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# 1) A negative gain margin expressed in decibels means a/an __________ system.

A. stable
B. unstable
C. critically damped
D. none of these

Typical specifications for design stipulates the gain margin and phase margin
to be respectively
A. > 1.7 and > 30
B. < 1.7 and > 30
C. < 1.7 and < 30
D. > 1.7 and < 30

Select the correct statement from the following.
A. The frequency response of a pure capacity process is unbounded.
B. The phase lag of a pure time delay system decreases with increasing
frequency.
C. The amplitude ratio of a pure capacity process is inversely proportional
to frequency.
D. The amplitude ratio of a pure time delay system increases with frequency.

A sinusoidal variation in the input passing through a linear first order
system
A. becomes more oscillatory (frequency increases).
B. becomes less oscillatory (frequency decreases).
C. gets amplified (magnitude increases).
D. gets attenuated (magnitude decreases).

According to Bode stability criterian, a system is unstable, if the open loop
frequency response exhibits an amplitude ratio exceeding unity at frequency
for which phase lag is
A. 0
B. 45
C. 90
D. 180

An amplitude ratio of 0.1 corresponds to __________ decibels.
A. 20
B. -20
C. 10
D. -10

The amplitude ratio for the sinusoidal response of a __________ is 1.
A. first order system
B. second order system
C. transportation lag
D. none of these

The amplitude ratio for the sinusoidal response of __________ is < 1.
A. transportation lag
B. first order system
C. second order system
D. none of these

Bode diagram are generated from output response of the system subjected to
which of the following input?
A. Impulse
B. Step
C. Ramp
D. Sinusoidal

A first order system with a time constant of 1 min is subjected to frequency
response analysis. At an input frequency of 1 radian/min, the phase shift is
A. 45 degrees
B. -90 degrees
C. -180 degrees
D. -45 degrees

Stability of a control system containing a transportation lag can be best
analysed by
A. Routh test
B. root locus methods
C. frequency response methods
D. none of these

Bode stability method uses __________ loop transfer function.
A. open
B. closed
C. either (A) or (B)
D. neither (A) nor (B)

Decible is (AR is amplitude ratio)
A. 20 log10 AR
B. 20 loge AR
C. 20 log10 1/AR
D. either of A or B

Bode stability criterion is defined as
A. A control system is unstable if the open loop frequency response exhibits
an AR exceeding unity at the frequency for which the phase lag is 180
degrees.
B. A control system is stable if the open loop frequency response exhibits an
AR of less than, equal to unity at the cross-over frequency.
C. The closed-loop feedback control system is stable if and only if the open
loop frequency response curve exhibits maximum value of amplitude ratio of
unity at 180 degrees phase lag, otherwise unstable.
D. All of A, B and C .

Gain Margin is equal to
A. amplitude ratio
B. reciprocal of amplitude ratio
D. cyclical frequency

Phase Margin is equal to
A. 180 phi
B. phi - 180
C. phi + 90
D. phi - 90

Typical design specifications for the gain and phase margins respectively.
A. < 1.7 and < 30
B. >1.7 and < 30
C. < 1.7 and > 30
D. > 1.7 and > 30

A negative gain margin in decibel means
A. a stable system
B. an unstable system
C. critically damped system
D. a system on the verge of instability

The time constants for a fractionating column in a process industry are of
the order of
A. minutes
B. hours
C. days,
D. none of these

The log magnitude curve for a constant gain K is a
A. horizontal straight line
B. horizontal straight line of magnitude 20 log K decibels
C. an inclined line having slope K
D. an inclined line having slope -K

The slope of log-magnitude asymptote changes by - 40 dB/ decade at a
frequency ?1. This means that
A. a double pole is present
B. a pair of complex conjugate poles is present
C. either a double pole or a pair of complex conjugate poles is present
D. a pole or zero at origin is present

A system has 12 poles and 2 zeros. Its high frequency asymptote in its
magnitude plot has a slope of

The number of branches of root locus plot is equal to
A. the number of roots of characteristic equation
B. double the number of roots of characteristic equation
C. the number of roots of characteristic equation minus one
D. the number of roots of characteristic equation plus one

A system has high gain and phase margin. The system is
A. very stable
B. sluggish
C. very stable and sluggish
D. oscillatory

The frequency at which phase angle is 180 is called
A. phase crossover frequency
B. stability limit frequency
C. frequency of limited stability
D. gain margin frequency

The closed loop pole of a stable second order system could be
A. both real and positive.
B. complex conjugate with positive real parts.
C. both real and negative.
D. one real positive and the other real negative.

Which of the following controllers has the least maximum deviation ?
A. P-controller
B. P-I controller
C. P-I-D controller
D. P-D controller

A proportional controller with a gain of Kc is used to control a first order
process. The offset will increase, if
A. Kc is reduced.
B. Kc is increased.
C. integral control action is introduced.
D. derivative control action is introduced.

Pick out the wrong statement
A. Proportional controller is normally used for level control in industrial
applications.
B. CSTR can be considered as a distributed parameter system.
C. Distributed parameter approach gives partial differential equation.
D. Non-linear behaviour is exemplified by an on-off controller.

In a closed loop system, the process to be controlled is an integrating
process with transfer function l/2s. The controller proposed to be used in an
integral controller with transfer function 1/T1s. When a step change in set
point is applied to such a closed loop system, the controlled variable will
exhibit
A. overdamped response.
B. underdamped response.
C. undamped response.
D. unstable response.

The characteristic equation for the control system with a closed loop
transfer function G1/1 + G2 is given by 1 + G2 = 0. The characteristic
equation for the control system
A. depends only upon the open loop transfer function.
B. determines its stability.
C. is the same for set point or load changes.
D. all 'A', 'B' & 'C'

Which of the systems having following transfer functions is stable?
A. 1/(s square+ 2)
B. 1/(s square-2s + 3)
C. 1/(s square + 2s + 2)
D. exp(-20s)/(s square + 2s-l)

Reset rate is the another term used for __________ time.
B. integral
C. derivative
D. none of these

Use of I-control along with P-control facilitates
A. elimination of offset
B. reduction of offset
C. reduction of stability time
D. none of these

On-off controllers are normally used for
B. temperature changes
C. flow rate changes
D. none of these

Which of the following controllers has maximum offset ?
A. P-controller
B. P-I controller
C. P-D controller
D. P-I-D controller

Routh test
A. criterion provides information about the actual location of roots.
B. cannot be used to test the stability of a control system containing
transportation lag.
C. criterion is not applicable to systems with polynomial characteristic
equation.
D. can not determine as to how many roots of the characteristics equation
have positive real roots.

A system with a double pole at the origin is unstable since the corresponding
term in the time domain
A. is a constant.
B. grows exponentially with time.
C. grows linearly with time.
D. decays linearly with time.

For a feed back control system to be stable, the
A. roots of the characteristic equation should be real.
B. poles of the closed loop transfer function should lie in the left half of
the complex plane.
C. Bode plots of the corresponding open loop transfer function should
monotoni-cally decrease.
D. poles of the closed loop transfer function should lie in the right half of
the complex plane.
__________ controller has the maximum stabilising time.
A. P
B. PD
C. PI
D. PID

Characteristic equation is the denominator of __________ loop transfer
function.
A. open
B. closed
C. both (A)and (B)
D. neither (A) nor (B)

Response of a linear control system for a change in set point is called.
A. frequency response
B. transient response
C. servo problem
D. regulator problem

A stable system is the one.
A. for which the output response is bounded for all bounded input.
B. which exhibits an unbounded response to a bounded input
C. which satisfies the conditions for a servo problem.
D. none of these.

0n-off control which is a special case of proportional control, has a band
A. 100
B. 75
C. 25
D. 0

If response of a control system is to be free of offset and oscillation, the
most suitable controller is.
A. proportional controller.
B. proportional-derivative(PD)controller.
C. proportional-integral (PI) controller.
D. proportional integral-derivative (PID) controller.

An ON-OFF control system cannot solve critical process control problems
because it has.
A. only two possible outcomes
B. to large an output range
C. too small an output range
D. too slow an output

A proportional controller has a proportional band of 380% . The gain will be?
A. 7.60
B. 0.263
C. 3.80
D. 0.132

The rate of integral setting on a controller are often graduated in repeats
per minute, which other term is used?
A. sensitivity per min
B. minutes per repeat
C. gain per min
D. proportional per sec.

In on-off control, the value of the controler output depends only upon:
A. the amount of offset in the system
B. the sign of the error
C. the rate at whichthe eror has occurred
D. how long the error has existed

A process load change will cause a pure proportional control system to have:
A. offset
C. no noticable effect
D. continuous cyclic action
A high controller gain setting is the same as:
A. A minimum offset
B. high reset
C. low sensitivity
D. narrow proportional band

The mathematical relationship[ k2 INTEGRAL( e) dt ]refers to which of the
following control modes?
A. positive feedback integral term
B. negative feedback proportional term
C. positive feedback derivative term
D. negative feedback integral term

A controller with settings PB = 110%, Reset = 1.5 minutes is the same
controller with setting of:
A. k1 = 1.1, k2 = 1.5 rpts/min.
B. k1 = 110, k2 = 1.5 min.
C. k1 = 0.91, k2 = 0.67 rpts/min.
D. k1 = 1.1, k2 = 0.67 rpts/min.

A controller with settings PB = 180%, Reset = 2.3 min is subjected to a 20%
step change at time t = 0, after 2 min the controller output change in
percent will be? (consider open loop only).
A. 20.8%
B. 1.45%
C. 11.6%
D. 67.3%

The main purpose for reset action in a control loop is to:
A. increase controller gain
B. eliminate offset
C. decrease controller gain
D. speed up response

Gain and proportional band are:
A. controller functions calibrated in time units
B. two different control modes
C. reciprocally related
D. adjusted independently of one another

A proportional controller will have an offset difference between set point
and control point:
A. that depends on process load
B. at all times
C. that will eventually vanish
D. equal to the proportional band setting

If it were possible for a proportional controller to have true 0 %
proportional band, the controller gain would have to be:
A. 0
B. unity
C. 100
D. infinite

If the proportional band of the controller is adjusted to minimum possible
value, the control action is likely to be:
A. on/off
B. with maximum off/set
C. excelent
D. inoperative

A proportional controller is employed to control a process that is subject to
a load change. Narrowing the proportional band will:
A. never causes cycling
B. always cause cycling
C. not change the offset
D. decrease the offset

The most common combination of control modes found in the typical process
plant is:
A. proportional plus integral
B. on / off
C. proportional only
D. proportional, plus integral and derivative

The integral dial on a controller is calibrated in:
A. integral units
B. gain units
C. percentage
D. minutes or repeats/min

The response of derivative action to a step input is:
A. a step
B. a sinewave
C. a ramp
D. a spike

The lapse time between the moment of the step change is made and the moment
the recorder first begins to reflect that change is called :
A. process rate
B. integral time
D. error

Response of a linear control system for a change in load is called
A. transient response
B. sinusoidal response
C. servo problem
D. regulator problem

A stable system is one
A. whose response is time invariant
B. for which the output is bounded for all bounded inputs
C. for which the roots of the characteristic equation lies on the left hand
half of the complex plane
D. d) all of (A), (B) & (C)

When the gain of a proportional controller is increased, it
A. minimises offset
B. eliminates offset
C. reduces offset but increases tendency towards instability
D. reduces offset to zero but increases oscillations

When an integral mode is added to a proportional controller
A. it eliminates offset but increases oscillations
B. it reduces offset but increases oscillations
C. it reduces offset and oscillations
D. it eliminates offset and oscillations

When a derivative mode is added to a proportional controller it
A. eliminates offset and oscillations both
B. reduces offset but eliminates oscillation
C. eliminates offset only
D. eliminates oscillations only

Which of the following controllers has maximum offset ?
A. P controller
B. P-D controller
C. P-I controller
D. PID controller

Regulator problem requires
A. set point to be constant
C. both set point and load are constant,
D. neither set point nor load is constant,

Servo problem necessitates
A. set point to be constant
C. both set point and load are constant,
D. neither set point nor load is constant

On off control
A. Fully opens the valve when the measurand is below the set point
B. Fully closes the valve when the measurand is above the set point
C. Is a two position (fully opened or fully closed) control action adequate
toControl a process with slow reaction rate and minimum dead time,
D. none of these,

On-off control requires the controller gain to be
A. large
B. small
C. variable from small to large values
D. none of these

P-I controller as compared to P-controller has
A. higher maximum deviation
B. longer response time
C. longer period of oscillation and no offset,
D. all A , B, C

Steady state deviation resulting from a change in the value of the load
variable is called
A. off set
B. error ratio
C. deviation
D. static error

A controller action in which, there is a continuous linear relation between
the value of the controlled variable and the rate of change of controlled
output signal is called
A. proportional action
B. integral action
C. derivative action
D. none of these

Steady state ratio of the change of proportional controller output variable
and the change in actuating signal is called.
A. proportional sensitivity
B. reset rate
C. rangeability
D. off set

Derivative control action is effective?
A. Only during steady state periods
B. Only during transient state periods
C. During both steady state and transient state periods
D. Either during steady state or during transient state periods

In a second order undamped system, the poles are on
A. positive real axis
B. imaginary axis
C. negative real axis
D. either (A) or (C)

Which control action is also called rate control?
A. Proportional
B. Derivative
C. Integral
D. Proportional plus integral

Integral error compensation changes a second order system to
A. first order system
B. third order system
C. fourth order system
D. either (A) or (B) depending on the system

The addition of a zero to the open loop transfer function
A. pulls the root locus to the left and makes the system more stable
B. pulls the root locus to the right and makes the system less stable
C. either (A) or (B)
D. neither (A) nor (B)

A proportional controller is basically
A. an amplifier with adjustable gain
B. an integrating amplifier
C. an amplifier with infinite gain
D. an amplifier with almost zero gain

In a proportional plus integral control action
A. proportional gain Kp is adjustable but integral time Ti is constant
B. proportional gain Kp is adjustable but integral time Ti is adjustable
C. both proportional gain Kp and integral time Ti are adjustable
D. both proportional gain Kp and integral time Ti are constant

The root locus branches
A. start from open loop poles and terminate at zeros
B. start from open loop zeros and terminate at poles
C. may start from pole or zero and terminate at another pole or zero
D. none of the above

In a single tank system, the transfer function of level to inlet flow rate is
A. R/TS
B. R/(TS + 1)
C. l(TS + l)
D. 1/TS

Response of a system to a sinusoidal input is called __________ response.
A. impluse
B. unit step
C. frequency
D. none of these

Transfer function of transportation lag is
A. eTS
B. e-TS
C. l/(TS + l)
D. none of these

Pick out the first order system from among the following.
A. Damped vibrator.
B. Mercury in glass thermometer kept in boiling water.
C. Interacting system of two tanks in series.
D. Non-interacting system of two tanks in series.

A non-linear chemical system is exemplified by a/an
A. isothermal CSTR
B. mixer
C. non-isothermal CSTR
D. none of these

The initial value (t=0) of the unit step response of the transfer function
[(s + 1)/(2s + 1)] is
A. 0
B. 1/2
C. 1
D. 2

For increased speed of response of an expansion pressure spring thermometer,
the thermometer bulb should have a
A. large area but small mass.
B. high thermal conductivity.
C. small specific heat.
D. all'A', 'B' & 'C'.

What is the dynamic error in a critically damped second order instrument for
a ramp input (At) ?
A. 0.5 AT
B. 2 AT
C. AT
D. 1.5 AT

The response of two tanks of same size and resistance in series is
A. under damped
B. critically damped
C. over damped
D. none of the above

The unit step response of the transfer function 1/(s2 + 2s + 3)
A. has a non-zero slope at the origin.
B. has a damped oscillatory characteristics.
C. is overdamped
D. is unstable

A typical example of a physical system with under damped characteristic is a
A. U-tube manometer.
C. CSTR with first order reaction.
D. thermocouple kept immersed in a liquid filled thermowell.

To increase the speed of response of a pressure spring liquid or gas
expansion thermometer, the clearance space between the thermometer bulb and
the thermal well should not be filled with
A. air
B. a metal powder or graphite
C. oil
D. mercury

Mercury manometer (U-tube type) exemplifies a __________ order system.
A. zero
B. first
C. second
D. third

The speed of response of two non-interacting first order systems in series
when compared with the same two systems arranged in interacting fashion is
A. faster,
B. slower,
C. same
D. can not be determined

Overshoot of a second order system
A. decreases with increasing value of damping coefficient from 0 to 1
B. increases with increasing value of damping coefficient from 0 to 1
C. remains constant as damping coefficient changes from 0 to 1.
D. can not be determined

The time necessary for a step change in food composition to be observed in
the top and bottoms compositions is of the order of
A. seconds
B. minutes
C. hours
D. none of these

In a second order system with a unit step input, the speed of response is
high if system is
A. overdamped
B. undamped system
C. critically damped
D. underdamped

A thermometer requires 1 minute to indicate 98% of its final response to a
step input. If it is a first order system the time constant is
A. 1 minute
B. 0.5 minute
C. 0.25 minute
D. 0.1 minute

Time rate of change in heat energy is analogous to
A. voltage
B. charge
C. current

Pick out the one which is a first order instrument.
A. Mercury in glass thermometer (without any covering or air gap).
B. Bare metallic thermometer.
C. Bare vapor pressure thermometer.
D. All (A), (B) and (C).

The function of a transducer is to
A. modify the input signal.
B. amplify the input signal.
C. convert the primary signal into a more useful quantity, usually an
electric impulse.
D. codify/decodify the input signal.

For an input forcing function, X(t) = 2t2, the Laplace transform of this
function is
A. 2/s2
B. 4/s2
C. 2/s3
D. 4/s3

In a shell and tube heat exchanger, the flow rate of heating/cooling fluid is
the __________ variable.
B. controlled
C. manipulated
D. none of these

The time constant of a first order process with resistance R and capacitance
C is
A. R + C
B. R - C
C. RC
D. 1/RC

In an exothermic chemical reactor, the manipulated variable is the flow rate
of
A. coolant
B. reactants
C. product
D. none of these

Stabilising time for the controllers is the time required for the response to
reach __________ percent of its ultimate value.
A. 63.2
B. 87.5
C. 95
D. 100

Time constant is the
A. time taken by the controlled variable to reach 63.2% of its full change.
B. same as transportation lag.
D. time required by the measured variable to reach 63.2% of its ultimate
change.

Process degree of freedom indicates __________ number of controllers to be
used.
A.the maximum
B. the minimum
C. both maximum and the minimum

In a shell and tube heat exchanger, the inlet temperature of heating/cooling
fluid is the __________ variable.
B. manipulated
C. controlled
D. none of these

Temperature control of an exothermic chemical reaction taking place in a CSTR
is done with the help of cooling water flowing in a jacket around the
reactor. The types of valve and controller action to be recommended are
A. air to open valve with the controller direct acting.
B. air to close valve with the controller indirect acting.
C. air to open valve with the controller indirect acting.
D. air to close valve with the controller direct acting.

What is the Laplace transform of impulse input having magnitude 'X' ?
A. X
B. X2
C. 1/X
D. 1

The Laplace transform of exp(at), where a > 0, is defined only for the
Laplace parameter, s > a since
A. the function is exponential.
B. the Laplace transform of integral of exp(at) has finite values only for s
> a.
C. the Laplace transform integral of exp(at) has initial values only for s >
a.
D. the function exp(at) is piece-wise continuous only for s > a.

In any process application feedback control requires ?
A. a remote loop
B. an open loop,
C. a closed loop
D. an internal loop

Automatic process control is, generally speaking:
A. a collection of gadgetry which the Instrument department takes care of
B. a "black box" on the instrument panel,
C. a system of components consisting only of instruments
D. a system of control that does not need constant human intervention

Automatic controllers operate on the difference between set point and
measurement, which is called:
A. feedback
B. bais
C. error
D. offset

All control systems that fit into the usual pattern are:
A. non self-regulating
B. closed loop
C. on / off
D. open-loop

Time constant is :
A. Time taken by the response (measured variable) to attain 63.2 percent of
its ultimate value (total charge)
B. Time taken by the response (controlled variable) to attain 63.2 percent of
its ultimate value (total charge)
C. Synonymous with transfer lag
D. Same as time delay

Transfer function is defined as :
A. ratio of Laplace transforms of output deviation variable to input
deviation variable
B. ratio of Laplace transform of controlled variable deviation to forcing
function deviation
C. ratio of Laplace transform of controller output deviation to disturbance
deviation.
D. all the above

Response due to a sinusoidal input is :
A. exponentially increasing,
B. exponentially decreasing,
C. sinusoidal,
D. an impulse function,

Mode used for transmitting signal for one Km distance is
A. hydraulic
B. pneumatic
C. electronic
D. none of these

Final control element is a
A. Valve
B. Switch
C. Signal
D. none of these

Electronic controller output varies from
A. 4 mA 20 mA
B. 0 30 mA
C. upto 50 mA
D. none of these

Valve top pressure in pneumatic transmission varies from
A. 0 20 psi
B. 3 15 psi
C. 3 18 psi
D. none of these

Difference at any instant between the value of the controlled variable and
the set point is called
A. deviation
B. derivative time
C. error ratio
D. differential gap

Time required for the output of a first order system to change from a given
value to 63.2% of its final value when a step change of input is made, is
called
A. time constant
B. settling time
C. rise time
D. derivative time

Monitoring of control devices is accomplished through
A. alarm signals
B. measuring elements
C. control values
D. alarm signals attached to the measuring device

Signal conditioner :
A. Converts the transducer output to an electrical output suitable for the
function of the instrument
B. Conditions the signal from the instrument for the display device
C. Puts a condition on the generation of signal from the transducer in analog
or digital format.
D. Signalling the conditions of the process to a remote place.

A microprocessor processes informations
A. in discrete manner (digitally)
B. in continuous (analogue) manner
C. in hybrid manner (both analogue means and digitally)
D. none of these above

An A/D converter converts
A. Digital signal to Analogue from
B. Amplitude of a signal to the width
C. Analogue signal to discrete levels
D. Voltage to current

A proportional band signifies
A. how much a controller and the load variation has influence over the
process
B. how much noise and the load can interfere with the system
C. how controller and the process has influence over the load disturbance
D. none of these