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RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
advances of Itussia. Showing successive J.v'ulmuA'Xiiryorti^ Sorptr i,-"roaizrt. i^jiU/anari* Strttt
advances
of Itussia.
Showing
successive
J.v'ulmuA'Xiiryorti^
Sorptr i,-"roaizrt.
i^jiU/anari*
Strttt
W. C
K S.V*IUr.FJL"
S. bV
RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA THE STRUGGLE FOR ASIA RV^'^COLQUHOUN ARCHIBALD GOLD MEDALLIST, ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
THE
STRUGGLE
FOR
ASIA
RV^'^COLQUHOUN
ARCHIBALD
GOLD
MEDALLIST,
ROYAL
GEOGRAPHICAL
SOCIETY;
FORMERLY
DEPUTY
COMMISSIONER,
BURMA;
FIRST
ADMINISTRATOR
OF
MASHONALAND^
AND
SPECIAL
CORRESPON-DENT
"times"
"ACROSS
OF
THE
IN
THE
FAR
EAST;
AUTHOR
OF
CHRYSfi," "china
in TRANSFORMATION,"
ETC.
WITH
SPECIAL
MAPS
LONDON
NEW
YORK
AND
HARPER
"
BROTHERS
4S, ALBEMARLE
STREET,
W.
1900
T
P '^ ^\Lkj X)^ B^ A) 5^1 to
P
'^
^\Lkj
X)^
B^
A)
5^1
to
PREFACE This little work is intended bring before to the Anglo-Saxon public question of vital
PREFACE
This
little
work
is intended
bring
before
to
the Anglo-Saxon
public
question of
vital
a
importance.
It
is
sucb
a complicated
and
not
difficult
question as
is generally supposed, nor
is
it
that
be
shelved
for
settlement
one
can
by
future
generation.
"
The
in
the
a
man
street"
is nowadays
a powerful
factor
in
the
facing and
solution
of political situations,
and
it
is
for
him
that
this
book
has
been
written,
and
not
for
the
few
the
Central
experts
on
Asian
question who
have
already arrived
at
fixed
conclusions.
The
writer
makes
claim
no
to presenting
exhaustive
study
of
the
sub-ject,
an
but
hopes
that
his
sketch
of
things, as
they
in reality "
sketch
from
the
life,
are
a
and
from
official descriptions "
will
not
arouse
sufficient
interest
induce
others
make
to
to
a
study for themselves,
and
decide
in
their
own
vi PREFACE the minds whether it is desirable that or no Anglo-Saxon race should be
vi
PREFACE
the
minds
whether
it is desirable that
or
no
Anglo-Saxon race
should
be worsted
in
the
" struggle for Asia."
There
who
ridicule
the
idea
of
are
many
such
impending struggle. Do they base
an
their confidence
the pacific intentions
of
on
nations
Eussia, or on the impregnability of all other
she is likely to dispute the
with whom
possession of Asia ?
In either
case
of
the past throws
a significantlight on the
possibilities of
the
future.
The
advance
of
Eussia " "creeping on
bit by bit" "
is, in this
little book, viewed
a whole, and
the
as
connec-tion
between
the transformation
of the Far
East,
especially of China, and the Eussian
advance
towards
India through Central Asia, is shown
to be intimate.
With
British interests in India
are
bound
the interests
of
the
whole
Anglo-
up
Saxon
and
indeed
of the
Latin
race,
of many
well.
That
these interests are
in
real
races
as
jeopardy the writer has endeavoured
to
make
quite plain. It is possible that
the whole
question may
not
to
head
come
a
during the

the history

closely

PREFACE vii next few but are not bound years, we to ensure, far as after
PREFACE
vii
next
few
but are
not bound
years,
we
to ensure,
far as
after us
as
possible, for those that come
the prestige our
fathers bequeathed us?
At
the
time, when we take a bird's-eye view
same
of
the
of Kussia
since the
time
of
progress
Peter
the Great, when
look
at
the
we
maps
of Eussia
then
and
of
now
or
even
"
the maps
sixty years
of security even
not
feel so
certain
ago "
we
may
times.
in our
own
The
at
bold and prudent, which alone would, in
once
his opinion, meet
the exigencies of the situation.
But
such
no
policy is likely to be initiated
unless the People "
who
Governments
govern
"
instruct
themselves, become
interested, and
demand
that
be
taken
measures
the prestige of the Anglo-Saxon in Asia.
It is a
of educating our masters.
case
The
writer
works, to
those
of
amongst other
Eugene Schuyler,Hugo Stumm, Thorburn, and
author
of "The
March
towards
the anonymous
India."
A.
E.
C.

writer has given the outlines of a policy,

to safeguard

desires to acknowledge his in-debted

CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. HiSTOBIOAL iNTBOBtrCTION 1 II. Historical Inteoduction continued 30 " . .
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
PAGE
I.
HiSTOBIOAL
iNTBOBtrCTION
1
II.
Historical
Inteoduction
continued
30
"
.
.
III.
Central
Asia
Country
People
and
55
"
.
.
IV.
Central
Asia
Country
People
and
"
"
continued
80
V.
Central
Asia
Country
People
and
"
"
contintced
101
VI. The
British
Eulb
India
in
126
VII.
Afghanistan
Persia
and
150
VIII.
Eussii
Central
Asia
m
183
IX.
The
Defence
India
of
202
Appendix
231
RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA THE STRUGGLE FOR ASIA CHAPTER I HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION Russia, at the time
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
THE
STRUGGLE
FOR
ASIA
CHAPTER
I
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
Russia,
at
the
time
of Henry
III. in England,
four
centuries
before
the
first
settlers
some
landed
from
the Mayflower
in the
United
States,
in
state
of great disorder, split up
into
was
a
a
number
of petty principalities, and devastated
by
Mongol
invasions
which
lasted
until
the
end
of the
fourteenth
The
Russian
century.
princes were
mere
the Khans
tax-gatherers, actually forced to pay homage
given
of the
Golden
Horde
to
a
name
"
to
those
Mongols who
had
settled
the banks
on
of the
Volga, on
it is said, of the
account,
splen-dour
of their
tents
and appointments.
Obliged
to
submit
their
disputes to the
princes could
decision
of
the
Khan,
the Russian
not
ascend
even
B
RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA 2 their thrones without first receiving " Jarlikh/' or letters patent, from
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
2
their thrones without
first receiving "
Jarlikh/'
or letters patent, from their Mongol suzerain.
By
degrees, however, the Mongol power
waned while that of Moscow increased,until, in
the reign of Ivan III., who succeeded his father,
Vassili the Blind, in 1463, the Muscovites were
able to throw off all semblance
of obedience
to the
Horde.
In
1478
Ivan
refused
to
tribute,
pay
trampled on
the
image of the Khan,
and
put
to death.
The Mongol marched, with
his envoys
a largefollowing, to avenge this insult, and was
met
by Ivan.
The
two
armies
faced each other
either side of the river Oka, but
did not
on
come
to close quarters, as neither seems
to
have
had
the pluck to attack.
They contented
themselves
with an occasional discharge of arrows
and
more
frequentvoUeys of abuse, and when
of the river made
a rencontre
both sides were
seized with panic, and ran
away.
The degeneration of the Mongol had, as this
incident shows, already made
great strides, and
from
this time the Golden
Horde rapidly lost its
ascendency. Ere long,indeed, the Grand Prince
of Moscow
turned
the tables on
his old suzerain,
and both Sarai and Kazan, the headquartersof
the
two
chief Mongol tribes in Russia, were

the freezing

almost inevitable,

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 3 forced to allegiance to Moscow while swear ; the Khan of the
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
3
forced to
allegiance to Moscow
while
swear
;
the
Khan
of
the
Crimea, where
third tribe
a
had settled, became
ally of the Grand
a
sworn
Prince.
About
1499 the Eussians
made
a small
raid across
the Urals, unimportant in itself, but
interesting as their first advance into Asia.
Ivan
III. had many
successes
and, becoming over-lord of a large number of
the other States, laid the foundations
of, and
commenced
the work
of consolidating,
the Eussian
empire.
The
grandson of this prince was
Ivan
the
Terrible, the first to assume
the title of " Tsar,"
who became extremelypowerful, and was sought
in alliance by ambassadors from Eastern countries.
In his time Kazan
and Astrakan
were
annexed,
and the Strogonofis made
their
colonizing ex-peditions
towards
the Urals.
The
first serious (
\
expedition of Eussia
into Central
Asia
was
undertaken
at the
end
of the sixteenth
century
by the Kassak
(Cossack)tribe, under their cele-brated
chief, Yermak.
These Cossacks were,
as
their name
implies,merely a tribe of outlaws
\
and freebooters, who
called
themselves
"The
Good
Companions of the Don
; " but the Tsar, in
order
to
turn
their energies to good purpose,

in the battle-field,

RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA 4 offered them a free pardon if they would assist him against
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
4
offered them a free pardon if they would
assist
him against the wild tribes on
the
other side
of
the mountains, found
their way
to the Caspian
Sea, where they occupied themselves with piracy
and with plundering the Persian colonies.
They
were, later, also successful in their engagements
with the Trans-Ural
nomad
tribes, whom
they
completelydefeated,taking possession of Sibir,
the capital of Kuchum
(a lineal descendant
of
Genghiz Khan), and so giving Eussia her first
foothold
in Asia.*
Such
the
birth
of
was
Eussian
in
the
territory since
known
power
to the world
enormous
as Siberia,
Early in the seventeenth
century, some
of the
Cossacks
who
had
crossed
the Urals
brought
back wonderful
tales of riches in
the
oasis of
Khiva, and
a troop started thither to explore,
takingonly such baggage as their horses could
At first they were
successful, capturing
carry.
and looting one
of the principal towns
and
annexing a thousand
of
the
youngest and
prettiest women
for their household
require-ments
; but, encumbered
with too' much
heavy
baggage,they were
caught and surrounded
by
* An account
of this is given in " Overland to Cliina."

the Urals. They accepted the offer,and, crossing

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 5 the Khivans, who shut them oflf from water. They fought desperately,drinking the
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
5
the Khivans, who
shut
them
oflf from
water.
They fought desperately,drinking the blood of
the
slain to
quench their thirst ; but though a
hundred
of
them
cut
their way
through and
managed to conceal themselves
for a
time, all
eventuallyperished. Two other campaigns were
equally unsuccessful ; while the third, which was
ostensiblya peaceful mission from Peter the
Great
to
the
Khan,
ended
in the treacherous
murder
of the Russian
and
all his men
envoy
"
a Khivan
St. Bartholomew's
Day.
In the earlypart of the seventeenth
century,
relations were
established with Bokhara, and it
is interesting to
note
that the Russian
ambassa-dors
insisted on
being treated with the greatest
They had
"
intention
ceremony.
no
their nation
to
be
treated
with
excellent method
in dealing with
" an
Asiatics, and one which has been of much
service
to Russia in her advance into the heart of Asia.
China meanwhile
viewed
the progress of Russia
into Asia with distrust, and destroyed the first
strongholds which
the Russians, taking advan-tage
of a dispute between the Chinese and one
of
the neighbouring tribes, had built on the Amur.
A treaty was
concluded
later, in 1689, which

of per-mitting

dis-respect"

6 RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA ousted the Russians altogether from the Amur, and barred their progress
6
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
ousted the Russians altogether from the Amur,
and barred their progress towards the Pacific.
The first attempt made
by England to trade
with
founded
Russia
in
1553, when
was
was
what
known
the British Muscovy Com-pany.
was
as
Attempts were
also made, without
much
trade
of Central
to
with
the Khanates
success,
Asia through Russia, but the time was
not
yet
the
Jenkinson, flew the first British
flag on
Caspian Sea and actually reached
Bokhara, no
regular communication
with
Central Asia could
be established.
Owing to their ignorance of
geography.Englishmen thought that the only
India " the fabulouslywealthy
to
reach
way
" Kingdom of the Great Mogul " " was through
the Tsar's dominions, and it is curious
to reflect
that
the
State
to which
England looked
very
to
aff'ord a means
of communication
with India
is,now
that
she has built up an
Eastern empire for
herself, her
most dangerous and powerful rival.
Peter the Great, who
to
the
throne
in
came
1689, adopted the vigorouspolicy of expansion
which
has
since ceased
to animate
his
never
nation.
UntU early in the eighteenth century
he
occupied on the European frontiers of
was

ripe; and though an intrepidEnglish sailor,

8 RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA and that road to India interfere on no one can "with
8
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
and
that road
to India
interfere
on
no
one
can
"with us."
Peter
died
in
death
1725, and
after
his
Eussian
affairs in Asia were
time
less
for some
successfully conducted.
The
document
known
the
"Will
of Peter
the Great"
almost
as
was
certainlyapocryphal, and not improbably written
at the instigation of Napoleon I. It sets forth
a policy,however, virtuallyamounting to the
conquest of Asia
and, through Asia, of
the
world.*
have, since the time of Peter the Great,steadUy
pursued a course
set forth
in this document.
Towards
the
end
of the eighteenth century, in the reign of the
Empress Catherine
II., a scheme
contem-plated,
was
the first of its kind, for invading India
through the Khanates
of Central
Asia "
a scheme
which was, however, never
carried into effect.
For
the
rest
of
the
century Eussia
was
occupied with her European conquests.
The
annexation
of the
Crimea
in 1775
marked
was
by a
merciless
slaughter of 30,000 Tartars
of
either sex
and
every age.
Georgia,which
* See Appendix.

It expresses, in fact, the true aspirations

of the Eussian nation, and Eussian diplomatists

in keeping with the principles

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 9 had been shuttlecock between Persia and a Eussia for time, became the
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
9
had
been
shuttlecock
between
Persia
and
a
Eussia
for
time, became
the vassal
of
some
the
latter in 1800.
A
year later the Emperor
Paul, infatuated with Napoleon, agreed to a
project for the joint invasion of India by France
and Eussia.
The orders had already been given
to the commander,
and
of Cossacks had
an
started, when
the death
army
of the Tsar
put an
end
to the scheme.
His successor, Alexander
I., did
not
the project, but he continued
the
pursue
struggle to extend
his dominions
into Central
Asia, and
a long conflict with Persia ensued, in
which
the fate of Georgia and other Caucasian
provinces was
disputed without
decided
any
advantage to either side.
Napoleon,having defeated Austria and Eussia
at Austerlitz
in 1805,
tried to undermine
the
interests of Eussia in Asia by seeking an alliance
with
Persia; but
a
treaty had
already been
concluded
with
Britain, and the policy of the
Shah
to keep both French
and Eussians
at
was
bay,looking to Great Britain for aid, in return
for which
he
to prevent the Afghans from
was
invading India,
In 1807, however, finding that
Great
Britain would
not
afford him
the
aid
he
wanted, the
Shah
concluded
a
treaty with
RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA lo Napoleon ; and, when the Peace of Tilsit put an end
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
lo
Napoleon ; and, when
the Peace
of Tilsit put an
end
France and Kussia, Alex-ander
to the war
between
and Napoleon concocted
another scheme
they counted
for the invasion of India, in which
Persia
the French
had
ally. But
upon
as
an
overreached themselves, and the British envoy.
Sir Harford Jones, succeeded in persuading the
Shah
that
the true
of Persia must
always
enemy
be Russia, and her friends those who
are against
that Power. As the Tsar had just declared war
with France, and as Persia had, despitepromises,
reaped no advantages from her French alliance,
this diplomacy was
successful, and an Anglo -
Persian treaty was
again concluded.
Sir Harford
Jones
have
been
" the
first British
to
appears
statesman
to realize that the greatest external
danger which threatened
British India
to
was
be found, not in French intrigues at Teheran,
in the possibility of invasion by Afghan
nor
hordes, but in the steady and insidious encroach-ments
of Russia beyond her European frontiers."
The
close of the year
1814
found
Persia, though
of her fairest provinces had been ceded to
some
Russia, at peace with that nation
and in alliance
with Great Britain, the latter Power
to
defend
her
in
a
war
with any European

undertaking

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION ii nation, unless she herself were the aggressor. Eussia, however, by her threatening
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
ii
nation, unless she herself were
the aggressor.
Eussia, however, by her threatening attitude
the Persian
frontier, which
had
been
on
not
accuratelydefined, provoked the Persians to
declare war, and, when applied to for help, the
British Government
elected to abide by the letter
than
risk
with
of the treaty rather
a
war
a
European nation.
Persia lost stUl more
provinces to Eussia.
When
concluded, Eussia turned her attention
peace was
to Turkey, and conducted
a successful campaign
which
enabled
her
to round
south
of
the
Caucasus.
She
then
undermine
British
influence
in
the
court
of
Teheran, and
to
stir up Persia
to
make
attacks
on Afghanistan. Mr. McNeill, the British envoy
and afterwards ambassador, was
not
able
to
in
Great
Britain, being bound
by
his power.
the terms
of
the
former
unable
treaty, was
to
urged the Persians
the purpose of shielding India from an Afghan
a
repeat that invasion, not in defence of British

In the subsequent struggle

off her possessions began to

prevent a campaign,although he did everything

interfere, and the English, who had formerly

to attack Afghanistan (for

invasion), now had the mortification of seeing

Persian army (largely drilled by British ofl"cers)

RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA 12 interests, but to further the designs of Eussia upon the British
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
12
interests, but to further the designs of Eussia upon
the British Empire in India. The first British-
Afghan war
took place in 1839, resulting in the
occupation of the chief cities by British troops.
Eussia
began a policy of slow but syste-matic
now
advance
in Central Asia.
In the winter
of
1839 an expedition,starting from Orenburg, was
led by General Perovski, ostensibly to obtain the
release of Eussian prisoners in Khiva, and to
redress the injuries inflicted by the wild tribes
was to obtain paramount influence over
Afghan-istan,
and
to
oust
the British.
That winter,
however, proved to be one
of almost
unprece-dented
rigour in Central Asia, and after horrible
sufferings, entailed by the effort to march in
blinding storms with snow almost waist high, the
troops returned to Orenburg,leaving more
than
a thousand dead, and bringing 609 sick to be
convinced
the Khivans
that Eussia was
in earnest,
and
to avert
another campaign, the Khan
made
overtures, and
sent
prisoners, but it
back many
not till 1842
was
that a treaty was
concluded.
The Khanate
of Khiva
oasis,
is a long,narrow
including both banks
of
the
Amu
Daria, and

on the borders of Eussia ; in reality, the objec't

lodged in hospital. This expedition,nevertheless,

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 13 extending from tlie frontier of Bokhara to the southern shore of the
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
13
extending from
tlie frontier of Bokhara
to
the
southern
shore
of the Sea of Aral.
The city of
Khiva
is the
exact
centre
of the Khanate.
A
girdle of absolute desert, in area exceeding the
with
a radius
of over
fiftymiles, encircles
Khiva on every side, in many placesattaining a
width of from fifty-five to
sixty miles. This
girdle was
surrounded
from the south-west round
to the north-east by Russian territory, Russian
forts, and Russian troops. The south and south-east
bordered by Persia, Afghanistan, and
were
Bokhara, and
could only be of importance if
these states abandoned
their neutrality.
Khiva
of the
most
sacred cities of
was
one
would
remain
from foreignaggression "
secure
interpreted as
Russian "
untU
the waters
of the
Amu
Daria, returning to the old bed which they
had deserted, should once more wash against the
walls
of Kane
lies north
Urgench (the old capital, which
of Khiva). In 1839
the river
is said
to have
risen to
such
extent
that its waters
an
reached the ancient
whose superstition is
notorious, felt the hour for
Russia
had
come.

territories of Germany, France, and Italy to-gether,

Central Asia, and, according to an old saying,

city, and the inhabitants,

RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA 14 From Eussia invariably marked her line of advance with forts, which
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
14
From
Eussia
invariably marked
her
line of advance
with
forts, which
further
south and
east.
These
gradually extended
occupied by Cos-sacks,
were
who
able
to combine
were
with militarypursuits, and
mitigate the grave
thus
to
certain
a
extent
These Cossacks were
able to hold
the
forts againstoverwhelming odds.
The
disasters
which
befell the British
in
Afghanistanduring the years 1841-42
brought
about
a marked
difference
in
the
attitude
of
Eussia
towards the Khanates, and the misfortunes
of the British quite dwarfed
those of Perovski,
which
had
created so
powerful an
impression
throughout Eussia.
These disasters began with
the
attempt of Dost
Mohammed
to regain his
throne, from
which
Britain had deposed him.
This attempt was
unsuccessful,but the people
were discontented, and the Suddozai Shah, the
British nominee, was unpopular. The disafiiection
grew, unchecked
action on
by any
prompt
the
part of the British, until it culminated
in
the
murder
at Kabul
and
the British envoy.
of Sir Alexander
Sir William
Burnes
Macnaghten.
Matters
then went
rapidly from bad to worse,

tlie time of her first steps in expansion,

agricultural

difficulties of pro-visionin

i6 RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA Persia had forfeited the right to keep war- vessels this sea,
i6
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
Persia had forfeited the right to keep war- vessels
this sea, but Eussia
hampered by no such
on
was
restriction.
She
the
naval
sent
ships from
of Ashurada
(at the mouth
of the Gulf
of Astra-
held, and
has
since
for aid, this place was
ever
remained
the
property of the Tsar.
This, one
affords her one
of the
most
positions in Central Asia.
The Kirghiz, who were
nominally the vassals
of Eussia, now
gave her an excellent pretext for
pushing the line of forts further south.
They
had
abandoned
their predatoryhabits, and
never
frequently attacked
the
caravans
which passed
across
their steppes. At the beginning of the
century Eussia adopted more
stringent measures,
and large bodies of Cossacks were
sent
to subdue
them. During the first half of the century the
line of forts had
been
thrown
out till it almost
enclosed a largeportion of the Kirghiz steppe,
but a considerable
left between Fort
gap
was
Eaim, on the Aral Sea, and Kopal. To connect

station on the island of Sari, and took possession

'^ad), which she proceeded to fortify.Despite the protests of Persia, who appealed to England

of Russia's bloodless conquests,acquiredsimply by a cool,high-handed, and unscrupulouspolicy,

valuable strategical

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 17 these was the aim of the Kussian Grovern- now ment, and, as
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
17
these was
the aim
of the Kussian
Grovern-
now
ment, and, as a preliminary, an
expedition was
sent
up the Syr Daria
with the object of found-ing
a fort there. The Khokandians
viewed these
advances with much
uneasiness, and resisted to
the best of
their power.
" in 1852, and again in the following year "
and finallycaptured. Several attempts were
made to regain it, and great numbers
of
Khokandians
killed, but
it remained
in
the
hands
of the Russians.
advance was
made
in the east, from Kopal,
an
and
the
ofiered was
that the Kirghiz
excuse
Kazaks
must
be defended from their wild kins-men,
the Kara Kirghiz, who inhabited the moun-tainous
districts. Either
the Kirghiz must
themselves be brought to order,or they must be
protected; in either case the paternal Govern-ment
must
send a largebody of troops, and the
ascendency of the White
Tsar thoroughly estab-lished.
Acting on
Peter the Great's saying,
"
The Kirghiz are a roaming and fickle people,
but their country is the key and gate to all the
lands of Central Asia," the Russians have always
used them
to the great end they have
as
a
means
c

Ak-Meehet, the im-portant

fortress of Khokand, was twice besieged

Almost simultaneously

i8 AGAINST INDIA RUSSIA in view. As, however, the whole country of the Kirghiz is
i8
AGAINST
INDIA
RUSSIA
in view.
As, however, the whole country of the
Kirghiz is now
under Russian
rule, excuses
are
no longer needed.
of India
In 1854
a scheme
for the invasion
to
the
Tsar, to whom
pointed out that
it was
by which
Eussia
might
there were
five routes
proceed, and that if the friendship of Afghan-istan
in particular could be gained, the path to
victory would
effect the object of withdrawing the
be
This
invasion would
easy.
further
whole
attention
of Great
Britain from
the war
The
victories of the
justbegun in the Crimea.
allied armies of England and France
made
at
the
time
that this would
were
be a good occasion
for the British to emulate
the
policy of Russia herself,by advancing into
Central Asia and driving her back, yet nothing
of the sort
attempted.
was
A few
later, in
18 57, two
embassies
years
came
to St. Petersburg from Khiva and Bokhara,
both
asking for the friendship of the
Count Ignatieff was accordingly entrusted with
Tsar.
thither by way
of Khiva, in order
to conclude

a mission to Bokhara, with directions to proceed

was preparedby General Duhamel, and presented

prevented

the realization of this scheme ; and though sug-gestions

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 19 a treaty with the Khan to navigate the Amu Daria and examine
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
19
a treaty with the Khan
to navigate the Amu
Daria
and
examine
the
ancient river-bed
of the
Oxus.
Unsuccessful in
Khiva, he was
well received in Bokhara.
At
the
time three different parties were
engaged
same
in exploringrespectively the country between the
Urals and the Caspian, that beyond Lake Balkash
and the Thian Shan range, and Kashgaria. Valu-able
information
regarding Eastern
Turkestan
obtained, and a largeportion of the country
was
surrounding the Caspian was mapped out.
An
important mission
under
Khanikoff
Khorassan, starting in 1858, and, travelling from
Astrabad
to Herat, returned
to Teheran.
At
Herat Khanikoff set afoot intriguesagainstEng-land,
then in the throes of the Indian Mutiny, but
his attempt at diplomacy was
not successful.
So far, the Russians had not yet completed the
connection
of their chain
of forts; but
in
1859
the Khokandian
stronghold of Julek, on the
Syr Daria, was
captured, and in 1861
rebuilt
under
of Fort Perovski.
The Khokan-
the name
dians mustered
but
a large army,
were
routed
; and
their defeat was
followed
in 1864
by the loss of Hazret-i-Turkestan.
Here
the
Eussian
columns
joined hands, and were
two

and obtain permission

explored

utterly

RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA 20 combined under Tchernaieff. Chimkent, the most advanced Khokandian fortress, still
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
20
combined
under Tchernaieff. Chimkent, the most
advanced
Khokandian
fortress, still remained
intact, and was
garrisoned with 10,000 men.
It
asserted that
so large an
armed
body
was
could
not
be allowed
exist
in
such
close
to
frontier, and accord-ingly,
proximity to the Eussian
in October, 1864, Chimkent
seized by
was
of a daring coup.
This laid the road
means
open
to Tashkent, the capital, an opportunity of which
TchernaieiF was
not slow to avail himself.
After
struggle, Tashkent
surrendered
in June,
a
severe
1865, and the fate of Khokand
was finally sealed.
These
campaigns did not seem
to
excite much
Law-rence,
apprehension in Great Britain, and Lord
than
the
wild
tribes of
Central
Asia."
Nevertheless, the Eussian
Chancellor, Prince
and intentions
of his country to
the world
at large, and accordingly issued the now
famous
circular of November
the Asiatic policy of Eussia, and utterly denied
in Central Asia.*
* See Appendix.

then Viceroy of India,was inculcating the doctrine that " Russia might prove a safer neigh-bour

Gortchakoff, felt it necessary to explain the posi-tion

21, 1864, which explained

her intention of acquiring any farther depen-dencies

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 21 Seid Mosaffer, the Amir of Bokhara in 1865, of Tamerlane, and regarded
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
21
Seid Mosaffer, the Amir
of Bokhara
in 1865,
of Tamerlane, and regarded him-self
was
a successor
as the suzerain
of all the Khanates
and
the
defender of the Mohammedan
faith.
He sought
to
make
capital out of the internal dissensions
and established
Khan.
General
Tcher-
a
new
naieff sent an
embassy to him under Colonel von
Struve, which, though well received, was
not
permitted to depart, but was
kept in confine-ment
for
six
months
until, indeed, serious
"
to
the
of Bokhara
had somewhat
reverses
arms
frightened the Amir.
despatch to General Eomanovski, expressing the
He
then
addressed
a
"
sincere wish
" to
live at
with
Eussia
peace
;
but, at the same
time, he
was activelyengaged
in preparations for another campaign, which
assumed largeproportions,being proclaimedby
the fanatical moUahs
as a sacred war
of vengeance.
This war
terminated
by the siege of Samar-kand,
was
which
taken
by Eussia
and
held
was
despite the most
determined
assaults.
The
defenders retired to the citadel, the town
been betrayedby some
and
had
hardly time
to
close the
gates ; here

of Khokand, took several of the principalcities,

having

of the native inhabitants,

they managed to hold out " althoughprovisions

22 RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA and ammunition short and 200 ran men killed " until relieved
22
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
and
ammunition
short
and
200
ran
men
killed "
until relieved by tlie rest
of the
were
of
the
Eussian
army.
assurances
ambassador
Despite the
in England that the
Tsar
did
not
intend
to
retain
this city, it was
again
never
ceded
to
the Amir.
Seid Mosaffer
was
by his
that
he
wished
to
reverses
abdicate
and
a pilgrimage to Mecca, but
go
on
it
should
have
was
important that Bokhara
a
ruler who
fully realized the power
of Eussia.
It
also considered
politic to
have
was
more
a
responsiblesatrap to rule over
the Tsar's southern
and
protectorate than to waste
men
money
on
a complete military occupation. The
Amir,
therefore,was
politelyrequested to resume
his
throne, and, nominally independent, became the
obedient vassal of Eussia.
followed
The subjugation of Bokhara
was
the Steppe Commission, which
by
published an
ukase
in 1867 announcing the formation
of the
province of Turkestan, to include
the whole
of
the recentlyacquired territories,with
at Tashkent, and ruled by a Governor-
General appointed at St. Petersburg.
The British Government
became
alarmed
now
at
the
advance
of Eussia, and
the
idea
of
a

so dis-hearten

head-quarters

RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA 24 conditions on whicli Russia had promised to give back Kuldja, and
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
24
conditions on whicli Russia had promised to give
back Kuldja, and promptly demanded
its ren-dition.
After
much
negotiation, the demand
partially acceded
to, but
the complete
was
evacuation
did not take place till 1883.
The occupation of Krasnovodsk
on the Caspian
Sea, in 1869, gave Eussia
a position from which
she could exercise a threatening influence on the
borders of the Herat province, and serious appre-hensions
also felt at Khiva.
The Eussian
were
Government, however, announced
that Krasno-vodsk
merely to be used
as a factory^ and
was
not for strategical purposes.
The entire eastern
destitute of vegetation, while the interior,as far
as the oasis of Khiva, has no settled inhabitants.
Tribes of Kirghiz and Turkomans
but the district barely afibrds sufficient
nourishment
for their hardy horses and
even
camels. The country between the Amu and
Syi Daria is equallybarren, and the few nomads
settled on the Eussian frontier, in the Orenburg
Government, are sometimes, like birds of passage,
seized with
the
old wandering instinct,and
" trek " to the
plains of Western
Siberia,so rich
to the Southern
Ural steppes, or to
in grass, or

coast of the Caspian Sea is, with a few exceptions,

visit it periodi-cally,

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 25 the the Ust Urt, which lies between the Caspian and Sea of
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
25
the
the
Ust Urt, which lies between the Caspian and
Sea of Aral.
Khiva
the door
of all commercial
was
routes
to the centre
of Asia, but the lesson learnt from
previousdiplomacy and campaigns was that this
door
would
never
but
only to force.
It
felt that
the
was
base for successful operationsagainst Khiva was
the CaspianSea, and a line of forts was
planned
the east coast.
Krasnovodsk
to become
on
was
a considerable port, and energetic measures
were
adopted towards
the neighbouring Yomud
and
Tekk^
tribes. Warfare
with these people was
carried on under difficulties, for they deserted
their forts at
the
and
approach of the enemy
carried
off all their
goods and
chattels.
The
future hero
of Plevna, then
Colonel
accompanied by three Cossacks, disguised as
Usbek merchants, succeeded in penetratingright
into the cultivated
oasis of Khiva
parts of the
;
and, passingsafelythrough the hostile
nomads
who
kept their flocks there, returned
to Tiflis
without
misadventure, and added much
to
the
scanty knowledge hitherto possessed of these
regions.
following year an
The
expedition under

open to peacefulnegotia-tions,

Skobeleff,

26 RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA Markasoff reached the the Amu same spot on Daria, and supplied
26
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
Markasoff reached
the
the
Amu
same
spot on
Daria, and supplied valuable information
to
as
Thanks to Skobeleflf, they were able to arrange
their halts so as to strike the principal weUs,
which are sometimes
very bitter, but can
be used
The Khivan
for cooking purposes.
desert,con-sisting
of
hot, dry, and
yielding sand, was
trying to march
through, but they had
the
From
the
advantage of a cool wind.
spot men-tioned,
Sari Kamish, on
the dried-up watercourse
of
the
river Oxus, Markasoff
made
a
recon-naissance,
and, coming across
fresh-water
some
pools in
the ancient
river-bed,was
able
to
verify Skobeleff's visit there in a curious
way.
Close to one
of the
wells
he picked up
silver
a
teaspoon with
that officer's initials, which
had
been dropped there a year before.
On the return
re-collected his forces, which he had disposed in
small forts along his route.
All
the wells
of
the Khivan desert have names,
many
to
event
in their history. One
at which
some
Markasoff
halted was
called Topiatan,or " the
well to which
has been dragged," tradi-tion
cannon
relating that a Khivan
chief once
time
on
a

the country through which they had passed.

march towards Krasnovodsk, Markasoff gradually

relating

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 27 dragged a to the gun this very spot, with No trace, purpose
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
27
dragged a
to
the
gun
this very
spot, with
No
trace,
purpose
of resisting the Eussians.
however, of this murderous
Asiatic weapon
now
remains.
During the retreat, Markasoflf had a
miraculous
at
escape
one
for the camp
besieged on
all sides, and the
was
Turkomans
a desperateattempt to kill
him, even bursting into his tent and killing his
guards. Luckily for himself, the general was
made
away visiting the outposts, and the Turkomans
had to retire without
In 1872-73
Markasoff
conducted
a campaign
ultimate
against the Tekkes, with Khiva
as
an
goal. The Tekkds were
a martial
and
had
race,
buUt
a number
of
small
mud
fortresses, very
primitive works
indeed, which were, however,
deemed
impregnableby the neighbouring tribes.
They were
simply squares composed of mud
walls, without fortifications, the MbitJcas,or tents,
being ranged both inside and around the fortress.
Though essentially nomad in character and
are fond of agriculture, and
habits, the Tekkes
notwithstanding that the country is badly
watered, they grow vegetables,grain, and cotton
in the neighbourhood of their dwellings. The
simple plan of warfare
Tekkes
adopted a very

of the halting-places

accomplishing their object.

28 RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA on the approach of MarkasofF " they burnt their kibitkas and
28
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
on the approach of MarkasofF " they burnt their
kibitkas and fled. Eyentually, however, they
defeated at
came
to close quarters and
were
Dshmala, after which
they sent
embassy to
an
MarkasoiF to assure
him of their friendship, and
to
ask
for the
release
of the
prisoners in the
hands of the Eussians.
for their hostile attitude that they had
excuse
supposed Eussian
soldiers to
be
better than
no
Persians.
Markasoff wishing,according to the
Eussian
account, to propitiate them
" by kind-ness,"
up the prisoners; but as
these would
gave
have
been a hindrance
to him
the march, and
on
would have
consumed
water, which
was
scarce,
there would
to have
been
a certain
motive
seem
of policy in his action.
Markasoff
asked
for a
tribute
of
300
camels, which, by the way,
he
succeeded
in getting. His
never
for surveying the country, was
not
destined
to
reach
Khiva.
The
Turkomans
attacked
him
persistently, and
he thought it wiser
to
retire.
The Eussian Government, however,by no means
abandoned
the idea, and an elaborate campaign
from different points upon Khiva.
All but
that

was arrangedby which five columns converged

They made the original

column, al-though

useful as affording valuable opportunities

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 29 under the command of Markasoff reached their destination; and in June, 1873,
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
29
under
the
command
of
Markasoff
reached
their
destination;
and
in
June,
1873,
Khiva
capitu-lated
General
to
Kauffmann,
and
the
Khan,
although
permitted
to
retain
his
throne,
became
the
of
Kussia.
The
Tekk^
tribes
puppet
mere
continued
to
give
considerable
trouble,
and
another
unsuccessful
expedition
conducted
was
against
them
in
1879
but
it
until
not
1881
was
;
that
the
Russian
under
Skobeleflf
troops
were
able
to entirely
subdue
them.
CHAPTER II Continued HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION " It be said with truth, that kingdom, may every
CHAPTER
II
Continued
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
"
It
be
said with
truth,
that
kingdom,
may
every
principality, or tribe
to
which
Russia
has
ex-tended
" protection," has eventually been
appro-priated
into
the
Muscovite
Empire.
In Europe
she
has
gradually
acquired
Finland,
Livonia,
Lithuania,
a large portion
of Poland,
Bessarabia,
and
other
territories.
Finding, however,
that
further
extension
in
Europe
is impracticable,
unless, indeed,
at
immense
sacrifice
of
life
and
she
has
turned
her
atten-tion
money,
for many
years
to
the
field
of
Central
Asia,
more
open
where,
policy similar
to
that
a
pursued
carrying out
in Europe,
through
she
has
by degrees pushed
her
tribe
after
tribe, protecting
way
and
annexing
she
went,
until,
at
the
as
pre-sent
she
has
moment,
practically arrived
at
the
of
This,
of
gates
Afghanistan.
course,
is
the proposed end
of
her
march.
not
During
30
RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA 32 living on the western frontier of China, and con-sequently at a
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
32
living on the western
frontier of China, and
con-sequently
at a great distance from Russia, pre-served
their independence until as late as 1847.
The Lesser Horde, occupying the country con-tiguous
Eussia in the southern
to the possessions of
Ural, and the Great Horde, livingmostly north
and east of the Sea of Aral,being torn by internal
dissensions and harried by neighbouring tribes,
offered their allegiance to Russia in 1730, but at
that time it was not accepted. Shortly after-wards,
however, the Russian Empress consented
to become
suzerain and protectress of the Kirghiz,
a step which has since led to the acquisition of
much territory on the part of Russia, although
no inconsiderable amount
not to speak
of money,
of human
life, has been sacrificed in the process.
At first Russia's
policy in Central Asia was
to
control her subjectsby playing off one tribe
againstanother, thus keeping them well occupied.
As
it
found, however, that the predatory
was
renounced
habits of the Kirghiz (by no
means
when they took the oath of allegiance to the
White Tsar)greatly interfered with the caravan
trade which
Russia
anxious to develop;
was
and that they made raids on Russian colonists
the frontier line and
along the shores of the
on
HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 33 Caspian,carrying off many of tlie settlers and sent to bring them to
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
33
Caspian,carrying off many
of tlie settlers and
sent to bring them to order. The Kirghiz resisted
stoutly, and as late as 1843, rallying round their
popular Khan Kenissar, the " KirghizSchamyl,"
met
with a certain amount
and
of success,
were
hopeful of achieving their independence. With
the death
of Kenissar
in 1846, however, this
hope was
destroyed,and, as previously stated,
their final subjection to
the Muscovite was
merely
matter
of time.
A
kibitka tax
a
of 36,000
roubles
is
levied on
now
the Kirghiz of the
Caucasian province.
At
a time when
the Tsar's troops were
making
these
steady progress in Central Asia among
Kirghiz and
other tribes, there arose,
in
the
which
eventually led to the Russo-
Turkish
The
enmity between
Christians
war.
and Moslems
had
led
to
in
fearful massacres
Bulgaria; Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Montenegro
in revolt ;
and
in the
of
1876
were
summer
Servia declared war
against the Turks.
When
the latter,however, were
on the point of taking
Belgrade, Eussia interfered, and demanded
that
armistice of six weeks
should be agreed to.
an
D

selling.them as slaves, expeditions were frequently

Christian provinces of the Turkish Empire, dis-turbanc

RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA 34 Negotiationswere carried on for a considerable time, a conference of the
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
34
Negotiationswere
carried on for a considerable
time, a conference
of
the
Powers
being beld
at Constantinopleearly in 1877 ; but
as
no
satisfactory result was
arrived
at, the Tsar, in
April of that year, having invoked the Supreme
blessing, ordered his troops to cross the Turkish
frontier, declaring that his
" desire to amelio-rate
and
the lot of the oppressed Christian
assure
population of Turkey " left him no alternative.
And
it
about
that, whilst thus
so
came
en-gaged,
Eussia's attention was
partially diverted from her designs on the
various approaches to the Indian Empire. The
Eusso-Turkish campaign was carried on, not only
in Europe, but
Armenia
being invaded
by Eussian
troops.
In
the spring of
1878
Eussia
had
obtained
possession of all the Armenian
and, with
encamped near
the
an
army
Golden
Horn found Constantinople at her mercy.
The occupation of the city, at that time appar-ently
for at this point a British fleet arrived
the
on
scene, anchoring in the Bosphorus. Shortly after
this the Eussians
effected an occupation of the
village of San Stefano, and eventually the war

for a brief period

also in Turkey's Asiatic pro-vinces,

fort-resses,

imminent, did not, however, take place,

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 35 brought to a close (March 3, 1878) by the was Treaty of
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
35
brought to a close (March 3, 1878) by the
was
Treaty of San Stefano, after some
delay on the
part of the Turks
in agreeing to the proposed
terms.
During the war
Russia had been ill-pleased to
find that England had despatched Indian troops
into Europe, and when
the British Government
insisted that
the
terms
of
the
Treaty of San
Stefano should
of the
be laid before a congress
European Powers, relations between
the
two
countries became
so strained
that both
nations
In order that Britain's
began to prepare for war.
action in Europe should be weakened
much
as
as possible,by forcing her to confine her atten-tion
to
the
defence
of
her
Eastern
empire, a
demonstration
against India was
decided
upon.
Under
Skobelefi"'s scheme
for the invasion
of
that country throughAfghanistan, the first step
to be
alliance with
Shere
Ali
(who had
was
an
hitherto been an ally of Britain), and increased
efibrts were made to bring to a successful issue
the negotiations which emissaries of the Tsar had
for some
years been carryingon with the Amir.
That potentate was
informed
that if he
refused
to become
the tool of Russia, another
claimant
to
his throne
would
be brought forward and
36 RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA backed by Russian influence. Under this pres-sure the Amir yielded,rejecting with
36
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
backed by Russian
influence.
Under
this pres-sure
the Amir
yielded,rejecting with insolence
the
wished
overtures
of the British, who
to
send
mission
to Kabul.
Stolietoffs mission
a
to that
city in 1878 ended
in the conclusion
of
an alliance having for its object a joint attack
by Russia and Afghanistan on India ; an alliance
which
the result
of
years' careful
was
seven
intriguing carried on by Kauffmann's
agents at
the Afghan capital.Simultaneously, an
was secretlydespatched to India to sow
the seeds
of rebellion ; but on
reaching Peshawur
he
was
arrested,and, despite the outcry at interference
with a " private traveller,"was
quietly sent
down country and deported to Russia.
Mean-while,
however, the Berlin Congress had met,
and
had
rendered
advance
of Russia
any
on
India an impossibility for the time being. Shere
Ali found
himself
between
two
stools.
The
English were
demanding reparation, and
an
marching towards
was
Kabul, while the
army
Russians refused,perforce, all aid, and would
not even mediate.
The
course
of action pursued
by Russia at this time will long be remembered
as treacherous, not only towards the Amir, but
also Great
Britain ; for Stolietoff
stayed at

emissary

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 37 Kabul five months after the Treaty of Berlin concluded, and acted as
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
37
Kabul
five months
after the Treaty of Berlin
concluded, and acted as adviser to Shere Ali
was
till such time as the unfortunate
Amir
was
com-pelled
to fly to the north, accompanying the
Russian mission, and leaving his son, Yakoob
Khan, as regent. The British established
their
ascendency over
Afghanistan, concluded
the
Treaty of Gandamak,
left a British resident
at
Kabul, and, having established their supremacy,
withdrew
valleys were
their troops. By this treaty certain
assigned to the British Government,
which obtained complete control over
the Khyber
and Michni
passes ; while, in return
for support
againstforeignaggression and an annual subsidy
of six lakhs
Amir
bound
him-self
to conduct
of rupees, the new
his relations with
other
states in
accordance with the advice of the Indian Govern-ment.
With
regard to the conduct
of Russia
in
sending Stolietofi" to Kabul, it must
be
remem-bered
that
in 1869, and
again in 1873, she had
given the most
solemn
which
assurances,
were
should
not be tampered with, and that Russian
agents should not visit Kabul,
In
spite of this,
however, Russian officersand Cossacks,as has been
said, remained
at Kabul
for five months
after

repeated from time to time, that Afghanistan

38 RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA the Treaty of Berlin was signed, and this although M. de
38
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
the Treaty of Berlin was signed, and this although
M. de Giers, in July, 1878, gave
to
assurance
the British ambassador
at St. Petersburg that
"
mission
had
been, or
intended
to be,
no
was
sent to Kabul, either by the Imperial Govern-ment
by General
Kauffmann."
A
month
or
later, when
the state
of affairs could
longer
no
be concealed (as accounts
of the
of the progress
mission were actuallyappearing in the Rlissian
press), de Giers informed
the British charge
Nevertheless, four months
later, in a
conversa-tion
with
the British
Prime
Minister, Count
Schouvaloff casually observed that,although the
Eussian envoy
who
had been
had been recalled, the Russian
mission still
remained at Kabul.
Nothing could better illus-trate
the fine distinctions which
characterize the
generalpolicy of Russia in Central Asia,where,
to quote Prince Dolgoroukoff, "
and arbitrary force reign from top to bottom,
and throughout there is developed in formidable
proportions the officiallie "
the lie erected into

d'affaires that " everything had been stopped; the political as well as the militaryprecautions which we thought ourselves justified in taking against you " everything has been stopped."

sent to Afghanis-tan

slavish subjection

RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA 40 Another by which Eussia had long means sought to approach nearer
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
40
Another
by which
Eussia
had
long
means
sought to approach nearer
to her goal was
by
getting a footing in the Akhal country, and she
never
rested till,having conquered the Turko-mans
of
Akhal
and
Merv, she was
able
to
establish garrisons close to -Herat, the " Key of
India" "
the English, in their horror of a great
war, permitting her to thus take possession of
a part of Afghanistan, and to occupy
advan-tageous
positions in the country. In 1877
an
expedition under Lomakin
had been sent against
the Akhal Tekk^s, but met with disastrous
failure,which, coming just at the time when
Kussia
had
sustained
her
at Plevna,
reverse
considerably reduced
her prestige in Central
Asia.
In the following year Lomakin
under-took
a second expedition,which, however, was
less successful than
the
first ;
but
the
even
Russians
not
to be beaten, and
they set
were
about
retrieving their position. Still another
campaign was organized. General Lazareff being
appointed to the command
; but
disaster
con-tinued
to attend the Eussian
arms, for Lazareff,
falling a victim to the poisonous air and the
impure water supply characteristic of the Caspian
shores, died just as the troops were
entering the
HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 41 Aklial territory. After his death, Lomakin was againplaced in command ; but
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
41
Aklial territory. After his death, Lomakin
was
againplaced in command
; but at Denghil Tep^,
where the Tekkes
made
a resolute stand, he lost
neither women
nor children,was
himself driven
back, and
his
troops overwhelmed
by
the
desperate Tekkes.
Alikhanofi",an
of what
of
took place, says, " The whole
course
the battle,
from
beginning to end, was
in
defiance of the commonest
elementary rules of
the
art
of war."
At
Kussian
this last reverse,
prestige, of course,
sank
to
the
lowest
ebb, and
for the time being the campaign against the
Tekkes
abandoned.
was
Meanwhile, English supremacy
been firmly re-established in Afghanistan by
that Yakoob
Khan
would
be strong enough to
hold his own
against the various factions in the
country.\ The British congratulated themselves
the turn
which
affairs had taken, while Russia
on
looked
in mortification
and
alarm
at
the
on
advantages which
had accrued
to her rival.
At
this juncture,however, an
event
occurred which
rendered
second
British campaign
necessary
a

his final chance of retrieving his former failures, and after a wanton massacre, in which he spared

eye-witness

had apparently

the Treaty of Gandamak, and it was supposed

42 RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA against Afghanistan. A few days prior to Lomakin's defeat at Denghil
42
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
against Afghanistan. A few days prior to
Lomakin's defeat at Denghil Tepe, news
arrived
of tlie treacherous murder
of Sir Louis Cavagnari,
who
had just been
appointed British resident
at
Kabul, and
who, with
his officers,was
set
by certain of the fanatical inhabitants
of
upon
that city(September,1879). The British took
his murder
and to vindicate
up
arms
to avenge
Yakoob
Khan
deposed,
their supremacy.
was
and
Abdul
Eahman
Khan
made
Amir
in
was
his place; but
although the campaign was
entirelysuccessful, the English Government,
under Mr. Gladstone, did not
think it advisable
to retain
had
been won
the country which
at
much
cost;
and
accordingly, in 1881,
so
Afghanistan was
entirelyevacuated, it being
maintained
that a Eussian
invasion
of India
was
remote
a
very
to defend
India from
Kandahar, is so
remote
that its possibility is
In
the
year in which Afghanistan was
same
thus evacuated, Skobeleflf triumphed over
the
Tekk^s ; and with the fall of Denghil Tep^, the
of
the
Akhal
Turkomans
power
was
broken.
Skobeleff estimated the total loss of

contingency, and that " the pro-bability of our having to struggle for Herat, or

hardly worth considering."

entirely

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 43 the Turkomans during this last siege to be about 20,000, or half
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
43
the Turkomans
during this last siege to be about
20,000, or half the defenders
of the town.
The occupation of Merv seemed likely to be
the
next
item
the Russian
; but
on
programme
this, M. de Giers assured
Lord
Dufferin,was far
" Not
from being the case.
only do we
not want
to go there, but happily there is nothing that
require us to go there."
can
to anxious
inquiries on
the part
In response
of Great Britain, the Eusso-Persian
frontier was
of Teheran
but
the
most
important
;
part of the frontier-line, that between Merv
and
Herat, was
not
iacluded
in the arrangement.
During the next few years Russia resorted to
her favourite expedient, and sent agents, under
the guise of scientific and tradingexplorers, who
made
a careful reconnaissance
of
the
oasis of
Merv, and
the routes
and annexation
well
of the town, early in 1884, was
timed, taking place at a
moment
when
Great
Britain was
in the Soudan.
by the intimidation
of the inhabitants,who,
being overawed by the Russian troops who had
been gradually introduced into their country,

at last definitelyfixed, in 1881, by the Con-vention

thither. The occupation

wholly occupied with afiairs It was practicallyaccomplished

RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA 44 allegiance,through their chiefs, to the swore that he had decided and
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
44
allegiance,through their chiefs, to the
swore
that
he
had
decided
and had
sent
officer to administer
an
The
possession of the Merv
oasis, it may
be
observed, is of the utmost advantage to Eussia,
both strategically and commercially. Before the
annexation
of Merv, the Kussian
armies
of the
Trans-Caspian and of Turkestan
were
by a large tract of hostile country, and, as can
readily be
in
the
event
of a
with
seen,
war
England, such an arrangement would have been
far from conducive
to
of the Russian
the success
Once
Merv
taken, however, the
arms.
was
entirelyaltered, for free
position of affairs was
and direct communication was thus obtained
from
the Caspian Sea, to the borders
of China,
whilst, at the same
time, a shorter route
by way
of Askabad, Merv, and Charjuiwas provided for
the sending of reinforcements
to the Turkestan
The saving of time immediately effected
army.
by making use
of this route
could be estimated
in weeks,
and
when
the railway had
been
and
carried through Merv
Charjui to Samar-kand
might be reckoned
in months.
The

White Tsar. The news was thereuponconveyed to England, his Imperial Majesty intimating

to accept the allegiance,

the region.

separated

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 45 commercial gain to Russia consequent on the acquisition of Merv is no
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
45
commercial
gain to Russia consequent on
the
acquisition of Merv
is no less important than
the strategical, for new
markets
have
been
opened up for the interchange of both European
and Asiatic commodities, and by this means
a
great impetus has been
given to the Central
Asian cotton
trade.
But, of course, whatever
immediate
advantages
to Eussia, there is little room
to
might accrue
doubt
that her ulterior object in acquiring the
place was
to advance
yet another
step on
her
carefullyplanned path towards
India, and
it
for her enterprise. Her
been
troops had
now
introduced
to a district whose
frontiers towards
Afghanistan were
but imperfectlydefined, and
the possibilities were
where, in consequence,
illimitable.
Further developments were
rapid.
Immediately after the annexation
of Merv, a
prepared by Russia, in which she
new
map
was
took advantage of a certain vagueness
of defini-tion
to desert
land
(so called in the Anglo-
as
Russian agreement of 1873, by which the frontier
had till this time been delimitated) to extend
her boundaries. In answer
the
part of Great
Britain, it was
arranged
on

was not long before she found fresh opportunity

to repeatedinquiries

46 RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA that a Boundary Commission should meet at Sarakhs in October of
46
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
that a Boundary Commission
should meet
at
Sarakhs
in October
of 1884.
however, resorted to by Kussia
in order
were,
to
gain time ;
and
meanwhile
points of vantage. In January, 1885,
numerous
she herself proposed a frontier line which would
be much
to
her
advantage, and which
own
practically meant
inquiry, to a Russian
that
Britain
should
agree,
without
any
of
Pandjeh and
hitherto
considered
This
rejectedby the British
was,
of course,
Government, who, however, made
a counter-proposal,
in which considerable concessions were
made
to
Russia,
Their proposition did not
meet
with the approval of the Russians, who
longer endeavoured
to
conceal
the
now
no
fact that
their intention
to
all
was
occupy
the important points on
the
to
Herat.
way
The British Government
representations on
thereupon made strong
the subject, and demanded
that Russian
troops should be withdrawn
from
held, and
that
further
advance
should be
no
made.
The Russians
refused
to evacuate
any

Various expedients

she occupied

appropria-tion

neighbouring districts,

as parts of Afghanistan.

certain outlying positions which they already

positionalready in their possession, but agreed

48 RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA to submit the matter to arbitration if desired ; and finallya
48
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
to submit
the matter
to arbitration if desired ;
and
finallya line of frontier was
agreed upon
whicli, with the exception that Pandjeh was
exchanged for Zulfikar,was practically the same
in January
as that proposed by the Eussians
of
1885,
and
at
that
time
rejectedby the
Gladstonian Ministry. Even
after this, how-ever,
complicationsensued, and it was
numerous
only with the greatest difficulty that a fresh
was finally arrived at.
This matter
could
at any rate, Russia proceeded to see what
be done in the Pamirs, where the boundary lines
also but vaguely defined.
For
time
were
a
anxiety was felt in England at this latest
some
Russian movement, but was easilyallayedby an
" from
" assurance
that country on
Whatever
she
to
do
in
that
means
however, it is an
secret
open
the Hindu
Kush
boundary of
as
the proper
British activity in Asia "
that
is to
say, for the
present "
and that,centring her attention for the
time being on obtaining a port on
the Persian
Gulf, or
rather Indian
Ocean, she looks
upon
occupation of Herat as by no means
an
a remote

frontier line on the north-west of Afghanistan

at last settled, for the time being

the subject.

direction,

that she regards

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 49 possibility. As has already been said, she has extended her line of
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
49
possibility. As has already been said, she has
extended
her
line of railway to
within
now
seventy miles
of that
town,
and
it is far from
likely that the present terminus
at Kushk
will
long remain the terminus.*
On
all hands
it is
admitted that the Merv-Kushk Eailway is but
end, and
that
end the establish-ment
a means
to an
of Eussian
domination
at Herat
and
in
Northern
Afghanistan generally. Nor is this
line destined
to
be
the
only one
having this
important object. Already the country in the
direction of Balkh
has been carefullysurveyed,
and plans submitted to the Imperial authorities
for a line of rail to that place, whilst the whole
and hedge is known.
At
the
same
time, em-ploying
Askhabad
of
as
a
centre, a network
Russian
intrigue and acquisition is also being
graduallyspread further and further to the
south of Persia, in preparation for the time
when that country also can be easily absorbed.
thing that a railway is
eventually to branch off towards
It
is
understood
an
the south
from
* Written
before the extension of the line beyond Kushk
now
of construction.
in course

of the surroundingcountry has been so carefully studied that the position of almost every tree

so RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA Askhabad, and thus, according to Russian writers themselves, open to the
so
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
Askhabad, and thus, according to Russian
writers themselves, open
to
the
a
way
the shores
of the Tsar's supremacy
on
of the Persian
Gulf
and the Indian
Ocean "
" to
be beforehand
with the Germans," they say.
It is at present claimed for the Merv-Kushk
but it is well here to recall the words
applied to
the Central
Asian
Railway by Skobeleff,
He
would
declared that not for a generationor more
Russia
be
able
to
advance
beyond Herat upon
India.
" But," he went
on
to say, " in the mean
time, by this railway of ours, we are assuming a
menacing position towards England, which will
in
other parts of the world."
us
then, if this
that is by no
of creation.
means
its sole purpose
The inevitable conclusion to be drawn
from
a
study of the persistent Muscovite
advance
is that
Russia
will continue
her encroachments.
As
has been demonstrated, she has
almost
now
reached
heart
of Afghanistan, thus
the very
reducing the space intervening between herself
and the frontiers of Britain's Asiatic Empire to
comparativelyinsignificantproportions; but it

estab-lishment

Railway that it is merely a civilizingproject;

keep her occupied ia India, and prevent her im-peding

Clearly,

line has any civilizing aim at all,

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 51 is not to be supposed that, having readied this point, she has
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
51
is not to be supposed that, having readied this
point, she has achieved the goal of her ambition.
be asserted that, so
long as she is not
in
It may
possession of Herat, India is safe.
But
Herat
is not impregnable, and it is obvious that the
frontier line delimitated
immediately after the
Pandjeh incident places Eussia in a position which
would
render
the seizure
of
that
town
a
easy matter, whenever
arrive
she may
at the conclusion
that such
de main
is in
a coup
other ways
practicable. It, therefore, behoves
of aflfairs,
and to formulate
out
and carry
some
protect her vast Eastern Empire from the Eussian
Dangers are accumulating thick and
menace.
fast on the frontier and in the adjacentcountries,
and
the time
has
for the British Govern-ment
come
to make
a determined
stand, once
and
for
A Eussian
occupation of Herat
would
not
only
be
direct menace
in itself,but, if allowed,
a
would
give rise amongst the peoples of Afghan-istan
and
India
to
impression that
England
an
feared
the Eussians.
Such
belief
to oppose
a
would
lead to
the
most
serious results.
Even

com-paratively

Britain to carefully consider the present position

consistent line of policy which shall effectually

all,against Eussian interference in Afghanistan.

RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA 52 it is, the Afghans could as to remain staunch allies, for
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
52
it
is, the
Afghans could
as
to remain
staunch
allies, for they
upon
would
the winning
naturally wait to discover
side ; and
sign of weakness
the
on
part of
any
England would
not only injure her best interests
alienate
with them, but would
who might
many
be alreadyvacillating in
India itself. Nor should
the fact be
Herat
the
lost sight of that
is not
for
only danger point ; for a part of the scheme
the projectedrailway from Askhabad
to
the
Persian
Grulf is to carry
a branch
line to Seistan
and Nasratabad.
The most sanguine believer in
"
Eussian
cannot
" assurances
ascribe the construction
of such
a line to a desire
for commercial
development. On the other hand,
it is a significant
fact that
this branch
will provide the means
routes
from the Helmund
valley to Kandahar, a
city from which the Russians
are
at present some
five hundred
miles distant.
The
time
has
gone
by for paying attention to pledges ; it has been
abundantly proved that they are given merely
as ", matter of diplomacy, and are abandoned
whenever
it is found
convenient.
The present
position is one calling for careful consideration
and decided action.

railway of approach to the two

scarcely be de-pended

by any possibility

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 53 Assuming that the Russian advance towards India continues until the overstepping of
HISTORICAL
INTRODUCTION
53
Assuming that the Russian
advance
towards
India
continues
until the overstepping of a
certain
fixed line makes
inevitable, the
war
British nation
has
to decide
where
that
line is
to be.
No
is likely now
to maintain
that
one
such
line will have
been
reached
with
the
a
occupation of Herat
Balkh.
Otherwise
this
or
would
at
Is Britain
once
mean
war.
to
such
account
? and
is she
in
to go
war
on
an
a position to do so ?
If,then, not at Herat
and
Balkh, where is the line to be drawn
?
If Russia
be allowed to occupy either or both of these
places without opposition, should Britain make
a
corresponding counter-advance
?
and, if so, how
far?
should
she remain
where
she
is, and
or
complete, so far as
the resources
her frontier defences, leaving Russia
absorb Afghanistan ? How
about
the engage-ment
with
the Amir
to defend
the integrity of
Afghanistan? These are problems which
we
have to solve,nor
the solution
of them
be
can
relegated to a future generation.
We
have
to examine
the
now
; the position of India
chief factors in
for offence and
the case

occupation(not merely possible, but probable)

prepared

of India permit,

to gradually

defence, of Russia for offence, and the part likely

RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA S4 to be played by Afghanistan and Persia, especi-ally should either Eussia
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
S4
to
be
played
by Afghanistan
and
Persia,
especi-ally
should
either
Eussia
England,
both,
or
or
portions
of
these
countries.
Before
occupy
arriving
definite
conclusion
the
at
to
as
any
probable
ultimate
result
of
these
factors,
the
con-dition
of
India,
Russia,
Afghanistan,
and
Persia
be
must
glanced
the
time,
at,
whilst,
at
same
the
position
of
China
be
borne
must
always
in
mind.
S6 RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA witli very hot and very cold winters. summers Snow remains three
S6
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
witli very hot
and
very cold winters.
summers
Snow
remains
three
on
the ground for about
months, while the summer
is extremely hot, and
lasts from four to five months.
The central zone
includes the towns
of Perovsky, Turkistan, Aulie-
ata, and Vierny, with the middle course
of the
Syr Daria and a largeportion of the Kyzyl Kum
sands.
Here
the winter
be compared to
may
that of Central Germany, while at Vierny grapes
The
ripen,though not so well as further south.
southern zone is tropical, and includes Kuldja,
besides those towns
which
lie either in the
same
latitude or south of Tashkent. Kuldja owes its
comparativelyhigh temperature to its sheltered
position,being surrounded by high mountains,
which protect it from the north-easterly winds
prevalent in the rest
of the
central zone.
so
Fruits
of
delicate nature
a
apricots,pomegranates, and grapes.
The winter
though cold is short, snow
seldom remaining on
the ground for longer than a month.
There
however, a great deal of rain, the rainy season
lasting from about March till October.
Besides these three rough divisions, in all the
mountain
valleys south of latitude 42", and
in
the
winter
is
district of Hodjent, the
even

flourish " peaches,

is,

COUNTRY AND PEOPLE 57 shorter and the summer tree can grow, and the wild peach,
COUNTRY
AND
PEOPLE
57
shorter and
the summer
tree can
grow, and the wild peach, wild almond,
and wild apple flourish,at a height of 4000
to
6000 feet above
the
level of the
The
dis-trict
sea.
of Hodjent,acquiredby Russia in 1874,
lies south
of Tashkent, and with the valley of
Zarafshan
is the
most
fertile part of Central
Asia.
It
for
time a disputedpoint
was
some
between
Bokhara
and
Khokand.
The country
here is better wooded
than most parts of Central
Asia, and also better watered ; everywhere one
sees the beautiful gardens which
are
the joy and
pride of all dwellers
in Central
Asian
towns.
These
gardens surround
often used as
most of the cities, and
residences, the Russians
are
summer
having adopted the fashion, and camping
even
out
tents and pavilionsduring the hot
in roomy
months.
Peach, cherry, and
apple trees make
these gardens beautiful, and
it is much
to
be
regretted that, owing to the scarcity of coal,
these orchards
being
largely cut down for
are
fuel.
With
regard to mineral
produce, the lack of
good coal in Central
Asia
is likely to prove
a
serious drawback
to its development, although
the improvement in communications

very hot. The pistachio

will largely

58 RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA remedy the defect. Since the acquisition of Turkistan, the Government have
58
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
remedy the defect.
Since the acquisition of
Turkistan, the Government
have
made
great
efforts to discover reallyproductive coal-beds ;
but although coal exists scattered pretty widely
Central Asia, all that has
been
obtained
over
hitherto is of inferior quality, and broken
up
into small
fields. As
for other minerals, it is
curious,considering the trifling amount
of gold
that her first step towards
Asia was
initiated by
Peter
the Great
because
he
had heard
much
so
of the
gold to be found
the banks
of the
on
Oxus.
Lead-ore
is the most
abundant
mineral,
but this cannot
be mined
account
on
of transport.
There
several different races
are
Central Asia, but, broadly speaking,they are
all of Persian
or Turkish
descent.
A
part of
times by the Sacae,or Scythians, an Aryan race
who
to
large extent
dispossessed and
were
a
driven
out
by the Turkish
tribes who
overran
the country. The descendants of this ancient
still found
in considerable numbers,
race
are
often clustered together in mountain
villages, to

found in this part of Russia's new possessions,

with any great profit

of the dearness of fuel and difficulty

inhabiting

the country was undoubtedly inhabited in early

COUNTRY AND PEOPLE 59 whicli they have been gradually driven by the succeeding waves of
COUNTRY
AND
PEOPLE
59
whicli they have been gradually driven by the
succeeding waves
of Turkish invasion.
A curious
testimony to the
antiquity of the race
is the fact
that their language retains many words of Aryan
derivation which
not known
in modern
Per-sian.
are
The Tadjiks,as they are
only in
not
but
in
appearance,
character, from
the tribes of Turkish
descent.
The typicalTadjik is large,thickly bearded, vain
with the childish vanity common
races, lazy,untruthful, and morallycorrupt. He
despises his less subtle Uzbek
neighbour, who
returns
the sentiment, but is nevertheless
com-pelled
to make
of the
use
of the sharper wit
Tadjik. The Uzbeks, who
form
of the population in Central
Asia, are
a
tribe,or congeries of tribes, of much the same
origin as the Kirghiz,being founded by Turkish
immigrants who flocked into the country both
before and
after
the time
of Genghiz Khan.
have
Unlike the Kirghiz,however, the Uzbeks
little of the Mongol element.
They speak a
Turkic dialect, and retain, at all events
the
of which
in
names
some
cases
perpetuate
long-forgotten tribes. One
clan
is that
of the

called,are dis-tinguis

in primitive

a large pro-portion

tradi-tionally,

their old division into clans or families,

6o RUSSIA AGAINST INDIA Kiptcliaks, whose martial habits and traditions made them a chief factor
6o
RUSSIA
AGAINST
INDIA
Kiptcliaks, whose martial habits and traditions
made them a chief factor in the army of Khokand.
The most
in the western
part of
numerous
race,
Central Asia at all events, is the Kirghiz, also
perhaps the most interesting.
This tribe really consists of two distinct races
:
the true
the
Kara
" Black
Kirghiz," is
one,
or
found principally in the valleys of the Thian-
Shan and Altai Mountains, and is unmistakably
of Turkish
origin. Descriptions found
in
that
Chinese writings of a very early date show
at
that
time
the prevailingtype was
charac-terized
by light hair and fair skin, which
would
not apply to the average Kirghiz of the present
day, although such may
still be met
with here
and there.
The
other
inhabits
race, which
the greater
part of the province of Turkistan and the steppes
bordering it, called by the Eussians
"Kassak-
Kirghiz," * is more
impregnated with
the
Mongol element than the Kara-Kirghiz race.
They have largely intermarried
with
the
Kal-
muks, and their aristocracy, or
" white bones,"
claim descent
from
Genghiz Kian, while their
* The word " Kirghiz "
has practically the same
derivation as the
Russian
" Cossack," and means
" a wanderer."
COUNTRY AND PEOPLE 6i various traditions describe them as from " red-baired dog," or a
COUNTRY
AND
PEOPLE
6i
various
traditions describe them
as
from
" red-baired
dog," or
a
(a more
poeticalstory) as veritable " Children of the
Mist," Both legendssuggest the great antiquity
of the race, being usual with aboriginal tribes
of undoubted pre-historicorigin, both in America
and Australia.
The
claim of descent
from
an
animal
is found
with other Asiatic tribes, and
is always supposed to denote
considerable
Early travellers
to
have
seem
age.
heard the legend,
and
translated it with
more
than
veracity into actual
fact ; for
in the
of a journey through this country
made
by the Christian king Hethum