Diseño de revestimiento final en tuberías de presión y túneles a presión

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concrete Iinings of

pressure tunnels

and shafts

rrof. Dr. A.J. Schleiss

Laboratory of Hydraulic Constructions

Civil Engineering Department

Swiss Federal Institute of Thchnology

Lausanne, Switzerland

Reprinted from

THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON

HYDKOPOWEK

&DAMS

lssue Three, Volume Four, 1997

Fir;. J. Cradt:d,

rnforccd concrete

!ininr;.

Design of reinforced concrete

Iinings of pressure tunnels

and shafts

A.J. Schleiss, Laboratory of Hydraulic Constructions, EPFL Switzerland

An interactive computational method for reinforced concrete linings of pressure tunnels and

shafts is presented, which considers the effect of the seepage forces in the lining and rock as

well as the deformation-dependent permeability of the lining. The history of the development of

cracks and its influence on the stress distribution in the hoop reinforcement is also taken into

account. Design criteria for reinforced, concrete lined pressure tunnels and shafts are discussed.

T

he development of cracks in the concrete lining

of a pressure tunnel cannot be prevented by

rcinforcing the concrete. The main purpose of

the reinforcement is to increase the number of cracks

and to limit their width. If, compared with the rock,

the permeability of the concrete lining is reduced in

rhis way. water losses from the tunnel will also be

diminishcd. In any case, reinforcement prevcnts

unconrrolled cracking of the lining and local high

water losses, which can cause the washing out of joint

fil!ngs and instability of slopes abo ve thc tunncl.

In practicc. reinforced concrete linings are often

designed oo thc assumption that water pressure acts

only on the inncr surface of the concrete linlng

[Kastner, 1962

1

]. This corresponds to the assumption

that, from the static point of view, thc lining is tight. In

fact this is not the case, because, under interna! pres-

sure, seepage flow into thc rock will develop through

the cracks in the concrete lining. Depending on the

head loss through the cracks, a certain portion of the

interna! water pressure is al so present on the outsde of

the concrete lining. The seepage flow Joads both the

linng and rock by scepage tOrces which must not be

ncglected when calculating deformations and stresses

in the reinforcement and the rock.

Furthermore, mechanical-hy(iraulic interaction will

occur because the width of the cracks in the lining

and. therefore, its permeability are changed by the

deformation of the rock [Schleiss. 19R8

2

J. Moreovcr,

the crack pattem in the lining and, correspondingly,

the distribution ofrhe stresses in the reinforcement are

modified when the internal pressure is increased

[Schleiss. 1990

3

].

Pressure el seep;ge \r-w

Rnck E,,' ,,k

1

Ralirel

lcnmtud;nal

l

l

In this paper, a computation method for reinforced,

concrete-lined pressure tunnels is presented which

takes into account the permeability of the lining and

rock, and the effects of mechanical-hydraulic interac-

tion, as well as the history of cracking of the lining

during increasing of thc internal pressure.

1. Computation model and

assumptions

In view of the static and hydraulic behaviour, thc fol-

Jowng three zones have to be considered separately

(Fig. l ):

crackcd concrete lining;

the rock mass affected by seepage tlow; and,

the rock mass not affected by scepagc t1ow.

Both the defonnation and the permeability of the

cracked concrete lning are intlucnced by the rein-

forcement.

Besidcs radial symmetrical behaviour of the above

zones, the computation method is based on the fol-

lowing assumptions:

Deformability and permeability of the rock mass are

homogeneous and isotropic. Only elastic behaviour of

tlle rock is considered under interna! water pressure.

Seepage takes place only through the cracks; the

permeability of the concrete between the cracks is

neglected.

Regarding the load-sharing between the reinforced

concrete lining and the roe k mass, the reinforcement is

smeared to an cquivalent rhickncss of a steel lincr.

However, when thc distribution of cracks in the Jining

s determined. the srress pauem in thc reintOrcement

between two cracks is assumed to be parabolic

[ Brkenmaier, j. The stress level in the steeJ bars

between two cracks, that is, in the uncracked section,

is int1ucnced by the history of cracking (Fig. 2).

FuJI loading efect (11 = 100 per cent) of the secpage

pressure in the cracked concrete lining and in the rock

mass is assumed [Schleiss, 1986

5

6

].

To determine the load takcn by each of the three

zones, the mcchanical stresses and the water prcssures

at thcir boundarics havc to be known. The unknown

water pressures are derived from continuity con-

ditions. The boundary stresses can be determined by

applying compatibility condtions.

2. Initial cracking of tbe Iining

The lining wll crack as sotm as the tangential stresses

in thc concrete excced ts tenslc strength. Considcring

the scepage forces, the maximum tangential stresses in

Hydropower & Dams lssue Three. 1997

Spacing nf cracks d

Number uf cracks n

cy

Spacing of cracks 1 12 d

Number of cracks 2n

\ 1

QJJ

Spacing uf cracks 1 14 d

Number of cracks 4n

'

\,\ \

1

0

e

_......-Stresses in steai

/a,

Reinfurcement bar

e

Fig. 2. Development ofcracks wul disrribution ofstresses in

the steel bars (slurwn schematicalf.v).

the uncracked concrete lining due to interna! water

pressure are given by Schleis;-ll986

5

j:

(P,, -Pi) ( 2 -V, )

3(1-v,.) .

+ li'r,(l+v,,)!(r;,(2-v.))]+

Jr;At-1 1-(r,!r;.)

+ 2Pr{r:.)

1-(/rj

... (1)

lf the tunncl or the shaft is situated within the

groundwatcr tablc then, as a reasonable approxima-

tion. the acting water prcssure p" on the outside of the

uncrackcd !ning is equal to groundwatcr pressurc

p,. g. h.

If the tunnel or the shaft is abo ve the the groundwa-

ter table, the acting water pressure on the outside of

the lining as a result of the seepagc can be derived

from:

P,_

l+(k,. ln{;,!r,))!(k, ln(R/1;,)) .. 12)

Since the inHuence of p,, on the stresses in the con-

Hydropower & Dams lssue Three, 1997

crete is small, the assumptions R = 2 r(i in the case of

rather pcrvious rock {k,- ;-::: l 00 kJ and R = 1 O ra in the

case of tight rock (k,- k-) give sufficiently correct

results.

The boundary pressure between concrete and rock is

given by Schleiss [1986

5

]:

r _ .-2(2. -v)!((r./r,)' -ll+T'.

(P. P.,)

] L+(l-2v)!(1-/r,,) JI

. [-3(E,(l+v,)/E,(1+v,))p, J

. ' 1

.

l + E,.(l +v,)!E,.(l +v,)+ l- 2 v, J

... (3)

The condition for the formation of the initial cracks

is:

... (4)

Jnserting p,, = p" g b ( groundwater present) or p,

according to Eq.(2) (no groundwater tablc present)

and pr{r .. ) according to Eq.(3) in Eq.(1), the critica!

interna] pressure p;,r at which initial cracks occur in

the lining can be calculated using Eq.(4). In the case

of a tunnel within the groundwater, Eq.(4) gives the

effectivc interna! pressurc exceeding the external

groundwatcr pressure. Thus, the cracking pressure is

PrcT + Pw gb.

3. Head loss of seepage flow

across the cracked lining and

seepage losses

First, the water pressure acting on thc outer side of the

concrete lining, that is, thc head loss of the secpage

flow through the cracks, has to be determined. For rea-

sons of continuity, the losses through the cracked con-

crete lining and into the rock mass must be the same.

3.1 Seepage losses through cracked

concrete lining

Assuming laminar, parallcl flow in the cracks and

knowing the width of the cracks, the water Josses

through the cracked concrete lining can be calculated

using the following equation:

... (5)

3.2 Seepage losses through the rock mass

The water losses through the rock mass for the various

cases considercd (Fig. 3) are given by the following

equations:

For a tunnel within the groundwater rabie [Rat.

1973': Schleiss. 1985

8

]:

(p.Jp, g- h) 21t k,

qoo r

In Lb/r; (1+yl ;

2

/b')]

.. (6)

For a tunnel abovc groundwater leve! [Bouvard, 1975''j:

////

1

/

\ \ . / 1

'-., \ l. ./

"'- ' : /

/ "

)' .. \

1 \

Fig. 3. Fiow parte m

ofsecpage out of/lm-

1/el or siwfl into rock:

ieft. tunnd within

gnmndwater tab/e:

and rigl!i, tmme!

above gmundwutr!r

rabie.

3 \ q

'- r 1 In

p,, g

4 ') 2rr k, 1t k, ;, ''' (7)

For a vertical shaft within the groundwater table

[Schleiss, !985

8

}:

' '(8)

lf no groundwater table is prcsent around thc shaft,

then b:::: O has to be used in Eq.(8). For a cracked con-

crete lining, the reach of the radial-symctrical seepage

tlow can be assumed as follows: R = lO r, in the case

of rathcr pervious rock (k, ;::::IOO k) and R = lOO ro in

the case of tight rock (kr::;; kc).

3.3 Acting water pressure at the outer side

of the concrete lining

The water pressure on the outside of the concrete lin-

ing can be derived frorn the continuity condition, that

is, Eq.(5) equal to Eq.(6), (7) or (8).

3.4 Water losses

Knowing the water pressure on the outside of the lin-

ng, the losses per unit !ength of the tunncl or shaft can

be determincd from Eqs.(6) or 0) or (8), depending on

thc case considered.

4. Load carried by the

reinforcement

Tite loading on thc reinforcement can be obtained from

a compatibility condition. To detemne the load raken

by the reinforcement, it is regarded statically as a steel

lincr with equivalent thickness. This corresponds to the

assumption that. like a steel liner, the reinforcement

exerts a uniform pressure on the concrete rschleiss,

19861 This unif(mn pressure, p,-{r), can be derived

from the following compalibility condition:

u,(r,) u (r,)+u,(1;,)

'" (9)

The sum of the radial deformation of the cracked

concrete lining and of the rock mass has to be identi-

cal to the deformaton of the reinforcement.

These radial defonnations are derived below. For the

case of no surroundng groundwatcr, the dcpth of the

groundwatcr table h is assumed to be zero.

4.1 Deformation of the reinforcement

The radial deformation of the reinforcement can be

calculated from its strain as follows:

u,,(rJ:;:;:E

1

r, ::::m,

2

-r, :;::;:;f110',

2

r

1

1E,

... ( 1 O)

where the tensile force in the cracked section is

Z = cr_,

2

A_,. The associated steel stress is:

'" ( ll)

With a rcdw..:tion factor m, it is considered that the

strain E, and the steel stress as in the reinforcement are

not constant, but have a parabolc distribution and are

dependent on the history of cracking (Fig. 2). The fac-

tor m should be selected according to the sequencc of

formation of cracks:

lst series of cracks: m = l/3 (average stecl stress

cr, cr,, + l/3(cr,,- cr"))

2nd series of cracks: m = 2/3

3rd series of cracks: m = 5/6

nth series of cracks: m = l

Considering the water pressure in the cracks, thc

radial stress in the cracked, pervious concrete lining at

the position of the reinforcemcnt is [Schlciss, I986

5

J:

(J ( r,(p,-pJ(l-(/.l')

r r, 2(.-r - ) l,,

a r,

'" (!2)

4.2 Deformation of the cracked lining

The total compression of the cracked concrete lining

betwccn the inner smtace and the reinforccment is

given by thc sum of the following two values

[Schleiss, 1986

5

]:

wherc:

[r.:- r,

1

-2r,

2

In (1;,/r,)j

'" (14)

Assuming linear distribution of the water pressure in

the cracks (laminar ilow), the water pressure at the

location of the renforccment is cqual to:

P.

'" (15)

4.3 Deformation of tbe rock

The radial deformation of the roe k zone influenced by

scepage is given by the theory of pervious, thick-

walled cylindcrs 1986'-,(l

p, R)C,-p,(R)

e, -(p,(R) a,(;,)) e,

'" (16)

Hydropower & Dams lssue Three, 1997

where:

ri 2v,+(RirJ_+ l

,;,(I+"J_ (RII;J-I 1

2E,(I-v,) !'. . . !.' I-v \j'

+( I- 2v ) ! l+ ' !

, ' \ In (RII;,))

" . ( I7)

e _,;,(I+v,.)(I-2v,.)

,- E

"e

. (!8)

,,'(I +V,) ( I- 2v, + ( Rll;, )')

e

3

E,(R'-r;)

. ( I9)

The external radius of the rock zone affectcd by

seepage is assumed to be the shortcst, vertical reach of

the seepagc tlow above the tunnei[Schieiss, I986

5

6

]:

Tunnel within goundwater table: R = b

Tunncl above groundwater level: R :::::: a

8

(In 2)/rr

where OB :::::: qlk-.

In the case of a vertical shaft. the reach of the seep-

age flow can be assumed to be as given in scction 32.

Besides the water pressure (pa) outsde the lining, the

mechanical boundary pressures at the inner and outer

surface of the rock zonc influenccd by the seepage,

a,(r.,) andp,(R), have also to be considered in Eq.(l6).

The following radial stress is transmitted by the

cracked concrete lining to the rock [Schleiss. !986

5

]:

cr,(;,) p,(J =

l/2 (p,- p,,) (I + ljl,,) +

+p,(r,) rA,

. (20)

The boundary pressure pr(R) between the rock zone

which is influenced by secpage and that which is not,

is obtained from another compatibility condition;

where:

C. . I ' (r 1 R)' + ( R' - :) (1- v,) l

' 2(I-v,)L" 2R

2

In (RII;,) j

. (22)

.(23)

Takng into account Eqs.(20) and (21), the radial

deformation of the rock on the outside of the lining_

according Eq.( 16) is:

u,(,;,)=(p,-h p, g)[c, -e,(e, +e}]+

+ l/2 (p, - P,) ( I + 1 ,) [e, -e, (e, +e)]+

1- p (r,) (rJ,) [e,- e, (C.+ c,)j

... (24)

Hydropower & Dams lssue Three, 1997

4.4 Pressure between reinforcement and

concrete

lnserting Eqs.(!O). (!3) and (24) into the compatibiii-

ty condition as given by Eq.(9), the pressurc transmit-

ted by the reinforcemcnt lO the concrete can be

obtained:

p, (r,) D

1

/D

2

... (25)

where:

D,

A,)-u""

-(p, -b p,. g)[e, -e,(e, +C,)j

-I12(p,- p,)(I + r,ll;,) [e,- e, (e,+ c,)j

D

2

r,

2

!(E, AJ + [(!- v;) IE,jr,

In rJr, + (r,l,) [e,- e, (e,+ e

1

)j

5. Width of cracks in the

concrete lining

5.1 General

Without knowing the width of the cracks in the con-

crete lining, the head loss of the secpage flow through

the lining (that is, p,,) cannot be calculatcd with the

formulae given in section 3. The question is how the

width and the spacng of cracks are influcnced by the

reinforcement. Severa! attcmpts to salve this very

compiex problem have been based on experiments

with reinforced concrete beams and the empiricallaw

of bonding between concrete and sted bars.

Esscntially, the average spacing of the cracks is a

function of stresses in the reinforcement in cracked

conditions, the concrete strength, zone of int1uence of

the reinforcement the thickness and spacing of steel

bars, the concrete cover and thc bond between the

concrete and reinforcement bars .

5.2 Determination of width and spacing

of the cracks

Fig. 4 shows a reinforced concrete Jining which ts

crackcd. According to the calculation model of

Birkenrnaier [1983

4

), the width and spacing of the

cracks are given as a function of the tensile stresscs in

the reinforccment and concrete and of the concrete-

reinforcement bond stress.

With increasing distance from thc crack. the stresscs

in the reinforcement are decreased by rhe bond stress

betwcen the reinforccment and the concrete (see Fig.

4). The reduction of the steel stresses is given by the

following equilibrium condtion:

cr,:::::: a,::::::: as1 + t (dls) .. (26)

The maximum sted stress

cracks of the first series is withn the rangc:

O< E, lE. .. (27)

Assurning a linear (triangular) Jistrbution of the

steel-concrete bond, the distribution of rhe stresses in

the sted bar between two cracks will be parabolic

fBirkenrnaier, l98J

1

j. Thus, the width of thc cmck is:

.. (28)

Bwd stresses steel-cancrete

Fig. 4. concrete stresses in rein-

{orccmcnt 111 crmaete, hond stress.

It has bcen sllown by experimcnts that the

crete bond stress increases llnearly with the compres-

si ve strength of the concrete [Martn and Noakowski,

1981

11

]. The empirical relatonship for steel bars with

a normal surfucc profile is:

.. (29)

when (2a) s exprcssed in millimetres.

Beginnng with the critica! interna! pressure (see sec-

tion 2) and using Eqs.(26) to (29), the spacing and

width of the f:irst of cracks can be computed by

tria! and error. Thcn the interna! water prcssure has to

be increased un ti! the second series of cracks is form-

ing. This ls the case as soon as the strcsses in the con-

I.Tetc between two cracks excccd the tensile strength

of thc conLTete

:::::: 1 to 2 N/mm

2

):

<

... (30)

After the t!rst series of cracks has formed. the

ing of the is known (see Fig. 2) and the width

of the cracks can be determined directly from Eq.(2B).

However. it has ro be noted that, for every ncw series

of cracks, the steel stress Jistrbution as well as the

spacing of cra<:ks has to be modified (by changing fac-

tor m and ha! vi ng the spacng), whereas the relaton-

ship betwcen cr,. can be assumed as follows:

2nd series of cracks: cr,: = 112

3nd series )f cracks: G-.

1

:::::: 314 cr,,

nth <,crics of cracb;: <J, CL:.

In Eq.(30J, thc area of concrete is not cqual to the

whole section but equal to the zone (that is. the con-

tributing: th;cl\ntss of the lining) in.f1uenced by the

hoop reinforccn1ent, attans in maxirnum 7.5

t mes thc diameter of thc c;tecl bar outsidc of the rein-

fon:ement 1 Sch lciss, J 990-' .

6. Calculation procedure

With the theoretical bases given in sections 3, 4 and 5,

water lo:;ses, stresses in the reinforcement and the

width of crack.s can be computed for a given per-

centage of reinforcement, but not directly because of

the mechancal-hvdraulk interaction. Furthermore,

the cakulation model has to be modified (by changing

factor m in Eqs.( lO) and (2.5)). when a further series of

cracks (2nd crack; 3rd crack: and so on) s fonned.

Therefore, after determining the critica} internal pres-

sure with Eqs. ( 1) to (4). the following step-by-stcp

calculation procedure is proposed:

(A) Assume water pressure on rhe outside of thc con-

CJ'ete linng to be somewhat below internal pres-

sure (p,, < p,).

(B) Calculate the pressure transmitted from the ren-

forcement to the concrete lining by using Eq.(25)

and taking into account Eqs.( 12), ( 14), ( 17), l 8),

(19). (22) and (23).

(C) Determine the stresses in the reinforcement from

Eq.(ll) and considering Eqs.( 12) and (25 ).

(D) Compute width and spacing ofcracks in the lining

for the first series of cracks from Eqs.(26) to (:29),

by tria! and error - for the second series of cracks

and the following series directly from Eq. (28).

(E) CalcuJate the water pressure (pa) on the outside of

the lining using Eqs.(5) and (6) or(7) or (8).

(F) With the above water pressure Pa repeat the calcu-

laon steps B to E until the water pressure fh on

the outside of the lining remains constant.

(G) Increase internal water pressure and control the

stresses in the concrete lining in the section

between two cracks with Eq.(30). As soon as the

tensile strength of the concrete is exceeded, the

next series of cracks will be formed. Repeat the

calculation steps (A) to (F) for the second series

of cracks (that is, the following series), whereas

the spacing of thc crw:.:ks is half of thc spacing of

the first series of cracks (that is, the preceding

series) and the factor m has to be increased

according to 4. l.

(H) Repeat the calculaton procedure until the actual

intemal water pressure is reachcd.

7. Effect of the reinforcement on

the distribution of the cracks

In the foiJowing, the ini1uence of the reinforcement on

the history of development of cracks, their width and

the steel stresscs shall be discussed in an example. The

pressurc tunnel considered is si!uatcd above thc

groundwater table and characterized by the followng

parameters: r, = 1.8 m; r, :::::: l. 9 m; r" = 2.1 m:

E, = 20 GPa,: E, = 4 GPa; E. = 200 GPa, v, = v. = 0.2:

k.= Ht' mis: k. = l(p mis (uncracked): = 1 N/mm':

= 30 N/mm'.

In Fig. 5. the effcct of the spacing of stcel bars for a

certain percentage of reinf(xccment on the width of

thc cracks and rhcr development with increasng

interna! water pressurc is shown. Since the number of

cracks is increased by reducing thc spacing of the steel

bars, the width of thc cracks is reduccd accordingly.

Thus, the spacing of the bars should be made as small

as is practically possible. On thc contrary. the devel-

opment of cracks is intluenced only toan insignificant

degrce by the spacing of the bars. The second series of

cracks with thc internal pressure ( 1 1 bars)

for all bar spacings ccmsidcred. The 3rd series of

Hydropower & Dams lssue Three, 1997

0.35

--o-s=26 mm, 34 cm (n :.241

--o- mm, 20 cm {n "'29)

---o- mm,

'

0.30

1

'

0.25

1

0.20

1

e

'

OJ5

1

w

1

0.10

1

0.05

o

o 10 30 40

50 1

Interna! water pressure (bar)

_j

Fig. 5. Widrh of cracks as ajimaion of interna! pressure for

d!fferenr diameters and spacings ofsteel hars at the same per-

centage ojreinforcement.

cracks develops in the case of smaller spacing of the

bars, somewhat earlicr (42 bars instead of 44 bars).

The crack history is mainly influenced by the

amount of reinforcement as can be seen from Fig. 6. If

the percentage of reinforcement is increased by

ing the bar spacing unchanged, the 2nd and 3rd series

of cracks form at lower interna! pressure. Then, as a

resulr of their larger number, the widths of the cracks

are smaller in the case of a higher amount of rein-

forcement (see Fig. 6 at interna! pressure 30 bar).

Howcver. for the sarne series of cracks. the cracks are

even wider for a higher percentage of reinforcement

(see Fig. 6 at interna! pressure 20 bar). The reason is

that a stronger reinforced concrete lining is stiffer <md,

therefore. takes more load. This on the other hand

rcsults in a lowcr number of cracks, that is, smaller

spacing of the cracks.

For a certain amount of reinforcement, reducing the

bar spacing has no etfect on the stresses in the steel

bars (see Fig. 7). E ven if the amount of reinforcemcnt

is increased, the steel stresses are reduced onlv a little,

as long as the same series of cracks ha ve for a

certain intemal pressure (see Fig. 7 at intcrnal pressure

20 bar. 2nd series of cracks for both perccntages of

rcinforcement).

8. Design criteria for the

reinforcement

The design of the reinforcement, that is, the spacing

and the diameter of the steeJ bars. is governed by the

following criteria:

(1) Limit stresses in the reinforcement; and.

(JI) Lirnit width of cracks in thc lning; and/or,

(III) Limit water Josses from the pressure tunncl.

In rnost cases. the stresses in the steel hner have to

be lower than the permissiblc values (for example 240

N/mm: for Stcd 56) hecause critcria II or III is gov-

erninE.

Jf stability of the tunnel or shaft is endangered by

the washing out of joint fillings as a result of hgh

centrated water Josses, the width of the cracks has ro

be limited fSchleiss, 19B7

10

]. Such erosion should not

Hydropower & Dams lssue Three, 1997

1

0.301

---e- s 20 mm, 20 cm {n 29)

1

--- mm, ds cm

0-25

'

1

0.20 "

1

I

1

0.15

1

1

w

0.10 ---

'

1

0.05

1

1

1

o

o

lnternal water pressure {bar)

Fig. . Width qf'cracks as afunction ofinterntlf pressurefor

different percentagcs of" reinforcement at the same .ljHJcinx of

steel bars.

400

--- mm, dt cm

--o- mm. d, -34 cm

350

-:>-- s-20 mm, ds cm

---&- 18 mm, 16 cm

300

)_. --i = 052 er e en!)

250

200

1

j

150

"

1

1

1

i

1

1

1

1

1

J

100

1

50

1

'

1

o

"

Ni

i

1

T

1

50 1

o 10

'L_

20

Interna! water ressure lbar)

Fig 7. Stresses in the steel bars as afunction of"interna! pres-

l"ltn.' for differenr diametcrs ami spacings of m:cl bars.

occur provided the width of the crack>; is less than

0.3 mm.

1

In spite of this crack width limitation of 0.3 mm, if

thc tunncl is above thc groundwater tabie and n the

case of high roe k mass penneability (kr > w-n m/s)

water Josses rnay be too high. Besides thc purcly

cconomc aspect. the Jeakage out of the tunncl or

shaft, that is. thc saturated rock zone. should not

extend to thc natural ground surface. Seepage Hows

reaching poorly drainng surface deposits may induce

landslides [Schleiss, 1987"'].

The extension of the saturatcd rock zone a-> a rcsult

of seepage is a function of thc permeability of the

cracked concrete lining and can therefore be in1u-

.4. J S'ch!eis5

cnccd by the desgn of the reinforcement.

Nevcrtheless. increasing overburden is normally more

successfuL

The three criteria mcmioned above refer to thc

mechanical and hydraulic bchaviour of the hning. In

addition, the overall stability ofthe tunneL namely. the

bearing capacity of the roe k mass. also has to be con-

trolled. especially in the case of low rock cover

[Schleiss, l987

10

j.

9. Conclusions

Pressure nmncls \vith reinforced concrete linings are

pervious under rhe effect of interna! pressure. Thus,

seepage tlow into the rock mass occurs through the

cracks in the concrete lining. The lining and rock mass

are loaded by these seepage forces. which are a func-

tion of the interna! pressure and the permeabilty of

the lning and the roe k mass. Because the width of the

cracks and therefore the permeability of the lining are

influenced by the deformaton of the rock mass.

mechanical-hydraulic interactions exist. The effect of

these intcractions and the previously mentioned see-

page forces, as well as the hstory of cracking, ha ve to

be considered in the computations to allow for an

analysis of the behaviour of reinforced concrere lined

pressure tunnels which is as realistic as possible. This

al so guaramees a more economical design of the rein-

forccment.

Thc crack widths in a concrete lining are influenced

much more by a reduction n the diarneter. and above

all, by the spacing of the steel bars, than by increasing

the percentage of reinforcement. Heavy reinforcement

consisting of thick steel bars at wide spacing normal-

ly results in a very unfavourable crack pattem and,

consequently, in a larger width of cracks in the con-

crete lning. Thus. the pcrcentage of renforcemcnt

and the :.pacing of the steel bars should be made as

as possible from thc static and practica} points of

VlCW.

The governing design criteria for reinforced, con-

crete lined pressure tunnels are: lmitng the width of

crach. <;tresses in the reinforcement and water Josses.

Besides thesc criteria, consideration of thc ovcrall sta-

bility of the pressure tunneL that is. the bearing capac-

ity of the rock mass, is also essential. O

References

!. Kastncr, H., "Statik des Tunne!- und Stollenb<ll!Cs",

Sprngcr- Vc:rlag. Ber!in/Gbttingen/Heidelberg.

!962.

2_ St.'hlciss, A . of reinfon:ed concrete-!ined prcssurc

tnnneb'' Pmcecdings. InternMiona! Congrcss nn Tunne!s

and Water, Madrid. Span: 1988.

Schleiss, A.. "Bcitrag wr Bemes_\ung von hcwchrtcn

Dmcbto!lenausk!eidungen"_ Bwngenit'ltt No. 65: 1490.

4-. Hirkcnmaier, M .. bcr .:\"achwehe im Gebr:tuchszust;md".

Schwei:;cr lngenieur und An)tekt, :\"\). 6: l9X3.

:'i. Sdlleiss, A., von Druckstollcn. Teil IJ:

der Sicker\!rmung in und Fels,

mechansch-hydr<mlischc Wcchse!wirkungen, Bemessungs-

kritcrien. Mirrei/ung der Vasuchsansra!r jir H-s.\ethau,

Hydmh\r;ie 1md Glozio!ogie. ETH Zri.::h. Switzerland; No.

86, !9K6.

6. SchJeiss. A .. "Design of prcssure tunn.:b" Hrcr

Po'Ni!r & !Jam Consirunion. M ay 19B6.

Rat, M .. ''Ecoulem<:nt d rpartition intersti-

tic!!es autour de<, wnnds .. Bu!!. Liaison Lahormoire des

Ponts u Chausses, NoVccmber am1 Deccmber 1973.

X Schleiss, A .. von J)ruchtollen. Te !JI:

Fclshydraulik imbcsondcre Sickerqrimwng<On dun:h

!\uskkidung und Fds''. Miucihmx dcr Versuchsanstalr fir

H-s,,erhau. ff_vJro!o:,;ic und Gla:iofngie. :--Jo. 7X, ETH

Zrich. Switzerl:_md: 19R5.

9. Bouvard, M .. 'Le'> fuite<, des en charge en terrain

sec. Rle du rcv:!ement. des injection. du terrain". La

f!ouilfe B!anche. No.4; 1975.

1 O. Schlciss, A . "Dcsign criteria for pcrvious and unlined pres-

sure tunne!s". ProccedinRS. lnternational Conferences on

Hydropower, Oslo. Vol. 2: 1987.

11. Martin, H.; Noakowski, P.. "Verbundverhalten von

BetonsU:ih!en. Untersuchung auf Grundlage von

Ausziehversuchen. Deutscher Aussdmss fr Stahlbeton,

No. 319; 1981.

1 Notation

! ih = chmacteristic value of scepage pattcm IBouvard, 1975''1 1

A, = area of radial reinforcement per unit length of tunne! '

(2a) =average crack width )

b = depth of the tunnd be!ow groundwater leve!

1

d =average spacmg: between cracks

1, d, = spadng between the stee! bars

1

E = modulus of e!astidty

, = subscript for rock

= for concrete

1

1

= subscript for

; = acceleration due to gravity

1

k, = permeability of unnacked concrete

k, = permeability of rock mass

1

,

1

,

1

,''... = munber of cracks (= 2nr,/d)

, ::::interna! water pressure

=water pressure on outer of the concrete !ining

p, = water pressure at the position of the reinforcement

p,(r_) = boundary pressure between stecl and concrete

p/r.J= boundary pressure between concrete and rock

Prlr")= houndary pressure between concrete and rock (n the

p,(R) = boundary pressure between saturated and unsaturated

1

i

case of uncracked !ining) 1

rock zones .

= interna! r;dius of lining

=externa! radus of !ining

= radiu'l of reinforcement

=externa! mdius of the rock zone atfected by the seepage

= diameter of steeJ bar

IR

1

q =water !osses per unit !ength of tunne!

u,(r,) =radial deformaton of reinforcemcnt

u,(r,) =radial dcfonnation of concrete lining

l

. u,(rcJ= radial dcformation of rock

, u"'' =total compression of the crackcd concrete lining

, = tensile force in the reinforcernent

1

, B.. = compressive strength of concrete

P = tensile strength of concrete

1

'.: 11, ""loading cffect of seepage prcssure [assumed as

100 per cent 1

11 = pen:cntage of reinforcement (= - r )Id)

1

,

' v = Poisson ratio (subscripts as for E)

v,_ = kinematic viscsity of water

p" = density of water

1

(J, "" tensile stress in !he concrete betwecn two cracks

a,.(r) =radial stress in the cracked concrete !ining

a. = stress in the uncracked concrete section

1

, a,: e:::: stee! strcs:-. in the cracked concrete section

G,-,- = maximum stresses in the uncruckcd

J concrete linin<'

L hond be'tv,-een steel bar and concrete

Prot'. Anton .J. Schleiss gruaduated in Civil Engincering

frorn the Federal lmtitute of Tcchno!ogy (ETH) in

Zurich. Swit;;-crland. in l97R. After joining the Laboratory of

Hydrology and Glacio!ogy at ETH as a research

and senior he obtained a Do<.:torate of

Technical Sciences on the subjcct of pressure tunnel dcsign

in 1986. After that he worked for 1! vcars for Electrowatt

Engincering Ltd and was invo!veJ in. the design of many

hydropowcr projecrs around the world as an expert on

hydnmlics and underground waterways, Un!il recently he

wa, Head of !he Hydraulc Structurcs Se..::tion in the

Hydropowcr Department ;Jt Electrow<ltt. In January ths year

he heunne Head of the Labora!Ory of Hydrau!ic

in the Civil Engincering Depanmem of thc

Swiss Federal Institutc ofTcchnolngy in Lausanne.

Ecok Po!ytcchnique fdrale de Lausannc. DGC-LCH.

, CH- lO J 5 Switzerland.

L

Hydropower & Dams /ssue Three, 1997

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