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The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.


Candidate Number

Candidate Name ______________________________________________

INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE TESTING SYSTEM


Listening

PRACTICE TEST 2 1 hour







Time 1 hour


INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Do not open this question paper until you are told to do so.
Write your name and candidate number in the spaces at the top of this page.
Listen to the instructions for each part of the paper carefully.
Answer all the questions.
While you are listening, write your answers on the question paper.
You will have 10 minutes at the end of the test to copy your answers onto the
separate answer sheet. Use a pencil.
At the end of the test, hand in this question paper.

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
There are four parts to the test.
You will hear each part once only.
There are 40 questions.
Each question carries one mark.
For each part of the test, there will be time for you to look through the questions and
time for you to check your answers.

2
The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
SECTION 1 Questions 110

Questions 16
Complete the form below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

Application Form for use of Library Internet Service



Family name: Mi l t on
First names: 1 .. J ayne
Address: 2 ..
35 Maxi mi l i an Way
Whi t f i el d
Post Code: 3 ..
Occupation: Nur se
( wor ks t he 4 ..)
Home phone: N/ A
Mobile: 0412 214 418
Type of ID: 5 ..
ID number: AZ 1985331
Date of Birth: 25
t h
6 ..
Example Answer
Existing cardholder? Yes

3
The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
Questions 7 and 8
Choose TWO letters, AE.

What will the woman use the internet for?

A trade & exchange
B research
C email
D social networking
E job vacancies


Questions 9 and 10
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

9 How much does it cost to register as an internet user?
.

10 What is the maximum amount of time allowed per single daily internet session?
.




4
The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
SECTION 2 Questions 1120

Questions 1115
Choose the correct letter A, B or C.

11 The guided bushwalk is suitable for
A adults only
B children over 12 and adults
C children over 8 accompanied by a parent

12 On the bird observation outing, it is recommended that you have
A waterproof footwear
B a bird identification book
C binoculars

13 For the trip to the sand dunes, a company will donate
A water
B tools
C gloves

14 The bush tucker excursion will cost (per person)
A $15
B $12
C $7

15 The deadline to register for the bush tucker outing is
A 25 November
B 15 November
C 10 November








5
The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
Questions 1620

Complete the table below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

Activity Leader Date Venue Time
Bush walk Glenn Ford 16 Springvale 17 1pm
Bird watching J oy Black, club
18
10 September Camford 4.306.30pm
Sand dunes Rex Rose 26 November 19 8.3010.30am
Bush tucker J im Kerr, ranger 3 December Carson Hills 10am20

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The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
SECTION 3 Questions 2130

Questions 2125

Complete the sentences below.

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.


21 Students must follow . to prevent accidents in the lab.
22 The students have not been using . while in the lab.
23 Students cannot eat or drink until . is finished and they have
washed their hands.
24 Tessa should tie her hair back to avoid danger when she is working with
a . or chemicals.
25 Students must wear long sleeves and shoes made of . in the
lab.


7
The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
Questions 2628
Choose the correct letter A, B or C.
26 Which student is currently using an appropriate notebook?
A Vincent
B Tessa
C Neither student

27 The tutor says that writing observations in complete sentences
A is often not a good use of time
B makes them easier to interpret later
C means that others can understand them

28 The students must write dates
A next to each drawing
B next to each written section
C next to each drawing and written section


Questions 29 and 30
Choose TWO letters, AE.
Which TWO things must be included in the conclusion to the experiment?
A the questions investigated
B the solutions to the questions
C the students own thoughts about the experiment
D the length of time spent on the experiment
E the students signature

8
The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
SECTION 4 Questions 3140

Questions 3140
Complete the notes below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
Climate change
HUMAN FACTORS
Cutting down trees for 31
Industrial Revolution
32
Increase in population deforestation
KNOWN EFFECTS
Over previous 130 yrs: temp. by 0.6 C
Since Ind. Rev.: CO
2
by 30% & Methane by 33 (from
mining, animals, rice paddies)
N
2
O (from 34 esp. fertiliser; waste management; car
exhausts)
Greenhouse Effect: gases form 35 heat trapped Earth
warms up
FUTURE EFFECTS
1. Rise in sea levels ice melting
Sea level Number of people at risk
1998 levels 36
+50 cm 92 million
+1 metre 37

2. Change in 38 more arid areas population movement to
cities
3. Increase in pests and 39 e.g. malaria
4. Change in ecosystems: *shift in 40 some die, others
multiply *deserts get hotter & bigger

1 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
Candidate Number

Candidate Name ______________________________________________

INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE TESTING SYSTEM


Academic Reading

PRACTICE TEST 2 1 hour









Time 1 hour


INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Do not open this question paper until you are told to do so.
Write your name and candidate number in the spaces at the top of this page.
Read the instructions for each part of the paper carefully.
Answer all the questions.
Write your answers on the answer sheet. Use a pencil.
You must complete the answer sheet within the time limit.
At the end of the test, hand in both this question paper and your answer sheet.

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
There are 40 questions on this question paper.
Each question carries one mark.

2 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 113, which are based on Reading
Passage 1 on the following pages.

Questions 17
Reading Passage 1 has seven paragraphs, AG.
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, ix, in boxes 17 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i A unique sensory experience
ii Getting back to basics
iii The gift that keeps on giving
iv Variations in alcohol content
v Old methods of transportation
vi Culinary applications
vii Making kefir
viii A fortunate accident
ix Kefir gets an image makeover
x Ways to improve taste

1 Section A
2 Section B
3 Section C
4 Section D
5 Section E
6 Section F
7 Section G

3 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
The MAGIC of KEFIR

A The shepherds of the North Caucasus region of Europe were only trying to
transport milk the best way they knew how in leather pouches strapped to the side of
donkeys when they made a significant discovery. A fermentation process would
sometimes inadvertently occur en route, and when the pouches were opened up on
arrival they would no longer contain milk but rather a pungent, effervescent, low-
alcoholic substance instead. This unexpected development was a blessing in disguise.
The new drink which acquired the name kefir turned out to be a health tonic, a
naturally-preserved dairy product and a tasty addition to our culinary repertoire.

B Although their exact origin remains a mystery, we do know that yeast-based
kefir grains have always been at the root of the kefir phenomenon. These grains are
capable of a remarkable feat: in contradistinction to most other items you might find
in a grocery store, they actually expand and propagate with use. This is because the
grains, which are granular to the touch and bear a slight resemblance to cauliflower
rosettes, house active cultures that feed on lactose when added to milk. Consequently,
a bigger problem for most kefir drinkers is not where to source new kefir grains, but
what to do with the ones they already have!

C The great thing about kefir is that it does not require a manufacturing line in
order to be produced. Grains can be simply thrown in with a batch of milk for
ripening to begin. The mixture then requires a cool, dark place to live and grow, with
periodic unsettling to prevent clumping (Caucasus inhabitants began storing the
concoction in animal-skin satchels on the back of doors every time someone entered
the room the mixture would get lightly shaken). After about 24 hours the yeast
cultures in the grains have multiplied and devoured most of the milk sugars, and the
final product is then ready for human consumption.

4 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.

D Nothing compares to a persons first encounter with kefir. The smooth,
uniform consistency rolls over the tongue in a manner akin to liquefied yogurt. The
sharp, tart pungency of unsweetened yogurt is there too, but there is also a slight hint
of effervescence, something most users will have previously associated only with
mineral waters, soda or beer. Kefir also comes with a subtle aroma of yeast, and
depending on the type of milk and ripening conditions, ethanol content can reach up
to two or three percent about on par with a decent lager although you can expect
around 0.8 to one per cent for a typical day-old preparation. This can bring out a tiny
edge of alcohol in the kefirs flavour.

E Although it has prevailed largely as a fermented milk drink, over the years
kefir has acquired a number of other uses. Many bakers use it instead of starter yeast
in the preparation of sourdough, and the tangy flavour also makes kefir an ideal
buttermilk substitute in pancakes. Kefir also accompanies sour cream as one of the
main ingredients in cold beetroot soup and can be used in lieu of regular cows milk
on granola or cereal. As a way to keep their digestive systems fine-tuned, athletes
sometimes combine kefir with yoghurt in protein shakes.

F Associated for centuries with pictures of Slavic babushkas clutching a shawl
in one hand and a cup of kefir in the other, the unassuming beverage has become a
minor celebrity of the nascent health food movement in the contemporary West.
Every day, more studies pour out supporting the benefits of a diet high in probiotics
1
.
This trend toward consuming probiotics has engulfed the leisure classes in these
countries to the point that it is poised to become, according to some commentators,
the next multivitamin. These days the word kefir is consequently more likely to
bring to mind glamorous, yoga mat-toting women from Los Angeles than austere
visions of blustery Eastern Europe.

G Kefirs rise in popularity has encouraged producers to take short cuts or alter
the production process. Some home users have omitted the ripening and culturation
process while commercial dealers often add thickeners, stabilisers and sweeteners.

1
Probiotic =substance containing beneficial and intestine-friendly microorganisms

5 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
But the beauty of kefir is that, at its healthiest and tastiest, it is a remarkably
affordable, uncluttered process, as any accidental invention is bound to be. All that is
necessary are some grains, milk and a little bit of patience. A return to the
unadulterated kefir-making of old is in everyones interest.

6 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
Questions 811

Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the
passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 811 on your answer sheet.


8 What do kefir grains look like?
9 What needs to happen to kefir while it is ripening?
10 What will the yeast cultures have consumed before kefir is ready to drink?
11 The texture of kefir in the mouth is similar to what?


Questions 12 and 13

Choose TWO letters, AE.

Write the correct letters in boxes 12 and 13 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO products are NOT mentioned as things which kefir can replace?

A Ordinary cows milk
B Buttermilk
C Sour cream
D Starter yeast
E Yoghurt






7 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
READING PASSAGE 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1426, which are based on Reading
Passage 2 on the following pages.

Questions 1421
Reading Passage 2 has nine paragraphs, AI.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs AH from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, ixi, in boxes 1421 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings
i A historical delicacy
ii The poor may benefit
iii Presentation is key to changing attitudes
iv Environmentally friendly production
v Tradition meets technology
vi A cultural pioneer
vii Western practices harm locals
viii Good source of nutrients
ix Growing popularity
x A healthy choice
xi A safety risk

14 Section A
15 Section B
16 Section C
17 Section D
18 Section E
19 Section F
20 Section G
21 Section H

8 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
FOOD FOR THOUGHT

A Why not eat insects? So asked British entomologist Vincent M. Holt in the
title of his 1885 treatise on the benefits of what he named entomophagy the
consumption of insects (and similar creatures) as a food source. The prospect of
eating dishes such as wireworm sauce and slug soup failed to garner favour
amongst those in the stuffy, proper, Victorian social milieu of his time, however, and
Holts visionary ideas were considered at best eccentric, at worst an offense to every
refined palate. Anticipating such a reaction, Holt acknowledged the difficulty in
unseating deep-rooted prejudices against insect cuisine, but quietly asserted his
confidence that we shall some day quite gladly cook and eat them.



B It has taken nearly 150 years but an eclectic Western-driven movement has
finally mounted around the entomophagic cause. In Los Angeles and other
cosmopolitan Western cities, insects have been caught up in the endless pursuit of
novel and authentic delicacies. Eating grasshoppers is a thing you do here, bug-
supplier Bricia Lopez has explained. Theres more of a cool factor involved.
Meanwhile, the Food and Agricultural Organization has considered a policy paper on
the subject, initiated farming projects in Laos, and set down plans for a world
congress on insect farming in 2013.

C Eating insects is not a new phenomenon. In fact, insects and other such
creatures are already eaten in 80 per cent of the worlds countries, prepared in
customary dishes ranging from deep-fried tarantula in Cambodia to bowls of baby
bees in China. With the specialist knowledge that Western companies and
organisations can bring to the table, however, these hand-prepared delicacies have the
potential to be produced on a scale large enough to lower costs and open up mass
markets. A new American company, for example, is attempting to develop
pressurisation machines that would de-shell insects and make them available in the
form of cutlets. According to the entrepreneur behind the company, Matthew Krisiloff,
this will be the key to pleasing the uninitiated palate.

D Insects certainly possess some key advantages over traditional Western meat
sources. According to research findings from Professor Arnold van Huis, a Dutch
entomologist, breeding insects results in far fewer noxious by-products. Insects
produce less ammonia than pig and poultry farming, ten times less methane than
livestock, and 300 times less nitrous oxide. Huis also notes that insects being cold-
blooded creatures can convert food to protein at a rate far superior to that of cows,
since the latter exhaust much of their energy just keeping themselves warm.

9 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
E Although insects are sometimes perceived by Westerners as unhygienic or
disease-ridden, they are a reliable option in light of recent global epidemics (as Holt
pointed out many years ago, insects are decidedly more particular in their feeding
than ourselves). Because bugs are genetically distant from humans, species-hopping
diseases such as swine flu or mad cow disease are much less likely to start or spread
amongst grasshoppers or slugs than in poultry and cattle. Furthermore, the squalid,
cramped quarters that encourage diseases to propagate among many animal
populations are actually the residence of choice for insects, which thrive in such
conditions.

F Then, of course, there are the commercial gains. As FAO Forestry Manager
Patrick Durst notes, in developing countries many rural people and traditional forest
dwellers have remarkable knowledge about managing insect populations to produce
food. Until now, they have only used this knowledge to meet their own subsistence
needs, but Durst believes that, with the adoption of modern technology and improved
promotional methods, opportunities to expand the market to new consumers will
flourish. This could provide a crucial step into the global economic arena for those
primarily rural, impoverished populations who have been excluded from the rise of
manufacturing and large-scale agriculture.

G Nevertheless, much stands in the way of the entomophagic movement. One
problem is the damage that has been caused, and continues to be caused, by Western
organisations prepared to kill off grasshoppers and locusts complete food proteins
in favour of preserving the incomplete protein crops of millet, wheat, barley and
maize. Entomologist Florence Dunkel has described the consequences of such
interventions. While examining childrens diets as a part of her field work in Mali,
Dunkel discovered that a protein deficiency syndrome called kwashiorkor was
increasing in incidence. Children in the area were once protected against kwashiorkor
by a diet high in grasshoppers, but these had become unsafe to eat after pesticide use
in the area increased.

H A further issue is the persistent fear many Westerners still have about eating
insects. The problem is theick factorthe eyes, the wings, the legs, Krisiloff has
said. Its not as simple as hiding it in a bug nugget. People wont accept it beyond
the novelty. When you think of a chicken, you think of a chicken breast, not the eyes,
wings, and beak. For Marcel Dicke, the key lies in camouflaging the fact that people
are eating insects at all. Insect flour is one of his propositions, as is changing the
language of insect cuisine. If you say its mealworms, it makes people think of
ringworm, he notes. So stop saying worm. If we use Latin names, say its a
Tenebrio quiche, it sounds much more fancy. For Krisiloff, Dicke and others,
keeping quiet about the gritty reality of our food is often the best approach.

I It is yet to be seen if history will truly redeem Vincent Holt and his suggestion
that British families should gather around their dining tables for a breakfast of moths
on toast. It is clear, however, that entomophagy, far from being a kooky sideshow to
the real business of food production, has much to offer in meeting the challenges that
global societies in the 21
st
century will face.


10 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
Questions 2226

Complete the notes below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 2226 on your answer sheet.

Van Huis
Insects are cleaner & do not release as many harmful gases
Insects use food intake economically in the production of protein as they waste
less 22
Durst
Traditional knowledge could be combined with modern methods for mass
production instead of just covering 23
This could help 24 people gain access to world markets.

Dunkel
Due to increased 25 , morechildren in Mali are suffering from
26







11 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
READING PASSAGE 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 2740, which are based on Reading
Passage 3 below.
Love stories

Love stories are often associated at least in the popular imagination with fairy
tales, adolescent day dreams, Disney movies and other frivolous pastimes. For
psychologists developing taxonomies
2
of affection and attachment, however, this is
an area of rigorous academic pursuit. Beginning in the early 1970s with the
groundbreaking contributions of J ohn Alan Lee, researchers have developed
classifications that they believe better characterise our romantic predispositions. This
involves examining not a single, universal, emotional expression (love), but rather a
series of divergent behaviours and narratives that each has an individualised
purpose, desired outcome and state of mind. Lees gritty methodology painstakingly
involved participants matching 170 typical romantic encounters (e.g., The night after
I met X) with nearly 1500 possible reactions (I could hardly get to sleep or I
wrote X a letter). The patterns unknowingly expressed by respondents culminated in
a taxonomy of six distinct love styles that continue to inform research in the area
forty years later.

The first of these styles eros is closely tied in with images of romantic love that
are promulgated in Western popular culture. Characteristic of this style is a
passionate emotional intensity, a strong physical magnetism as if the two partners
were literally being pulled together and a sense of inevitability about the
relationship. A related but more frantic style of love called mania involves an
obsessive, compulsive attitude toward ones partner. Vast swings in mood from
ecstasy to agony dependent on the level of attention a person is receiving from his
or her partner are typical of manic love.

Two styles were much more subdued, however. Storge is a quiet, companionate type
of loving love by evolution rather than love by revolution, according to some
theorists. Relationships built on a foundation of platonic affection and caring are
archetypal of storge. When care is extended to a sacrificial level of doting, however, it
becomes another style agape. In an agape relationship one partner becomes a
caretaker, exalting the welfare of the other above his or her own needs.

The final two styles of love seem to lack aspects of emotion and reciprocity
altogether. The ludus style envisions relationships primarily as a game in which it is
best to play the field or experience a diverse set of partners over time. Mutually-
gratifying outcomes in relationships are not considered necessary, and deception of
a partner and lack of disclosure about ones activities are also typical. While Lee
found that college students in his study overwhelmingly disagreed with the tenets of
this style, substantial numbers of them acted in a typically ludic style while dating, a
finding that proves correct the deceit inherent in ludus. Pragma lovers also
downplayed emotive aspects of relationships but favoured practical, sensible
connections. Successful arranged marriages are a great example of pragma, in that
the couple decide to make the relationship work; but anyone who seeks an ideal
partner with a shopping list of necessary attributes (high salary, same religion, etc.)
fits the classification.


2
Taxonomy =the science of classifying and categorising data.

12 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
Robert J . Sternbergs contemporary research on love stories has elaborated on how
these narratives determine the shape of our relationships and our lives. Sternberg
and others have proposed and tested the theory of love as a story, whereby the
interaction of our personal attributes with the environment which we in part create
leads to the development of stories about love that we then seek to fulfil, to the extent
possible, in our lives. Sternbergs taxonomy of love stories numbers far more, at
twenty-six, than Lees taxonomy of love styles, but as Sternberg himself admits there
is plenty of overlap. The seventh story, Game, coincides with ludus, for example,
while the nineteenth story, Sacrifice, fits neatly on top of agape.

Sternbergs research demonstrates that we may have predilections toward multiple
love stories, each represented in a mental hierarchy and varying in weight in terms of
their personal significance. This explains the frustration many of us experience when
comparing potential partners. One person often fulfils some expected narratives -
such as a need for mystery and fantasy while lacking the ability to meet the
demands of others (which may lie in direct contradiction). It is also the case that
stories have varying abilities to adapt to a given cultural milieu and its respective
demands. Love stories are, therefore, interactive and adaptive phenomena in our
lives rather than rigid prescriptions.

Steinberg also explores how our love stories interact with the love stories of our
partners. What happens when someone who sees love as art collides with someone
who sees love as business? Can a Sewing story (love is what you make it) co-exist
with a Theatre story (love is a script with predictable acts, scenes and lines)?
Certainly, it is clear that we look for partners with love stories that complement and
are compatible with our own narratives. But they do not have to be an identical match.
Someone who sees love as mystery and art, for example, might locate that mystery
better in a partner who views love through a lens of business and humour. Not all
love stories, however, are equally well predisposed to relationship longevity; stories
that view love as a game, as a kind of surveillance or as an addiction are all unlikely
to prove durable.

Research on love stories continues apace. Defying the myth that rigorous science
and the romantic persuasions of ordinary people are incompatible, this research
demonstrates that good psychology can clarify and comment on the way we give
affection and form attachments.





13 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
Questions 2734
Look at the following statements (Questions 2734) and the list of styles in the box
below.

Match each statement with the correct term, AF.
Write the correct letter, AF, in boxes 2734 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.

27 My most important concern is that my partner is happy.

28 I enjoy having many romantic partners.

29 I feel that my partner and I were always going to end up together.

30 I want to be friends first and then let romance develop later.

31 I always feel either very excited or absolutely miserable about my relationship.

32 I prefer to keep many aspects of my love life to myself.

33 When I am in love, that is all I can think about.

34 I know before I meet someone what qualities I need in a partner.





List of Love Styles
A Eros
B Mania
C Storge
D Agape
E Ludus
F Pragma



14 The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
Questions 3540

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 3540 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

35 Peoples notions of love affect their relationships, rather than vice versa.
36 Some of our love stories are more important to us than others.
37 Our love stories can change to meet the needs of particular social environments.
38 We look for romantic partners with a love story just like our own.
39 The most successful partners have matching love stories.
40 No love story is more suited to a long relationship than any other.












1
The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
Candidate Number

Candidate Name ______________________________________________

INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE TESTING SYSTEM


Academic Writing

PRACTICE TEST 2 1 hour






Time 1 hour


INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Do not open this question paper until you are told to do so.
Write your name and candidate number in the spaces at the top of this page.
Read the instructions for each task carefully.
Answer both of the tasks.
Write at least 150 words for Task 1.
Write at least 250 words for Task 2.
Write your answers in the answer booklet.
Write clearly in pen or pencil. You may make alterations, but make sure your work is
easy to read.
At the end of the test, hand in both this question paper and your answer booklet.

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
There are two tasks on this question paper.
Task 2 contributes twice as much as Task 1 to the Writing score.

2
The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
WRITING TASK 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.


The charts below give information about attendance at entertainment venues
and admission prices to those venues in 2009.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and
make comparisons where relevant.



Write at least 150 words.
Attendance at entertainment venues, 2009
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Cinemas
Theme Parks
Sports
No. of admissions in thousands

Event 2009AdmissionPrice
1Ticket FamilyTicket(4people)
FootballGameAFL $75 $298
FootballGameNRL $73 $290
FootballGameNRU $71 $280
ThemeParks $70 $210
BasketballGame $34 $135
CricketGame $24 $80
Cinema $15 $55

3
The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
WRITING TASK 2

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.



Write about the following topic:


In many countries today there are many highly qualified graduates without
employment.
What factors may have caused this situation and what, in your opinion, can/should
be done about it?



Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own
knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.

1
The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
Tapescript

NARRATOR:
Test 2
You will hear a number of different recordings and you will have to answer questions
on what you hear. There will be time for you to read the instructions and questions and
you will have a chance to check your work. All the recordings will be played once only.
The test is in 4 sections. At the end of the test you will be given 10 minutes to transfer
your answers to an answer sheet. Now turn to section 1.
Section 1
You will hear a conversation between an assistant librarian and a woman who wants to
use the internet in the library. First, you have some time to look at questions 1 to 6.
[20 seconds]
You will see that there is an example that has been done for you. On this occasion only
the conversation relating to this will be played first.


WOMAN: Good morning, Id like to register to use the internet in the library.
MAN: Do you have a library card?
WOMAN: Yes, Ive been a member for 6 months but Ive never used the internet
services before.

The woman already has a library card, so Yes has been written in the space. Now we
shall begin. You should answer the questions as you listen because you will not hear the
recording a second time. Listen carefully and answer questions 1 to 6.

2
The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
WOMAN: Good morning, Id like to register to use the internet in the library.
MAN: Do you have a library card?
WOMAN: Yes, Ive been a member for 6 months but Ive never used the internet
services before.
MAN: No problem. Can I have your full name please?
WOMAN: Lynda J ayne Milton.
MAN: So, Milton is your surname?
WOMAN: Yes.
MAN: And Linda, L-i-n-d-a?
WOMAN: Well, no, actually its L-Y-N-D-A.
MAN: Lynda J ane.
WOMAN: And, erm, J ane isnt spelt J -a-n-e either. Its J -A-Y-N-E.
MAN: Okay, got that thank you. Now, where do you live, Lynda?
WOMAN: Unit 15, 35 Maximilian Way.
MAN: Thats in Whitfield, right? I have a cousin who lives in that area.
WOMAN: Yes, Whitfield.
MAN: And the postcode is double seven double five?
WOMAN: Not quite youve got it round the wrong way. Its double five
double seven.
MAN: Whoops, okay, moving on now Do you work or are you at home
during the day?
WOMAN: Well, both, actually. I work as a nurse but Im on permanent night shift.
MAN: Oh, I see. In that case, we wont put down your home phone number
because Im sure you dont want to be disturbed when youre trying to
sleep.
WOMAN: Thanks, I appreciate that you can always leave a message on my
mobile if you have to contact me. I have it turned off when Im sleeping,
but I regularly check my voicemail for messages.
MAN: And that number is?
WOMAN: 0412 214 418
MAN: Good. Now Ill need to see some form of photo ID have you got
something with you?
WOMAN: Yes, just a minute, heres my swipe card for the hospital.
MAN: Thank you. I just need to make a note of the number AZ 1985331

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WOMAN: Is that all you need?
MAN: J ust one more thing your date of birth but I can get that from the
card. One moment
WOMAN: Look Im afraid you havent copied it down correctly. I was born on
the 25
th
September, 1975.
MAN: What have I written? Oh yes, I see it now, Ive got the 25
th
of the eighth
month, but that would make it August Thanks for spotting the mistake.


Before you hear the rest of the conversation, you have some time to look at questions 7
to 10.
[20 seconds]
Now listen and answer questions 7 to 10.

MAN: Well, thats the application form done now, I wonder if youd mind
taking part in a survey were doing?
WOMAN: Thats fine. What do you want to know?
MAN: Basically, were trying to find out why people access the internet. I mean,
what would you be using it for? Social networking, I suppose.
WOMAN: I dont really think so I havent got the time for something like that.
But I do want to keep in touch with friends and family both here and
abroad, so Id mostly be making use of my email account.
MAN: I see. A lot of students come in here to do research is that something
that you might be doing?
WOMAN: I think the internet is a great tool for research but its not something that
interests me at the moment.
MAN: What about checking out a new job?
WOMAN: A lot of my friends use the internet for job hunting and they say its the
best way to look for a new position Im quite settled where I am,
though. You can get access to the other classifieds, cant you? Trade
and exchange, that kind of thing
MAN: Yes, and Im told its a very popular way of buying and selling these
days.
WOMAN: Well, Ill definitely be using it for that.

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MAN: Thanks a lot. Now, do you have any questions?
WOMAN: Is there a charge for the service?
MAN: It used to be free but weve decided to set a one-off payment of fifteen
dollars for the initial registration.
WOMAN: Oh, thats not bad at all. One more thing is there a time limit for each
session, like half an hour or something?
MAN: Oh, its better than that one 60-minute session per day quite
generous really. But were very strict about it.
WOMAN: Id rarely spend more than 45 minutes on the internet at any one time so
thatll be more than enough. Thank you.

Narrator:
That is the end of section 1. You now have half a minute to check your answers.
[30 seconds]
Now turn to section 2.



5
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Section 2
You will hear a committee member giving a talk to a Nature Club about coming events.
First you have some time to look at questions 11 to 15.
[20 seconds]
Listen carefully and answer questions 11 to 15.

SPEAKER:

Hi everyone. Its good to see such a big turnout at our Nature Club session for
J une. J ust before we start this evenings workshop, Id like to draw your attention to
what we have in store for you in the second half of the year.
First of all, the guided bushwalk this is always a favourite starting out on the
Springvale plateau and continuing down into a section of the state conservation area.
Last year, we invited children aged 8 and over if they came with a parent, but the track
has been washed out in a few places since then and it can be quite rough, so this year we
considered restricting it to adults only however, on reconsideration, the committee
has now decided to recommend it for all bushwalkers who are over the age of 12.
Another very popular option is the bird observation walk. Well be searching for
both migratory and native birds as we walk through tidal marshlands and mangroves
and you can expect to get your feet uncomfortably wet and muddy if you dont wear
rubber boots these are a must. The leader will have a strong pair of binoculars, so
well rely on her to name the species for us and weve ordered some bird
identification books that you may wish to purchase at a later date.
From the bush to the swamp, and now to the sand dunes Our leader will help
us identify plants native to the local area as well as some invasive weed species. Well
be asking for volunteers to help pull out the weeds where possible, so a pair of sturdy
gardening gloves is essential. Spades and other tools will be provided. It could get very
hot and youll need water plenty of it but a local business owner is willing to
provide bottled water free of charge.

The next outing, bush tucker, is a new one have you ever wondered what life
in this country would have been like two hundred to two thousand years ago? Well,
come on this trip and youll find out how the indigenous inhabitants used local plants as
food and medicine.

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Because lunch is included in this trip, there will be a small charge per person.
We had originally thought 7 dollars would cover the basics sausages and bread
followed by tea and coffee, but then we thought a few different cuts of meat and salad
would be nice and that brought the price up to 12 dollars a head. At one stage we even
contemplated including seafood, but that would have been a bit too expensive around
15 dollars so meat and salad it is. We expect this to be a popular event, so well need
advance bookings to organise the catering. Please let us know your intentions by the
10
th
of November, and be aware that well require pre-payment by the 15
th
of
November. You can still change your mind and get a refund up to the 25
th
of November
but after that date, if you pull out, youll forfeit the money paid.


Before you hear the rest of the talk, you have some time to look at questions 16 to 20.
[20 seconds]
Now listen and answer questions 16 to 20.

Well, now if you can give me a few more minutes of your time, Ill fill in a
few details for you. The bush walk, led by Glenn Ford, is first up in July on the
second of the month. Itll start from Springvale as usual but this year well be setting
off in the morning, at nine fifteen, and well get back at one in the afternoon.
The bird watching expedition is on the tenth of September at Camford and the
leader is the president of the Nature Club, our very own J oy Black. If you have any
questions at all about bird life, J oy is the person to ask. This is a twilight outing from
4.30 to 6.30.
Next up is the trip to the sand dunes on 26 November with Rex Rose. A bit of an
early start especially for those of you with a fair way to travel but well meet at the
observation hut at half past eight. Thats the observation hut, 8.30 till 10.30, and even
at that time of the morning itll be very hot, so come prepared!
The last trip on the programme is the bush tucker excursion on the third of
December with ranger J im Kerr. This will be at Carson Hills and the presentation and
demonstration will take place from 10 am till 11.30 but be prepared to stay on for the
barbecue and bush tucker lunch at 12 oclock. I expect well wind up at two and you
can head for home at that time.

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Well, thats all I have to tell you. A booklet will be mailed out to you later with
those events, dates and times but dont wait, put them on your calendar now.


Narrator:
That is the end of section 2. You now have half a minute to check your answers.
[30 seconds]
Now turn to section 3.

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Section 3
You will hear a conversation between a science tutor and two first-year students who
are being given some practical tips for conducting experiments. First, you have some
time to look at questions 21 to 25.
[20 seconds]
Listen carefully and answer questions 21 to 25.


TUTOR: Now Vincent and Tessa, Ive asked the two of you to come and see me
because Im a bit concerned after that incident in the science lab last
week. I realise that neither of you have had much experience in a
laboratory before
VINCENT: Well, we mostly just studied theory at high school
TESSA: and we rarely got the opportunity to carry out any experiments.
TUTOR: Fair enough. But we must all abide by certain safety procedures the
last thing we want is for one of our students to get hurt.
TESSA: We understand that.
TUTOR: Our priority is to make sure that the chemistry laboratory is a safe place
and, actually, accidents can easily be prevented if you just think about
what youre doing at all times.
TESSA: It sounds simple enough.
TUTOR: It is if you always use good judgement, observe safety rules and follow
directions.
VINCENT: Weve read the rules on the poster inside the lab.
TUTOR: And yet last week you were seen working in the lab without eye
protection.
TESSA: What do you mean? I was wearing my glasses.
TUTOR: Prescription glasses are not safety glasses you must always wear the
goggles provided youll find they fit quite comfortably over your
ordinary glasses.
VINCENT: Oh, I see.
TUTOR: J ust make a habit of putting them on before you start and keep them on
until you are finished. And another thing, never eat or drink while in the
laboratory.

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TESSA: What not even water?
TUTOR: Not even water at least not until after clean-up. Then, be sure to wash
your hands thoroughly with soap and hot water and dry them on a clean
towel first. And Tessa, your hair should be tied back when youre in the
lab.
TESSA: Its not that long.
TUTOR: Still, it poses a hazard when youre working with chemicals or a naked
flame. If you cant tie it back or pin it up, see if you can tuck it into a cap
or something.
TESSA: Yes, I can do that.
TUTOR: Thank you. Now, Vincent, last week you wore a tee-shirt and trainers in
the lab. The rules clearly state that long-sleeved shirts and leather shoes
must be worn.
VINCENT Oh, yes, I remember I was late getting back from sports practice and I
didnt have time to change.
TUTOR: Well, it mustnt happen again.
VINCENT: Okay, Ill see that it doesnt.
TUTOR: Good. As for the rest of the safety precautions, refer to the safety poster
inside the lab and you shouldnt have any problems.


Before you hear the rest of the conversation, you have some time to look at questions 26
to 30.
[20 seconds]
Now listen and answer questions 26 to 30.

TUTOR: Now, before you go, a word about record-keeping.
VINCENT: Oh, good I was going to ask you about that.
TESSA: Whats the best way to keep track of what were doing in the lab?
TUTOR: Well, obviously, all your observations should be written down I know
you think you wont forget stuff and youll be able to recall it later but
generally this turns out not to be the case. Written data, however, are a
permanent record. And you must be thorough. Organise and record
everything in a bound notebook.

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TESSA: I use a spiral notebook.
VINCENT: And I use a large note pad.
TUTOR: That wont do. A book with binding ensures the pages are not easily
removed or lost. Oh, and be sure to write your entries in complete
sentences.
TESSA: Isnt that a waste of time?
VINCENT: Surely notes are good enough.
TUTOR: You might think so but brief notes can be hard to decipher at a later date,
whereas with full sentences you are less likely to misinterpret data.
VINCENT: I make sketches, you know, simple drawings.
TUTOR: Thats a good idea, Vincent, but be sure to date them.
TESSA: You want us to write the date next to each drawing?
TUTOR: Yes, every sketch and every entry must be dated.
TESSA: What about headings?
TUTOR: Use the title of the experiment as your first entry. When you have
completed your observation entries, answer any questions that have been
posed and then, finally, write your conclusion.
VINCENT: How do we write a conclusion? Do we need to repeat things like the
questions and our findings, or the time it all took?
TUTOR: J ust write your own ideas or feelings about the experiment as the
conclusion. Oh and remember to sign it! Well, thats all I have time
for today. If you have any questions, ask the lab assistant or come back
to me.
Narrator:
That is the end of section 3. You now have half a minute to check your answers.
[30 seconds]
Now turn to section 4.

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The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
Section 4

You will hear a lecture on climate change. First you have some time to look at questions
31 to 40.
[20 seconds]
Listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 40.

This lecture in Environmental Studies is on the topic of human influence on climate
change. First, Ill outline some of the factors affecting climate, then go on to discuss
what has already occurred, and finish up by speculating on the effects.

Previously, weve covered how factors such as ocean currents and prevailing winds
affect climate change naturally. However, the influence of human activity on climate is
what Ill talk about today. At first, the effect on the climate was relatively small; trees
were cut down to provide fuel for fires, and, as we know, trees absorb carbon dioxide
and produce oxygen so the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would have
increased but not noticeably.

So, in what ways has human activity really impacted on the climate? A major
contributor was the advent of the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18
th
century,
combined with the invention of the combustion engine. In addition, Earths burgeoning
population has had a marked effect on climate. The first two factors saw increased
amounts of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere from the burning of fossil
fuels, such as coal and oil. The final one, human expansion, has resulted in deforestation
on such a scale that the extra carbon dioxide in the air cannot be soaked up and
converted into oxygen by the remaining trees.

Okay so what has already happened? Well, global temperatures have risen by 0.6
degrees Celsius in the last 130 years. Levels of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous
oxide gases have escalated. Carbon dioxide concentrations have climbed by 30% and
methane levels have increased by 145% since the beginning of the Industrial
Revolution. Gas produced by fossil fuel extraction, livestock and paddy fields is
primarily responsible for the growth of methane levels. Nitrous oxide, or N2O, comes
from natural sources wet tropical forests, for instance but it is also produced by

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human-related activities such as agriculture, which uses synthetic nitrogen fertilisers,
rubbish disposal systems and vehicle emissions.

How do gases like carbon dioxide and methane affect the climate? Well, this is what we
call the Greenhouse Effect. Under normal conditions, the suns rays hit the earth and
some are reflected back into space. However, these gases (CO2 and methane) create a
barrier in the atmosphere which prevents a proportion of the suns rays from being
reflected back into space and, instead, the gases become trapped in the atmosphere.
Its simple really because the suns rays cant escape, the Earth heats up.

What are the possible effects? Firstly, a rise in sea levels: we already know that the
Arctic ice cap has melted and shrunk considerably and great chunks of ice have been
lost from Antarctica. In 1998, it was reported that 46 million people lived in areas at
risk of flooding and the number of people at risk will increase significantly if sea
levels rise. It is estimated that a rise of only 50 centimetres would put that number at 92
million. Further projections would see a rise of one metre put 118 million people in
danger of losing their homes and livelihoods not to mention the loss of prime, fertile
farmland. Experts predict a rise of at least 50 centimetres over the next 50 years or so.

Secondly, there would be a modification of vegetation zones with changes in the
boundaries between grassland, shrub land, forest and desert. This is already causing
famine in arid areas of north-eastern Africa, and has instigated and will continue to
instigate mass movements of people away from dry regions. What we are seeing now
is only the first stage, with temporary camps for climate refugees already at
overcapacity; in the future, there will be significant migration resulting in extreme
overcrowding of towns and cities.

Another potentially disastrous effect of climate change is an increase in the range and
distribution of pests which could bring about an increase in the prevalence of certain
diseases. If we think of the malaria-carrying mosquito, for example, which thrives in
warmer regions at the moment, about 45% of the worlds population is exposed to
malaria but with an increase in temperature, there will be many millions more cases of
malaria a year.


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The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
The last effect Im going to mention today is the change in ecosystems. Global warming
will influence species composition for both fauna and flora such that some animal
species will disappear and others will multiply; and itll be the same for plants and trees.
It is predicted that around two-thirds of the worlds forests will undergo major changes
of some kind. Scientists also expect deserts will become hotter and, of course,
desertification will continue at an increasingly worrying rate and will become harder, if
not impossible, to reverse.

What can we do to stop the process? Well, thats the subject of next weeks lecture so
I hope to see you all there.


Narrator:
That is the end of section 4. You now have half a minute to check your answers.
[30 seconds]
That is the end of the listening test. You now have 10 minutes to transfer your answers
to the listening answer sheet.



14
The British Council 2012. All rights reserved.
Answers
SECTION 1
1. Lynda
2. Unit 15 / Unit fifteen
3. 5577
4. night shift
5. swipe card
6. September 1975 / Sept 1975
7.&8. A
C (in either order)
8. fifteen dollars / $15 / 15
dollars
9. 60 minutes/sixty minutes/one
hour/1 hour

SECTION 2
10. B
11. A
12. A
13. B
14. C
15. 2 J uly / 2
nd
J uly
16. 9.15/nine fifteen am/a.m.
17. president
18. observation hut
19. 2/two pm/p.m.











SECTION 3
20. safety procedures/directions /
safety rules
21. eye protection / safety
glasses/goggles
22. clean-up / clean up / cleanup
23. naked flame
24. leather
25. C
26. B
27. C
29.&30. C
E (in either order)
SECTION 4
31. fuel
32. combustion engine
33. 145% / 145 per cent
34. agriculture
35. (a) barrier
36. 46 million
37. 118 million
38. vegetation zones
39. (certain) disease(s)
40. species composition

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ANSWERS
Each question correctly answered scores 1 mark. Correct spelling is needed in all answers.

Academic Reading practice paper 2

SECTION 1
1. viii
2. iii
3. vii
4. i
5. vi
6. ix
7. ii
8. cauliflower rosettes
9. periodic unsettling
10. milk sugars
11. liquefied yoghurt
12.&13.C
E (in either order)

SECTION 2
14. vi
15. ix
16. v
17. iv
18. x
19. ii
20. vii
21. iii
22. energy
23. subsistence needs
24. rural, impoverished /
rural/impoverished
25. pesticide use
26. protein deficiency
(syndrome)/kwashiorkor



SECTION 3
27. D
28. E
29. A
30. C
31. B
32. E
33. B
34. F
35. YES
36. YES
37. YES
38. NO
39. NOT GIVEN
40. NO

1
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ACADEMIC MODULE WRITING TASK 1 Model Answer

The bar chart shows how many tickets were sold to sports events, theme parks and
movies in 2009 and the table reveals ticket prices to various venues in the same year.
Going to the cinema was both the most popular and the cheapest form of
entertainment in 2009.

Cinemas attracted more people than theme parks and sports combined. Whilst
1,050,000 people attended movies, only a third of that number visited theme parks,
and a mere 150,000 went to sports games.

Movie tickets were far cheaper than other forms of entertainment. Attendance at a
football game in 2009 cost around $73, with little reduction for families. Basketball
and cricket games cost less, at $34 and $24 respectively for a single admission.
However, a family ticket to cricket, at $80, showed considerable savings. Theme
parks were only slightly less expensive than football matches at $70 a single, but there
was a significant reduction in the price of a family concession with four people
gaining entry for the price of three. Movie tickets at $15 for one, and $55 for four,
were the cheapest.

Overall, the cinema was the most affordable entertainment option.



190 words

2
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ACADEMIC MODULE WRITING TASK 2 Model Answer

Across the world there are many countries where people with advanced degrees are
struggling to find employment. I think this is because full-time employment is no
longer the cornerstone of modern economies. Universities need to re-structure study
options in order to keep abreast of this development.

People often declare that there is no work around anymore. In fact, there is plenty of
work. Casual, on-call, contract, part-time and temporary positions have proliferated in
recent years. What is much rarer now is permanent employment, meaning positions
with a long-term contract, benefits, stability, internal promotion and skills
development organised by employers.

The problem is that the university education system was designed for an employment-
centred economy. People would dedicate anything from five to seven years to diligent
study in order to get a guaranteed career at the end of it. There is no guarantee
anymore.

The solution is for university education to accommodate new working arrangements.
Study options need to be broken down into shorter booster qualifications taken on
an as-needed basis with more part-time, evening and distance options. A more
realistic scenario now is for workers to balance two separate income streams while
studying on the side perhaps for the length of their working life rather than
studying full-time for six years and then working full-time until retirement.

The post-employment economy is only a problem for people who are not prepared for
it. Unfortunately many of these people are highly-qualified graduates who are the
product of an antiquated education system. Revamping university study should
resolve this issue.

255words