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Cogito Communications Limited Line of Site Link Planning

Microwave Link Planning


http://www.cogitocommunications.com
K. Bretherick
Cogito Communications Limited Line of Site Link Planning
Contents
1.0 Microwave Link Planning ..................................................... 3
1.1 Link Budget .................................................................... 3
1. !resnel "one .................................................................. #
1.3 K $ factor ....................................................................... %
1.& 'ain (ttenuation ............................................................. )
1.# Practical *+am,les of 'adio Link Planning ........................ 10
K. Bretherick of 11
Cogito Communications Limited Line of Site Link Planning
1.0 1.0 Microwave Link Planning Microwave Link Planning
1.1 1.1 Link Budget Link Budget
-ne of the most im,ortant design features of a Microwave Link is
the .Link Budget. /n recent 0ears several software suites have 1een
,roduced that greatl0 sim,lif0 this ,rocess. 2owever3 in order to
understand the ,rocess we will discuss in more detail the various
stages in the .Link Budget. ,rocess.
4he starting ,oint of an0 Link Budget are the e5ui,ment ,arameters
of the intended microwave e5ui,ment to 1e used and these are6
'! out,ut ,ower usuall0 e+,ressed in dBm or 7atts.
'eceiver sensitivit0 usuall0 e+,ressed as a Bit *rror 'ate 8B*'9
against a given '! signal level3 for e+am,le B*' 10$3 $:; dBm.
(ntenna to 1e used3 this will usuall0 have a stated gain3 for
e+am,le &# dBm. /t should 1e noted that this gain is /sotro,ic and
not indicating an0 '! am,lification.
4he other ma<or factor in calculating the Link Budget is the
o,erating fre5uenc0 and the .!ree S,ace Loss.
!re5uenc0 will 1e advised 10 the =ational 'egularit0 (uthorit0 and
this will im,act on the Manufacturers e5ui,ment ,arameters.
!ree s,ace loss can 1e e+,ressed with the sim,le calculation 1elow
LdB = !."" # !0 log $ # !0 log %
7here LdB is the loss in dB
> is the distance in Km.
f is the transmit fre5uenc0.
4hus calculating the link 1udget is a sim,le e+ercise in arithmetic.
-n the ,lus side?
4ransmitter -ut,ut Power.
(ntenna gain3 near end @ far end.
-n the minus side?
!ree s,ace loss
wave guide losses3 near end @ far end.
circulator losses3 near end @ far end.
K. Bretherick 3 of 11
Cogito Communications Limited Line of Site Link Planning
!rom our e5ui,ment ,arameters we can select the B*' figure3 10$;
8errored seconds9 or 10$3 8 severel0 errored seconds9 this will then
give us a figure for our fade margin this is the difference from the
calculated figure and the B*' signal level.
Transmitter Receiver
Transmit
Output Power
Wave guide
losses
Antenna
Gain
Antenna
Gain
Wave guide
losses
Receiver
Threshold
Free Space
Loss
Transmitter Receiver
Transmit
Output Power
Wave guide
losses
Antenna
Gain
Antenna
Gain
Wave guide
losses
Receiver
Threshold
Free Space
Loss
Transmitter Receiver
Transmit
Output Power
Wave guide
losses
Antenna
Gain
Antenna
Gain
Wave guide
losses
Receiver
Threshold
Free Space
Loss
!igure 1? Link Budget
K. Bretherick & of 11
Cogito Communications Limited Line of Site Link Planning
!igure ? Path Profile
1.! 1.! &resnel 'one &resnel 'one
7hat is the !resnel "oneA 4he !reBnel "one is the Microwave
energ0 that arrives at the receiving antenna 1:0 degrees or a half
wavelength out of ,hase with the direct wave determines the
1oundar0 of what is called the first fresnel zone3 as illustrated. !or a
s,ecific fre5uenc03 all ,oints within a microwave link from which a
wave could 1e reflected with a total additional ,ath length of one
half$wavelength3 1:0 degrees3 form an elli,se that defines the first
!resnel Bone radius at ever0 ,oint along the ,ath.
Calculated 10?$
nd1 nd
!n C 1%.3 f>
where
d1 C >istance from one end of the ,ath to the reflection ,oint
Km.
d C >istance from the other end of the ,ath to the reflection
,oint Km.
> C d1 @ d
o f C fre5uenc0 DhB
o nC num1er of fresnel Bone 1st3 nd3 etc.
=ormal e+ce,ted standard is that no o1stacle should im,inge within
0.% of the first !resnel Bone radius. (n0 variation of this will result
in signal degradation.
K. Bretherick # of 11
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PPF 0!#1!T
Latitude '( () '' %
Longitude '* ), .) !
A-imuth '+..( deg
!levation *) m ASL
Antenna #L '.'/ '.' m AGL
Fre2uenc3 4 .)'''.' $1-
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Path Length 7.,.8* 9m:
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Cogito Communications Limited Line of Site Link Planning
!igure 3? !reBnel "one
K. Bretherick ; of 11
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PPF 0!#1!T
Latitude '( () '' %
Longitude '* ), .) !
A-imuth '+..( deg
!levation *) m ASL
Antenna #L '.'/ '.' m AGL
Fre2uenc3 4 .)'''.' $1-
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Path Length 7.,.8* 9m:
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!levation (+ m ASL
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PPF 0!#1!T
Latitude '( () '' %
Longitude '* ), .) !
A-imuth '+..( deg
!levation *) m ASL
Antenna #L '.'/ '.' m AGL
Fre2uenc3 4 .)'''.' $1-
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Path Length 7.,.8* 9m:
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Cogito Communications Limited Line of Site Link Planning
1. 1. ( ) %actor ( ) %actor
'adio waves travelling through the atmos,here do not follow true
straight lines. 4he0 are refracted or 1ent. 4he0 ma0 also 1e
diffracted.
4he velocit0 of an electromagnetic wave is a function of the densit0
of the media through which it travels. 7hen this coincides with a
transition from one air mass densit0 to an air mass with another
densit0 the difference in refractive inde+ results in the ,henomena
of3 refraction and diffraction.
4he a1solute 1ulge. 4he amount of earth 1ulge in metres at an0
,oint ma0 1e determined 10 the formula?$ refractive inde+ of a
su1stance is its inde+ with res,ect to a vacuum and is ,racticall0
the same value as its inde+ with res,ect to air. /t is the change in
the refractive inde+ that determines the ,ath of an electromagnetic
wave through the atmos,here3 or how much the wave is 1ent from
a straight line.
4o determine tower height3 we must esta1lish the ,osition and
height of o1stacles in the ,ath 1etween stations with which we want
to communicate 10 radio link s0stems. 4o each o1stacle height3 we
will add earth 1ulge. 4his is the num1er of feet or meters an
o1stacle is raised higher in elevation 8into the radio ,ath9 owing to
curvature or earth
h = 0.0*+ d1d!
4his will give the earth 1ulge 1ased on a un1ent radio signal3 as we
have stated a1ove the radio signal is su1<ected to refraction and
diffraction3 1ending or K factor.
(tmos,heric refraction ma0 cause the ra0 1eam to 1end toward the
earth or awa0 from the earth. /f it is 1ent toward the earth3 it is as
if we shrank earth 1ulge or lowered it from its true location. /f the
1eam is 1ent awa0 from the earth3 it is as if we e+,anded earth
1ulge or raised it u, toward the 1eam a1ove its true value. 4his
lowering or raising is handled mathematicall0 10 adding a factor K
to the earth 1ulge e5uation /t now 1ecomes ?$
h = 0.0*+ d1d!
(
7here KC effective earth radius
4rue earth radius
K. Bretherick % of 11
Cogito Communications Limited Line of Site Link Planning
/f the K factor is greater than 13 the ra0 1eam is 1ent toward the
earth3 which essentiall0 allows us to shorten radio link towers. /f K
is less than 13 the earth 1ulge effectivel0 is increased3 and the ,ath
is shortened or tower height must 1e increased.
Most designers within the industr0 refer to .normal refraction. and
e5uate this to a K factor of &E3 or 1.33. 4his follows a .rule of
thum1. that a,,lies to refraction in that a ,ro,agated wave front
1ends toward the region of higher densit03 that is3 toward the
region having the higher inde+ of refraction.
-ne should 1e careful when using a K factor of 1.33 at all times
es,eciall0 on radio links over water. /n order to cater for variations
from the 1.33 norm most ,ath ,rofiles will allow the use of more
than one K factor in these cases the norm is to sti,ulate K factors of
0.% and 1.33.
/t can 1ee seen therefore that there are man0 factors that influence
the .2eight. of radio ,ath o1stacles3 the0 are summarised 1elow.
!igure &? !actors associated with height
K. Bretherick : of 11
Flat !arth
Fresnel <one
5 Factor
!arth 0ulge
Radio Lin9
Obstructed
Flat !arth
Fresnel <one
5 Factor
!arth 0ulge
Radio Lin9
Obstructed
Cogito Communications Limited Line of Site Link Planning
1." 1." ,ain -ttenuation ,ain -ttenuation
4his is the final factor that has to 1e taken into consideration in
radio link design. /n general fre5uencies 1elow 10 DhB rain
attenuation is considered insignificant. 2owever3 a1ove this figure
and rain starts to 1ecome a ma<or consideration in the attenuation
of radio signals.
(s the reader will realise the incidence and severit0 of ,reci,itation
varies across the world. as a conse5uence th /4F and others3 most
nota1l0 Crane3 have ,roduced world ma,s with ta1les outlining the
t0,e of climate to 1e e+,ected. !rom these ta1les engineers can
factor in the e+,ected rain ,atterns and identif0 e+,ected signal loss
due to rain. 4his can 1e an0thing from 0.001 dBEKm to over 1
dBEKm.
K. Bretherick ) of 11
Cogito Communications Limited Line of Site Link Planning
1.. 1.. Practical /0amples o% ,adio Link Planning Practical /0amples o% ,adio Link Planning
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SPF S">"TA
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Longitude '*; '* )* !
A-imuth .(.; deg
!levation .) mASL
Antenna #L +).' m AGL
Fre2uenc3 4 .)'''.' $1-
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Pat h Lengt h 7*'..' 9m:
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!igure #? Path Profile
K. Bretherick 10 of 11
Cogito Communications Limited Line of Site Link Planning
pgarssiv.pl PPF GALAT" R=T"!R SPF S">"TA
!levation 7m: ..** .)..
Latitude '() *, (+ % '() + * %
Longitude '*; .. ); ! '*; '* )* !
A-imuth *.8( .(.;
Antenna T3pe .)?! '. .)?! '.
Antenna 1eight 7m: '.'' '.''
Antenna Gain 7d0i: *.'' *.''
Radome Loss 7d0: '.)' '.)'
Fre2uenc3 7$1-: .)'''.''
Polari-ation >ertical
Path Length 79m: *'..'
Free Space Loss 7d0: .(*.')
Field $argin 7d0: ..''
Atmospheric Absorption Loss 7d0: '.)+
%et Path Loss 7d0: ;'.+* ;'.+*
Radio T3pe $odel .)?! .)?!
T@ Power 7watts: '.'+ '.'+
T@ Power 7d0m: .;.'' .;.''
!AAective Radiated Power 7d0m: (8.)' (8.)'
R@ Threshold #riteria 0!R .'?+ 0!R .'?+
R@ Threshold Level 7d0m: ?;(.'' ?;(.''
$aBimum Receive Signal 7d0m: *'.'' *'.''
R@ Signal 7d0m: ?+*.+* ?+*.+*
Thermal Fade $argin 7d0: *..; *..;
Geoclimatic Factor ..*+!?'(
Gra-ing Angle 7mr: *.)+
Path "nclination 7mr: '.,'
Average Annual Temperature 7deg #: ).''
&iversit3 T3pe %on &iversit3
Worst $onth $ultipath . wa3 7sec: .',,.*. .',,.*.
Worst $onth $ultipath . wa3 76: 88.8)8'.' 88.8)8'.'
Annual $ultipath . wa3 7sec: *+(8.8) *+(8.8)
Annual $ultipath . wa3 76: 88.88.)8, 88.88.)8,
Annual $ultipath * wa3 76?sec: 88.8;.8( ? )*88.8'
Rain Region ##"R Region 5
Rain Rate 7mmChr: (.8
Rain Attenuation 7d0: *..)
Annual Rain * wa3 76?sec: 88.8;((,) ? (;8).;*
Annual $ultipath D Rain 76?sec: 88.8+,+,' ? .'.8).,*
K. Bretherick 11 of 11