 40 times/h
16
w/ delay control w/o hanging wall 8/2,4 8/2
Case 7 25 times/h
18
w/ hanging wall 8/8 8/8
Case 8 25 times/h
16
w/ hanging wall 8/9 8/9
Case 9 20 to 40 times/h
20
w/ delay control w/ hanging wall 8/10 8/10
Case 10 20 to 40 times/h
18
w/ delay control w/ hanging wall 8/11 8/11



0
50
100
150
200
-20 80 180 280 380 480 580
[ s]

[
A
]
0
25
50
75
100

[
%
]
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
c
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
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n
[
A
]
A
u
t
o
m
a
t
i
c

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

o
u
t
p
u
t

[
%
]

Time [s]
Data logger, computer
Temperature:
Humidity:
Proceedings of Clima 2007 WellBeing Indoors
RESULTS

Analysis of measurements

Figure 5 shows the electric current consumption in the kitchen and inverter output. When no
delay control was performed, the data aligned on a proportional line. On the other hand, when
delay control was used, the data scattered above the proportional line because the ventilation
was immediately increased when the electric current consumption increased. Figure 6 shows
the ventilation rate for variable air flow and effects of delay control. The mean ventilation rate
was 32.1 times per hour when the air flow was allowed to vary within the range of 18 to 45
times per hour and was 33.6 times per hour when the air flow was allowed to vary within the
range of 20 to 40 times per hour. The changes in air flow were smooth for the case in which
air flow was 20 to 40 times per hour and delay control was used. The electric current
consumption in the kitchen and temperature at A2 are shown in Figures 7 and 8. The
temperature fluctuated less with variable air flow (Figure 8) than with fixed air flow (Figure
7). This was likely attributable to the effects of replacement ventilation and to changes in
ventilation rate according to the heat produced from the kitchen equipment. The electric
current consumption in the kitchen and humidity at A2 are shown in Figures 9 and 10. The
humidity fluctuated less with variable air flow (Figure 10) than with fixed air flow (Figure 9),
but was more stable at temperatures shown in Figure 8.

Comprehensive comparison

The mean heat quantity of the cooling water, electric current consumption in the kitchen,
room temperature at A2, etc. are comparatively shown in Figure 11 for Cases 1 to 10
(excluding Case 7 in which some data were missing), for a hood surface speed of 0.3 m/s, and
with air for gas combustion. The values for Cases 1 to 6 are the means for six hours between
7:00 to 13:00, when the loads were high, and those for cases 8 to 10 are the means for five
hours between 8:00 to 13:00. The heat quantity of the cooling water was set to be the heat
necessary for cooling the outdoor air of 30
o
C, 70% humidity and 78.16 kJ/kg to the
temperature of the supply air determined for each case to eliminate effects from the
differences in outdoor air temperature. The power for moving the fan was calculated using:
kW = Q(T.P.) / 6,120
T

where, kW: the power for moving the fan [kW], Q: air flow [m
3
/min], T.P.: total pressure of
the fan (= 120 mmAq, total of the air supplying and exhausting fans), and
T
: the fan total
efficiency (= 0.5).

The results showed that: (1) The primary energy consumption was the smallest in Case 9
(ventilation rate of 20 to 40 times, supply air temperature of 20
o
C). Since the electric current
consumption in Case 9 was large, the small energy consumption was not attributable to small
internal loads. (2) Even with a ventilation rate of about 25 times per hour, which was
determined by multiplying the total electric capacity of the kitchen equipment and 30 m
3
/kW,
the ventilated ceiling system could satisfy the standards of the Ministry of Health, Labour and
Welfare by setting the temperature of the supply air at 16
o
C. (3) The temperature of the
supply air, as well as ventilation rate, largely affected the energy consumption by cooling
water. For example, the energy consumption by cooling water differed by 30% and 40%
between Case 6, in which the ventilation rate was 20 to 40 times and the temperature of the
supply air was 16
o
C, and the case in which the ventilation rate was the same but the supply air
was at 20
o
C. (4) The power of the fans accounted for a small percentage of only 5 to 10% of
the energy consumed by cooling water. (5) Ordinary hoods required much more energy for
Proceedings of Clima 2007 WellBeing Indoors
cooling water since the ventilation rate was larger than the ventilated ceiling system. (6) With
Case 9, which consumed the least amount of energy, a gas kitchen, in which a theoretical
amount of air was assumed to be burnt, required a double amount of energy for cooling water.



Figure 5. Relationship between electric current consumption in the kitchen and inverter output


Figure 6. Time historical changes in ventilation rate for variable air flow operation


Figure 7. Relationship between electric current consumed in the kitchen and room
temperature (for fixed air flow)

0
20
40
60
80
100
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
[ A]

[
%
]
7/ 11
8/ 3

w/ delay control (8/3)
w/o delay control (7/11)
Electric current consumption in the kitchen [A]
I
n
v
e
r
t
e
r
o
u
t
p
u
t
[
%
]
0
10
20
30
40
50
7: 00 8: 00 9: 00 10: 00 11: 00 12: 00

/
h
]
184522
204018
18 to 45 times at 22
o
C
V
e
n
t
i
l
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

[
t
i
m
e
s
/
h
]

Hour
20 to 40 times at 18
o
C

20
22
24
26
28
30
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
[ A]

A
2

]
25187/ 19
25167/ 26
25147/ 28
R
o
o
m
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
[
o
C
]
25 times at 18
o
C (7/19)
25 times at 16
o
C (7/26)
25 times at 14
o
C (7/28)
Electric current consumption [A]

Proceedings of Clima 2007 WellBeing Indoors


Figure 8. Relationship between electric current consumed in the kitchen and room
temperature (for variable air flow)



Figure 9. Relationship between electric current consumed in the kitchen and humidity (for
fixed air flow)



Figure 10. Relationship between electric current consumed in the kitchen and humidity (for
variable air flow)

20
22
24
26
28
30
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
[ A]

A
2

]
1845227/ 11
2040188/ 3
2040168/ 2
2040208/ 10)
18 to 45 times at 22
o
C (7/11)
20 to 40 times at 18
o
C w/ delay (8/3)
20 to 40 times at 16
o
C w/ delay (8/2)
20 to 40 times at 20
o
C w/ delay (8/10)
Electric current consumption [A]
R
o
o
m

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

[
o
C
]

50
60
70
80
90
100
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
[ A]

(
A
2

[
%
]
25187/ 19
25167/ 26
25147/ 28
Electric current consumption [A]

H
u
m
i
d
i
t
y

[
%
]

25 times at 18
o
C (7/19)
25 times at 16
o
C (7/26)
25 times at 14
o
C (7/28)

50
60
70
80
90
100
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
[ A]

(
A
2

[
%
]
1845227/ 11
2040188/ 3
2040168/ 2
18 to 45 times at 22
o
C (7/11)
20 to 40 times at 18
o
C w/ delay (8/3)
20 to 40 times at 16
o
C w/ delay (8/2)
Electric current consumption [A]
H
u
m
i
d
i
t
y

[
%
]


Proceedings of Clima 2007 WellBeing Indoors


0
100
200
300
400
500
600
1

[
M
J
/
h
]

A
]
15
20
25
30

]
3
25
16
A2




0.3m/s
20



18

4
25
14
5
2040
18
6
2040
16
8
25
16
9
2040
20

10
2040
18




Figure 11. Comparison between Cases 1 to 19, ordinary hood, and gas kitchen


DISCUSSION

The ventilated ceiling system formed thermal stratification, which improved displacement
ventilation, and maintained a good thermal environment in the working area. To meet the
standards of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the system should be operated at a
ventilation rate of 25 times per hour with supply air at 16
o
C or a ventilation rate of 20 to 40
times per hour with supply air at or below 20
o
C. Of the cases tested, a ventilation rate of 20 to
40 times per hour with supply air at 20
o
C resulted in the smallest heat quantity in the cooling
water. The mean ventilation rate in the variable air flow operation of 10 to 40 times per hour
was 33.4 times per hour. Ordinary hoods and gas kitchens required large ventilation and thus
resulted in large heat quantities in the cooling water. Variable air flow operation with delay
control resulted in small room temperature fluctuations. Since the ventilation rate was kept to
be at least 20 times per hour, the room temperature became too low after the termination of
kitchen works. Thus the system should be desirably controlled by raising the minimum
ventilation rate and/or raising the temperature of the supply air. Since the amount of cooling
water used depended largely on the temperature of the supply air, the set temperature should
be decided by considering the running costs and comfort of kitchen workers as well as the
standards of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The kitchen investigated in this
study mainly performed secondary processing of precooked foods and cooked no stir-fried
foods, which need large fire power. The system met the standards of the Ministry of Health,
Labour and Welfare even at a constant ventilation rate of 25 times per hour in the kitchen, but
there may be kitchens in which the standards cannot be met depending on the works to be
performed. On the other hand, variable air flow operation is widely feasibly since the
ventilation can be changed depending on the usage of kitchens via the software program for
determining the electric current and ventilation rate.

REFERENCES

1. Nagata, M. et al., 2006. Thermal Performance of Ventilated Ceiling System in Commercial
Electrical Kitchen, HB 2006, healthy buildings (Lisbon, Portugal).

2. Horikawa, S. et al. 2001. Research on ceiling ventilation system for kitchen, Summaries of
technical papers of annual meeting architectural institute of Japan, D-2, pp.1057-1062, 2001 (in
Japanese).
P
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/
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c
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u
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i
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k
i
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[
A
]

Case 3:
25 times
at 16
o
C
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

[
o
C
]

Case 4:
25 times
at 14
o
C
Case 5:
20-40
times
at 18
o
C
Case 6:
20-40
times
at 16
o
C
Case 8:
25 times
at 16
o
C
w/ hanging
wall
Case 9:
20-40
times
at 20
o
C
w/ hanging
wall
Case 10:
20-40
times
at 18
o
C
w/ hanging
wall
Hood
surface
speed of
0.3 m/s at
20
o
C,
estimated
Gas
combustion
air at 18
o
C,
estimated
Temperature
Electric current
consumed in the kitchen
Heat quantity of cooling water
Fan power
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