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Theory of Machines Module 1

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08.503 : Theory of Machines

Module 1
1. MECHANISM

A combination of rigid or restraining bodies which are so shaped and connected that they
move upon each other with definite relative motion is known as mechanism. ( Rigid body means a
body with no deformation when the force is transmitted and restraining body means a body
capable of transmitting force with negligible deformation).




The above mechanism is known as slider-crank mechanism. It is a combination of rigid or
restraining bodies namely crank (2), connecting rod (3) and slider (4). They are so shaped and
connected that they move upon each other with definite relative motion.

2. MACHINE

A machine is a mechanism or combination of mechanisms which not only imparts definite
motions to the parts but also transmits and modifies the available mechanical energy into some
kind of useful energy. This useful energy may be some kind of desired work.

The slider crank mechanism will become a machine when it is used with automobile engine
by adding some other mechanisms. In that case it will convert the available energy (force on the
piston) into the torque on the crank shaft which is the desired energy which will move the vehicle.

3. THEORY OF MACHINES

Theory of machine is that branch of science which deals with the study of relative motion
between the various parts of a machine and forces acting on them.

4. KINEMATIC LINK OR ELEMENT

Each part of a machine, which moves relative to some other part, is known as a kinematic
link (or simply link) or element. A link may consist of several parts, which are rigidly fastened
together, so that they do not move relative to one another. A slider crank mechanism consists of
following four links 1. Frame 2. Crank 3. Connecting rod 4. Slider. The slider reciprocates in a guide
which is connected to the frame. Hence guide also becomes link 1

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5. TYPES OF LINKS

In order to transmit motion, the driver and the follower may be connected by the following
three types of links:

1. Rigid link : A rigid link is one which does not undergo any deformation while transmitting
motion. Strictly speaking, rigid links do not exist. However, as the deformation of a
connecting rod, crank etc. of a reciprocating steam engine is not appreciable; they can
be considered as rigid links.

2. Flexible link : A flexible link is one which is partly deformed in a manner not to affect the
transmission of motion. For example, belts, ropes, chains and wires are flexible links and
transmit tensile forces only.

3. Fluid link : A fluid link is one which is formed by having a fluid in a receptacle and the
motion is transmitted through the fluid by pressure or compression only, as in the case of
hydraulic presses, jacks and brakes.

6. KINEMATIC PAIR

A joint of two links having relative motion between them is known as a kinematic pair. In a
slider crank mechanism link 2 rotates relative to link 1 and hence link 1 and 2 is a kinematic pair.
Similarly link 2 is having relative motion with link 3 and hence link 2 and 3 is also a kinematic pair.

7. TYPES OF CONSTRAINED MOTIONS

In a kinematic pair, if one element has got only one definite motion relative to the other,
then the motion is called constrained motion. Following are the three types of constrained motions

1. Completely constrained motion: When the motion between a pair is limited to a definite
direction irrespective of the direction of force applied, then the motion is said to be a completely
constrained motion. For example, the piston and cylinder (in a steam engine) form a pair and the
motion of the piston is limited to a definite direction (i.e. it will only reciprocate) relative to the
cylinder irrespective of the direction of motion of the crank, as shown in Fig.



Square bar in a square hole. Shaft with collars in a circular hole.

The motion of a square bar in a square hole, as shown in Fig. and the motion of a shaft with
collars at each end in a circular hole, as shown in Fig. are also examples of completely
constrained motion.

2. Incompletely constrained motion: When the motion between a pair can take place in
more than one direction, then the motion is called an incompletely constrained motion. The
change in the direction of impressed force may alter the direction of relative motion between the
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pair. A circular bar or shaft in a circular hole, as shown in Fig. is an example of an incompletely
constrained motion as it may either rotate or slide in a hole. These both motions have no
relationship with the other.

Shaft in a circular hole. Shaft in a foot step bearing.


3. Successfully constrained motion: When the motion between the elements, forming a
pair, is such that the constrained motion is not completed by itself, but by some other means, then
the motion is said to be successfully constrained motion. Consider a shaft in a foot-step bearing as
shown in Fig. The shaft may rotate in a bearing or it may move upwards. This is a case of
incompletely constrained motion. But if the load is placed on the shaft to prevent axial upward
movement of the shaft, then the motion of the pair is said to be successfully constrained motion.
The motion of an I.C. engine valve (these are kept on their seat by a spring) and the piston
reciprocating inside an engine cylinder are also the examples of successfully constrained motion.

8. CLASSIFICATION OF KINEMATIC PAIRS

The kinematic pairs may be classified according to the following considerations:

1. According to the type of relative motion between the elements: The kinematic pairs
according to type of relative motion between the elements may be classified as discussed
below:

(a) Sliding pair. When the two elements of a pair are connected
in such a way that one can only slide relative to the other, the
pair is known as a sliding pair. The piston and cylinder, cross-
head and guides of a reciprocating steam engine, ram and
its guides in shaper, tail stock on the lathe bed etc. are the
examples of a sliding pair. A little consideration will show that
a sliding pair has a completely constrained motion.

(b) Turning pair. When the two elements of a pair are connected in
such a way that one can only turn or revolve about a fixed axis
of another link, the pair is known as turning pair. A shaft with
collars at both ends fitted into a circular hole, the crankshaft in a
journal bearing in an engine, lathe spindle supported in head
stock, cycle wheels turning over their axles etc. are the
examples of a turning pair. A turning pair also has a completely
constrained motion.

(c) Rolling pair. When the two elements of a pair are connected in
such a way that one rolls over another fixed link, the pair is
known as rolling pair. Ball and roller bearings are examples of
rolling pair.
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(d) Screw pair. When the two elements of a pair are connected in
such a way that one element can turn about the other by screw
threads, the pair is known as screw pair. The lead screw of a
lathe with nut, and bolt with a nut are examples of a screw pair.


(e) Spherical pair. When the two elements of a pair are
connected in such a way that one element (with spherical
shape) turns or swivels about the other fixed element, the pair
formed is called a spherical pair. The ball and socket joint,
attachment of a car mirror, pen stand etc., are the examples
of a spherical pair.





2. According to the type of contact between the elements: The kinematic pairs according to
the type of contact between the elements may be classified as discussed below :

(a) Lower pair. When the two elements of a pair have a surface contact when relative motion
takes place and the surface of one element slides over the surface of the other, the pair
formed is known as lower pair. It will be seen that sliding pairs, turning pairs and screw pairs
form lower pairs.

(b) Higher pair. When the two elements of a pair have a line or point contact when relative
motion takes place and the motion between the two elements is partly turning and partly
sliding, then the pair is known as higher pair. A pair of friction discs, toothed gearing, belt
and rope drives, ball and roller bearings and cam and follower is the examples of higher
pairs.

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3. According to the type of closure: The kinematic pairs according to the type of closure between
the elements may be classified as discussed below:

(a) Self closed pair. When the two elements of a pair are connected together mechanically in
such a way that only required kind of relative motion occurs, it is then known as self closed
pair. The lower pairs are self closed pair.

(b) Force - closed pair. When the two elements of a pair are not connected mechanically but
are kept in contact by the action of external forces, the pair is said to be a force-closed
pair. The cam and follower is an example of force closed pair, as it is kept in contact by
the forces exerted by spring and gravity.




9. KINEMATIC CHAIN

When the kinematic pairs are coupled in such a way that the last link is joined to the first link
to transmit definite motion (i.e. completely or successfully constrained motion), it is called a
kinematic chain. In other words, a kinematic chain may be defined as a combination of kinematic
pairs, joined in such a way that each link forms a part of two pairs and the relative motion
between the links or elements is completely or successfully constrained.

The relation between the number of pairs ( P ) forming a kinematic chain and the number
of links ( L ) can be expressed as L = 2P 4 . . . (i)

The relation between the number of links ( L ) and the number of joints ( J ) which constitute
a kinematic chain is given by the expression J = 3/2 *L2(ii)

The equations (i) and (ii) are applicable only to kinematic chains, in which lower pairs are
used. These equations may also be applied to kinematic chains, in which higher pairs are used. In
that case each higher pair may be taken as equivalent to two lower pairs with an additional
element or link.
In equations (i) and (ii) if LHS > RHS then chain is locked,
if LHS = RHS then chain is constrained and if LHS < RHS then chain is unconstrained.

1. Consider a three link chain with three joints A,B,C as in fig.

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Number of links, l = 3; Number of pairs, p = 3;
Number of joints, j = 3
From equation (i), l = 2p 4
L.H.S. > R.H.S.
Now from equation (ii), J = 3/2 *L2
L.H.S. > R.H.S.

Since the arrangement of three links, as shown in Figure does not satisfy the equations (i)
and (ii) and the left hand side is greater than the right hand side, therefore it i s not a kinematic
chain and hence no relative motion is possible. Such type of chain is called locked chain and
forms a rigid frame or structure which is used in bridges and trusses.

2. Consider a four link chain with links AB, BC, CD and DA as shown in
Figure

Number of links, L = 4; Number of pairs, P = 4;
Number of joints, J = 4
From equation (i), L = 2P 4 = 4
L.H.S. = R.H.S.
Now from equation (ii), J = 3/2 *L2 = 4
L.H.S. = R.H.S.

Since the arrangement of four links, as shown in Figure satisfy the equations (i) and (ii),it is a
constrained kinematic chain. A chain in which a single link such as AD in Figure is sufficient to
define the position of all other links, it is then called a kinematic chain of one degree of freedom. A
little consideration will show that in Fig. 5.7, if a definite displacement (say ) is given to the link AD,
keeping the link AB fixed, then the resulting displacements of the remaining two links BC and CD
are also perfectly definite. Thus we see that in a four bar chain, the relative motion is completely
constrained. Hence it may be called as a constrained kinematic chain, and it is the basis of all
machines.

3. Consider a five link chain, as shown in Figure. In this case,
l = 5, p = 5, and j = 5
From equation (i), l = 2 p 4 or 5 = 2 5 4 = 6
i.e. L.H.S. < R.H.S.
From equation (ii),j L.H.S. < R.H.S.
Since the arrangement of five links, as shown in Fig. 5.8 does not
satisfy the equations and LHS is less than right hand side, therefore it is not a kinematic chain. Such
a type of chain is called unconstrained chain i.e. the relative motion is not completely
constrained. This type of chain is of little practical importance.

10. TYPES OF JOINTS IN A CHAIN

The following types of joints are usually found in a chain:

1. Binary joint. When two links are joined at the same connection, the
joint is known as binary joint. For example, a chain as shown in Figure has
four links and four binary joins at A, B,C and D. In order to determine the
nature of chain, i.e. whether the chain is a locked chain (or structure) or
kinematic chain or unconstrained chain, the following relation between
the number of links and the number of binary joints, as given by
A.W. Klein, may be used:

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where j = Number of binary joints, h = Number of higher pairs, and
l = Number of links.

When h = 0, the equation becomes j=3/2*l - 2
Applying this equation to a chain, as shown in Figure, where l = 4 and j = 4, we have
LHS=RHS, the chain is a kinematic chain or constrained chain.

2. Ternary joint. When three links are joined at the same connection, the
joint is known as ternary joint. It is equivalent to two binary joints as one of
the three links joined carry the pin for the other two links. For example, a
chain, as shown in Fig. has six links. It has three binary joints at A, B and D
and two ternary joints at C and E. Since one ternary joint is equivalent to
two binary joints, therefore equivalent binary joints in a chain, , are 3 + 2
2 = 7. We know that l = 6 and j = 7, therefore from j=3/2*l 2 LHS = RHS
therefore the chain, as shown in Figure, is a kinematic chain or
constrained chain.

3. Quaternary joint. When four links are joined at the same connection, the joint is called a
quaternary joint. It is equivalent to three binary joints. In general, when l numbers of links are joined
at the same connection, the joint is equivalent to (l 1) binary joints.






Fig. a Fig. b

For example consider a chain having eleven links, as shown in Fig. a. It has one binary joint
at D, four ternary joints at A, B, E and F, and two quaternary joints at C and G. Since one
quaternary joint is equivalent to three binary joints and one ternary joint is equal to two binary
joints, therefore total number of binary joints in a chain, as shown in Fig. a are 1 + 4 2 + 2 3 = 15.

But Since the LHS> RHS the chain, as shown in Fig.a is not a kinematic chain and such a
type of chain is called locked chain and forms a rigid frame or structure.

For Fig b


therefore the chain, is a kinematic chain or constrained chain.

11. MECHANISM

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When one of the links of a kinematic chain is fixed, the chain is known as mechanism. It
may be used for transmitting or transforming motion e.g. engine indicators, typewriter etc. A
mechanism with four links is known as simple mechanism, and the mechanism with more than four
links is known as compound mechanism. When a mechanism is required to transmit power or to do
some particular type of work, it then becomes a machine. In such cases, the various links or
elements have to be designed to withstand the forces (both static and kinetic) safely. A
mechanism may be regarded as a machine in which each part is reduced to the simplest form to
transmit the required motion.
12. NUMBER OF DEGREES OF FREEDOM FOR PLANE MECHANISMS


Degrees of freedom (Movability) of plane mechanism means the
number of inputs ( ie number of independent co-ordinates) needed to
determine the configuration or position of all the links of the mechanism
with respect to fixed link.

In order to find the degrees of freedom of any plane
mechanism first consider two links 1 and 2 in x-y plane as in the fig. Link
1 is fixed along x axis and link 2 is moving in a plane. At any time the
position of link 2 is shown in fig.

The location of point A of link 2 can be completely specified by
three variables ie co-ordinates x and y of the point A and inclination of the link 2 with x axis. Thus
three independent variables ie two translations (x,y co-ordinates) and one rotation () are
necessary to completely locate link 2 in x-y plane. Hence link 2 has 3 degrees of freedom.

But if the point D is joined by a pin to point A on the fixed link 1, then
the two independent variables x and y for the point d are fixed and the
position of the link 2 can be completely locate with the variable only. Hence
now the link 2 has only one degree of freedom. This shows two degrees of
freedom (translational) are lost at every pin (or hinge) joint of any link with
fixed link.

From above, we see that when a link is connected to a fixed link by a turning pair (i.e.
lower pair), two degrees of freedom are destroyed. This may be clearly understood from following
fig., in which the resulting four bar mechanism has one degree of freedom (i.e. n = 1).










Now let us consider a plane mechanism with l number of links. Since in a mechanism, one
of the links is to be fixed, therefore the number of movable links will be (l 1) and thus the total
number of degrees of freedom will be 3 (l 1) before they are connected to any other link. In
general, a mechanism with l number of links connected by j number of binary joints or lower pairs
(i.e. single degree of freedom pairs) and h number of higher pairs (i.e. two degree of freedom
pairs), then the number of degrees of freedom of a mechanism is given by n = 3 (l 1) 2 j h ... (i)
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This equation is called Kutzbach criterion for the movability of a mechanism having plane
motion. If there are no two degree of freedom pairs (i.e. higher pairs), then h = 0. Substituting h = 0
in equation (i), we have

n = 3 (l 1) 2 j





13. APPLICATION OF KUTZBACH CRITERION TO PLANE MECHANISMS



1. The mechanism, as shown in Fig. (a), has three links and three binary joints, i.e. l = 3 and j = 3.
n = 3 (3 1) 2 3 = 0

2. The mechanism, as shown in Fig. (b), has four links and four binary joints, i.e. l = 4 and j = 4.
n = 3 (4 1) 2 4 = 1

3. The mechanism, as shown in Fig. (c), has five links and five binary joints, i.e. l = 5, and j = 5.
n = 3 (5 1) 2 5 = 2

4. The mechanism, as shown in Fig. (d), has five links and six equivalent binary joints (because there
are two binary joints at B and D, and two ternary joints at A and C), i.e. l = 5 and j = 6.
n = 3 (5 1) 2 6 = 0

5. The mechanism, as shown in Fig. (e), has six links and eight equivalent binary joints (because
there are four ternary joints at A, B, C and D), i.e. l = 6 and j = 8. n = 3 (6 1) 2 8 = 1

It may be noted that
(a) When n = 0, then the mechanism forms a structure and no relative motion between the
links is possible, as shown in Fig. (a) and (d).
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(b) When n = 1, then the mechanism can be driven by a single input motion, as shown in
Fig. (b).
(c) When n = 2, then two separate input motions are necessary to produce constrained
motion for the mechanism, as shown in Fig. (c).
(d) When n = 1 or less, then there are redundant constraints in the chain and it forms a
statically indeterminate structure, as shown in Fig. (e).




The application of Kutzbachs criterion applied to mechanisms with a higher pair or two
degree of freedom joints is shown in Fig.







In Fig. (a), there are three links, two binary joints and one higher pair, i.e. l = 3, j = 2 and h = 1.
n = 3 (3 1) 2 2 1 = 1

In Fig. (b), there are four links, three binary joints and one higher pair, i.e. l = 4, j = 3 and h = 1
n = 3 (4 1) 2 3 1 = 2

Here it has been assumed that the slipping is possible between the links (i.e. between the
wheel and the fixed link). However if the friction at the contact is high enough to prevent slipping,
the joint will be counted as one degree of freedom pair, because only one relative motion will be
possible between the links.

14. GRUBLERS CRITERION FOR PLANE MECHANISMS

The Grublers criterion applies to mechanisms with only single degree of freedom joints
where the overall movability of the mechanism is unity. Substituting n = 1 and h = 0 in Kutzbach
equation, we have
1 = 3 (l 1) 2 j or 3l 2j 4 = 0. This equation is known as the Grubler's criterion for plane
mechanisms with constrained motion.

A plane mechanism with a movability of 1 and only single degree of freedom joints can
not have odd number of links. The simplest possible mechanisms of this type are a four bar
mechanism and a slider-crank mechanism in which l = 4 and j = 4.

15. INVERSION OF MECHANISM

Mechanism is a kinematic chain in which one link is fixed. By fixing the links of a kinematic
chain one at a time, we get as many different mechanisms as the number of links in the chain. This
method of obtaining different mechanisms by fixing different links of the same kinematic chain is
known as inversion of the mechanism. In the process of inversion, the relative motions of the links of
the mechanism produced remain unchanged. A particular inversion of a mechanism may give
rise to different mechanisms of practical utility when the proportions of the lengths of the links are
changed.

16. FOUR BAR CHAIN OR QUADRIC CYCLE CHAIN

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The simplest and the basic kinematic chain is a four bar chain or quadric cycle chain, as
shown in Fig.. It consists of four links, each of them forms a turning pair at A, B, C and D. The four
links may be of different lengths. A very important consideration in designing a mechanism is to
ensure that the input crank makes a complete revolution relative to the other links. The mechanism
in which no link makes a complete revolution will not be useful. For the four bar linkage there is a
very simple test to check this case.



17. GRASHOFS LAW

Grashofs law states that for a planar four-bar linkage
the sum of the shortest and longest link lengths cannot be
greater than the sum of the remaining two link lengths if there
is to be continuous relative rotation between two members.

When the longest link has length L, the shortest link
has link S and the other two links have lengths P and Q.
Thus according to Grashofs Law one of the links, in particular
the shorter link will rotate continuously relative to the other three links if and only if S + L P + Q. If
this inequality is not satisfied no link will make a complete revolution relative to another. But
Grashofs Law does not specify the order in which the links are connected or which link of the four
bar chain is fixed.


The mechanism in which no link makes a complete revolution will not be useful. In a four
bar chain, one of the links, in particular the shortest link, will make a complete revolution relative
tothe other three links, if it satisfies the Grashof s law. Such a link is known as crank or driver. In Fig.
link AD (link 4 ) is a crank. The link BC (link 2) which makes a partial rotation or oscillates is known as
lever or rocker or follower and the link CD (link 3) which connects the crank and lever is called
connecting rod or coupler. The fixed link AB (link 1) is known as frame of the mechanism.


18. INVERSIONS OF FOUR BAR CHAIN OR QUADRIC CYCLE
CHAIN

Kinematically all the four inversions of a four bar chain are
identical. It can be observed from the schematic representation of a
four bar chain that the four mechanisms obtained by inversion or by
fixing links 1,2,3 and 4 one by one are identical as in the figure. However
by suitably altering the proportions of lengths of the links of the links 1,2,3
and 4 , several forms of the four bar chain can be obtained.

1. CRANK - LEVER OR CRANK ROCKER MECHANISM









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If a link (l or q) adjacent to the shortest link s is fixed then we get a mechanism known as
crank lever or crank rocker mechanism as in the figure. In this link s is the crank because it is able to
rotate completely and the link p which can only oscillate between the limits is the crank.


Eg: Beam Engine

In this mechanism, when the crank rotates about
the fixed centre A, the lever oscillates about a fixed
centre D. The end E of the lever CDE is connected to a
piston rod which reciprocates due to the rotation of the
crank. In other words, the purpose of this mechanism is
to convert rotary motion into reciprocating motion.


2. DOUBLE CRANK MECHANISM

When the shortest link s, is fixed as the frame we will get
another mechanism called double Crank or Drag Link mechanism.
In this inversion both the links adjacent to the s can rotate
continuously and both are properly described as cranks, the shorter
of the two generally used as driver.

Eg: Coupling rod of a locomotive

The mechanism of a coupling rod of a locomotive
(also known as double crank mechanism) which consists
of four links is shown in Fig.

In this mechanism, the links AD and BC (having
equal length) act as cranks and are connected to the
respective wheels. The link CD acts as a coupling rod and
the link AB is fixed in order to maintain a constant centre to centre distance between them. This
mechanism is meant for transmitting rotary motion from one wheel to the other wheel.

3. DOUBLE LEVER MECHANISM

If the link opposite to the shortest link ie link p is fixed and shortest
link d is made as connecting rod then the other two links l and q would
oscillate. This mechanism is known as Double Lever or Double Rocker or
rocker-rocker mechanism or oscillating-oscillating convertor.

Eg: Watts indicator mechanism (Double lever
mechanism).

A Watts indicator mechanism (also known as
Watt's straight line mechanism or double lever
mechanism) which consists of four links, is shown in Fig.
The four links are fixed link at A, link AC, link CE and link
BFD.

It may be noted that BF and FD form one link
because these two parts have no relative motion
between them. The links CE and BFD act as levers. The
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displacement of the link BFD is directly proportional to the pressure of gas or steam which acts on
the indicator plunger. On any small displacement of the mechanism, the tracing point E at the
end of the link CE traces out approximately a straight line.

The initial position of the mechanism is shown in Fig. 5.21 by full lines whereas the dotted
lines show the position of the mechanism when the gas or steam pressure acts on the indicator
plunger.

Eg: Watts Straight-line Mechanism

It is a crossed four bar chain
mechanism and was used by Watt for his early
steam engines to guide the piston rod in a
cylinder to have an approximate straight line
motion.
In Fig., OBAO1 is a crossed four bar
chain in which O and O1 are fixed. In the
mean position of the mechanism, links OB and
O1A are parallel and the coupling rod AB is
perpendicular to O1A and OB. The tracing point P traces out an approximate straight line over
certain positions of its movement, if PB/PA = O1A/OB.


19. SINGLE SLIDER CRANK CHAIN

A single slider crank chain
is a modification of the basic four
bar chain. It consists of one sliding
pair and three turning pairs. The
link 1 corresponds to the frame of
the engine, which is fixed. The link
2 corresponds to the crank; link 3
corresponds to the connecting
rod and link 4 corresponds to the
slider. As the crank rotates, the cross-head reciprocates in the guides and thus the piston
reciprocates in the cylinder.

20. INVERSIONS OF SINGLE SLIDER CRANK CHAIN

FIRST INVERSION

When the link 1 is fixed, link 2 is made crank and link 4 is
made slider, then the first inversion of single slider crank chain is
obtained. This inversion is used in reciprocating engine and
reciprocating compressor. In case of reciprocating engine the
link 4 (piston) becomes driver whereas in case of reciprocating
compressor, the link 2 (crank) is the driver.


SECOND INVERSION

When the link 2 is fixed, the second inversion of single
slider crank chain is obtained as in the figure. Then the link 3
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along with the slider at its end C becomes a crank. Hence link 3 along with slider (link 4) rotates
about B. By doing so, the link 1 rotates about A along with the slider (link 4) which reciprocates on
the link 1.
Eg: 1.Whitworth Quick Return Motion Mechanism


This mechanism is mostly used in shaping and slotting machines. In this mechanism, the l ink
CD (link 2) forming the turning pair is fixed, as shown in Fig. The link 2 corresponds to a crank in a
reciprocating steam engine. The driving crank CA (link 3) rotates at a uniform angular speed. The
slider (link 4) attached to the crank pin at A slides along the slotted bar PA (link 1) which oscillates
at a pivoted point D. The connecting rod PR carries the ram at R to which a cutting tool is fixed.
The motion of the tool is constrained along the line RD produced, i.e. along a line passing through
D and perpendicular to CD.

When the driving crank CA moves from the position CA1 to CA2 (or the link DP from the
position DP1 to DP2) through an angle in the clockwise direction, the tool moves from the left
hand end of its stroke to the right hand end through a distance 2 PD. Now when the driving crank
moves from the position CA2 to CA1 (or the link DP from DP2 to DP1) through an angle in the
clockwise direction, the tool moves back from right hand end of its stroke to the left hand end.

The time taken during the left to right movement of the ram (i.e. during forward or cutting
stroke) will be equal to the time taken by the driving crank to move from CA1 to CA2. Similarly, the
time taken during the right to left movement of the ram (or during the idle or return stroke) will be
equal to the time taken by the driving crank to move from CA2 to CA1. Since the crank link CA
rotates at uniform angular velocity therefore time taken during the cutting stroke (or forward
stroke) is more than the time taken during the return stroke. In other words, the mean speed of the
ram during cutting stroke is less than the mean speed during the return stroke. The ratio between
the time taken during the cutting and return strokes is given by



EG 2. Rotary Internal Combustion Engine or Gnome
Engine.

Rotary internal combustion engines were
used in aviation. It consists of seven cylinders in one
plane and all revolves about fixed centre D, as
shown in Fig. while the crank (link 2) is fixed. In this
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mechanism, when the connecting rod (link 4) rotates, the piston (link 3) reciprocates inside the
cylinders forming link 1.

THIRD INVERSION

When the link 3 is fixed the third inversion of the slider
crank chain is obtained as in figure. Link 2 acts as a crank
and is rotating about point B and link 4 oscillates.


Eg: 1. Crank and Slotted Lever Quick Return Motion Mechanism.

This mechanism is mostly used
in shaping machines, slotting machines
and in rotary internal combustion
engines. In this mechanism, the link AC
(i.e. link 3) forming the turning pair is
fixed, as shown in Fig. The link 3
corresponds to the connecting rod of
a reciprocating steam engine. The
driving crank CB revolves with uniform
angular speed about the fixed centre
C. A sliding block attached to the
crank pin at B slides along the slotted
bar AP and thus causes AP to oscillate
about the pivoted point A. A short link
PR transmits the motion from AP to the
ram which carries the tool and
reciprocates along the line of stroke
R1R2. The line of stroke of the ram (i.e.
R1R2) is perpendicular to AC produced.

In the extreme positions, AP1 and AP2 are tangential to the circle and the cutting tool is at
the end of the stroke. The forward or cutting stroke occurs when the crank rotates from the position
CB1 to CB2 (or through an angle ) in the clockwise direction. The return stroke occurs when the
crank rotates from the position CB2 to CB1 (or through angle ) in the clockwise direction. Since
the crank has uniform angular speed, therefore,


Since the tool travels a distance of R1 R2 during cutting and return stroke, therefore travel of the
tool or length of stroke


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From Fig. the angle made by the forward or cutting stroke is greater than the angle described
by the return stroke. Since the crank rotates with uniform angular speed, therefore the return stroke
is completed within shorter time. Thus it is called quick return motion mechanism.


FOURTH INVERSION

When the link 4 of a single slider crank chain is fixed,
the fourth inversion is obtained as in fig. Link 3 can oscillate
about the fixed point C on link 4. This makes the end B of link
2 to oscillate about C and end A to reciprocate along the
axis of the fixed link 4.

Eg: Pendulum pump or Bull engine.

In this mechanism, the inversion is obtained by fixing the
cylinder or link 4 (i.e. sliding pair), as shown in Fig.. In this case, when
the crank (link 2) rotates, the connecting rod (link 3) oscillates about
a pin pivoted to the fixed link 4 at A and the piston attached to the
piston rod (link 1) reciprocates. The duplex pump which is used to
supply feed water to boilers have two pistons attached to link 1, as
shown in Figure.


21. DOUBLE SLIDER CRANK CHAIN

A kinematic chain which consists of two turning pairs and two
sliding pairs is known as double slider crank chain We see that the link 2
and link 1 form one turning pair and link 2 and link 3 form the second
turning pair. The link 3 and link 4 form one sliding pair and link 1 and link 4
form the second sliding pair.

22. INVERSIONS OF DOUBLE SLIDER CRANK CHAIN

FIRST INVERSION :( Elliptical trammels)

The first inversion is obtained by fixing the slotted plate (link 4), as shown in Fig. The fixed
plate or link 4 has two straight grooves cut in it, at right angles to each other. The link 1 and link 3,
are known as sliders and form sliding pairs with link 4. The link AB (link 2) is a bar which forms turning
pair with links 1 and 3.

When the links 1 and 3 slide along their respective grooves, any point on the link 2 such as P
traces out an ellipse on the surface of link 4, as shown in Fig. (a) and AP and BP are the semi-major
axis and semi-minor axis of the ellipse respectively. This can be proved as follows:

Let us take OX and OY as horizontal and vertical axes and let the link BA is inclined at an
angle with the horizontal, as shown in Fig. Now the co-ordinates of the point P on the link BA will
be


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This is the equation of an ellipse. Hence the path traced by point P is an ellipse whose semi
major axis is AP and semi-minor axis is BP.




SECOND INVERSION :( Scotch yoke mechanism.)

The inversion is obtained by fixing either the link 1 or link 3. In Fig. 5.35, link 1 is fixed. In this
mechanism, when the link 2 (which corresponds to crank) rotates about B as centre, the link 4
(which corresponds to a frame) reciprocates. The fixed link 1 guides the frame. This mechanism is
used for converting rotary motion into a reciprocating motion.



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THIRD INVERSION :( Oldhams coupling.)

This inversion is obtained by fixing the link 2, as shown in Fig. 5.36 (a). The shafts to be
connected have two flanges (link 1 and link 3) rigidly fastened at their ends by forging. The link 1
and link 3 form turning pairs with link 2. These flanges have diametrical slots cut in their inner faces,
as shown in Fig. 5.36 (b). The intermediate piece (link 4) which is a circular disc, have two tongues
(i.e. diametrical projections) T1 and T2 on each face at right angles to each other, as shown in Fig.
(c). The tongues on the link 4 closely fit into the slots in the two flanges (l ink 1 and link 3). The link 4
can slide or reciprocate in the slots in the flanges.

When the driving shaft A is rotated, the flange C (link 1) causes the intermediate piece (link
4) to rotate at the same angle through which the flange has rotated, and it further rotates the
flange D (link 3) at the same angle and thus the shaft B rotates. Hence links 1, 3 and 4 have the
same angular velocity at every instant.

An oldham's coupling is used for connecting two parallel shafts whose axes are at a small
distance apart. The shafts are coupled in such a way that if one shaft rotates, the other shaft also
rotates at the same speed.


23. Coupler curve

The connecting rod or coupler of a planar four bar linkage may be imagined as an infinite
plane extending in all directions but pin connected to the input and output links. Then during
motion of the linkage any point attached to the plane of the coupler generates some path with
respect to the fixed link, this path is called a coupler curve. By proper choice of link dimensions
useful curves, such as a straight-line or a circular arc, may be obtained.


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24. Transmission Angle

The force and the motion from the input link to the output link is transmitted through the
connecting rod.

or, the transmission angle can be defined as:





For a 4bar linkage, the transmission angle ( ) is defined as the acute angle between the
coupler (AB) and the follower (O4B), as indicated in Fig. If Angle ABO4 is acute then = Angle
ABO4. On the other hand, if Angle ABO4 is obtuse, then =180-- ABO4. As explained in this figure, if
= 90, then the entire coupler force is utilized to drive the follower. For good transmission quality,
the minimum value of (min)>300. For a crank-rocker mechanism, the minimum value of occurs
when the crank becomes collinear with the frame as shown in the figure below.



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Clearly, the optimum value of the transmission angle is 90
0
. Since the angle will be
constantly changing during the motion cycle of the mechanism, there will be a position at which
the transmission angle will deviate most from 90
0
. In practice it has been found out that if the
maximum deviation of the transmission angle from 90
0
exceeds 40
0
or 50
0
(depending on the type
of application), the mechanism will lock. In certain cases this maximum deviation must be kept
within 20
0
(e.g. reciprocating pumps) .Transmission can be calculated using the following relation
where a1,a2,a3 and a4 are link lengths and 12 is the angle between link 1 and 2.




25. Mechanical Advantage

Mechanical Advantage of a mechanism is
the ratio of the output torque exerted by the
driven link to the necessary input torque required
at the driver. The mechanical advantage of a
four bar mechanism directly proportional to the
sine of the angle between the coupler and
follower ( - Transmission Angle) and inversely
proportional to the sine of the angle between
coupler and the driver ( ). Since both these angles goes on changes during motion , Mechanical
Advantage will continuously changes as the mechanism moves.

When this becomes zero ,that is the driver is directly in line with the coupler the sine of the
angle also become zero and thus mechanical advantage becomes infinity. Thus only a small input
torque is necessary to overcome a large output torque load.


26. Straight Line Mechanisms

The mechanisms which permits only relative motion of an oscillatory nature along a straight
line is called straight line mechanisms. These mechanisms are of the following two types:

1. Mechanisms in which only turning pairs are used, and
2. Mechanisms in which in which one sliding pair is used.

These two types of mechanisms may produce exact straight line motion or approximate
straight line motion.

27. Exact Straight Line Motion Mechanisms

The principle adopted for a mathematically correct
or exact straight line motion is described in Figure.
Let O be a point on the circumference of a circle of
diameter OP. Let OA be any chord and B is a point on OA
produced, such that OA OB = constant. Then the locus of
a point B will be a straight line perpendicular to the
diameter OP.


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Proof: Draw BQ perpendicular to OP produced. Join AP. The triangles OAP and OBQ are
similar.

But OP is constant as it is the diameter of a circle, therefore, if OA OB is constant, then OQ will be
constant. Hence the point B moves along the straight path BQ which is perpendicular to OP.


1. Peaucellier mechanism.

It consists of a fixed link OO1 and the other
straight links O1A, OC, OD, AD, DB, BC and CA
are connected by turning pairs at their
intersections.

The pin at A is constrained to move along the
circumference of a circle with the fixed
diameter OP, by means of the link O1A.

AC = CB = BD = DA ; OC = OD ; and OO1 = O1A .

Join CD to bisect AB at R. Now from right angled
triangles ORC and BRC, we have

OC
2
= OR
2
+ RC
2
...(i)
and BC
2
= RB
2
+ RC
2
...(ii)
Subtracting equation (ii) from (i), we have
OC
2
BC
2
= OR
2
RB
2
= (OR + RB) (OR RB) = OB OA

Since OC and BC are of constant length, the product OB OA remains constant and hence the
point B traces a straight path perpendicular to the diameter OP.


2. Harts mechanism.


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It consists six links, a fixed link OO1 and other straight links O1A, FC, CD, DE and EF are
connected by turning pairs.
The pin at A is constrained to move along the circumference of a circle
FC = DE and CD = EF .
The points O, A and B divide the links FC, CD and EF in the same ratio.
From similar triangles CFE and OFB,
(i)
and from similar triangles FCD and OCA

(ii)



Therefore the product OB X OA remains constant. Hence the point B traces a straight path
perpendicular to the diameter OP.

















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28. Approximate Straight Line Motion Mechanisms

Some mechanism describes an approximate straight line motion. Usually a four bar chain
or its modified variant gives an approximate straight line motion.

Watts mechanism.


It is a crossed four bar chain mechanism and was used by Watt for his early steam engines
to guide the piston rod in a cylinder to have an approximate straight line motion.

OBAO1 is a crossed four bar chain in which O and O1 are fixed.

In the mean position of the mechanism, links OB and O1A are parallel and the coupling rod
AB is perpendicular to O1A and OB.

The tracing point P traces out an approximate straight line over certain positions of its
movement, if PB/PA = O1A/OB.

Proof :

In the initial mean position of the mechanism, the instantaneous centre of the link BA lies at
infinity. Therefore the motion of the point P is along the vertical line BA. Let OB AO1 be the new
position of the mechanism after the links OB and O1A are displaced through an angle and
respectively. The instantaneous centre now lies at I. Since the angles and are very small,

arc B B = arc A A or OB = O1 A ,.. (i)

OB / O1 A = /
Also AP = IP , and BP = IP
AP / BP = / ...(ii)

From equations (i) and (ii),


Thus, the point P divides the link AB into two parts whose lengths are inversely proportional to the
lengths of the adjacent links.
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29. Intermittent motion mechanisms

A motion which starts and stops regularly is called intermittent motion. The mechanisms
which are used to convert continuous motion into intermittent motion are known as intermittent
motion mechanisms.

1. Geneva Mechanisms:

The Geneva drive or Maltese cross is a gear mechanism
that translates a continuous rotation into an intermittent rotary
motion. The rotating drive wheel has a pin that reaches into a slot
of the driven wheel advancing it by one step. The drive wheel also
has a raised circular blocking disc that locks the driven wheel in
position between steps.

The Geneva wheel as shown in the figure consists of a plate
A which rotates continuously and contains a driving pin that
engages in a slot in the driving member B. Member B is turned 1/4
th

of a revolution for each revolution of plate A. The slot in the
member B must be tangential to the path of the pin upon
engagement in order to reduce shock.

In the most common arrangement, the driven wheel has
four slots and thus advances for each rotation of the drive wheel
by one step of 90. If the driven wheel has n slots, it advances by 360/n per full rotation of the
drive wheel.










Applications :
One application of the Geneva drive is in movie projectors: the film does not run
continuously through the projector. Instead, the film is advanced frame by frame, each frame
standing still in front of the lens for 1/24 of a second . This intermittent motion is achieved using a
Geneva drive. (Modern film projectors may also use an electronically controlled indexing
mechanism or stepper motor, which allows for fast-forwarding the film.)
Other applications of the Geneva drive include the pen change mechanism in plotters,
automated sampling devices, indexing tables in assembly lines, tool changers for CNC machines,
bank note counting and so on.




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2. Ratchet and Pawl Mechanisms:

A ratchet is a mechanical device that allows continuous
linear or rotary motion in only one direction while preventing
motion in the opposite direction. Ratchets are widely used in
machinery and tools.

A ratchet consists of a round gear or linear rack with
teeth, and a pivoting, spring loaded finger called a pawl that
engages the teeth. The teeth are uniform but asymmetrical, with
each tooth having a moderate slope on one edge and a much steeper slope on the other edge.
When the teeth are moving in the unrestricted (i.e., forward) direction , the pawl easily slides up
and over the gently sloped edges of the teeth, with a spring forcing it (often with an audible 'click')
into the depression between the teeth as it passes the tip of each tooth. When the teeth move in
the opposite (backward) direction, however, the pawl will catch against the steeply sloped edge
of the first tooth it encounters, thereby locking it against the tooth and preventing any further
motion in that direction.