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Week 9 Design for Manufacture and Assembly

- Design for manufacturability is the general engineering art of designing a products in such a
way that they are easy to manufacture.
- Concurrent Engineering is when product design, material selection, supplier selection, tool
design etc. all happen at the same time with the aim of:
o Making compatible production and design decision which greatly influence lifecycle
cost
o Reducing design/build life cycle time to finish the product earlier
o Finalizing build standard earlier rather than iterating with production-influenced
changes mandated downstream

o Concurrent Engineering Problems

Lack of early good analysis
Problems not owned, approaches not standardized
Poor definition or lack of understanding of the problems
Solutions:
o Understanding traditional system engineering approach with
requirement reviews, design review etc.
o Putting the right team together
o Be fearful, dont make too much assumption
o Ensuring the people causing schedule slip are replaced or motivated
o Clearly define each phase with inputs and outputs compromising
hard data and deliverables
- Parts Count:
o Be careful with assumption that Reducing parts count is good
o Parts count often related to performance
o Quantity of components being built and tool amortization( tin khu hao)
o Uncertainty in design loads or operational parameters requiring design flexibility
o A single part that gets modified to meet required subsequently will start to suffer
dreadfully
o Assembly operations dont have to be slow, and dont have to require inspection
o Having assemblies also serves many purposes:
Allowing ratable part philosophy
Allowing for future design or material, product improvements
o Reducing parts is great for compact, complex assemblies and best suited for Small
assemblies
o
- Vendor and standard parts
o Always tempting to use a Vendor or Standard Part to save cost
o Problems:
Part engineering is not necessarily controlled
Part design can change without notice in areas that are not important to
others but critical to your design


- Murphys law and Mistake Proofing
o Murphy If it can go wrong, it will go wrong
o Murphhy proofing:
Ensure things can only together one way
Ensure healthy clearance
Provide alignment cues to ensure smooth assembly
Use Mockups and CAD models to imagine to complex assemblies
Make CRITICAL things become easily testable

- Applications and Excuses:
o DFMA usually comes up when :
New Product design start
Old product goes back into production
Ownership of design changes
Change the Ownership of Supply chain
Location of production changes
o Possible problems:
Material cost unstable
Low reparability and high scrap page costs
Tooling issues not understood
Supply chain operations/assemblies get out of control
You are forced to change the design because of company policies
Design documentation and review process not followed : To address this
problem, we need to truly understand the design requirements; make sure
about the customer aspect and review and document every design phase,
fully document the design

- Tolerances, GD&T, 6 sigma, DFSS, DFMA
o Tolerances: assigning ranges to dimension or values with the aim of predicting
Likelihood/trend of working and ability to match manufacturing processes to
TOLERANCES selected.
o GD&T Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Methodology invented for
applying multiple tolerances over 2D or 3D shapes, complex fields of features- IT IS A
LANGUAGE OF EXPRESSING TOLERANCING
o 6 Sigma using statistics and system engineering methodology to control and
predict the nature of manufacturing systems using tolerances to attain better
performance. It is the WIDTH OF THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
o A system engineering approach is essential, preferred because:
Aero requirements (i.e. twist, steps, stiffness etc.)
Major item interfaces
Tool and process allowances
Measurement/quality system
o THIS THINGS NEED TO BE DONE FROM THE EARLY STAGE OF DESIGN