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The UNOCCUPIED MISSION FIELDS of AFRICA AND ASIA BY SAMUEL M. ZWEMER, F.R.G.S. SECRETARY STUDENT
The
UNOCCUPIED
MISSION
FIELDS
of
AFRICA
AND
ASIA
BY
SAMUEL
M.
ZWEMER,
F.R.G.S.
SECRETARY
STUDENT
VOLUNTEER
MOVEMENT,
/
MISSIONARY
TO
ARABIA
NEW
YORK.
STUDENT
VOLUNTEER
MOVEMENT
FOR
FOREIGN
MISSIONS
1911
Copyright, by 191 1, MOVEMENT STUDENT VOLUNTEER FOREIGN MISSIONS FOR RIGHTS RESERVED ALL
Copyright,
by
191
1,
MOVEMENT
STUDENT
VOLUNTEER
FOREIGN
MISSIONS
FOR
RIGHTS
RESERVED
ALL
CnP SUFFER ON THE DARE, ENDURE AND WHO BORDERMARCHES OF THE KINGDOM, AND ENTER THE
CnP
SUFFER
ON
THE
DARE,
ENDURE
AND
WHO
BORDERMARCHES
OF
THE
KINGDOM,
AND
ENTER
THE
UNOCCUPIED
TERRITORY
OF
THE
KING
"The night lies dark the earth and have light; upon we So have to their
"The
night
lies
dark
the
earth
and
have
light;
upon
we
So
have
to
their
and
have
sight;
many
grope
way,
we
One
path
is
theirs
and
of
sin
and
ours^
care,
"
But
borne
along,
and
they
their
biirden
bear,
we
are
Footsore,
licart-
faint
they
the
weary,
on
v/ay,
Mute
in
their
while
kneel
and
sorrow,
we
pray;
Glad
they
of
stone
which
to
rest,
are
a
on
While
lie pillowed
the
Father's
breast.
we
on
"Father,
why
is
it
that
these
millions
roam,
And
that
that
is
Home,
and
their
guess
urge
way
Is
it enough
to
keep
the
door
ajar,
In
hope
that
the
gleam
afar,
some
may
see
And
that
that
is
Home,
and
their
guess
urge
way
To
reach
it, hapl}'', somehow
and
day?
some
May
not
I
and
lend
them
of
light?
go,
my
May
not
mine
be
unto
them
for
sight?
eyes
May
not
the
brother-love
Thy
love
portray?
"7
"Rev.
R.
Wright
Hay,
VI
PREFACt of the The of this book is give to purpose a survey and condition
PREFACt
of
the
The
of
this
book
is
give
to
purpose
a
survey
and
condition
of
the
mission
extent
wholly
unoccupied
fields
in Africa
Asia
Malaysia,
from
the
and
including
missions,
and
consider
the
standpoint
of
Protestant
to
questions
that
bear
their
occupation.
on
The
continent
of
South
America
has
been
included
not
for
there
is
two
the
missionary
problem
so
reasons:
largely bound
with
the
condition
of
the
Roman
Catho-lic
up
Church
and
has
therefore
such
special character
that
it requires specific treatment
; and
the
continent
whole
as
a
with its unoccupied
sections
and
large neglected
non-
Christian
population
has
already
received
attention
in
mission
study
text-books.
To
include
South
America
in
the
would,
have
been
impracticable
moreover,
compass
of
volume
for
in study
classes.
one
use
The
unoccupied
fields
of
the
world
subject
'
are
a
new
for consideration
and
the
data
for
altogether accurate
an
and
complete.
The
all-embracing
not
are
yet
survey
entire
world-area
has
been
not
wholly
covered
by
tbe
yet
tracks
of
the
explorer, much
less
by
the
triangulations
of
the
the
of
missionaries;
has
tours
nor
surveyor
or
kind
of
been
taken
in
of
the
great
any
census
many
unoccupied
fields
of
the
world.
As
long, therefore,
as
geography and ethnography
only
give estimates
and
can
probabilities, a missionary
also
only deal
with
survey
can
'approximate
figures. Where
statistics
used,
they
are
are
PREFACE VIU taken from the "Statesman's Year- in nearly every case Book" (1910), or where
PREFACE
VIU
taken
from
the "Statesman's
Year-
in nearly every
case
Book"
(1910), or
where
this failed, conservative
esti-mates
made
from
recent
books
of travel
and
the
were
letters of correspondents.
For
the rest, the bibliogra-phy
gives the
of information
and
indicates
lines
sources
study. As far as possible all the references
of further
and
authorities
recent.
The
book
deals with
are
present
con-ditions.
It tells of things as
they are
to-day.
Its argument
be brieflyexpressed as follows: at
can
the beginning of the twentieth
of the Christian
century
and
after more
than
of Protestant
world-wide
era
a centary
missions, there are
still a score
of wholly unoccupied
fields (Chapter I) and many
sections of fields (II), where
the
obstacles
and
barriers
well-nigh insuperable
seem
(III), but
where
the
moral
destitution
involved
of the peoples (IV and
in the occupation of these
V)
and
the strategy
fields (VI)
call for
heroic, persevering, pioneer effort on wise lines (VII)
with
the
promise of ultimate
(VIII).
sure
success
The
of
careful investigations of the present condition
the whole
non-Christian
world
carried on
in connection
with
the
World
Missionary Conference
held
at
Edin-burgh,
by its Commission
I, together with
the
1910,
emphasis now
being placed upon
the practical interpre-tation
of the Watchword
of the
Student
Volunteer
Move-ment
by missionary leaders
and organizations, surely
emphasize the timeliness of this attempted survey.
To
the findings of Commission
I of
the
quote from
Edinburgh Conference:
"The
unoccupied fields of the world
have
claim
of
a
peculiar weight and urgency
effort of the
Church.
upon
In this twentieth
century
of Christian history there should be no unoccupied fields.

degradation and spiritual

the attention and mis-sionary

PREFACE IX The Church is bound to remedy this lamentable condition with the least possible
PREFACE
IX
The Church
is bound
to remedy this lamentable
condition
with the least possible delay. Some
fields are
to the Gospel, such
of these unoccupied
as Mongolia and
open
many
regions of Africa.
In certain
fields there are
difficulties
of
be
Both
in Africa
and
Asia
access
to
overcome.
there are large regions belonging to the French
Empire
in which
there
Christian
missions.
There
are
no
are
other
fields where
political difficulties seem
at present
to prevent occupation, such as Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and
Afghanistan. But
the closed
doors
few compared
are
with
the
doors
unentered.
open
that
the reproach of the Church.
A
large
are
proportion of the unoccupied fields are to be found within
the Mohammedan
world, not only in Northern
Africa
and
in Western
Asia, but
also
in China.
Indeed, by far the
cf
the
Mohammedan
world
greater
part
unoccupied."
In view
of this last statement
no
apology is necessary
for the fact that the problem of Islam occupies a consider-able
part of the discussion
in Chapters IV
and
VI.
One
other
might be given for the
timeliness
of
reason
this presentation. There is just now
the
on
part of some
criticism
of the Gospel to
the
effect that
it
a strange
lacks virility and
is weak
and
flabby for the rough and
tumble
struggle of every-day life ; that it does not appeal
sufficiently to the heroic or the fighting spirit which
is
much
needed
in
day. Surely no
study the
so
our
one
can
social conditions
in
the
unoccupied fields of the world
and
the
almost
insuperable obstacles
which
face those
who
better
these
conditions
without
try to
in the
warfare
of Christian
missions
realizing that
against the forces
of darkness
and
degradation there
is abundant
oppor-tunity
for the highest heroism, and
the
call to
occupy

It is the neglected op-portunit

is practically

PREFACE X these fields is the manhood of the Church. to strongest Here is "the
PREFACE
X
these
fields
is
the
manhood
of
the
Church.
to
strongest
Here
is
"the
moral
equivalent
of
war"
which
thoughtful
need
in
of
luxury
and
self-indulgence.
men
say
we
an
age
If
the
unoccupied
fields
of
the
world
be
occupied
to
are
for
Jesus
Christ
and
by
Him,
those
who
have
surrendered
their
lives
His
service
and
willing
dare
and
to
to
are
endure
these
fields.
The
book
has
therefore
must
enter
its special
student
volunteers.
to
message
Samuel
M.
Zwemer.
On
board
S.
S.
Konig
Albert,
September
15,
1910
CONTENTS CHAPTER I THE HEART OF TWO CONTINENTS Once the whole world unoccupied Paul's ambition
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I
THE
HEART
OF
TWO
CONTINENTS
Once
the
whole
world
unoccupied
Paul's
ambition
Carey's
"
"
missionary
The
situation
to-day
Two-fold
division
of
program
"
"
the
unoccupied
fields
Greater
and
smaller
The
heart
of
areas
"
"
continents
two
Central
Asia
and
Central
Africa
The
roof
of
"
"
the
world
The
character
of
the
people
The
variety
of
races
"
"
and
of
environment
In
Central
Asia
The
character
of
the
"
"
Afghan"
The
Arab"
The
Tibetan
Men
and
The
women"
"
Pagan
of
Africa
Afghanistan
Baluchistan
Chinese
races
"
"
"
Turkistan"
Its
Routes
of
travel"
Russia
in
Cen-tral
resources
"
Asia
Its
large
cities "
Commerce
Railways
Siberia
"
"
"
"
Mongolia
Tibet
Nepal
and
Bhutan"
French
Indo-China
"
"
"
Area
and
population
Arabia
Its neglected
provinces
Africa
"
"
"
"
The
Senegal
District"
Northern
Nigeria"
Somaliland
and
Abys-sinia
Summary
of
the
situation
Lines
Gordon's
Statue.
on
"
"
Page
I
CHAPTER
II
SMALLER
AREAS
AND
UNREACHED
MILLIONS
Malaysia"Banka
and
Billiton
The
Malay
States"
Western
"
Sumatra
The
Barbary
States
Aggregate
populations
"
un-touched
"
Uncultivated
sections
in
unoccupied
fields
Their
"
"
importance
Certain
difficulties
in dealing
with
these
areas
"
"
Mission
comity
Concentration
diffusion
Japan
example
or
an
"
"
Distribution
of
forces
in
Japan
Neglected
districts
Table
"
"
"
"
Unoccupied
fields
in
India
Their
location
United
Provinces
"
"
"
Central
India"
Bhopal
Agency"
Conditions
in
Bengal"
Table
Xll CONTENTS " Sindh " China and its evangelization " Growth of mission " one
Xll
CONTENTS
" Sindh "
China
and its evangelization " Growth
of
mission "
one
The
unfinished
task
in
China
Cities
without
missionaries
"
"
Honan
Province
The
Edinburgh
Conference
China
report
on
"
" Moslems
The
of China "
Prayer for the unoccupied fields.
Page
33
CHAPTER
III
WHY
STILL
UNOCCUPIED
Lack
of vision
and
faith "
Lack
of
" External
hindrances
and
men
difficulties "
The
remaining
obstacles
naturally great " Physical,
political and
religious barriers " Livingstone's
saying "
Unex-plored
sections
of
Africa
Central
Borneo
Arabia
The
largest
"
"
"
unexplored area
problems " Hardships
of
the
world
Central
Asia
and its geographical
"
of climate
and
difficulties of communica-tion
In
Tibet "
In
Papua "
In Afghanistan "
In
Africa
How
to
"
"
meet
these
difficulties " Bishop Bompas'
testimony " Dr.
North-
cote
Deck
Difficulties
of
climate
and
health
disappearing "
"
Political opposition " In
in regard to
India "
French
Colonial
Africa
British
"
Government
Islam
Russia
Moslem
governments
"
"
"
Afghanistan " The
intricacy of
the
situation
in
this
field "
Religious intolerance
Fanaticism
in
the
Sahara
Arabia
Atjeh
"
"
"
" Abyssinia "
Somaliland
Intolerant
Mecca
" Christians
at Mecca
"
" Hejaz Railway "
The
great closed
land, Tibet "
Breaking down
of
barriers "
The
Amir's
speech at Lahore
Dr. Kumm's
journey
"
" Col. Wingate's testimony " God the Opener
Page
59
CHAPTER
IV
SOCIAL
CONDITIONS
The
present
emphasis
in
missions "
The
sociologicalproblem "
The
unity of the
Christian
civilization and
the non-Chris-tian
race
"
environment.
The
city problem "
If
heathen
ours
were
a
"
city "
Dr.
Dennis'
classification
of
the
social
evils
of
the
non-
Christian
world
The
general
situation "
Paul's
indictment-
"
Present
social conditions
in the
Dark
Continent "
The
slave trade
and
its horrors
Lack
of
economic
Tibet
needs
the
"
progress
"
gospel of
The
Mongols "
Lack
of sanitation
in
the
soap
great
"
cities
of
Central
Asia"
No
settled
government
" Brigandage"
CONTENTS Xlll Famine and plague " Social evils " Ignorance and superstition " Instances of
CONTENTS
Xlll
Famine
and
plague " Social
evils " Ignorance
and
superstition "
Instances
of
the
latter in
Persia
and
Amulets
and
Moslem
Afghanistan " The
superstition "
Amirs
charm
their
Native
use
"
"
quackery
in Kordofan
Witch
doctors " Treatment
of
the
sick "
"
Crude
Afghan
dentistry "
The
treatment
of criminals;
surgery
"
cruel punishment
and
Cannibalism
in
tortures
in Malaysia and
"
Africa
"
Instances
in Tibet "
of cruelty in Afghanistan " Prison
life "
Pun-ishment
Disposal of the
dead
The
of Lhasa
scavengers
"
The
Buddhist
Sheol "
Moral
degradation " The
condition
of
"
children
in Afghanistan;
in Central
Asia "
The
women
and
of the children
cry
of Kashgar "
The
pilgrim cities centres
of immor-ality
" Temporary
marriages at Mecca
The
condition
of
woman-hood
"
in non-Christian
world
Dr.
Kumm's
testimony regarding
"
the Sudan
Women
in Afghanistan " The
of
Tibet "
Con-clusion
women
"
The
Gospel the only hope for social progress
.Page
95
"
CHAPTER
V
RELIGIOUS
CONDITIONS
No
of
the
Herbert
part
world
without
religion "
Spencer " The
capacity for religion universal " Major Leonard's
testimony " The
effect of civilization
without
the Gospel "
religions have
In
Papua "
The
Bedouin
of Arabia
The
non-Christian
all
had
their trial
"
and
"By
Arabia " Palgrave's testimony " Vambery
failed "
their
fruits
shall
know
them"
Islam
in
ye
"
Lamaism
in
Tibet "
"
Its character
Ritual "
Prayer " Wheels
and
their
A
land
use
"
"
swarming
with priests "
Spiritual ignorance and moral
degrada-tion
Miss
Marston
Buddhism
Animism
and
Fetichism
in
on
"
"
the
world " CannibaHsm
and
its sacrificial significance "
pagan
Warneck
the hopelessness of heathenism
The
evangeliza-tion
on
"
Africa
the creation
of
civilization "
of pagan
means
a
new
Untruthfulness
and
distrust
in the animistic
world
"
to all the non-Christian
religions "
Degrading
common
conceptions of
religious leaders "
God
Religious tyranny "
Scandalous
lives
of
the
"
The
gods
of
Africa
The
of
Siberia "
pagans
"
Their
horse
sacrifice "
Superstition in Annam
Life
in a Buddhist
"
The
Lamas
monastery
of
Tibet "
Their
ignorance and debasing
"
Their
customs
the people "
The
Dalai
Lama"
The
power
over
"
immuring of monks"
Islam
and
its monotheism"
Schlegel's char-

Special char-acteristics

Xiv CONTENTS acterization " The their religious leaders In Afghanistan " of Islam Their spirit
Xiv
CONTENTS
acterization "
The
their
religious leaders
In Afghanistan "
of
Islam
Their
spirit and
"
In
Egypt "
The
priesthood
power
pagan
"
in Malaysia "
In Kordofan
the Buriats
The
unoccupied
"
"
fields of
the
world
Among
still living in
the
The
of
era
B.C. "
prayer
Asaph
Page
123
CHAPTER
VI
STRATEGIC
IMPORTANCE
Why
should
they be
occupied? "
Reasons
in general and
and
neglect are
the
strongest
possible argu-ments
for
their
occupation "
Dying
need
the
Gospel "
Virile
races
be
All
must
belong
God
to
Bishop
Carpenter's
races
won
races
"
"
words
Christ's
command
universal
The
of
the
strategy
appar-ently
"
"
insignificant" Unrecognized
possibilities " The
occupation of
these
fields and
the
second
coming
of
Jesus
Christ
The
glory
"
of
God
at
stake "
Some
fields now
unoccupied
Christian
were
once
" Regaining
lost territory in Central
Asia
North
Africa
Arabia
"
"
" The
veiled
Tuaregs "
Special reasons
in addition
these
to
gen-eral
" Strategic races
in Africa
The
Moslems
of
China
reasons
"
"
Those
in Russia
Missionary
Hogberg
of Central
on
the strategy
"
Asia
Robert
Clark
The
importance
of Afghanistan " Russian
"
"
advance
in Central
Asia
The
danger
of neglected
lands
Kafir-
"
"
istan
example
of
lost opportunity "
The
because
as
an
urgency
of railway
expansion
especially in Africa
and
Central
Asia "
The
situation
in Chinese
Turkistan
Why
Arabia
should
be occupied
"
" Railways
and
politics" The
Arabic
language and
its influence "
The
Arab
These
strategic times "
The
crucial problem
race
are
"
to-day
in Africa
Islam
Christianity " Testimony
of mission-ary
or
"
leaders"
Bishop
Tucker"
Dr.
Weston
of Zanzibar"
Dr.
Hol-land
of
Baluchistan
Dr.
Miller
of
Nigeria "
Gairdner
from
"
Cairo
The
Moslem
present
advance
in Africa
Its direction
"
"
"
Its character
Forces
which
favor
its spread "
Higher
culture
"
"
Colonial
Low
governments
moral' standards
No
Because
caste"
"
"
of
the
march
of civilization
these
fields
we
must
preoccupy
"
Afghanistan an
example
Page
153

in par-ticular"De

CONTENTS XV CHAPTER VII THE PIONEER AND HIS TASK The reproach of long neglect "
CONTENTS
XV
CHAPTER
VII
THE
PIONEER
AND
HIS
TASK
The
reproach of long neglect "
Factors
in the problem
of
occu-pation
Concentration
diffusion "
The
character
of
the
or
man
"
and
of his mission
The
pioneer in a class
by himself
the nature
"
"
Kipling's lines a challenge " The witness
of
Chalmers
and Living-stone
The
kind
of
needed
Major
General
Haig's
testi-mony
man
"
"
Hardships
in
Tibet "
The
pioneer missionary a soldier "
"
He
needs
of
humor
This
fact illustrated from
Arabia
a
sense
"
and
Baluchistan
" Becoming
all things to
all
The
Bishop
men
"
of
Lebombo
He
be
with
The
Arab
must
a
man
a
message
"
"
who
recognized Christ " How
Dr. Rijnhart interpreted the parable
of
the
good
Samaritan
The
medical
missionary and his power
"
"
Work
for
the
scholar
and
the linguist in the unoccupied
fields "
Languages without
the gospel "
The
Gospel in Laotian
The
"
of
the
Scriptures in Siberia "
The
Bible
knows
fron-tiers
no
The
organization
of
pioneer
mission
Lessons
be
to
a
"
"
learned
from
the
The
need
past "
of thorough preparation " Pru-dence
and
needed
Unwise
methods
Climate
common
sense
"
"
and
health "
The
The
our
be
Apostle Paul
willing to endure
example "
hardship " The
call
for
must
single
Colonel
Wingate's
words
On
the
choice
of
location
men
a
"
"
"
A
from
of
Arabian
How
stations
page
the story
the
mission "
were
selected
and occupied " Attempts
Tibet
to
enter
and
the present
opportunity " Central
Asia
and
the
frontier
of
India "
How
to
Russian
and
Chinese
Turkistan
The
unoccupied
fields
occupy
"
of
Africa "
the Sudan
The
History of attempts
to
enter
price of
"
We
march
the
of
the
dead
must
to
Page
183
success
song
"
CHAPTER
VIII
THE
GLORY
OF
THE
IMPOSSIBLE
The
passion of the Anglo-Saxon
for exploration "
Sir
Ernest
Shackleton
and
the
call
of
the
north
Sven
Hedin
Dr.
Susie
"
"
Rijnhart " Her
plea for
Tibet "
The
little lone
Tertullian's
grave
"
words
"I believe
because
it is impossible" "
The
Afghan
martyr
"
" "Who
follows
in
His
train?"
The
call
sacrifice "
to
With
"

pioneer mis-sionary

dis-tribution

XVi CONTENTS Christ the impossible becomes possible"Missions warfare are Raymund Lull's words The
XVi
CONTENTS
Christ
the
impossible
becomes
possible"Missions
warfare
are
Raymund
Lull's
words
The
call
loneliness
Inverted
to
home-sickness
"
"
"
"
The
passion
of
the
homeless
Christ
The
Song
of
the
"
"
Foreloper
The
ordination
of
the
pierced
hands"
Bishop
French,
"
of
Lahore,
and
his
spirit "
Paul's
ambition
Why
the
early
Chris-tians
"
evangelized
the
Roman
Empire"
The
difficulty
of
the
task
is
the
inspiration"
Neesima
Hogberg
Judson
The
watchword
"
"
"
of
the
Student
Volunteer
Movement
Its
present-day
interpreta-tion
"
The
unoccupied
field
and
the
unoccupied
life "
Phillips
"
Brooks'
challenge
The
last
will
and
of
David
testament
Living-stone
"
Page
215
ILLUSTRATIONS The Khaibar Pass Frontispiece FACING PAGE Statue Gordon of 30 Heathen Battaks Sumatra of
ILLUSTRATIONS
The
Khaibar
Pass
Frontispiece
FACING
PAGE
Statue
Gordon
of
30
Heathen
Battaks
Sumatra
of
34
Kairwan,
Tunis
42
The
Grand
Shereef
Mecca
64
of
Caravan
Crossing
Sahara
the
70
Lamas
Sikkim
88
from
Types
Baluchistan
96
from
Medical
Charms
Kordofan
from
104
Buddhist
Leader
Bhutan
from
130
Symbols
Lamaism
Buddhism
of
and
132
Idols
New
Guinea
136
from
The
Dalai
Lama
Tibet
of
142
The
Veiled
Men
Tuareg
158
of
Woman
Children,
Timeuctu
158
and
A Sky-Scraper
Arabia
1 66
in
Sudan
Express
Advertisement
166
A Woman
Nepal
of
202
El-Wad,
Southern
Algeria
in
220
Lhasa,
Capital
Tibet
the
of
224
MAPS
Central
Asia
10
Tibet
20
Southwest
Africa
26
Sumatra
Indo-China
36
and
Province
Honan.
China
of
51
Arabia
84
Afghanistan
Baluchistan
112
and
Malaysia
126
Central
Sudan
176
Abyssinia
Somaliland
210
and
xvii
"At the funeral of the great Duke of Wellington it was con-sidered to be mark
"At
the
funeral
of
the
great
Duke
of
Wellington
it
was
con-sidered
to
be
mark
of
solemn
respect
that
the
obsequies
should
a
attended
be
by
soldier
from
part
of
the
regiments
of
one
every
the
British
Army,
and
it
is
part
of
the
Saviour's
glory
that
a
one
jewel
be
gathered
to
His
from
tribe
of
the
lost
crown
every
human
It
is
honor
to
for
Lord
such
jewel
race.
an
secure
our
one
from
the
remotest
tribe."
even
Bishop
William
Carpenter
Bompas.
"
"In
addition
fields
to
the
magnitude
of
the
need,
the
unoccupied
have
interest
and
importance
peculiarly
their
the
own
on
an
of
difficulty
of
These
fields
the
enemy's
citadels,
score
access.
are
the
high
places
of
his
dominion,
flaunting
defiance
in
the
face
of
militant
Church.
They
the
Gibraltars
of
Satan's
a
are
power,
perched
in
instances,
in
what
might
be
compared
to
eagles'
some
fastnesses,
and
in
other
places
set,
like
islands,
amid
an
ocean
unnavigable
Are
they
be
stormed?
Is
the
of
sand.
to
never
brings
Zion
reproach
that
their
unoccupied
character
never
upon
rolled
away?"
to
be
World."
"Rev.
James
Douglas,
in
the
"Missionary
Review
of
the
Chapter I THE HEART OF TWO CONTINENTS Once the whole world unoccupied territory. Chris-tian was
Chapter
I
THE
HEART
OF
TWO
CONTINENTS
Once
the
whole
world
unoccupied
territory. Chris-tian
was
missions
had
not
begun;
the
first Missionary
came
unto
His
and
His
received
Him
not.
He
Him-self
own
own
told
that
**the
field
is the
world,"
and
Christianity
us
forth
sets
universal
claims.
Christ
His
disciples a
gave
world-wide
commission
and
Christianity's challenge
in
all
and
been
that
it is the
to
only and
all-
ages
sufficient
all peoples has
religion.
This
claim
be
must
vindicated
by
carrying the Gospel
creature/
to
every
When
Saul
the
vision
of
the
risen
Lord
the
saw
on
road
Damascus
and
heard
the
command
to
great
anew
from
the
His
Master,
the
whole
Roman
lips of
world
with
the exception
of Palestine
an unoccupied
mission
was
field.
The
apostle
the
Gentiles
began
his
work
to
at
Damascus
and
Antioch,
and
then,
driven
by
the
spirit,
he
pressed
to regions
beyond,
preaching
the
Gospel
on
from
Jerusalem
made
unto
Illyricum, and
plans to
even
go
from
Rome
into
distant
Spain.
Because
of
this
world-wide
vision
and
the
of
the
task,
he
writes
to
urgency
the
Christians
Rome:
*'So
have
I
striven
to preach
at
the
Gospel, not
where
Christ
named,
lest
I
should
was
build
another
man's
foundation.
But
it is
writ-
as
upon
^Harnack,
quoted
in
R.
E.
Speer's,
"Missionary
Principles
and
Prac-tice,"
125.
I
2 THE UNOCCUPIED MISSION FIELDS whom he ten, *To not spoken of, they shall see
2
THE
UNOCCUPIED
MISSION
FIELDS
whom
he
ten, *To
not
spoken of, they shall see ; and
was
"^
not
heard
shall understand.'
they that have
Paul's companions
and
continued
successors
to
carry
out
this
program,
until the spread of Christianity in the
of
the
Christian
Era
became
first century
a
super-natural
event
in history. Yet
at the
close
the world
still largely unoccupied. The modern
age,
was
of
English missions
began with Carey.
When
he
era
wrote
his investigation of the missionary problem- (that
wonderful
epitome of the conditions
and
the needs
of the
non-Christian
world
in
his
day), it was
true
and exploration had vastly widened
the horizon
of missions, and
the world
Christian
than
in
was
more
the days of Paul, but
still largely unknown, only
it was
partially discovered
Africa
and very sparsely occupied by mis-sions.
unexplored, China unknown.
Central
was
Asia
unvisited, and
the principal mission
fields of to-day
closed by barriers
and
difficulties which
seemed
Now
at
the
beginning of
the
twentieth
century
Missions
have
made
such
that
there
rapid progress
is an impression in some
quarters that all doors
are
open,
and
that the problem of evangelization has
become
one
of opportunism simply depending on
adequate sup-ply
an
of
and
The
has
been
men
statement
means.
even
made
that Tibet
is the
to
which
the Chris-tian
one
country
missionary has not penetrated!
But
this
is not
the
case.
In contemplating the unparalleled progress
of the
work
of missions
in recent
and
the wonderful
years
oppor-
^Romans
15:20,
21.
^William
Carey,
"An
Enquiry
into the Obligations
of Christians
to
Use
Means
for the Conversion
of
the
Heathen."
(London,
1892, Reprint.)

of the apostolic

that dis-covery

insur-mountable.

THE HEART OF TWO CONTINENTS 3 tunities which challenge the Church to win whole na-tions,
THE
HEART
OF
TWO
CONTINENTS
3
tunities which
challenge the Church
to
win
whole
na-tions,
be
bHnd
to
the
fact
that there
is
must
not
we
still work which
remains
be
begun, as
well
work
to
as
which
remains
to be finished, if the plan of campaign
is
to be all-inclusive
in
There
still many
its scope.
are
portions of the world
and
of population
great areas
without
the forces
of
organized missionary effort ; where
evil hold
their own
as securely as
if the Saviour
had
never
the famine-stricken
have
heard
conquered; where
never
of the Bread
down
from
Heaven
for the heart-
that came
hunger of the world;
where
the darkness
and
has
been
illumined
by the torch
of
error
never
civilization or the light of the Gospel.
In attempting a survey
of these unreached
millions
a
two-fold
division of the unoccupied sections of the world
field is natural.
First, there are
great stretches or
areas,
countries
or provinces, wholly untouched
by missionary
effort, and
not
included
existing scheme
in any
operations. There
also smaller
sections or
are
portions of countries
and
provinces included
sometimes
within the scheme of existing missionary operations but
occupied. The
former
not
unoccupied because
yet
are
of special hindrances, difficulties and barriers
inherent
in
the missionary problem of the unoccupied field ; the latter
unreached
mainly because
of lack
and
of money
men
are
since
they are
mostly located
either adjoining mission
activity.
The
first division
is treated
in this chapter and
in the
early part of Chapter II.
The
latter part of that chapter
deals with
the second
division.
It is a
fact
full of pathos that
after
all the centuries
of
missionary effort, what may
be called
the heart
of the two

of supersti-tion

of mis-sionary

fields,or perhaps entirely surrounded by spheres of mis-sionary

4 THE UNOCCUPIED MISSION FIELDS great continents of Asia and Africa must still be classi-fied
4
THE
UNOCCUPIED
MISSION
FIELDS
great continents
of
Asia
and
Africa
must
still be classi-fied
under
the heading of ''unoccupied fields."
In Central
Asia a stretch of country is practicallyunoccupied whose
vastness
is literallyappalling.^ ''Starting in Manchuria
at approximately
degrees of east
latitude, the Prov-ince
125
of Helung-kiang
contributes
who
with-out
1,500,000
are
any missionary provision whatever.
Moving
west-ward
the needs
of
at
of nomad
Mongols
least 2,500,000
into
view, who
of Mongolia.
live
in the
desert
of
Gobi
and
the
come
stretches
Still westward
lies the Chinese
province of Sin-Kiang, including Chinese
Turkistan,
Kulja, Zungaria and outer
Kan-su, with
a population A
The
establishment
of
three
small
over
1,000,000.
within
outposts
this vast territory at Yarkand,
Kashgar
and
Urumtsi
alone
its entire
inclu-sion
prevents
in
this
vast
of unrelieved
darkness.
South-ward,
sweep
through Kan-su, Tibet
is reached.
Here
there
are
about
6,000,000 people as
yet wholly destitute
ministration.
Westward
is Afghanistan, with
four millions, and
north
of Afghanistan, Bokhara
and
Khiva, which, together with the Mohammedans
of
Rus-sian
Turkistan
and Russia
proper, represent a population
all of them
without
a missionary."^
of at least 20,000,000,
To
a greater
degree even
than
in the
of Asia, the
case
heart
of
Africa
constitutes
vast
unoccupied
field.
a
"Scattered
a territory of immense
without
over
area
counting the desert
stretches
of
the
Sahara,
and
fairly
unified
in its character, there
found
to
be
are
some
*Map
in Missionary Review
of
the
World,
August,
589.
1910,
'Report
of
World
Missionary
Conference,
Edinburgh,
Vol.
I.
In
1910,
quoting
from
here
and
elsewhere,
the
author
wishes
to
this report
express
his obligation
to
the
Rev.
Chas.
R.
Watson,
D.D.,
and
the
Rev.
F
P.
Haggard,
D.D.,
with
whom
he
associated
in
the
Sub-committee
was
on
Unoccupied
Fields.

mis-sionary

of mis-sionary

THE HEART OF TWO CONTINENTS 5 people " almost one-third of the 50,000,000 continent "
THE
HEART
OF
TWO
CONTINENTS
5
people " almost
one-third
of
the
50,000,000
continent "
not only unreached
but without
any existing agency
hav-ing
their evangelization in contemplation as far as actual
projected plans and hopes
concerned.
This
be-gins
are
area
few
hundred
miles
south
of the Mediterranean
a
coast
and includes
shall see portions of Tripoli, the
as
we
Province
of
Oran,
the southern
half
Atlas
Riff
country, the Mulaya
of Algeria, the
Valley, the Sus Valley,
and
the Sahara
district of Morocco
; the uncounted
thou-sands
of nomads
in the
Sahara
; Rio
de
Oro
with
proper
a population of 130,000;
8,000,000 in Senegambia and
the Niger District; some
in French
Guinea;
1,700,000
in the Ivory Coast
1,500,000
in Dahomey,
some
500,000
and
over
800,000 in Portuguese Guinea; about
1,500,000
in Liberia; 500,000
in Togoland; some
pagans
4,700,000
in
Northern
in Kamerun;
Nigeria; 3,000,000
some
8,000,000 in the French
of
the
Congo, besides 4,000,000
Baghirmi and Wadai
districts; several
millions
at
least
out
of the 30,000,000
of the Belgian Congo ; a large popu-lation
in Nyasaland; some
2,500,000 in Portuguese East
Africa ; about
in German
East Africa
2,000,000
; 3,000,000
in British
East
Africa; about
in
2,000,000
even
yet
Uganda
and
in the Italian, British
and
French
750,000
Somalilands."^
These
figures are
still more
surprising
when
remember
that
of unreached
we
in this summary
sections
the boundaries
of possible activity on the part
of existingmissionary agencies have probably been drawn
to include
large an
of occupation as possible.
as
area
The question may
be seriously raised, Has
the Church
made
than
a beginning in the
evangelization of the
more
heart
of the
Dark
Continent
?
Before beginning an account
of these
lands
in detail
^Report
of
World
Missionary Conference,
Edinburgh,
Vol.
1910,
i.
6 THE UNOCCUPIED MISSION FIELDS the well ask, What the chief that await we may
6
THE
UNOCCUPIED
MISSION
FIELDS
the
well ask, What
the chief
that await
we
may
are
races
beginnings of the Gospel to-day? A conglomeration of
different
tribes and
peoples struggling for existence
rather than for mastery ; a medley of humanity displayed
nowhere
else
the
globe in greater variety and
yet
on
welded
into a seeming unity by physical environment, a
though alien religion and
political
common,
common
hopes and fears, "
such is Central
Asia.
The swarthy Afghan, the fair Mongolian, Turcomans,
Uzbegs, Tajiks, the
intellectual
type from
the schooli
at Bokhara, the enterprising merchant, the Khirgese
nomad,
the Kafirs
of the Hindu-Kush
who
combat
per-petual
and
cold, as well as
the Chantos
of the Tarim
snow
basin scorched
by desert
heat "
all together form
the pop-ulation
of this vast unevangelized region. Not counting
the small colonies
of Chris-tians
of Jews, and the larger groups
in the Russian
Orthodox
Church, a few
Armenian
and Hindu
traders, the entire population is Mohammedan.
Islam
has spread over
all the
region and
dominates
the
heart
of Asia socially,intellectually and spirituallyas
strongly and overwhelmingly
it does
North
Africa.
as
The
city of Bokhara,
with
students
and
three
10,000
hundred
and
sixty-four mosques,
is the
Cairo
of Asia;
for centuries, and
the center
it was
is yet in a
measure,
of Moslem
learning and
influence
for
all
the
middle
East.
Indeed
all the
great cities
of Central
Asia, with
the
exception of those
in Tibet, are
out
and
out
Afghanistan is wholly Moslem
and Chinese
and
Russian
Turkistan, with the exception of some
of the
ruling and military classes, are
The
social life, the literature, architecture, art, eti-quette
and
everyday speech of all Central Asia bear
the

Mo-hammedan

also prevailingly Mo-hammedan.

8 THE UNOCCUPIED MISSION FIELDS Star accompanies him."^ Dr. Pennell, who has worked for sixteen
8
THE
UNOCCUPIED
MISSION
FIELDS
Star accompanies him."^
Dr. Pennell, who
has worked
for sixteen years
the
wild
tribes
of the Afghan
among
frontier, testifies
that "the Afghan character
is a strange
medley of contradictory qualities in which
blends
courage
with stealth, the basest treachery with
the most
touching
fidelity; intense religious fanaticism
with
avarice which
an
will even
induce
him
to
play false to
his faith, and
a
lavish hospitality with an irresistible propensity for thiev-
ing/'2 When
converted
the Afghan
has
remarkable
strength of character and power
of spiriteven
unto
mar-tyrdom.^
The
Arab
both
in Arabia
and
in Africa
is a
strange
paradox of good qualities and
of those
that
bad, the
are
product of his religion, or
his
want
of religion. They
are polite,good-natured, lively,manly, patient, courage-ous,
and
hospitable to a fault.
But
they are
also
con-tentious,
untruthful,
sensual,
distrustful, covetous,
proud and superstitious.*
The
Tibetans
belong like the Chinese to the Mongolian
family, but the Chinese
become
type has
modified
well
otherwise
by environment
as
as
Isabella Bird Bishop gives this pen-portrait:'They have
high cheek-bones, broad flat noses
without visible bridges,
eyebrows, wide
deformed
by great hoops, straight black
ears,
hair, nearly as
horse
hair, and
coarse
as
short, square,
ungainly figures. The
faces
smooth.
The
of the men
are
*B.
de
Lacoste,
"Around
Afghanistan,"
164-165.
"T-
L. Pennell,
"Among
the
Wild
Tribes
of
the
Afghan
Frontier,"
17.
Cf.
E.
and
A. Thornton,
"Leaves
from
Afghan
Scrapbook,"
an
10-19.
'See
the
Story
of Abdul
Karim
in
Chapter
VIII.
*S.
M.
Zwemer,
"Arabia,
the
Cradle
of Islam,"
263, 264; C.
M.
Doughty,
"Arabia
Deserta,"
Vol.
228, 266, 273,
276, 332,
358; Vol.
II, 443,
520.
I, 217,

physi-cally and religion.

small, dark oblique eyes, with heavy eyelids and imper-ceptible

mouths, full lips; thick, big pro-jecting

THE HEART OF TWO CONTINENTS 9 seldom exceed five feet in height, and is women
THE
HEART
OF
TWO
CONTINENTS
9
seldom
exceed
five feet in height, and
is
women
a
man
tall at five feet four
inches.
The
male
costume
is a long,
loose, woolen
coat,
with
a girdle, trousers, undergar-ments,
woolen
leggings, and
with
a turned-up point
a
cap
each
The
over
girdle is the depository of many
ear.
things dear
to
Tibetan "
rude
knife, heavy-
a
his purse,
tinder-box, tobacco pouch, pipe, distaff and sundry charms
and
amulets.
"The
short big-sleeved jackets, tight
women
wear
trousers
a yard too long, the superfluous length forming
folds above
the ankle.
Their
hair is dressed
a month
once
in many much-greased plaits, fastened together at the
back
by a
long tassel.
The
head-dress
is a
strip of cloth
leather, sewn
with
large turquoises, carbuncles,
or
over
and
silver ornaments.
This hangs in a point over the
brow, broadens
the
top of the head, and
over
tapers as
it reaches
the
waist
behind.
The
ambition
of
every
Tibetan girl is centered in this singularhead-gear. Hoops
in the ears, necklaces, amulets, clasps, bangles of brass
silver and
various
implements stuck
or
in the girdle, and
depending from
it, complete a
costume
preeminent in
ugliness. The
Tibetans
dirty. They wash
are
very
once
for festivals, seldom
change their
a year,
and, except
clothes till they begin to drop off.
They are
healthy and
hardy, even
can carry weights of sixty pounds
the women
the
They
attain
extreme
old
their
over
passes.
age;
voices
harsh
and
loud, and
their laughter is noisy
are
and hearty."^
According to others
the character
of the Tibetans
gen-erally
is that
of
child-like
simplicity and
gaiety.
a
even
"Beneath
hirsute, and
sometimes
his savage,
this little man
is joyful. He
has
the open
coun-
*Mrs.
Isabella
Bird
Bishop, "Among
the Tibetans,"
43-46.

dirty ap-pearance

10 THE UNOCCUPIED MISSION FIELDS and of children. the tenance Contrary to merry eye pensive
10 THE
UNOCCUPIED
MISSION
FIELDS
and
of children.
the
tenance
Contrary
to
merry
eye
pensive Mussulman,
sparing of words,
and
constantly
the
Tibetan
seldom
prostrate in ablutions
or
prayer,
washes, walks
along singing, and
by
says
his prayers
sleight of hand
along the roads."^
These
that await
are
some
of the races
Of
their social
and
unoccupied fields of Asia.
conditions
will learn later.
The
that inhabit
the
we
races
unoccupied fields of Africa
perhaps not
as diverse
are
as
those
of Asia, but they are
less in need
of
the
no
renew-ing,
the refining and the uplifting power
of the Gospel.
of
the
and
Taking up this general survey
areas
races
hitherto neglected in detail we
begin with
Central
Asia,
lying north
of
India
and
south
of
the
Siberian
Steppes.
Here
is the
roof
of
the
world
and
the watershed
of the
largest continent.
Here
three empires, India, Russia
and
China, meet.
Here three great religions have struggled
for the mastery
and
one
after the other gained supremacy
for
centuries.
Buddhism
and Christianity still count their
adherents, but Islam, as
have
the field.
we
seen,
has swept
More
unknown
than
Central
Africa
and
in
places
some
less thoroughly explored, a vast area
of barren
deserts and
fertile oases;
of parched plains and navigable rivers; of
perpetual snow
and perpetual drought. It varies in eleva-tion
from
the
low
depression of the Caspian Sea and
the
basin
of
the
Turfan
three
hundred
feet below
level
sea
in the
heart
of Asia, to the
plateaus of Thian
Shan
very
and
the Pamirs
with
elevation
feet.
an
of 10,000
to 20,000
Although usually the mountain
parts are comparatively
rainy and
well
covered
with vegetation, the lowlands
which
comprise most
of
the
country
intenselydry
are
and
almost
absolutely desert.
^B.
de Lacoste,
"Around
Afghanistan,"
148.

the Gospel in the religious

II THE HEART OF TWO CONTINENTS Not only the physical features of the but country
II
THE
HEART
OF
TWO
CONTINENTS
Not
only the physical features
of
the
but
country
the
habits
and
character
of
of
the
most
people pos-sess
a distinct
unity, for
all alike
bear
the
impress of
arid climate, and
the
creed
"which
seems
an
yoke of that
have
imbibed
from
inexorableness
to
its nature
the stern
of
the
desert
the
hand
and
the
relaxation
utter
on
one
of the
oasis
the
other. "^
on
Including Afghanistan, Chinese
Turkistan, Bokhara,
Khiva, Russian
Turkistan, and
the trans-Caspian prov-ince,
together with
the
Steppes, this field has
total
a
miles, and
a population of
area
of 2,232,530
square
16,868,000.^ This, however, would
impres-sion
give a wrong
of the real density of population.
Since
the rain-fall
of Central
Asia
has decreased
that its rivers
fail
so
reach
the
far
less than
tenth
of
the
total area
to
sea,
a
is permanently habitable.
The
population therefore
is
comparatively dense in the irrigatedoases
along the rivers.
The
nomads
wander
from
place to
place in search
of
pasture for their flocks.
Two
main
types of civilization prevail; the condition
"E. Huntington,
"The
Pulse
of Asia,"
89.
""Statesman's
Year-Book,"
1910.
Square Miles.
Population.
Afghanistan
250,000
4,500,000
Chinese
Turkistan
550,000
1,200,000
Bokhara
83,000
1,250,000
Khiva
800,000
24,000
Russian
Turkistan
"
Ferghana
3S"446
1,828,700
Samarkand
26,627
1,109,000
Syr
Daria
194.147
i,795.40o
Semiryechensk
144,550
1,122,400
Trans-Caspian
Province
213,855
405.500
Steppes
of
Amo-
(four provmccs
linsk, Semipalatinsk,
Turgai
and
Uralsk)
2,856,100
710,905
Totals
for Central
Asia
16,868,000
2,232,530
12 THE UNOCCUPIED MISSION FIELDS of nomadism, and that of intensive agriculture with cities centralizing
12 THE
UNOCCUPIED
MISSION
FIELDS
of nomadism,
and
that
of
intensive
agriculture with
cities centralizing life in the irrigated oases,
Askabad,
for example, has a population of 30,000 and a garrison
of 10,000 soldiers, and is the capital of a province nearly
ten
times
the
size of Scotland.
Yet
it is only a
fertile
in
the
spot
vast
solitude
of
the Kara-kum
desert.
If
Egypt
is the
gift of the
Nile, Bokhara
be called
the
may
gift of
the
Oxus
Amu
Darya, and
Turkistan
of
the
or
Syr Darya
River.
Population as v^ell as vegetation in
all Central
Asia
is limited largely to irrigated areas.
Afghanistan by the nev^
demarcation
of its boundaries
includes five major provinces, Kabul, Herat, Kandahar,
Afghan Turkistan and Badakhshan, and two territories,
Kafiristan and Wakhan.
In the province of Herat
alone there
six hundred
are
villages, but the chief centers
of population are the provin-cial
capitals of Kandahar, Kabul, Herat, Balkh
and
Kun-
duz.
The
first named
is the metropolis and
has
a popu-lation
of 50,000.^
The
principal trade routes
for
Balkh
caravan
are:
to Herat, 370
miles; Kandahar
to
Herat, 400
miles
by
Southern
and 367 by Northern
route ; Kandahar
to Kabul,
318 miles
; Kabul
to the Oxus,
miles
; and
to Peshawar
424
the Indian
frontier, 191 miles.
on
The
door
of
common
entrance
to Afghanistan from
Persia
of Meshed,
from
Bokhara
to Merv,
and
is by way
from
India
by
the
Khaibar
to Kabul,
the
Gomal
pass
^"Statesman's
Year-Boo!c,"
567-570; Imperial
Gazetteer
of
India,
1910,
"Afghanistan
and
Nepal,"
1-89. There
is considerable
agriculture with
two
harvests
and
the
a
year,
to
and
Bokhara
include
exports
India
grain, fruit,
vegetables, drugs, spices, wool, silk, cattle, hides
and
tobacco
to
the
amount
of
at
least
$6,000,000 a
Northern
Afghanistan
tolerably rich
year.
is
in
and
lead;
copper
iron, gold
and
but
stones
also
found,
the
precious
are
mineral
resources
undeveloped.
Manufactures
include
are
silks, felts, car-pets,
rosaries, and
camel-hair
fabrics.
14 THE UNOCCUPIED MISSION FIELDS modified by tribal laws, resembles tern of government, that of
14 THE
UNOCCUPIED
MISSION
FIELDS
modified
by tribal laws, resembles
tern of government,
that
of
Indian
Empire."^ To
lovers
of
the
desert
our
and
those
who
know
the attractions
of
the
untrodden
regions of the silent wilderness
with its nomad
tribes, the
and
its frontiers to-ward
unexplored portions of Baluchistan
Chinese
Turkistan
(which is the old name
for the prov-ince
called
Sin-Kiang) in its widest
now
sense
Kulja, Zungaria and outer
Kan-su, the Chinese
dependencies between
Mongolia and Tibet.
The
inhabi-tants
of various
and
the
are
chief towns
races,
are
Kashgar, Yarkand, Khotan, Kiria, and toward
the north,
Aksu.
In
regions about
the Kashgar and Yarkand
some
rivers
the
soil
is fertile; fruits and
Wool,
cotton, silk and
vegetables of all
jade are
sorts, are grown.
among
the exports.
Extremes
of
heat
and
cold
mark
this region; zero
weather
changing to sudden
spring. April is often
so
then
the
flies which
warm
that even
swarms
of gnats and
continue
begin to be troublesome.
A
all summer
feature of the otherwise
not unhealthy climate
and
which
are
the strong
long-continued desert winds
fill the air with
dust
and
make
irritable.
every
one
The
country
has great undeveloped resources.
to Huntington, "Only a fraction
of
the
water
which
flows out
of the mountains
reaches
prob-ably
the oases,
not
one-half
in
the
western
portion of the
basin
and
not
a tenth
in the
eastern
portion. The
tremendous
fall
of
the
water
the mountains
ought
to
be
among
utilized for manufacturing purposes.
The
abundant
^Church
Missionary Review,
November,
1908.
*G.
P.
Tate,
"The
Frontiers
of Baluchistan,"
Introduction.

Persia and Afghanistan will present peculiar fas-cination

in-cludes

dis-agreeabl

Ac-cording

THE HEART OF TWO CONTINENTS 1 5 wool of the could be converted cotton, silk,
THE
HEART
OF
TWO
CONTINENTS
1 5
wool
of
the
could
be converted
cotton, silk, and
oases
into
cloth ; the
fruit and
vegetables could
be preserved
and
the milk
made
into butter
and
cheese.
And
besides
all this
the
mountains
contain
other
useful
metals."*
For
the
China
gold and
this region may
offer
new
an
easy and promising avenue
of expansion and analogous to
the southwest
of
the
United
States.
On
the
east
is the
terrible desert
of
Gobi
and
in the
center
the Lobnor,
a
series
of
salt lakes
and
marshes.
The highest trade route
in the
world
leads from
India
the Karakoram
Pass, 18,300 feet high to
Chinese
over
Turkistan.
Caravans
loaded
with "tea, spices, cloth and
Korans"
make
the dangerous
journey.
Skeletons
of
horses
and camels
strew
the pathway, and yet fifteen hun-dred
Chinese
Moslem
pilgrims chose this path over
the
roof
of
the
world
to Mecca
in
single year.
There
is
a
other
route
from
Chinese
Turkistan
to
the
one
on
Osh
west.
and
Andizhan,
It is by
of Kashgar
to
way
the terminus
of
the
Central
Asian
Railroad
in Russian
Turkistan.
This
route
the
Terek
Davan
Pass
is easier physically as it crosses
(12,000 feet) and shorter, but
Russian
and
favor
the other road.
taxes
passports
Except for the occasional
visits of colporteurs of the
British and
Foreign Bible Society and the occupation
of
stations, Kashgar and Yarkand, by the Swedish
two
Mission, organized in 1894, the whole
of
this region is
neglected. The
total number
of missionaries, counting
these
stations
is
and
the
at
two
women,
now
seventeen,
total number
of native
workers
is six.
The
four
Gos-pels
have
been
translated
into Kashgari, and
work
has
begun, but
in view
of
the
immense
and
the large
area
*E. Huntington,
"The
Pulse
of Asia,"
236, 237.
l6 THE UNOCCUPIED MISSION FIELDS population, this part of the unoccupied field. ^ Russia in
l6
THE
UNOCCUPIED
MISSION
FIELDS
population, this part of the
unoccupied field. ^
Russia
in Central
Asia
is another
area
Protestant
are
About
missionary effort.
given in Appendix B.
sixty-five per cent
Its total
unoccupied by
and popula-tion
area
of the population in Asiatic
Russia
sedentary, fifteen per cent semi-nomadic, and
are
of
the
cent
nomads
Steppes.
The
density
twenty
per
of population varies greatly. Some
districts are
very
sparsely settled, although the population of the Khanate
of Bokhara
is 1,250,000 within a cultivated
of only
area
miles.
The
climate
varies exceedingly ac-cording
4,000
square
to latitude and elevation, but is generally health-ful.^
The
of transportation is by caravan
along
means
good roads
directions, but more
especiallyby
in many
the
Russian
Trans-Caspian
Railway and
by
steam
navigation on the River Oxus.
Some
writers insist that "the great mountain-backbone
the
north
of
the
Indian
frontier
divides
Asia
eth-
on
and
for a
whose
home
is in the
far North
to aspire
power
^In
printed for circulation
at
the
World
Missionary
Conference,
a
paper
Edinburgh,
L.
E.
Hogberg
"If
for
moment
1910,
says:
we
a
Chinese
Turkistan,
large territories
of
Tibet
and
Mongolia
with
the
Russian
Dominions,
have
third
part, nearly
half
of
the
whole
we
a
eastern
hemisphere,
occupied
by missionary societies.
What
is done
in
not
that
field
is
but
drop
in
the
and
scarcely
worth
enormous
men-tioning.
a
ocean,
By
Divine
will
I
stand
here
to-day and
wish
before
the
to present
conference
the
deep
spiritual needs
of
the
millions
that
tremendous
in
field."
'^"Statesman's
Year-Book,"
The
chief
centers
of population,
1910,
1153.
trade
and
communication
following
(62,017), Samarkand
the
cities:
Tashkend
(i5S.673)"
are
Kokand
(81,354), Namangan
(58,194), Andizhan
(47,627),
Omsk
(37,376), Marghelan
(36,490), Bokhara
(75,000), Karshi
(25,000), Hissar
(10,000), Khiva
(5,000), Osh
(34,157), Semipalatinsk
(36,040). The
chief
commercial
products are
cereals, corn,
fruit, silk, cotton,
tobacco,
hemp;
and
breeds
of goats,
sheep, horses
and
camels.
Gold,
salt, alum, sulphur
and
other
minerals
also exported.
are

world is still a practically

nographically, economically,strategically and politically;

join Af-ghanistan

THE HEART OF TWO CONTINENTS I7 rule south to of this natural barrier to contradict
THE
HEART
OF
TWO
CONTINENTS
I7
rule south
to
of this natural
barrier
to contradict
seems
the general fitness of things." They believe that the long
rivalry of England and
Russia
in regard to spheres of
influence
in
the
heart
of
Asia
is artificial and
not
due
to
a real conflict
of essential interests.
Others
look upon
the railway system built at such
immense
cost
and
(from
Tashkend,
Bokhara, Samarkand, and
Merv
as military
centers) running south to within ninety miles from
Herat
a direct challenge to British
interests in Afghanistan
as
and
British
rule
in India.
However
that
be, the
Orenburg-Tashkcnd Railway
very greatest significance for
with
may
its branches
is of
the
the
economic
and mission-ary
future
of
this
vast
there
unoccupied area.
of railway in actual
The
fact that
operation is
are
3,202 miles
a startling evidence
of
of the
march
the progress
in this part of the
world
and
a challenge to mis-sions.
From
St. Petersburg to Orenburg there are
1,230
miles
of railway and
from
Orenburg to Tashkend,
1,174
miles.
From
Tashkend
steel rails stretch
to
Merv
(603
miles) and
from
Merv
southward
to Kushkinski
ever
(195 miles), the furthest military outpost of Russia
to-ward
India, leaving a gap
of less than
five hundred
miles
New
Chaman
and the railway system
of
to
the
North-west
provinces.^
In addition
to this railway system
there
is a regular
steamboat
service on
the Oxus
River between
Petro Alex-
^The
amount
of time,
and
labor expended
by
the
Russian
Govern-ment
money
in
works
of irrigation, bridges, military hospitals and
depots
is
surprising.
The
necessity, the
aim
and
the
method
of
the
Russian
occupa-tion
and
of province
after province
in Central
Asia
forth
conquest
are
set
clearly from
the
Russian
standpoint in the famous
"Circular
Despatch,"
very
by Prince
Gortchakow,
dated
November
1864. This
official document
is
21,
of
the
importance
of
the
whole
greatest
to a right understanding
subject,
and
should
be
read
by
those
who
contemplate
entering
this
field. "
A.
Hamilton,
"Afghanistan,"
493-497'

of civi-lization

l8 THE UNOCCUPIED MISSION FIELDS androvsk and Charjui for over two hundred miles and from
l8
THE
UNOCCUPIED
MISSION
FIELDS
androvsk
and
Charjui for over
two
hundred
miles and
from
Charjui to the head
of navigation, Patta Hissar,
for 288
miles.
This
part of Central
Asia therefore
in most
of its populated districts by rail or river,
and
the great centers
of population are knit together by
telegraph, commerce
and military occupation. The high-ways
ready for the King}
are
Siberia,though belonging to Russia and therefore oc-cupied
by
the
Greek
Church
and
its missions,
has
nevertheless
a population largely pagan.^
Deficient in
solar warmth
it is yet more
terribly in need
of the
rays
of
the
Sun
of Righteousness. Within
of
vast
a
area
nearly 6,000,000 square
miles, sloping toward
the north
and furrowed
by immense
but useless rivers, in a rigorous
climate, there live perhaps 5,700,000
people " about
the
population of the city of London.
Widely scattered
over
so vast a territory, the indigenous population of Siberia
though sparse is very interesting. About
one-third
of
the people are
Russian
immigrants or exiles; others like
the
Buriats, of whose
strange religion an
account
is
given in Chapter V, are nomadic.^
Aside
from
the work
of the
Greek
Church
there is no
missionary effort carried on among
of
the pagans,
many
whom
becoming converted
are
to
Islam.
The
late Dr.
Baedeker, who
repeatedly traversed
the Siberian
plains,
visiting those who were
exiles or in prison, made
an
ap-peal
to the Timothys
of
age when,
far advanced
in
our
he
wrote:
'*My time
is running out.
I
years,
am
now
^For
carefully prepared statistics of the Moslem
population in the
Rus-sian
Empire,
'J. Curtin, "A
Appendix.
see
Journey
in Southern
Siberia," 4, 42-50.
^H.
P.
Beach,
"A
Geography
and
Atlas
of Protestant
Missions,"
Vol.
I,
496, 497;
J. Curtin, "A
Journey
in Southern
Siberia,"
Chaps.
1
and
II.

is physicallyac-cessible

THE HEART OF TWO CONTINENTS I9 seventy years and consequently I cannot of age hope
THE
HEART
OF
TWO
CONTINENTS
I9
seventy years
and
consequently I cannot
of age
hope to
repeat my
visits to Siberia.
I wish
therefore
to
stir up
the holy ambitions
of
brethren
my
younger
to
take
up
this glorious work
of carrying the light into the darkest
places of the earth where
sin rules over
the hearts
of
men
and where
nothing but the Gospel of redemption by the
blood
of Jesus can
be
avail. "^
of any
Next
neighbor to Siberia in location and destitution, is
the large indefinite tract of country called Mongolia.
It
of
the
is part
empire of
China
and comprises about
1,367,600 square
Of
miles and a population of 2,500,000.
this population at least two
million are
wholly unreached.
A
wide
portion of this vast
consists
of
the
desert
area
of
Gobi, which
southwestward
into Chinese
Turkis-
runs
The
tan.
rest
of the
country is a high plateau some
3,000
feet above
level.
The
northern
part is mountainous,
sea
but toward
the south there
rich meadow
lands which
are
aflford grazing for cattle.
The
is Urga, 170
miles
south
of Maimachin,
the
center
of
the
trade
with
China
the
Gobi
Desert.^
caravan
across
Buddhist
Lamaism
is the prevalent form of religion, and
nomad
life is the
of civilization.
"Scattered
here
type
and
there
the prairies are
clusters
of circular
felt
over
tents, surrounded
with
the inevitable stacks
of argol "
fuel "
and
with
of children
dried dung, used
as
swarms
and
wolfish
Mongol
dogs. Prayer flags flutteringover
horsemen
the encampment,
watching their
widely scat-tered
herds
of cattle and
camels, and
lazy lamas
" such
is the
of daily life in Mongolia.
scene
With
the exception of the work
of the London
Missionary
Wissionary
Review
of
the
World,
July, 1894, 506.
'"Statesman's
Year-Book,"
1910,
702.
*H.
P. Beach,
"A
Geography
and
Atlas
of Protestant
Missions,"
Vol.
I,
274.

chief center of population

on pil-grimag

20 THE UNOCCUPIED MISSION FIELDS Society under James Gilmour, who labored in the north, the
20 THE
UNOCCUPIED
MISSION
FIELDS
Society under James Gilmour, who labored
in the north,
the southern
portion of Mongolia is practically the only
part occupied by Protestant
missionaries.^
In the
heart
of Asia
and perched between
the two
very
highest mountain
chains
of the world, the
Kwen-lun
and
with
the Himalayas, lie the highlands of Tibet
an
area
of 463,200 square
miles
and
a population estimated
by
high at 6,500,000- and
by others
at
less than
some
as
4,000,000.^ This fascinatingcountry, bleak, mountainous
and
guarded at every
entrance
has resisted missionary
effort for many
the Chinese
decades.
"The jealous apprehensions of
Government,"
writes
Sven
Hedin, "the
re-ligious
fanaticism
of
the
Tibetans
and
the
wild
nature
the factors which
have
of their country "
these
kept
are
Tibet in isolation longer than
in Asia
any
other country
Only a few
of the
adventurous
Europeans
more
.
.
.
have
done
their share
toward
collecting the scanty ma-terial
which
present knowledge of the country
upon
our
is based.
Its desolate
its lofty, inaccessible
scenery,
mountains
and
situated
its extreme
remoteness,
it is,
as
in the heart
of a
vast
continent, have
deterred travelers
and
driven them
to
find
for their activity in other
scope
parts of the world."*
The
is
Only in certain
favored
country
not
fertile.
localities is agriculture carried
For
the
most
on.
part
the pursuits are pastoral, the domestic
animals
being the
sheep and
yak; in some
places, also buffaloes, pigs and
camels.
Wool
spinning and weaving are
common,
as
well
the manufacture
of images, prayer
wheels
and
as
^For
full description
of
the
conditions
and
needs
of
this
difficult
field,
Marshall
Broomhall,
"The
Chinese
Empire,"
338-359-
see
^"Statesman's
Year-Book,"
1910,
700.
8VV.
W.
Rockhill
in Missionary
Reinew
of
the
World,
June, 1894.
*Sven
Hedin,
"Through
Asia," Vol.
I, 4,
5.
THE HEART OF TWO CONTINENTS 21 Other religious articles. The chief minerals are borax and
THE
HEART
OF
TWO
CONTINENTS
21
Other
religious articles.
The
chief minerals
are
borax
and
salt.
There
is a large trade
with
China
and
traffic across
the Indian
frontier.^
some
Tibet
has
long been
nominally a Chinese
dependency
and Chinese
authority is represented by two governors
or
ambans
who
have
charge respectively of foreign and
military affairs. The
civil and
religious administration
of
the
country
is, however, left almost
entirely to the
Tibetans
themselves.
Under
the Convention
of August
Great
Britain
and
Russia
31,
1907,
agreed not
to
enter
into negotiations with Tibet
except through the Chinese
Government, or to send representatives to Lhasa. Since
that date
there have
been
further
negotiations and trade
regulations between
India
and Tibet.
On the occupation
of
Lhasa
by Chinese
troops, the Dalai
Lama
fled from
Tibet
into British India.^
Immediately south
of Tibet
there
other inde-pendent
two
are
kingdoms in the Himalayas both still unoccupied
territory.Nepal stretches from east to west
five hundred
miles
and
is about
a hundred
and fifty miles broad.
It
is bounded
the
by Sikkim
east
and
the south
and
on
on
west
by British India.
With
a total area
of 54,000 square
miles, the population is estimated
Un-like
at about 5,000,000.
those
of Tibet, the tribes inhabitingNepal are
not
of
the
religious faith. Some are Mongols in origin
same
and Buddhists, but the majority are
Hindu
in faith and
descent.
The
dominant
the Gurkhas, one
of the
race
are
^"Statesman's
Year-Book,"
1910,
702.
"Lhasa,
the
capital, stands
in
fertile plain
at
elevation
of nearly
a
an
feet, with
12,000
a population
of
from
to
The
chief
15,000
marts
20.000.
of
trade
with
India
Yatung,
Gyangtze
and
Gartok.
are
According
to
treaties
and
conventions,
trade
regulations now
exist
between
India
and
Tibet, which
ratified by China,
but
Tibetan
are
territory may
be
sold
no
leased
to
foreign power
without
the
of
In
or
any
consent
the
British.
regard
to
present
missionary
effort
the
borders
of
Tibet,
M.
on
see
Broomhall,
"The
Chinese
Empire,"
318-337.

gold",

22 THE UNOCCUPIED MISSION FIELDS bravest of Asia, who about the middle of the races
22 THE
UNOCCUPIED
MISSION
FIELDS
bravest
of
Asia, who
about
the
middle
of
the
races
eighteenthcentury acquired ascendency over
all the other
tribes and