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176 Aufrufe19 Seitenprocess dynamics and control bits ......... useful for gate and other competi

Oct 30, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

DOCX, PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

process dynamics and control bits ......... useful for gate and other competi

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOCX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

176 Aufrufe

process dynamics and control bits ......... useful for gate and other competi

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOCX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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A. stable

B. unstable

C. critically damped

D. none of these

Answer:

Typical specifications for design stipulates the gain margin and phase margin

to be respectively

A. > 1.7 and > 30

B. < 1.7 and > 30

C. < 1.7 and < 30

D. > 1.7 and < 30

Answer:

Select the correct statement from the following.

A. The frequency response of a pure capacity process is unbounded.

B. The phase lag of a pure time delay system decreases with increasing

frequency.

C. The amplitude ratio of a pure capacity process is inversely proportional

to frequency.

D. The amplitude ratio of a pure time delay system increases with frequency.

Answer:

A sinusoidal variation in the input passing through a linear first order

system

A. becomes more oscillatory (frequency increases).

B. becomes less oscillatory (frequency decreases).

C. gets amplified (magnitude increases).

D. gets attenuated (magnitude decreases).

Answer:

According to Bode stability criterian, a system is unstable, if the open loop

frequency response exhibits an amplitude ratio exceeding unity at frequency

for which phase lag is

A. 0

B. 45

C. 90

D. 180

Answer:

An amplitude ratio of 0.1 corresponds to __________ decibels.

A. 20

B. -20

C. 10

D. -10

Answer:

The amplitude ratio for the sinusoidal response of a __________ is 1.

A. first order system

B. second order system

C. transportation lag

D. none of these

Answer: C

The amplitude ratio for the sinusoidal response of __________ is < 1.

A. transportation lag

B. first order system

C. second order system

D. none of these

Answer:

Bode diagram are generated from output response of the system subjected to

which of the following input?

A. Impulse

B. Step

C. Ramp

D. Sinusoidal

Answer:

A first order system with a time constant of 1 min is subjected to frequency

response analysis. At an input frequency of 1 radian/min, the phase shift is

A. 45 degrees

B. -90 degrees

C. -180 degrees

D. -45 degrees

Answer:

Stability of a control system containing a transportation lag can be best

analysed by

A. Routh test

B. root locus methods

C. frequency response methods

D. none of these

Answer:

Bode stability method uses __________ loop transfer function.

A. open

B. closed

C. either (A) or (B)

D. neither (A) nor (B)

Answer:

Decible is (AR is amplitude ratio)

A. 20 log10 AR

B. 20 loge AR

C. 20 log10 1/AR

D. either of A or B

Answer:

Bode stability criterion is defined as

A. A control system is unstable if the open loop frequency response exhibits

an AR exceeding unity at the frequency for which the phase lag is 180

degrees.

B. A control system is stable if the open loop frequency response exhibits an

AR of less than, equal to unity at the cross-over frequency.

C. The closed-loop feedback control system is stable if and only if the open

loop frequency response curve exhibits maximum value of amplitude ratio of

unity at 180 degrees phase lag, otherwise unstable.

D. All of A, B and C .

Answer:

Gain Margin is equal to

A. amplitude ratio

B. reciprocal of amplitude ratio

C. radian frequency

D. cyclical frequency

Answer:

Phase Margin is equal to

A. 180 phi

B. phi - 180

C. phi + 90

D. phi - 90

Answer:

Typical design specifications for the gain and phase margins respectively.

A. < 1.7 and < 30

B. >1.7 and < 30

C. < 1.7 and > 30

D. > 1.7 and > 30

Answer:

A negative gain margin in decibel means

A. a stable system

B. an unstable system

C. critically damped system

D. a system on the verge of instability

Answer:

The time constants for a fractionating column in a process industry are of

the order of

A. minutes

B. hours

C. days,

D. none of these

Answer:

The log magnitude curve for a constant gain K is a

A. horizontal straight line

B. horizontal straight line of magnitude 20 log K decibels

C. an inclined line having slope K

D. an inclined line having slope -K

Answer:

The slope of log-magnitude asymptote changes by - 40 dB/ decade at a

frequency ?1. This means that

A. a double pole is present

B. a pair of complex conjugate poles is present

C. either a double pole or a pair of complex conjugate poles is present

D. a pole or zero at origin is present

Answer:

A system has 12 poles and 2 zeros. Its high frequency asymptote in its

magnitude plot has a slope of

A. -200 dB/decade

B. -240 dB/decade

C. -280 dB/decade

D. -320 dB/decade

Answer:

The number of branches of root locus plot is equal to

A. the number of roots of characteristic equation

B. double the number of roots of characteristic equation

C. the number of roots of characteristic equation minus one

D. the number of roots of characteristic equation plus one

Answer:

A system has high gain and phase margin. The system is

A. very stable

B. sluggish

C. very stable and sluggish

D. oscillatory

Answer:

The frequency at which phase angle is 180 is called

A. phase crossover frequency

B. stability limit frequency

C. frequency of limited stability

D. gain margin frequency

Answer:

The closed loop pole of a stable second order system could be

A. both real and positive.

B. complex conjugate with positive real parts.

C. both real and negative.

D. one real positive and the other real negative.

Answer:

Which of the following controllers has the least maximum deviation ?

A. P-controller

B. P-I controller

C. P-I-D controller

D. P-D controller

Answer:

A proportional controller with a gain of Kc is used to control a first order

process. The offset will increase, if

A. Kc is reduced.

B. Kc is increased.

C. integral control action is introduced.

D. derivative control action is introduced.

Answer:

Pick out the wrong statement

A. Proportional controller is normally used for level control in industrial

applications.

B. CSTR can be considered as a distributed parameter system.

C. Distributed parameter approach gives partial differential equation.

D. Non-linear behaviour is exemplified by an on-off controller.

Answer:

In a closed loop system, the process to be controlled is an integrating

process with transfer function l/2s. The controller proposed to be used in an

integral controller with transfer function 1/T1s. When a step change in set

point is applied to such a closed loop system, the controlled variable will

exhibit

A. overdamped response.

B. underdamped response.

C. undamped response.

D. unstable response.

Answer:

The characteristic equation for the control system with a closed loop

transfer function G1/1 + G2 is given by 1 + G2 = 0. The characteristic

equation for the control system

A. depends only upon the open loop transfer function.

B. determines its stability.

C. is the same for set point or load changes.

D. all 'A', 'B' & 'C'

Answer:

Which of the systems having following transfer functions is stable?

A. 1/(s square+ 2)

B. 1/(s square-2s + 3)

C. 1/(s square + 2s + 2)

D. exp(-20s)/(s square + 2s-l)

Answer: C

Reset rate is the another term used for __________ time.

A. dead

B. integral

C. derivative

D. none of these

Answer:

Use of I-control along with P-control facilitates

A. elimination of offset

B. reduction of offset

C. reduction of stability time

D. none of these

Answer:

On-off controllers are normally used for

A. low loads

B. temperature changes

C. flow rate changes

D. none of these

Answer:

Which of the following controllers has maximum offset ?

A. P-controller

B. P-I controller

C. P-D controller

D. P-I-D controller

Answer:

Routh test

A. criterion provides information about the actual location of roots.

B. cannot be used to test the stability of a control system containing

transportation lag.

C. criterion is not applicable to systems with polynomial characteristic

equation.

D. can not determine as to how many roots of the characteristics equation

have positive real roots.

Answer:

A system with a double pole at the origin is unstable since the corresponding

term in the time domain

A. is a constant.

B. grows exponentially with time.

C. grows linearly with time.

D. decays linearly with time.

Answer:

For a feed back control system to be stable, the

A. roots of the characteristic equation should be real.

B. poles of the closed loop transfer function should lie in the left half of

the complex plane.

C. Bode plots of the corresponding open loop transfer function should

monotoni-cally decrease.

D. poles of the closed loop transfer function should lie in the right half of

the complex plane.

Answer:

__________ controller has the maximum stabilising time.

A. P

B. PD

C. PI

D. PID

Answer: C

Characteristic equation is the denominator of __________ loop transfer

function.

A. open

B. closed

C. both (A)and (B)

D. neither (A) nor (B)

Answer:

Response of a linear control system for a change in set point is called.

A. frequency response

B. transient response

C. servo problem

D. regulator problem

Answer:

A stable system is the one.

A. for which the output response is bounded for all bounded input.

B. which exhibits an unbounded response to a bounded input

C. which satisfies the conditions for a servo problem.

D. none of these.

Answer:

0n-off control which is a special case of proportional control, has a band

width of about __________ percent.

A. 100

B. 75

C. 25

D. 0

Answer:

If response of a control system is to be free of offset and oscillation, the

most suitable controller is.

A. proportional controller.

B. proportional-derivative(PD)controller.

C. proportional-integral (PI) controller.

D. proportional integral-derivative (PID) controller.

Answer:

An ON-OFF control system cannot solve critical process control problems

because it has.

A. only two possible outcomes

B. to large an output range

C. too small an output range

D. too slow an output

Answer:

A proportional controller has a proportional band of 380% . The gain will be?

A. 7.60

B. 0.263

C. 3.80

D. 0.132

Answer:

The rate of integral setting on a controller are often graduated in repeats

per minute, which other term is used?

A. sensitivity per min

B. minutes per repeat

C. gain per min

D. proportional per sec.

Answer:

In on-off control, the value of the controler output depends only upon:

A. the amount of offset in the system

B. the sign of the error

C. the rate at whichthe eror has occurred

D. how long the error has existed

Answer:

A process load change will cause a pure proportional control system to have:

A. offset

B. dead zone

C. no noticable effect

D. continuous cyclic action

Answer:

A high controller gain setting is the same as:

A. A minimum offset

B. high reset

C. low sensitivity

D. narrow proportional band

Answer:

The mathematical relationship[ k2 INTEGRAL( e) dt ]refers to which of the

following control modes?

A. positive feedback integral term

B. negative feedback proportional term

C. positive feedback derivative term

D. negative feedback integral term

Answer:

A controller with settings PB = 110%, Reset = 1.5 minutes is the same

controller with setting of:

A. k1 = 1.1, k2 = 1.5 rpts/min.

B. k1 = 110, k2 = 1.5 min.

C. k1 = 0.91, k2 = 0.67 rpts/min.

D. k1 = 1.1, k2 = 0.67 rpts/min.

Answer:

A controller with settings PB = 180%, Reset = 2.3 min is subjected to a 20%

step change at time t = 0, after 2 min the controller output change in

percent will be? (consider open loop only).

A. 20.8%

B. 1.45%

C. 11.6%

D. 67.3%

Answer:

The main purpose for reset action in a control loop is to:

A. increase controller gain

B. eliminate offset

C. decrease controller gain

D. speed up response

Answer:

Gain and proportional band are:

A. controller functions calibrated in time units

B. two different control modes

C. reciprocally related

D. adjusted independently of one another

Answer:

A proportional controller will have an offset difference between set point

and control point:

A. that depends on process load

B. at all times

C. that will eventually vanish

D. equal to the proportional band setting

Answer:

If it were possible for a proportional controller to have true 0 %

proportional band, the controller gain would have to be:

A. 0

B. unity

C. 100

D. infinite

Answer:

If the proportional band of the controller is adjusted to minimum possible

value, the control action is likely to be:

A. on/off

B. with maximum off/set

C. excelent

D. inoperative

Answer:

A proportional controller is employed to control a process that is subject to

a load change. Narrowing the proportional band will:

A. never causes cycling

B. always cause cycling

C. not change the offset

D. decrease the offset

Answer:

The most common combination of control modes found in the typical process

plant is:

A. proportional plus integral

B. on / off

C. proportional only

D. proportional, plus integral and derivative

Answer:

The integral dial on a controller is calibrated in:

A. integral units

B. gain units

C. percentage

D. minutes or repeats/min

Answer:

The response of derivative action to a step input is:

A. a step

B. a sinewave

C. a ramp

D. a spike

Answer:

The lapse time between the moment of the step change is made and the moment

the recorder first begins to reflect that change is called :

A. process rate

B. integral time

C. dead time

D. error

Answer:

Response of a linear control system for a change in load is called

A. transient response

B. sinusoidal response

C. servo problem

D. regulator problem

Answer:

A stable system is one

A. whose response is time invariant

B. for which the output is bounded for all bounded inputs

C. for which the roots of the characteristic equation lies on the left hand

half of the complex plane

D. d) all of (A), (B) & (C)

Answer:

When the gain of a proportional controller is increased, it

A. minimises offset

B. eliminates offset

C. reduces offset but increases tendency towards instability

D. reduces offset to zero but increases oscillations

Answer:

When an integral mode is added to a proportional controller

A. it eliminates offset but increases oscillations

B. it reduces offset but increases oscillations

C. it reduces offset and oscillations

D. it eliminates offset and oscillations

Answer:

When a derivative mode is added to a proportional controller it

A. eliminates offset and oscillations both

B. reduces offset but eliminates oscillation

C. eliminates offset only

D. eliminates oscillations only

Answer:

Which of the following controllers has maximum offset ?

A. P controller

B. P-D controller

C. P-I controller

D. PID controller

Answer:

Regulator problem requires

A. set point to be constant

B. load to be constant

C. both set point and load are constant,

D. neither set point nor load is constant,

Answer:

Servo problem necessitates

A. set point to be constant

B. load to be constant

C. both set point and load are constant,

D. neither set point nor load is constant

Answer:

On off control

A. Fully opens the valve when the measurand is below the set point

B. Fully closes the valve when the measurand is above the set point

C. Is a two position (fully opened or fully closed) control action adequate

toControl a process with slow reaction rate and minimum dead time,

D. none of these,

Answer:

On-off control requires the controller gain to be

A. large

B. small

C. variable from small to large values

D. none of these

Answer:

P-I controller as compared to P-controller has

A. higher maximum deviation

B. longer response time

C. longer period of oscillation and no offset,

D. all A , B, C

Answer:

Steady state deviation resulting from a change in the value of the load

variable is called

A. off set

B. error ratio

C. deviation

D. static error

Answer:

A controller action in which, there is a continuous linear relation between

the value of the controlled variable and the rate of change of controlled

output signal is called

A. proportional action

B. integral action

C. derivative action

D. none of these

Answer:

Steady state ratio of the change of proportional controller output variable

and the change in actuating signal is called.

A. proportional sensitivity

B. reset rate

C. rangeability

D. off set

Answer:

Derivative control action is effective?

A. Only during steady state periods

B. Only during transient state periods

C. During both steady state and transient state periods

D. Either during steady state or during transient state periods

Answer:

In a second order undamped system, the poles are on

A. positive real axis

B. imaginary axis

C. negative real axis

D. either (A) or (C)

Answer:

Which control action is also called rate control?

A. Proportional

B. Derivative

C. Integral

D. Proportional plus integral

Answer:

Integral error compensation changes a second order system to

A. first order system

B. third order system

C. fourth order system

D. either (A) or (B) depending on the system

Answer:

The addition of a zero to the open loop transfer function

A. pulls the root locus to the left and makes the system more stable

B. pulls the root locus to the right and makes the system less stable

C. either (A) or (B)

D. neither (A) nor (B)

Answer:

A proportional controller is basically

A. an amplifier with adjustable gain

B. an integrating amplifier

C. an amplifier with infinite gain

D. an amplifier with almost zero gain

Answer:

In a proportional plus integral control action

A. proportional gain Kp is adjustable but integral time Ti is constant

B. proportional gain Kp is adjustable but integral time Ti is adjustable

C. both proportional gain Kp and integral time Ti are adjustable

D. both proportional gain Kp and integral time Ti are constant

Answer:

The root locus branches

A. start from open loop poles and terminate at zeros

B. start from open loop zeros and terminate at poles

C. may start from pole or zero and terminate at another pole or zero

D. none of the above

Answer:

In a single tank system, the transfer function of level to inlet flow rate is

A. R/TS

B. R/(TS + 1)

C. l(TS + l)

D. 1/TS

Answer:

Response of a system to a sinusoidal input is called __________ response.

A. impluse

B. unit step

C. frequency

D. none of these

Answer:

Transfer function of transportation lag is

A. eTS

B. e-TS

C. l/(TS + l)

D. none of these

Answer:

Pick out the first order system from among the following.

A. Damped vibrator.

B. Mercury in glass thermometer kept in boiling water.

C. Interacting system of two tanks in series.

D. Non-interacting system of two tanks in series.

Answer:

A non-linear chemical system is exemplified by a/an

A. isothermal CSTR

B. mixer

C. non-isothermal CSTR

D. none of these

Answer:

The initial value (t=0) of the unit step response of the transfer function

[(s + 1)/(2s + 1)] is

A. 0

B. 1/2

C. 1

D. 2

Answer:

For increased speed of response of an expansion pressure spring thermometer,

the thermometer bulb should have a

A. large area but small mass.

B. high thermal conductivity.

C. small specific heat.

D. all'A', 'B' & 'C'.

Answer:

What is the dynamic error in a critically damped second order instrument for

a ramp input (At) ?

A. 0.5 AT

B. 2 AT

C. AT

D. 1.5 AT

Answer:

The response of two tanks of same size and resistance in series is

A. under damped

B. critically damped

C. over damped

D. none of the above

Answer:

The unit step response of the transfer function 1/(s2 + 2s + 3)

A. has a non-zero slope at the origin.

B. has a damped oscillatory characteristics.

C. is overdamped

D. is unstable

Answer:

A typical example of a physical system with under damped characteristic is a

A. U-tube manometer.

B. spring loaded diaphragm valve.

C. CSTR with first order reaction.

D. thermocouple kept immersed in a liquid filled thermowell.

Answer:

To increase the speed of response of a pressure spring liquid or gas

expansion thermometer, the clearance space between the thermometer bulb and

the thermal well should not be filled with

A. air

B. a metal powder or graphite

C. oil

D. mercury

Answer:

Mercury manometer (U-tube type) exemplifies a __________ order system.

A. zero

B. first

C. second

D. third

Answer:

The speed of response of two non-interacting first order systems in series

when compared with the same two systems arranged in interacting fashion is

A. faster,

B. slower,

C. same

D. can not be determined

Answer:

Overshoot of a second order system

A. decreases with increasing value of damping coefficient from 0 to 1

B. increases with increasing value of damping coefficient from 0 to 1

C. remains constant as damping coefficient changes from 0 to 1.

D. can not be determined

Answer:

The time necessary for a step change in food composition to be observed in

the top and bottoms compositions is of the order of

A. seconds

B. minutes

C. hours

D. none of these

Answer:

In a second order system with a unit step input, the speed of response is

high if system is

A. overdamped

B. undamped system

C. critically damped

D. underdamped

Answer:

A thermometer requires 1 minute to indicate 98% of its final response to a

step input. If it is a first order system the time constant is

A. 1 minute

B. 0.5 minute

C. 0.25 minute

D. 0.1 minute

Answer:

Time rate of change in heat energy is analogous to

A. voltage

B. charge

C. current

D. voltage gradient

Answer:

Pick out the one which is a first order instrument.

A. Mercury in glass thermometer (without any covering or air gap).

B. Bare metallic thermometer.

C. Bare vapor pressure thermometer.

D. All (A), (B) and (C).

Answer:

The function of a transducer is to

A. modify the input signal.

B. amplify the input signal.

C. convert the primary signal into a more useful quantity, usually an

electric impulse.

D. codify/decodify the input signal.

Answer:

For an input forcing function, X(t) = 2t2, the Laplace transform of this

function is

A. 2/s2

B. 4/s2

C. 2/s3

D. 4/s3

Answer:

In a shell and tube heat exchanger, the flow rate of heating/cooling fluid is

the __________ variable.

A. load

B. controlled

C. manipulated

D. none of these

Answer:

The time constant of a first order process with resistance R and capacitance

C is

A. R + C

B. R - C

C. RC

D. 1/RC

Answer:

In an exothermic chemical reactor, the manipulated variable is the flow rate

of

A. coolant

B. reactants

C. product

D. none of these

Answer:

Stabilising time for the controllers is the time required for the response to

reach __________ percent of its ultimate value.

A. 63.2

B. 87.5

C. 95

D. 100

Answer:

Time constant is the

A. time taken by the controlled variable to reach 63.2% of its full change.

B. same as transportation lag.

C. same as dead time.

D. time required by the measured variable to reach 63.2% of its ultimate

change.

Answer:

Process degree of freedom indicates __________ number of controllers to be

used.

A.the maximum

B. the minimum

C. both maximum and the minimum

D. nothing about the

Answer:

In a shell and tube heat exchanger, the inlet temperature of heating/cooling

fluid is the __________ variable.

A. load

B. manipulated

C. controlled

D. none of these

Answer:

Temperature control of an exothermic chemical reaction taking place in a CSTR

is done with the help of cooling water flowing in a jacket around the

reactor. The types of valve and controller action to be recommended are

A. air to open valve with the controller direct acting.

B. air to close valve with the controller indirect acting.

C. air to open valve with the controller indirect acting.

D. air to close valve with the controller direct acting.

Answer:

What is the Laplace transform of impulse input having magnitude 'X' ?

A. X

B. X2

C. 1/X

D. 1

Answer:

The Laplace transform of exp(at), where a > 0, is defined only for the

Laplace parameter, s > a since

A. the function is exponential.

B. the Laplace transform of integral of exp(at) has finite values only for s

> a.

C. the Laplace transform integral of exp(at) has initial values only for s >

a.

D. the function exp(at) is piece-wise continuous only for s > a.

Answer:

In any process application feedback control requires ?

A. a remote loop

B. an open loop,

C. a closed loop

D. an internal loop

Answer:

Automatic process control is, generally speaking:

A. a collection of gadgetry which the Instrument department takes care of

B. a "black box" on the instrument panel,

C. a system of components consisting only of instruments

D. a system of control that does not need constant human intervention

Answer:

Automatic controllers operate on the difference between set point and

measurement, which is called:

A. feedback

B. bais

C. error

D. offset

Answer:

All control systems that fit into the usual pattern are:

A. non self-regulating

B. closed loop

C. on / off

D. open-loop

Answer:

Time constant is :

A. Time taken by the response (measured variable) to attain 63.2 percent of

its ultimate value (total charge)

B. Time taken by the response (controlled variable) to attain 63.2 percent of

its ultimate value (total charge)

C. Synonymous with transfer lag

D. Same as time delay

Answer:

Transfer function is defined as :

A. ratio of Laplace transforms of output deviation variable to input

deviation variable

B. ratio of Laplace transform of controlled variable deviation to forcing

function deviation

C. ratio of Laplace transform of controller output deviation to disturbance

deviation.

D. all the above

Answer:

Response due to a sinusoidal input is :

A. exponentially increasing,

B. exponentially decreasing,

C. sinusoidal,

D. an impulse function,

Answer:

Mode used for transmitting signal for one Km distance is

A. hydraulic

B. pneumatic

C. electronic

D. none of these

Answer:

Final control element is a

A. Valve

B. Switch

C. Signal

D. none of these

Answer:

Electronic controller output varies from

A. 4 mA 20 mA

B. 0 30 mA

C. upto 50 mA

D. none of these

Answer:

Valve top pressure in pneumatic transmission varies from

A. 0 20 psi

B. 3 15 psi

C. 3 18 psi

D. none of these

Answer:

Difference at any instant between the value of the controlled variable and

the set point is called

A. deviation

B. derivative time

C. error ratio

D. differential gap

Answer:

Time required for the output of a first order system to change from a given

value to 63.2% of its final value when a step change of input is made, is

called

A. time constant

B. settling time

C. rise time

D. derivative time

Answer:

Monitoring of control devices is accomplished through

A. alarm signals

B. measuring elements

C. control values

D. alarm signals attached to the measuring device

Answer:

Signal conditioner :

A. Converts the transducer output to an electrical output suitable for the

function of the instrument

B. Conditions the signal from the instrument for the display device

C. Puts a condition on the generation of signal from the transducer in analog

or digital format.

D. Signalling the conditions of the process to a remote place.

Answer:

A microprocessor processes informations

A. in discrete manner (digitally)

B. in continuous (analogue) manner

C. in hybrid manner (both analogue means and digitally)

D. none of these above

Answer:

An A/D converter converts

A. Digital signal to Analogue from

B. Amplitude of a signal to the width

C. Analogue signal to discrete levels

D. Voltage to current

Answer:

A proportional band signifies

A. how much a controller and the load variation has influence over the

process

B. how much noise and the load can interfere with the system

C. how controller and the process has influence over the load disturbance

D. none of these

Answer:

Which of the following are applications of position control systems?

A. Control of sheet and metal thickness in hot rolling mill

B. Missile guidance of ships

C. Radar tracking system

D. All of the above

Answer:

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